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    Creativity Creativity Presentation Transcript

    • Creativity
    • What is creativity?
      • The problem with creativity is that we know it when we see it, but it is hard to define.
      Picasso “ Les Demoiselles D’Avignon
    • Creative stuff Frank Lloyd Wright Charles Darwin Michael Jordan
    • Creativity and Cognition
      • Creativity involves generation of new ideas
      • Boden
        • p-creativity: A new idea for a person
          • A person may come to a new realization
        • h-creativity: A new idea historically
          • Novel inventions are h-creative
      • Most of what we think of as creative is an example of h-creativity.
        • h-creativity can be studied historically
          • You do not know when a creative event will happen
        • p-creativity can be studied
    • H-creativity
      • We saw the dangers of looking at h-creativity when we talked about insight.
        • There are many myths that grow up around great inventions.
        • The significance of inventions is not realized until much later
          • Stories must be told in retrospect.
          • People tend to dramatize the story.
      • Most creative acts are rather mundane
        • Invention is 99% perspiration and 1% inspiration. -Thomas Alva Edison
    • Incremental invention
      • Sewing machines
      Invented in 1848
    • Why is invention incremental?
      • How can a creative idea come about?
      • It must be related to existing ideas
        • Otherwise, how would people think it up?
        • How could it be implemented?
          • What does it mean for an idea to be ahead of its time?
        • A creative idea must be comprehensible to others
          • What good is an invention that nobody wants?
      • Suggests that existing ideas may constrain creativity.
    • New inventions
      • Innovative inventions are often based on known products.
      Early railroad cars were designed like stagecoaches on tracks. •Engineer and brakeman were not moved inside until later. •Stagecoaches were a good solution to initial problems •Other problems were not discovered until later.
    • P-creativity
      • In order to understand creative invention better, use college students.
      • The ideas may not be h-creative
        • The same processes may be at work.
      • Questions:
        • Are creative ideas influenced by existing concepts?
        • What will make people more creative?
        • How should creativity be judged?
    • Creativity and Concepts
      • Draw an animal that does not exist.
        • Ward
        • Karmiloff-Smith
      Novel animals have many properties of real animals •Often have bilateral symmery •Sense organs on head •Similar sense organs to humans.
    • Where do examples come from?
      • People select common concepts as examples
        • They seem to use specific items
        • When asked to create novel intelligent beings
          • Animals typically walk upright
          • Animals typically have two arms and two legs
          • People seem to be using humans as a basis.
      • Effect not limited to college students.
      Even sci-fi authors and movies seem to have the same constraints.
    • What makes people more creative?
      • A paradox
        • People access categories when being creative
        • Categories are retrieved on the basis of cues during the creative process
        • The more cues available, the more access
        • More specific situations lead to less creativity.
        • Forcing people into strange situations can lead to higher levels of creativity
    • An example
      • Four conditions.
        • Pick a category of invention and pick parts
        • Parts assigned; pick category
        • Category assigned; pick parts
        • Both category and parts assigned
      • Creativity of inventions increases as you move down this list
    • Social Factors
      • Creativity is fostered by an environment
        • Creativity must be valued by a community
        • Creativity is shaped by those who evaluate it
          • Creator (the individual)
            • Individuals must be experts
          • Domain (what is being worked on)
          • Field (the collaborators, colleagues, and audience)
    • Group creativity
      • Brainstorming
        • Are N minds better than one?
        • Often not
          • Groups often come up with a smaller number of possible solutions than the individuals would alone
          • One person’s output interferes with other people’s memories
          • Growing conformity within a group
            • Sherif studies of the autokinetic effect