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去的差不多,平时北洪门弟子和暗组、血杀 ...

去的差不多,平时北洪门弟子和暗组、血杀

的成员还能在酒店内吃吃闹闹,现在大多数香港六合彩都被谢文

东调派出去,酒店冷冷清清的。江琳百般无聊的坐在前台旁的沙

发上,看着服务生们不时端着碟碗在面前走过,呵欠连连。以前

谢文东没出现的时候,日子也是这样一天天过的,没觉得怎样,

可现在谢文东冷然一离开,香港六合彩反倒不适应了。虽然香港

六合彩和谢文东并未相识几天。五行五香港六合彩这次没有参加

行动,聚在大厅角落里的茶几周围,嘻嘻哈哈,有说有笑

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  • 1. FTP BASICS BY Bobbie Atchison 5/97 (As part of a cooperative “ Internet Training Module” by the members of the Information Technology Learning Team , at the University of Arizona Main Library, Tucson, Arizona)
  • 2. CONTENTS
    • Introduction
    • Desired Outcomes
    • What is FTP?
    • Modes of Transfer
    • Basic Steps
    • Basic Commands
    • Setting Up QVTNet
    • Transferring Using Point and Click
    • Ways to Connect to FTP Servers
    • Summary
    • Terminology
    • Other Miscellaneous Information You Can Brows Through At A Later Date
  • 3. INTRODUCTION
    • The objectives of this FTP session are:
    • 1) to promote sharing of files,
    • 2) to transfer data reliably and efficiently,
    • 3) to explain different file types,
    • 4) to explain different file viewing software.
    • 5) familiarize you with terminology relating to ftp
    • 6) help you navigate in ftp directories
    • 7) tech you the Basics of ftp
  • 4. DESIRED OUTCOMES
    • STAFF SHOULD BE ABLE TO:
    • Use the FTP program inside QVTNet .
    • Recognize different types of file extensions. E.g.: - .txt, .avi, .jpg .
    • Know how to login as “anonymous” in FTP programs
    • Know the difference between ASCII files and Binary files.
    • Know how to end an FTP session.
    • Use basic FTP commands.
    • Define FTP.
    • Know that FTP is “case sensitive” .
    • Connect to other FTP addresses and navigate in them.
    • Know you will need to have an “Anti-virus” program on your machine (**software on the net may have a virus).
  • 5. WHAT IS FTP?
    • FTP works on the client/server principle. A client program enables the user to interact with a server in order to access information and services on the server computer.
    • Files that can be transferred are stored on computers called FTP servers . To access these files, an FTP client program is used. This is an interface that allows the user to locate the file(s) to be transferred and initiate the transfer process.
  • 6. MODE OF TRANSFER
    • There are two modes of transfer in FTP: ascii and binary .
    • ASCII is used only for files saved in ASCII format (this includes Postcript files)
    • Binary is used for files that are formatted and saved using a wordprocessing software like WordPerfect (.txt) , spreadsheets (.xls) , images (.jpg, .gif) , and many executable programs (.exe) and videos (.avi) .
    • QVTNe t ets the transfer mode automatically.
  • 7. BASIC STEPS TO USE FTP
    • Connect to the FTP server
    • Navigate the file structure to find the file you want
    • Transfer the file
    • The specifics of each step will vary, depending on the client program being used and the type of Internet connection .
  • 8. BASIC FTP COMMANDS
    • FTP - initiate ftp session
    • open <host> - connect to an ftp server
    • binary - specify files to up/download; are more than flat text (up files, images, programs, etc.)
    • get <filename> - download a file from the server
    • put <filename> - upload a file to the server
    • close - close connection to the server
    • quit/exit - end the ftp session
    • user - re-enter login name
    • pwd - display present working directory on server
    • lpwd - display the local present working directory (on connecting machine)
    • cd - change directory
    • dir or ls - directory listing of files/directories on Server
    • lcd - change directory on Local Machine
    • lcd~ - home shortcut
    • mget *.* - multiple file downloads
    • mput *.* - multiple file uploads
    • cdup - to move backwards to the previous directory
  • 9. TO USE QVTNet FTP
    • Click on QVTNet
    • Click on FTP on Toolbar
    • Your login name (bird or dizzy)
    • Your password
    • ftp> lcd c:filename (this is the file you want to download into)
    • ftp> binary
    • ftp> hash (you want it “on”) just type hash at the prompt if its “off”
    • ftp> dir c* - (yes, use an asterix)
    • ftp> get <filename>
    • The file is now in your local directory
  • 10. TRANSFER FILES USING POINT AND CLICK
    • ***DIRECTORY LISTING
    • click on “Commands”
    • click on “Remote”
    • click on “Long Listing” (if you get a pop-up box labeled (mask/dir) click ok
    • ***CHANGE DIRECTORY
    • click on “Commands”
    • click on “Remote”
    • click on “Change Directory”
    • click on directory of choice and click OK
    • ***TRANSFER FILE TO YOUR PC
    • click on “Commands”
    • click on “Transfer”
    • click on “Receive File”
    • click on file of choice, click OK
    • ***EXIT FROM REMOTE SERVER
    • click on “Session”
    • click on “Exit” (to exit remote server and close box) -or - “Close” (to exit remote server but leave box open).
  • 11. WAYS TO CONNECT TO OTHER FTP SERVERS
    • At your ftp> prompt simply type in their address. e.g. : ftp>ftp.cdrom.com
    • In Netscape, type the ftp address in the top box. e.g. : ftp://ftp.cdrom.com
    • Login as “anonymous” , but be sure to give your complete e-mail address as the password.
    • Once you are at their ftp> prompt type “dir” . This will bring up their list of files for you to select from.
    • When you have chosen a file, at the ftp> prompt type - “cd pub” (or whatever) then type “dir” again.
    • Choose the particular file you want to download .
    • Set transfer mode to binary .
    • Make sure “hash” is “on” .
    • ftp> get (filename)
    • This will engage the transfer to your computer .
  • 12. SUMMARY
    • FTP (File Transfer Protocol) enables files to be transferred from one computer to another.
    • An FTP client program is an interface that allows the user to locate file(s) to be transferred and initiate the process.
    • Through anonymous FTP , users have access to many different types of files including sharewar, freeware, upgrades and documents.
    • The benefits library staff will have from getting it and learning to use it are many.
    • Staff can transfer and view files that may aid them in writing proposals, or sending and receiving information to book vendors, and also can be used to electronically send a large document to another staff member without having to print it out and deliver them a hard copy.
    • Using FTP is a fun and sometimes challenging adventure. As new technology and equipment become more commonplace in our work environments , the means by which we learn and teach must evolve and change just as rapidly as the technology.
  • 13. FTP TERMINOLOGY
    • ASCII - American Standard Code for Information Interchange) -- Standard for the code numbers used by computers to represent all the upper and lower-case Latin letters, numbers, punctuation, tec. There are 128 standard ASCII codes each of which can be represented by a 7 digit binary number: 0000000 through 1111111.
    • BINARY - Used for files that are formatted and saved using a wordprocessing software like WordPerfect, spreadsheets, images, and many executable programs.
    • BROWSER - A program which allows a person to read hypertext. The browser gives some means of viewing the contents of nodes, and of navigating from one node to another.
    • FTP - (File Transfer Protocol)-a client program that enables the user to send files from one computer to another via the telephone network with the aid of the internet.
    • LOCAL PC - your desktop computer that you will transfer files to.
    • HOST - Any computer on a network that is a repository for services available to other computers on the network..
    • LOGIN - The account name used to gain access to a computer system, or the act of entering into a computer system.
    • NAVIGATION - The process of moving from one node or host to another through the hypertext web. This is normally done by following links.
  • 14. FTP TERMINOLOGY (CONT.)
    • NODE - Any single computer connected to a network.
    • PROTOCOLS - sets of communication rules that allow clients and servers to communicate accurately with each other.
    • MAIL ADDRESS - your complete e-mail address.
    • SERVER - A computer, or a software package, that provides a specific kind of service to client software running on other computers.
    • INTERNET - The vast collection of inter-connected networks that all use the TCP/IP protocols and that evolved from the ARPANET of the late 60’s and 70’s.
    • TCP/IP - Transmission Control Protocl/Internet Protocol -- /tus us te syute if oriticiks that defines the Internet. To be truly on the Internet, your computer must have TCP/IP software.
    • ANONYMOUS FTP - Allows a user to retrieve documents, files, programs, and other archived data from anywhere in the Internet without having to establish a userid and password. By using the special userid of “anonymous” the network user will bypass local security checks and will have access to publicly accessible files on the remote system.
    • ARCHIVE SITE - A machine that provides access to a collection of files across the Internet.
    • USER ID - On most host systems, the first time you connect you are asked to supply a one-word user name. This can be any combination of letters and numbers. This is usally also your e-mail name.
  • 15. FTP TERMINOLOGY (CONT.)
    • VIRUS PROGRAMS -viruses are small, invasive programs that are designed to create havoc within your computer systems. There is software to protect your computer from viruses. If you plan to swap disks with others, the first software program you should install should be a virus protection program.
    • TELNET - The command and program used to login from one Internet site to another. The telnet command/program gets you to the “login” prompt of another host.
    • CLIENT - A software program that is used to contact and obtain data from a Server software program on another computer, often across a great distance. Each Client program is designed to work with one or more specific kinds of Server programs, and each Server requires a specific kind of Client.
    • VIRUS - A program which replicates itself on computer systems by incorporating itself into other programs which are shared among computer systems.
  • 16. USING QVTNet FTP WITH WINDOWSNT
    • Click on QVTNet
    • Click on FTP Icon
    • Go to “File” then “ Open”
    • In “ Remote Host” type the address you will be ftp’ing from.
    • Today we will use either: dizzy.library.arizona.edu -or- bird.library.arizona.edu
    • Type in either your bird or dizzy account information
    • This opens the remote system for you.
    • Go to “Setup” and choose “Binary”
    • The top windows list the directories , the bottom windows list the f iles in these directories.
    • We will be using a “Temp” file in the C: directory to ftp files into, but later you may choose any file you wish to use on your own computer.
    • Find the “temp” file and open it.
    • In the files on the Remote Host choose one and click on it to highlight it.
    • Click and drag this file to the left into your local “temp” files.
    • You have just ftp’d a file from a Remote Host into your local file!
    • Close out of QVTNet FTP
  • 17. TO VIEW YOUR FILE
    • Open Netscape
    • Click on “File” then “Open file in browser”
    • Click on Pop-up menu at the bottom to list “All files”
    • Make sure you are in the C: directory and have chosen the “Temp” file.
    • Find your filename and double click on it and it will appear on your screen!
  • 18. COMPRESSED FILES
    • Sometimes you may come across files on FTP that are compressed.
    • Compression decreases the file size and enables more files to be stored on the server , and also makes file transfer times shorter.
    • To be able to use a compressed file it needs to be decompressed using compatible software .
    • Remember to keep an up-to-date version of virus checking software on your computer before you transfer files to it.
    • You can recognize a compressed file by its extension . E.g.: .z, .Z, .sit, .zip.
    • Transfer these files in Binary Mode .
    • Once they are on your machine you need special software to decompress them.
    • This software is often found free on the net. You can also contact LIST about getting the necessary software put onto your computer.
  • 19. CREATE A DIRECTORY ON YOUR LOCAL MACHINE FOR TRANSFERRED FILES
    • IN FILE MANAGER (YOU WILL ONLY HAVE TO DO THIS ONCE!)
    • In Windows - click on File Manager (usually found in Main)
    • Click on picture of “c” drive.
    • Click on the c: (left top, in box)
    • Click on File on the top menu bar Click on Create Directory from the File pop-up menu.
    • Create a file called FTP (or whatever you want to call it)
  • 20. CREATE DIRECTORY ON YOUR LOCAL MACHINE FROM wsFTP
    • Double click on wsFTP icon
    • Make sure the top box contains our dizzy address (found in pop-up menu)
    • Enter your name and password (dizzy account)
    • Skip “ Account” box
    • Skip “ Remote Host” box
    • Local PC : type : c:ftp
    • This will make a directory file named ftp in your c: drive.
    • **NOTE: You cannot login as “anonymous” to dizzy.
  • 21. SET QVTNet TO USE DIRECTORY
    • YOU WILL ONLY HAVE TO DO THIS ONCE!
    • Open QVTNet
    • Click on “Setup” from the top menu bar
    • Click on FTP
    • In box labeled “Default Directory” type: C:FTP
    • Click OK
  • 22. HOW TO DOWNLOAD ATTACHED FILES IN YOUR E-MAIL (PINE-BIRD ACCOUNT)
    • Open your e-mail files in your bird account on Pine
    • Open the e-mail file that contains the attachmen t.
    • Hit “V” - view attached.
    • **The first line (text) is the same as it looks in your e-mail (ignore it)
    • Use the down arrow to choose the next file. ( text, image, etc.)
    • Hit “V” - view
    • It won’t display it here...but it will tell you the file type and size.
    • His “S” - save
    • Hit Return
    • You will see it has saved as: “usr/users/atchison/Image.jpeg” (for example)
    • Hit “E” - exit index
    • Hit “Q” - to quit Pine
    • You will be left at this prompt: bird.library.arizona.edu>
    • At this prompt type “ls” , to list the directory
    • Verify that your “attached” filename is there.
    • Write down the filename EXACTLY as it appears in this file.
    • Exit out of bird.
  • 23. TO LOCATE YOUR DIRECTORY FILE IN FILE MANAGER
    • Open File Manager
    • Find c:ftp
    • Double Click to Open the file
    • There are your downloaded files listed in your directory
  • 24. FYI & TIPS
    • You can switch between “Short Listings” and “Long Listings” modes through (view) menu on tool bar buttons.
    • Handling Index Files - Many FTP sites maintain a list of descriptions for files and directories. However FTP protocol doesn’t provide for retrieving them, so usually descriptions are stored in text files with names like INDEX.TXT or FILES.BBS and users have to download them as normal files and view them in a text editor.
    • Mail Address - is your full e-mail address to be used as a password for Anonymous logins . It’s not checked to be a valid address in any way so you can type whatever you want here. However, it’s a matter of etiquette to give your real-e-mail address to the remote system.
    • Resolve Links - controls a UNIX specific option, which asks the server to resolve symbolic links to either file or directory. It’s a good idea to use this option on UNIX-based sites, but it can cause major problems with non-UNIX servers.
    • You can easily get back into your bird e-mail by typing : ftp> open bird.
    • You cannot login to Dizzy with “anonymous” .
    • If the filename in the directory begins with “l” , that means it’s a “linked file” .
    • To Logout of an FTP program you must type EXIT at the ftp> prompt. When you type CLOSE it doesn’t exit out of the FTP program.
    • Once a file(s) is loaded you can : ftp>dizzy , type your name and password (dizzy), then type “meget* .).
    • When done browsing files in a remote server type: ftp>close , you will still have ftp> on your screen since you didn’t “exit” the program. You can either type “exit” or the word “open” and another FTP address .
  • 25. FYI & TIPS (CONT.)
    • When retrieving non-text files , you must use Binary Mode , otherwise the file(s) get messed up.
    • Files reside on disks, denoted by NAME: e.g., NETDISK: and a file on that disk could be denoted by: NETDISK:[FAQ.INTERNET]FTP.FAQ -You can change to that directory by typing: cd netdisk:[faq.internet] -Or you can type: cd faq and then: cd internet
    • To read a file (UNIX system) while you are connected by retrieving to the screen itself, use: get filename.idx-
    • FTP Client programs for MS-Windows (addresses) ftp://ftp.cica.indiana.edu/pc/win3/winsock/ http://www.tucows.com/
    • Case counts (ftp is case sensitive)
    • Be aware that software files on the net may have a virus .
  • 26. INTERESTING ANONYMOUS FTP SITES
    • Frequently asked questions about anonymous FTP rtfm.mit.edu in the directory: /pub/usenet/news/answers/ftp-list/faq
    • FTP Software’s anonymous FTP server ftp.ftp.com
    • Weather Graphics vmd.cso.uiuc.edu ats.orst.edu (128.193.120.19)
    • Recipes gatekeeper.dec.com in the directory: pub/recipes mthvax.cs.miami.edu in the directory: /recipes
    • NASA graphics files explorer.arc.nasa.gov and ames.arc.nasa.gov
  • 27. FTP QUESTIONNAIRE (BEFORE)
    • Define FTP? ____________________________________________________
    • What is the command in FTP to change directories? ____________________________________________________
    • What is the command to list your files? ____________________________________________________
    • What is the difference between ASCII and Binary files? ____________________________________________________
    • Once I have started the file transfer, can it be interrupted/stopped? ____________________________________________________
    • Will I lose my connection? ____________________________________________________
    • What type of file is a file with the extension: .exe? _____________________________________________ .txt? _____________________________________________ .jpg? _____________________________________________ .avi? _____________________________________________ .zip? _____________________________________________
    • What do you enter as your password when logging in as “Anonymous”? ____________________________________________________
    • What safety measures should you take before downloading files from the Internet? ____________________________________________________
    • How will FTP training be beneficial to you in your Library position? ____________________________________________________
    • What is your name and job title? (Optional) ____________________________________________________
  • 28. FTP QUESTIONNAIRE (AFTER)
    • Define FTP? ____________________________________________________
    • What is the command in FTP to change directories? ____________________________________________________
    • What is the command to list your files? ____________________________________________________
    • What is the difference between ASCII and Binary files? ____________________________________________________
    • What type of file is a file with the extension: .exe? _____________________________________________ .txt? _____________________________________________ .jpg? _____________________________________________ .avi? _____________________________________________ .zip? _____________________________________________
    • What do you enter as your password when logging in as “Anonymous”? ____________________________________________________
    • What safety measures should you take before downloading files from the Internet? ____________________________________________________
    • After going through this basic session, will you have use of this knowledge in your Library position? For what possible uses? ____________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________
    • What other types of training would you be interested in having available to Library Staff? ____________________________________________________
    • What is your name and job title? (Optional) ____________________________________________________
  • 29. FTP QUESTIONNAIRE (ANSWERS)
    • Define FTP? File Transfer Protocol - the ability to send files from one computer to another via the telephone network with the aid of the internet.
    • What is the command in FTP to change directories? cd or lcd
    • What is the command to list your files? dir or ls
    • What is the difference between ASCII and Binary files? ASCII is used only for files saved in ASCII format and Binary is used for files that are formatted and saved using a Word Processing software.
    • What type of file is a file with the extension: .exe? executable .txt? text .jpg? picture .avi? video/movie .zip? compressed
    • What do you enter as your password when logging in as “Anonymous”? Your total e-mail address
    • What safety measures should you take before downloading files from the Internet? Be sure to have virus detection software loaded on your computer before downloading files to be sure you don’t infect your computer with a virus.