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  1. 1. Creativity
  2. 2. What is creativity? <ul><li>The problem with creativity is that we know it when we see it, but it is hard to define. </li></ul>Picasso “ Les Demoiselles D’Avignon
  3. 3. Creative stuff Frank Lloyd Wright Charles Darwin Michael Jordan
  4. 4. Creativity and Cognition <ul><li>Creativity involves generation of new ideas </li></ul><ul><li>Boden </li></ul><ul><ul><li>p-creativity: A new idea for a person </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>A person may come to a new realization </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>h-creativity: A new idea historically </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Novel inventions are h-creative </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Most of what we think of as creative is an example of h-creativity. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>h-creativity can be studied historically </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>You do not know when a creative event will happen </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>p-creativity can be studied </li></ul></ul>
  5. 5. H-creativity <ul><li>We saw the dangers of looking at h-creativity when we talked about insight. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>There are many myths that grow up around great inventions. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The significance of inventions is not realized until much later </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Stories must be told in retrospect. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>People tend to dramatize the story. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Most creative acts are rather mundane </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Invention is 99% perspiration and 1% inspiration. -Thomas Alva Edison </li></ul></ul>
  6. 6. Incremental invention <ul><li>Sewing machines </li></ul>Invented in 1848
  7. 7. Why is invention incremental? <ul><li>How can a creative idea come about? </li></ul><ul><li>It must be related to existing ideas </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Otherwise, how would people think it up? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>How could it be implemented? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>What does it mean for an idea to be ahead of its time? </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A creative idea must be comprehensible to others </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>What good is an invention that nobody wants? </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Suggests that existing ideas may constrain creativity. </li></ul>
  8. 8. New inventions <ul><li>Innovative inventions are often based on known products. </li></ul>Early railroad cars were designed like stagecoaches on tracks. •Engineer and brakeman were not moved inside until later. •Stagecoaches were a good solution to initial problems •Other problems were not discovered until later.
  9. 9. P-creativity <ul><li>In order to understand creative invention better, use college students. </li></ul><ul><li>The ideas may not be h-creative </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The same processes may be at work. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Questions: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Are creative ideas influenced by existing concepts? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>What will make people more creative? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>How should creativity be judged? </li></ul></ul>
  10. 10. Creativity and Concepts <ul><li>Draw an animal that does not exist. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ward </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Karmiloff-Smith </li></ul></ul>Novel animals have many properties of real animals •Often have bilateral symmery •Sense organs on head •Similar sense organs to humans.
  11. 11. Where do examples come from? <ul><li>People select common concepts as examples </li></ul><ul><ul><li>They seem to use specific items </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>When asked to create novel intelligent beings </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Animals typically walk upright </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Animals typically have two arms and two legs </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>People seem to be using humans as a basis. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Effect not limited to college students. </li></ul>Even sci-fi authors and movies seem to have the same constraints.
  12. 12. What makes people more creative? <ul><li>A paradox </li></ul><ul><ul><li>People access categories when being creative </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Categories are retrieved on the basis of cues during the creative process </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The more cues available, the more access </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>More specific situations lead to less creativity. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Forcing people into strange situations can lead to higher levels of creativity </li></ul></ul>
  13. 13. An example <ul><li>Four conditions. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Pick a category of invention and pick parts </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Parts assigned; pick category </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Category assigned; pick parts </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Both category and parts assigned </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Creativity of inventions increases as you move down this list </li></ul>
  14. 14. Social Factors <ul><li>Creativity is fostered by an environment </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Creativity must be valued by a community </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Creativity is shaped by those who evaluate it </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Creator (the individual) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Individuals must be experts </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Domain (what is being worked on) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Field (the collaborators, colleagues, and audience) </li></ul></ul></ul>
  15. 15. Group creativity <ul><li>Brainstorming </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Are N minds better than one? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Often not </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Groups often come up with a smaller number of possible solutions than the individuals would alone </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>One person’s output interferes with other people’s memories </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Growing conformity within a group </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Sherif studies of the autokinetic effect </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
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