A CONCEPT ON MARANA By Dr.Nimisha.S 2nd yr P.G scholar Dept.of Rasa Shastra
Mri – to kill/to die Marayati – act of killing Marana – vadha /process of killing1
VEDIC PERIOD-evidence of therapeutic use of metals. Atharva veda has mentioned the use of swarna for internal use SAMHITA PERIOD Use of Ayaskriti Charaka has mentioned use of tamra churna incase of garavisha for hridyavishodana Use of swarna churna will give instant result
7th to 14th century – Rasarnava has described Marana of different metals and minerals and various equipments like musha and puta.
Reduction in particle size Transformation into suitable compound form To make the material non irritant to G.I To increase the potency and quality of the drug Conversion into absorbable,adaptable,and assimilable form To make material suitable for therapeutic uses
Collection of grahya drugs Shodhana Bhavana Chakrikarana Samputikarana[Note: jarana is intermediate step for putilohasDanyabhraka – abhraka]
EÌ®¹ãUÉæwÉkÉãÈ xÉÉ®ïÇ Ì¢ürÉiÉå mÉåwÉhÉÉÌSMüqÉç | qÉsÉÌuÉÍNiÉrÉå rÉiiÉÑ vÉÉåkÉlÉÇ iÉÌSWûÉåcrÉiÉå ||8 When a substance is subjected to trituration with specified plant or animal resources with the help of ‘peshani’ so as to remove impurities, it is known as shodhanaObjectives To remove physical and chemical impurities To make metallic substances suitable for marana
rÉccÉÔÍhÉïiÉxrÉ kÉÉiuÉÉSåSìïuÉÈ xÉÇmÉåwrÉ vÉÉåwÉhÉqÉç pÉÉuÉlÉÇ iÉlqÉiÉÇ ÌuÉ¥ÉæpÉÉïuÉlÉ cÉ ÌlÉaÉkrÉiÉå 9||A liquid is added to the powder and is triturated till all the liquid portion is absorbed. This procedure is known as bhavana.
Carried out for 7 days Quantity of liquid-Powder should just become wet If done with kwatha -1/8th 10
xÉÑpÉÉÌuÉiÉÇ ÌWû AsmÉqÉÌmÉ SìurÉÇ xrÉÉiÉç oÉWÒûMüqÉïMÚiÉç || A less potent drug can be converted into more potent Objectives•Particle size becomes smaller after each bhavana•Shodita material and bhavana dravyas come in closecontact to make a homogenous mixture•Acts as a binding material for the coming chakrikastage
Chakrika and golakaObjectives Facilitates drying process so that the duration will be less Can adjust higher amount of materials in a limited space of saravas Helps to spread homogenous heat to each particle Enhances the surface area of materials to allow maximum heat transfer during puta
Types Sarava Eranda patra – in abhrakaIt should be Should be inert Not so thick or thin Heat stable Good conductor of heat
Objectives To apply uniform and standard heat
PUTA UxÉÌS SìurÉmÉÉMüÉlÉÉÇ mÉëqÉÉhÉ¥ÉÉmÉlÉÇ mÉÑOûqÉç lÉå¹Éã lrÉÔlÉÉÍkÉMüÈ mÉÉMüÈ xÉÑmÉÉMüÇ ÌWûiÉqÉÉæwÉkÉqÉç || It is the process in which the degree of heat which is necessary for paka of Rasa, uparasa,maharasa or metals. The degree of heat is neither less nor more than necessary because the medicines which are prepared by using proper required application of heat is considered as hitha11
rÉjÉÉvqÉÌlÉ ÌuÉvÉåw²ÎlWûÈ xrÉmÉÑOûrÉÉåaÉiÉÈ| cÉÔhÉïiuÉÉÍkÉ aÉÑhÉÉÅÅuÉÉÎmiÉxiÉjÉÉ sÉÉåWåûwÉÑ ÌlÉÍ¶ÉiÉqÉç 12 ||The heat applied from outside of samputa through puta,the fuel will slowly enter into the material kept in sarava and convert into powder form mÉÑOûÉiÉç SÉåwÉÌuÉlÉÉvÉÈ xrÉÉiÉç mÉÑOûSåWûÉå aÉÑhÉÉæSrÉÈ | ÍqÉërÉiÉå ÌWû mÉÑOûÉ sÉÉåWû iÉxqÉÉiÉç mÉÑOûqÉç xÉqÉÉcÉUåiÉç ||
Varitara- qÉÚiÉÇ iÉUÌiÉ rÉiiÉÉårÉå sÉÉåWûÇ uÉÉËUiÉUÇ ÌWû iÉiÉç ||If the bhasma floats over the water surface that is known as varitaraIt is to study the lightness and fineness of bhasmaHere the particles of bhasma attain so much fine and light that they cannot break the surface tension of stagnant waterRekhapurna- AÇaÉÑ¸iÉeÉïlÉÏxmÉÚ¹Ç rÉiiÉÉåSìåZÉliÉUå ÌuÉvÉåiÉç qÉÑiÉsÉÉåWûÇ iÉSÒÌ¬¹Ç UåZÉmÉÑhÉïÍpÉkÉÉlÉiÉÈ||If the bhasma is rubbed between thumb and index finger
Apunarbhava-aÉÑQû aÉÑleÉÉxÉÑZÉxmÉvÉïqÉkuÉÉerÉåÈ xÉWû rÉÉåÎeÉiÉqÉç lÉÉrÉÉÌiÉ mÉë¢ÑüÌiÉ kqÉÉlÉÉSèmÉÑlÉpÉïuÉqÉÑcrÉiÉå||If the bhasma is mixed with mitra panchakas and if it doesn’t regain its original form after heatingUttama-iÉxrÉÉåmÉËU aÉÑÂ SìurÉÇ kÉÉlrÉÇ cÉÉåmÉlÉrÉÉåS èkÉëÑuÉqÉç WûÇxÉuÉiiÉÏrÉïiÉå uÉÉËUhrÉÑiiÉqÉÇ mÉËUMüÐÎiiÉïiÉqÉç ||Bhasma is slowly placed on the water and it floats,if it doesn’t sink even after placing the grain but floats like swan then such bhasma is called uttamaNiruttha- UÉæmrÉåhÉ xÉWû xÉÇrÉÑ£üÇ kqÉÉiÉÇ UÉæmrÉåhÉ lÉÉå sÉaÉåiÉç iÉSÉ ÌlÉÂijÉÇ ÍqÉirÉÑ£üÇ sÉÉåWûÇ
Amla pariksha – if turns to blue bhasma is not prepared properlytamra,swarnamakshika,tuttha bhasmaNirdhuma-Haratala bhasmaNiswadu-NischandraAvaami- should not produce nausea etc wen kept on the tongue
sÉÉåWûÉlÉÉÇ qÉÉUhÉçÉå¸Ç xÉuÉåïwÉÉÇ UxÉpÉxqÉlÉÉÇ | qÉÔÍsÉÍpÉqÉkrÉçïqÉÇ mÉëÉWÒûÈ MüÌlÉ¸Ç aÉlkÉMüÉÌSÍpÉÈ | AËUsÉÉåWåûlÉ sÉÉåWûxrÉ qÉÉUhÉÇ SÒaÉÑïhÉmÉëSqÉ ||16 Parada-agni sahanatva property17 induction of Yogavahi,rasayana properities Gives immediate relief and prevents old age 18 If its not prepared with parada it will produce ill effects by forming worms in abdomen Mixes with metals and minerals disintegrate their atoms and helps in making atoms into a fine state of subdivision
Vegetable drugs-madyama Here the acid and alkaline contents will also help in the disintegration of atoms But in this case the bhasma is liable to contain the residue of vegetable drugs after subjecting to puta In this type the organic material of vegetable drugs is burnt leaving the inorganic material which is mixed with bhasma
Sulphur and its compounds- kanishta In this though there is a chance of evaporation of sulphur and other substances like arsenic etc. Some portions which are necessary to form a compound will be present in bhasma and likely to change the property of finished compounds.
Arilohas-durgunaprada opposite metal Chances of adulteration This metallic substance will remain with it in compound or free state after puta.Thus the proportion of original metallic compound will be greater.
DRUG PROCESSPravala Sthapana With nimbu swarasa and keep in sunlight for 21 days With stanya and Bhavana keep in takra Red hot and dip inPravala,mani Nirvapa kumari ,tanduliyaka and stanya for 7mukta times
Vimala Bharjana Triturate in triphala kwatha for 3 times and fry in go grithavajra Nirvapa Heated and dipped in kulatha kwatha containing hingu and saindhava
Lightness Softness Smoothness More assimilable form More potent form Enhances the property of substances Lesser dose Rapid spreading in body and rapid relief