Det svenska partiernas rötter
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Det svenska partiernas rötter

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Sverige från fattigdom till välfärds stat.

Sverige från fattigdom till välfärds stat.

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  • 1. ‫ﺍﱃ ﺍﻟﻼﺟﺌﲔ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺏ , ﺍﻟﺴﻴﺎﺳﻴﲔ ﻭﻏﲑ ﺍﻟﺴﻴﺎﺳﻴﲔ ﰲ ﺍﳌﻼﺟ ﺍﻟﺴﻮﻳﺪﻳﺔ ﺃﻭ ﺧﺎﺭﺟﻬﺎ , ﻟﻠﺬﻳﻦ ﻳ ﻮﺩﻭﻥ ﺗﻌﻠ ﻢ‬‫ﺍﻟﺴﻴﺎﺳﺔ ﺍﻟﺴﻮﻳﺪﻳﺔ ﺑﺄﻗﺼﺮ ﻓﺘﺮﺓ ﳑﻜﻨﺔ , ﺍﱃ ﺍﻟﻄﻠﺒﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺏ , ﺍﻟﺪﺑﻠﻮﻣﺎﺳﻴﲔ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺏ , ﺍﳌﻜﺘﺒﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺑﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﳌ ﺪﺍﺭﺱ‬‫ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺑﻴﺔ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺴﻮﻳﺪ , ﱃ ﺍﻟﻠﺬﻳﻦ ﻳﺮﻏﺒﻮﻥ ﻣﺘﺎﺑﻌﺔ ﺍﻟﺴﻴﺎﺳﺔ ﺍﻟﺴﻮﻳﺪﻳﺔ ﻭﺑﻨﻔﺲ ﺍﻟﻮﻗﺖ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﻔﺎﺩﺓ ﻣﻦ ﺍﺻﻄﻼﺣ ﺎﺕ‬‫ﻭﺃﻣﺜﻠﺔ ﺳﻮﻳﺪﻳﺔ ﻛﺜﲑﺓ ﺑﺎ ﺿﺎﻓﺔ ﱃ ﻗﺎﻣﻮﺱ ﺍﻻﺻﻄﻼﺣﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺴﻴﺎﺳﻴﺔ ﻓﻬﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﻜﺘﺎﺏ ﺍﻟﻔﺮﻳﺪ ﻣﻦ ﻧﻮﻋﻪ ﺃﻓﻀﻞ ﻣ ﺎ‬ ‫ﺗﻮﺻﻠﻨﺎ ﻟﻴﻪ ﺧﻼﻝ ﻓﺘﺮﺓ ﻭﺟﻮﺩﻧﺎ ﺍﻟﻄﻮﻳﻞ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺴﻮﻳﺪ .‬ ‫ﺭﻳ ﺍﻟﺴﻮﻳﺪ‬ ‫ﺍ‬ ‫ﺍﻗﺮﺃ ﻋﻦ ﻛﻴﻔﻴﺔ ﲢﻮﻝ ﺍﻟﺴﻮﻳﺪ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻔﻘﺮ ﻭﺍﳉﻮﻉ ﺍﱃ ﺑﻠﺪ ﺻﻨﺎﻋﻲ ﻣﺘﻄﻮﺭ ﺫﻭ ﺭﻓﺎﻫﻴﺔ ﻋﺎﻟﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻗﺮﺃ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﺼﺮﺍﻉ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺴﻠﻄﺔ ﻭﻋﻦ ﺍﳌﻠﻮﻙ ﺍﻟﺴﻮﻳﺪﻳﲔ ﻭﺍﻟﺼﺮﺍﻉ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺵ‬ ‫ﺍﻗﺮﺃ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻧﻘﻼﺏ ﻋﺎﻡ 9081 ﻭﻧﻔﻲ ﺍﳌﻠﻚ ﻛﻮﺳﺘﺎﻑ ﺍﻟﺮﺍﺑﻊ ﺃﻭﺩﻟﻮﻑ ﺍﱃ ﺍﳋﺎﺭﺝ ﻭﺗﻐﻴﲑ ﺍﻟﺪﺳﺘﻮﺭ‬ ‫ﺍﻗﺮﺃ ﻋﻦ ﺗﺎﺭﻳ ﺍﻟﻮﺯﺍﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺴﻮﻳﺪﻳﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻗﺮﺃ ﻋﻦ ﺗﻄﻮﺭ ﺍﻷﺣﺰﺍﺏ ﺍﻟﺴﻮﻳﺪﻳﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻗﺮﺃ ﻋﻦ ﺗﻌﺪﺩ ﺍ ﻳﺪﻟﻮﺟﻴﺎﺕ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺴﻮﻳﺪ‬ ‫ﺍﻗﺮﺃ ﻋﻦ ﻓﻀﻴﺤﺔ ‪ Ångköks-Olles‬ﺍﻻﻧﺘﺨﺎﺑﻴﺔ ﻭﻫﺰﳝﺔ ﺣﻜﻮﻣﺔ ‪Themptander‬‬ ‫ﺍﻗﺮﺃ ﻋﻦ ﻧﻈﺎﻡ ﺍﻻﻧﺘﺨﺎﺑﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺴﻮﻳﺪﻱ ﻭﻋﻦ ﻛﻴﻔﻴﺔ ﺍﳊﺼﻮﻝ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﻘﺎﻋﺪ ﰲ ﺍﻟﱪﳌﺎﻥ‬ ‫ﺃﻗﺮﺍ ﻋﻦ ﻛﻴﻔﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺖ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺭﺋﻴﺲ ﺍﻟﻮﺯﺭﺍﺀ ﻭﺗﻜﻮﻳﻦ ﺍﳊﻜﻮﻣﺔ‬ ‫ﺃﻗﺮﺃ ﻋﻦ ﺗﺼﺮﻳﺢ ﺍﳊﻜﻮﻣﺔ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﺃﻟﻘﺎ ﺭﺋﻴﺲ ﺍﻟﻮﺯﺭﺍﺀ ﺑﻌﺪ ﺍﻻﻧﺘﺨﺎﺑﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﻗﺮﺃ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﺎﻟ ﺍﳊﻜﻮﻣﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻗﺮﺃ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﺎﺯﻻﺕ ﺍﻟﺴﻴﺎﺳﻴﺔ ﻣﺎ ﻳﺴﻤﻰ ﺑﺴﻴﺎﺳﺔ ﺍﳌﺘﺎﺟﺮﺓ ﺑﺎﻟﺒﻘﺮ ‪kohandel‬‬ ‫ﺃﻗﺮﺃ ﻋﻦ ﺳﻴﺎﺳﺔ ﺳﺒﺎﻕ ﺍﻟﺪﺟﺎﺝ ‪chicken-race‬‬ ‫ﺃﻗﺮﺃ ﻋﻦ ﻫﺆﻻﺀ ﺍﳋﻀﺮ , ﺍﺻﻐﺮ ﺣﺰﺏ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺴﻮﻳﺪ ﻳﻨﺎﻓﺲ ﺃﻛﱪ ﺣﺰﺏ ﺳﻴﺎﺳﻲ ﻭﻳﻬﺪﺩ ﺑﺄﺳﻘﺎ ﺍﳊﻜﻮﻣﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻗﺮﺃ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﺘﻜﺘﻴﻚ ﺍﻻﻧﺘﺨﺎﰊ ‪taktikröstning‬‬ ‫ﺍﻗﺮﺃ ﻋﻦ ﺣﺰﺏ ﺍﻷﺟﺎﻧﺐ , ﺍﻟﺴﻮﻳﺪﻳﲔ ﺍﳉﺪﺩ , ‪ DPNS‬ﻭﳌﺎﺫﺍ ﱂ ﺼﻞ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻧﻔﺲ ﻭﺯﻥ ﻫﺆﻻﺀ ﺍﳋﻀﺮ‬ ‫ﺍﻗﺮﺃ ﻋﻦ ﺗﻄﻮﺭ ﺍﻟﺪﳝﻘﺮﺍﻃﻴﺔ ﻭﺣﻘﻮﻕ ﺍ ﻧﺴﺎﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻗﺮﺃ ﻋﻦ ﺍﳌﻮﺩﻳﻞ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻳﺘﻄﻮﺭ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺴﻮﻳﺪ‬ ‫ﺍﻗﺮﺃ ﻋﻦ ﺳﻴﺎﺳﺔ ﻋﺪﻡ ﺍﻻﳓﻴﺎﺩ‬ ‫ﺍﻗﺮﺃ ﻋﻦ ﻛﻴﻔﻴﺔ ﻣﻨﺢ ﺟﺎﺋﺰﺓ ﻧﻮﺑﻞ ﻭﻣﺴﲑﺓ ﺣﻴﺎﺗﻪ.‬‫1‬
  • 2. ‫ﺍﻗﺮﺃ ﻋﻦ ﻛﻴﻔﻴﺔ ﺣﻞ ﻭﺍﺳﺘﻘﻼﻝ ‪Åland‬‬ ‫) ‪(Sameting‬‬ ‫ﺍﻗﺮﺍ ﻋﻦ ﺷﻌﺐ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﻣﺮ , ﺍﺳﺘﻘﻼﳍﻢ ﻭﺑﺮﳌﺎ ﻢ ﺍﳋﺎ‬ ‫ﺏ‬ ‫ﺍﻟ‬ ‫(‬ ‫) ﻮﻳﺪ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺴ‬ ‫ﺔ ﺍﻟ ﺍﻟ ﻮ‬‫2‬
  • 3. ‫ﻭﻥ ﺭ ﺍﻟ ﻤﺎ ﻷ ﻭﻟ‬ ‫ﺍﻟ‬ ‫ﺭﺍ ﻟ‬ ‫ﺭ ﺭﺍ ﻭ ﺎ‬ ‫ﺍﻟ‬ ‫ﺎ‬ ‫ﻲ ﻥ ﻟ‬ ‫ﻭﻷﻥ ﺍ ﻟ‬‫ﻲ‬ ‫ﺍ ﻟ ﺍﻟ‬ ‫ﻭ ﻭ‬ ‫ﻥ‬ ‫.‬ ‫ﻥ‬ ‫-9861( ‪Charles De Montesquieu‬‬ ‫)5571‬
  • 4. ‫?‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻔﻬﺮﺳﺖ……….………………‬ ‫ﺍﳌﻘﺪﻣﺔ ………….………… 1-9‬ ‫ﺣﺮﻛﺔ ﲢﺮﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﺴﻮﻳﺪ………….….…‬ ‫ﺑﺪﺍﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﺼﺮﺍﻉ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺵ …...……….‬ ‫ﺍﻻﲢﺎﺩ ﺍﻟﺜﻼﺛﻲ - ‪.……….. Kalmarunionen‬‬ ‫ﺳﻠﻄﻨﺔ ‪.…………...…… Margareta‬‬ ‫ﺳﻠﻄﻨﺔ ‪..……......… Erik av Pommern‬‬ ‫ﺍﺟﺘﻤﺎﻉ ‪.…………….……Arboga‬‬ ‫ﺳﻠﻄﻨﺔ ‪.…...….… Kristofer av Bayern‬‬ ‫ﺍﳌﻠﻚ ﻛﺮﻳﺸﺎﻥ ﺍﻷﻭﻝ …….….……..‬ ‫ﺍﳌﻠﻚ ﻛﺎﺭﻝ ﻛﻨﺘﺴﻮﻥ ……...….…...‬ ‫ﳎﺰﺭﺓ ‪..….…..………Brunkeberg‬‬ ‫ﺣﻜﻢ ‪…….…….…… Sten Sture‬‬ ‫ﺍﳌﻠﻚ ﻫﺎﻧﺲ ……………..…….‬ ‫ﺍﳌﻠﻚ ﻛﺮﻳﺸﺎﻥ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﱐ …..…….……‬ ‫ﳎﺰﺭﺓ ﺍﺳﺘﻜﻬﻮﱂ .………………..‬ ‫ﺣﺮﺏ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﺮﻳﺮ .…….…..…….…‬ ‫ﺳﻠﻄﻨﺔ ﻛﻮﺳﺘﺎﻑ ﻓﺎﺳﺎ ….………...‬ ‫ﺣﺮﺏ ﺍﻟﻨﺒﻼﺀ ………...….…..…‬ ‫ﺑﺪﺍﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﺼﺮﺍﻉ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺴﻠﻄﺔ….….……‬‫3‬
  • 5. ‫ﺍﳌﻠﻚ ﺃﺭﻳﻚ ﺍﻟﺮﺍﺑﻊ ﻋﺸﺮ ….……..‬ ‫ﺣﺮﺏ ﺍﻟﺴﺒﻌﺔ ﺃﻋﻮﺍﻡ …….……..‬ ‫ﳎﺰﺭﺓ ﺍﺑﺴﺎﻻ ………….…..…‬ ‫ﺍﻋﺘﻘﺎﻝ ﺍﳌﻠﻚ ﺃﺭﻳﻚ ﺍﻟﺮﺍﺑﻊ ﻋﺸﺮ …....‬ ‫ﺍﳌﻠﻚ ﻳﻮﻫﺎﻥ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻟﺚ ….…….….‬ ‫ﺍﳌﻠﻚ ‪……..……… Sigsmund‬‬ ‫ﺍﺟﺘﻤﺎﻉ ﺳﻴﺪﺭﺷﻴﺒﻨﻚ …….……‬ ‫ﺳﻠﻄﺔ ‪……….……hertig Karl‬‬ ‫ﻣﻌﺮﻛﺔ ﺳﺘﻮﻧﻚ ﺑﺮﻭ……..…….‬ ‫ﳎﺰﺭﺓ ﻟﻴﻨﺸﻮﺑﻨﻚ …..………..‬ ‫ﺃﻗﺎﻟﺔ ﺍﳌﻠﻚ ‪ Sigsmund‬ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺵ..…‬ ‫ﺍﳌﻠﻚ ﻛﺎﺭﻝ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﺳﻊ ……………‬ ‫ﺍﳌﻠﻚ ﻛﻮﺳﺘﺎﻑ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﱐ ﺃﻭﺩﻟﻮﻑ….…‬ ‫ﻧﻈﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﱪﳌﺎﻥ ﻟﻌﺎﻡ 7161 …...…..‬ ‫ﳑﺜﻠﻲ ﻃﺒﻘﺎﺕ ﺍ‪‬ﺘﻤﻊ ﺍﻷﺭﺑﻌﺔ……...‬ ‫ﺣﺮﺏ ﺍﻟﺜﻼﺛﲔ ﻋﺎﻣﺎﹶ………..…..‬ ‫ﻗﺘﻞ ﺍﳌﻠﻚ ﻛﻮﺳﺘﺎﻑ ﺃﻭﺩﻟﻮﻑ……..‬ ‫ﻧﻈﺎﻡ ﺍﳊﻜﻮﻣﺔ ﻟﻌﺎﻡ 4361 …..…..‬ ‫ﺍﳌﻠﻜﺔ ﻛﺮﺳﺘﻴﻨﻪ……….….…..‬ ‫ﺗﻨﺎﺯﻝ ﺍﻟﻠﻜﺔ ﻛﺮﺳﺘﻴﻨﺔ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺵ…...‬ ‫ﺍﳌﻠﻚ ﻛﺎﺭﻝ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﺷﺮ ﻛﻮﺳﺘﺎﻑ ….…‬ ‫ﺍﳌﻠﻚ ﻛﺎﺭﻝ ﺍﳊﺎﺩﻱ ﻋﺸﺮ …….…‬ ‫ﻣﻌﺮﻛﺔ ﺳﻨﺎﺏ ﻫﺎﻧﺎ ﻓﻴﺪﻥ…….….‬‫4‬
  • 6. ‫ﺍﳌﻠﻚ ﻛﺎﺭﻝ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﱐ ﻋﺸﺮ ………..……‬ ‫ﳉﻮﺀ ﺍﳌﻠﻚ ﻛﺎﺭﻝ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﱐ ﻋﺸﺮ ……….....‬ ‫ﺍﻏﺘﻴﺎﻝ ﺍﳌﻠﻚ ﻛﺎﺭﻝ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﱐ ﻋﺸﺮ…………‬ ‫ﺍﳌﻠﻜﺔ ﺃﻭﻟﺮﻳﻜﺔ ﺃﻟﻪ ﻧﻮﺭﺓ …….………..‬ ‫ﻓﺘﺮﺓ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﺮﺭ ﻭﺑﺮﻭﺯ ﺍﻷﺣﺰﺍﺏ ………….‬ ‫ﺣﺰﺏ ﺃﺻﺤﺎﺏ ﺍﻟﺴﺪﺍﺭﺍﺕ …….……..‬ ‫ﺣﺰﺏ ﺃﺻﺤﺎﺏ ﺍﻟﺸﻔﻘﺎﺕ ……………‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻠﻴﱪﺍﻟﻴﺔ……………..………….‬ ‫ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩ ﺍﻟﻠﻴﱪﺍﱄ……………..……‬ ‫ﺗﻨﺎﺯ ﺍﳌﻠﻜﺔ ﺃﻭﻟﺮﻳﻜﺔ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺵ ……...….‬ ‫ﺍﳌﻠﻚ ﻓﺮﻳﺪﺭﻳﻚ ﺍﻷﻭﻝ ………………‬ ‫ﺍﻧﺘﻔﺎﺿﺔ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺣﲔ ……….…………‬ ‫ﺍﳌﻠﻚ ﺃﻭﺩﻟﻮﻑ ﻓﺮﻳﺪﺭﻳﻚ …….………‬ ‫ﻭﺯﺍﺭﺓ ﻛﺎﺭﻝ ﻛﻮﺳﺘﺎﻑ ﺗﺴﲔ …...…..…‬ ‫ﻗﺎﻧﻮﻥ ﺣﺮﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﻄﺒﺎﻋﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﻨﺸﺮ…….……..‬ ‫ﻭﺯﺍﺭﺓ ﻓﻮﻥ ﻫﺒﻜﻦ …………..……..‬ ‫ﺯﻭﺟﺔ ﺍﳌﻠﻚ ﲣﻄﻂ ﶈﺎﻭﻟﺔ ﺍﻧﻘﻼﺑﻴﺔ…….....‬ ‫ﻭﺯﺍﺭﺓ ﻛﺎﺭﻝ ﻛﻮﺳﺘﺎﻑ ﻟﻮﻧﻴﻠﻢ ……...….‬ ‫ﺍﳌﻠﻚ ﻛﻮﺳﺘﺎﻑ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻟﺚ ……...………‬ ‫ﻭﺯﺍﺭﺓ ﻛﻼﺱ ﺍﻳﻜﺒﻼﺩ ……………….‬ ‫ﻣﺒﺪﺃ ﺗﻮﺯﻳﻊ ﺍﻟﺴﻠﻄﺔ …………………‬ ‫ﺍﳌﻠﻚ ﻳﻘﻮﻡ ﲟﺤﺎﻭﻟﺔ ﺍﻧﻘﻼﺑﻴﺔ………..…..‬ ‫ﳎﺎﻋﺔ 3771 ………………..…..‬‫5‬
  • 7. ‫ﺗﺄﻣﻴﻢ ﻣﺼﺎﻧﻊ ﺍﻟﻜﺤﻮﻝ …………...….‬ ‫ﺣﻘﻮﻕ ﺍﻟﻴﻬﻮﺩ…………………….‬ ‫ﺗﺄﺳﻴﺲ ﺍﻷﻛﺎﺩﳝﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺴﻮﻳﺪﻳﺔ……………‬ ‫ﺗﺼﻔﻴﺔ ﺍﳌﻠﻚ ﻛﻮﺳﺘﺎﻑ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻟﺚ………….‬ ‫ﺍﳌﻠﻚ ﻛﻮﺳﺘﺎﻑ ﺍﻟﺮﺍﺑﻊ ﺃﻭﺩﻟﻮﻑ…………‬ ‫ﺃﺩﺍﻧﺔ ﻧﺎﺑﻠﻴﻮﻥ ﺑﻮﻧﺎﺑﺮﺕ……………….‬ ‫ﺍﻋﺘﻘﺎﻝ ﺍﳌﻠﻚ ﻭﻧﻔﻴﻪ………………....‬ ‫ﺩﺳﺘﻮﺭ ﻋﺎﻡ 9081 ……...…………‬ ‫ﺍﳌﻠﻚ ﻛﺎﺭﻝ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻟﺚ ﻋﺸﺮ……………..‬ ‫ﺳﻠﻄﻨﺔ ‪..………...…...…Bernadotte‬‬ ‫ﺍﳌﻠﻚ ﻛﺎﺭﻝ ﻳﻮﻫﺎﻥ ﺍﻟﺮﺍﺑﻊ ﻋﺸﺮ ﺑﺮﻧﺎﺩﻭﺕ…..‬ ‫ﻭﺯﺍﺭﺓ ﻣﺎﺗﻴﺎﺱ ﺭﻭﺳﻨﺒﻼﺩ……………...‬ ‫ﺍﳍﺠﺮﺓ ﺍﱃ ﺃﻣﺮﻳﻜﺎ………………….‬ ‫ﺍﳌﻠﻚ ﺃﻭﺳﻜﺮ ﺍﻷﻭﻝ………………...‬ ‫ﺣﻜﻮﻣﺔ ﻛﻮﻧﺜﺮ ﺍﻟﻠﻴﱪﺍﻟﻴﺔ ……………..‬ ‫ﻭﺯﺍﺭﺓ ﻟﻮﻳﺲ ﺩﻳﻜﲑ ﺍﻷﻭﱃ ……………‬ ‫ﺍﳌﻠﻚ ﻛﺎﺭﻝ ﺍﳋﺎﻣﺲ ﻋﺸﺮ ……………‬ ‫ﺍﻟﱪﳌﺎﻥ ﺍﳉﺪﻳﺪ ﺫﻭ ﺍ‪‬ﻠﺴﲔ ……………‬ ‫ﻭﺯﺍﺭﺓ ﻛﻮﺳﺘﺎﻑ ﺍﺩﻝ ﻛﺮﻭﺯ …………..‬ ‫ﺍﳌﻠﻚ ﺃﻭﺳﻜﺮ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﱐ ………………...‬ ‫ﻭﺯﺍﺭﺓ ﺃﺩﻭﺭﺩ ﻛﺎﺭﻳﻠﺴﻮﻥ……………...‬ ‫ﻭﺯﺍﺭﺓ ﺩﻳﻜﲑ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻧﻴﺔ …………………‬ ‫ﻭﺯﺍﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺣﲔ …………..………‬‫6‬
  • 8. ‫ﺍﳊﺮﻛﺔ ﺍﻟﻠﺒﲑﺍﻟﻴﺔ……………………‬ ‫ﺣﺮﻛﺔ ﺍﻟﻄﺒﻘﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻣﻠﺔ………………..‬ ‫ﺣﻜﻮﻣﺔ ﻛﺎﺭﻝ ﺛﺴﻴﻠﻴﻮﺱ……………...‬ ‫ﻭﺯﺍﺭﺓ ﺭﻭﺑﺮﺕ ﲦﺘﺎﻧﺪﺭ ……………….‬ ‫ﻓﻀﻴﺤﺔ ﺍﻟﻄﺒﺎﺥ ﻭﺍﻟﺴﻴﺎﺳﻲ ﺃﻭﻟﺔ ….……..‬ ‫ﻭﺯﺍﺭﺓ ﻛﻴﻠﻴﺲ ﺑﻠﺪﺕ .……………….‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻨﻈﺎﻝ ﻣﻦ ﺃﺟﻞ ﺣﻖ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺖ…………‬ ‫ﺍﻋﺘﻘﺎﻝ ﻣﺆﺳﺴﻲ ﺍﳊﺰﺏ ﺍﻻﺷﺘﺮﺍﻛﻲ………‬ ‫ﻭﺯﺍﺭﺓ ﻛﻮﺳﺘﺎﻑ ﺃﻭﻛﺮﻫﻴﻠﻢ …………...‬ ‫ﻋﻴﺪ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﺎﻝ………………………‬ ‫ﻭﺯﺍﺭﺓ ﺑﻮﺳﺘﺮﱘ ﺍﻷﻭﱃ ……………….‬ ‫ﺑﺮﳌﺎﻥ ﺍﻟﺸﻌﺐ ……………………‬ ‫ﺣﻜﻮﻣﺔ ‪.…………..…… von Otter‬‬ ‫ﺟﻮﺍﺋﺰ ﻧﻮﺑﻞ………………………‬ ‫ﺣﻜﻮﻣﺔ ﺑﻮﺳﺘﺮﻡ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻧﻴﺔ. ……………...‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻐﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﻮﺣﺪﺓ ﺑﲔ ﺍﻟﻨﺮﺓﻳﺞ ﻭﺍﻟﺴﻮﻳﺪ….……‬ ‫ﻭﺯﺍﺭﺓ ﺟﻮﻥ ﺭﺍﻣﺴﺘﺪﺕ .……..……...‬ ‫ﺣﻜﻮﻣﺔ ﻛﺮﺳﺘﻴﺎﻥ ﻟﻮﻧﺪﺑﺮﻱ ﺍﻻﺗﻼﻓﻴﺔ…...…‬ ‫ﻭﺯﺍﺭﺓ ﻛﺎﺭﻝ ﺳﺘﺎﻑ ﺍﻟﻠﻴﱪﺍﻟﻴﺔ.…...……..‬ ‫ﺣﻜﻮﻣﺔ ﺍﻟﻴﻤﲔ ….....…………..…‬ ‫ﺍﳌﻠﻚ ﻛﻮﺳﺘﺎﻑ ﺍﳋﺎﻣﺲ ……..………‬ ‫ﺩﺳﺘﻮﺭ ﻋﺎﻡ 8091 …...……………‬ ‫ﺣﻖ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺖ ﻟﻠﺮﺟﺎﻝ ……………....‬‫7‬
  • 9. ‫ﺍﺣﺘﺠﺎﺝ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺣﲔ …………..….….‬ ‫ﻭﺯﺍﺭﺓ ﻳﻠﻤﺮ ﳘﺮﺷﻠﺪ …..……………‬ ‫ﺍﳊﺮﺏ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﳌﻴﺔ ﺍﻷﻭﱃ …………………………‬ ‫ﺳﻴﺎﺳﺔ ﻋﺪﻡ ﺍﻻﳓﻴﺎﺩ .………………….………‬ ‫ﺍﻧﺘﺨﺎﺑﺎﺕ ﻋﺎﻡ 4191 ………...……………..‬ ‫ﻣﻈﺎﻫﺮﺍﺕ ﻋﺎﻡ 7191 ..……….……….……‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﻴﺪ ﺍﻟﻮﻃﲏ ﺍﻟﺴﻮﻳﺪﻱ…..…………………….‬ ‫ﺍﻧﺸﻘﺎﻕ ﺍﳊﺰﺏ ﺍﻻﺷﺘﺮﺍﻛﻲ ……………‬ ‫ﺣﻜﻮﻣﺔ ﺍﻟﻴﻤﲔ ﻋﺎﻡ 7191 …………...‬ ‫ﺍﻧﺘﺨﺎﺑﺎﺕ ﻋﺎﻡ 7191 ………………‬ ‫ﺍﳊﻜﻮﻣﺔ ﺍﻻﺗﻼﻓﻴﺔ -ﺍﺷﺘﺮﺍﻛﻴﺔ-ﻟﻴﱪﺍﻟﻴﺔ……..‬ ‫ﺍﻻﻣﱪﺍﻃﻮﺭﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﺴﻮﻳﺪﻳﺔ……………….‬ ‫ﺣﻖ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺖ ﻟﻠﻨﺴﺎﺀ ……………….‬ ‫ﺃﻭﻝ ﺣﻜﻮﻣﺔ ﺍﺷﺘﺮﺍﻛﻴﺔ …….………...‬ ‫ﻭﺯﺍﺭﺓ ﺩﻳﻜﲑ ﺍﻷﺻﻐﺮ ………………..‬ ‫ﻓﻀﻴﺤﺔ ﺍﳌﻠﻚ ﻛﻮﺳﺘﺎﻑ ﺍﳋﺎﻣﺲ ………..‬ ‫ﺃﻏﺘﻴﺎﻝ ﺭﺋﻴﺲ ﺍﻟﻮﺯﺭﺍﺀ ﺃﻭﻟﻮﻑ ﺑﺎﳌﺔ….……‬ ‫……………‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻤﻴﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﻌﻨﺼﺮﻱ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺴﻮﻳﺪ‬ ‫ﻓﻀﻴﺤﺔ ﻭﺯﻳﺮﺓ ﺍﻟﻌﺪﻝ ……….………….‬ ‫‪.……..……………………… IB‬‬ ‫ﻓﻀﻴﺤﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺒﺭﻟﻤﺎﻥ ﺍﻷﻭﺭﺒﻲ …….………‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻮﺯﺍﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺴﻮﻳﺪﻳﺔ ….…....……‬ ‫ﻓﺘﺮﺓ ﺣﻜﻢ ﺍﳌﻤﺎﻟﻴﻚ ……………‬‫8‬
  • 10. ‫ﺣﻜﻮﻣﺔ ﻏﲑ ﺣﺰﺑﻴﺔ …………………‬ ‫ﺍﻧﺘﺨﺎﺑﺎﺕ ﻋﺎﻡ 1291 ………………‬ ‫ﺣﻜﻮﻣﺔ ﺍﻻﺷﺘﺮﺍﻛﻲ ﺍﻟﺪﳝﻘﺮﺍﻃﻲ…………‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻐﺎﺀ ﺣﻜﻮﻣﺔ ﺍﻻﻋﺪﺍﻡ ……………….‬ ‫ﺍﻻﻧﺘﺨﺎﺑﺎﺕ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﻔﺘﺎﺋﻴﺔ……………….‬ ‫ﺍﻧﺸﻘﺎﻕ ﺩﺍﺧﻞ ﺍﳊﺰﺏ ﺍﻟﻠﻴﱪﺍﱄ………….‬ ‫ﺣﻜﻮﻣﺔ ﺍﻟﻴﻤﲔ…………………….‬ ‫ﺍﻧﺘﺨﺎﺑﺎﺕ ﻋﺎﻡ 4291 ………………‬ ‫ﻭﺯﺍﺭﺓ ﺭﻳﻜﺎﺭﺩ ﺳﺎﻧﺪﻟﺮ……………….‬ ‫ﻭﺯﺍﺭﺓ ﻳﻠﻤﺎﺭ ﺑﺮﺍﻧﺘﻨﻚ………………...‬ ‫ﺍﳊﻜﻮﻣﺔ ﺍﻟﻠﻴﱪﺍﻟﻴﺔ…………………..‬ ‫ﺍﻧﺘﺨﺎﺑﺎﺕ ﻋﺎﻡ 8291 ………………‬ ‫ﺣﻜﻮﻣﺔ ﺍﻟﻴﻤﲔ…………………….‬ ‫ﺣﻜﻮﻣﺔ ﺍﻟﻠﻴﱪﺍﻟﻴﲔ………………….‬ ‫ﺃﺣﺪﺍﺙ ﺃﻭﺩﺍﻟﻦ……………………‬ ‫ﻭﻻﺩﺓ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺯﻳﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﻔﺎﺷﻴﺔ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺴﻮﻳﺪ……..…‬ ‫ﺍﺿﻄﺮﺍﺑﺎﺕ ﻋﺴﻜﺮﻳﺔ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺴﻮﻳﺪ…………‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻘﻀﺎﺀ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻻﻣﱪﺍﻃﻮﺭﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﺴﻮﻳﺪﻱ………‬ ‫ﺣﻜﻮﻣﺔ ﻓﻠﻜﺲ ﳘﺮﻳﻦ ………………‬ ‫ﺍﻧﺘﺨﺎﺑﺎﺕ ﻋﺎﻡ 2391……………….‬ ‫ﺣﻜﻮﻣﺔ ﺍﻻﺷﺘﺮﺍﻛﻲ ﺍﻟﺪﳝﻘﺮﺍﻃﻲ…………‬ ‫ﺣﻜﻮﻣﺔ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺣﲔ…………………..‬ ‫ﺳﻴﺎﺳﺔ ﺍﳌﺘﺎﺟﺮﺓ ﺑﺎﻟﺒﻘﺮ ‪.………kohandel‬‬‫9‬
  • 11. ‫ﺣﻜﻮﻣﺔ ﺍﺗﻼﻓﻴﺔ -ﺍﺷﺘﺮﺍﻛﻴﺔ -ﻓﻼﺣﻴﺔ…...…‬ ‫ﻧﻈﺮﻳﺔ ﺟﻮﻥ ﻣﻴﻨﺎﺭﺩ ﻛﻴﱰ ﳌﻜﺎﻓﺤﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﻄﺎﻟﺔ ..…‬ ‫ﺍﳌﻮﺩﻳﻞ ﺍﻟﺴﻮﻳﺪﻱ ………...………..‬ ‫ﺣﻜﻮﻣﺔ ﺍﺋﺘﻼﻓﻴﺔ ﺷﺎﻣﻠﺔ ﺩﻭﻥ ﺍﻟﺸﻴﻮﻋﻴﲔ ……‬ ‫ﻓﻀﻴﺤﺔ ﺍﳌﻠﻚ ﻛﻮﺳﺘﺎﻑ ﺍﳋﺎﻣﺲ ﻭﻛﻴﻔﻴﺔ ﺗﺼﻔﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻔﺎﺿﺢ……..‬ ‫ﺃﻏﺘﻴﺎﻝ ﺭﺋﻴﺲ ﺍﻟﻮﺯﺭﺍﺀ ﺃﻭﻟﻮﻑ ﺑﺎﳌﺔ………………‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻤﻴﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﻌﻨﺼﺮﻱ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺴﻮﻳﺪ ……………………‬ ‫ﻓﻀﻴﺤﺔ ﻭﺯﻳﺮﺓ ﺍﻟﻌﺪﻝ ……….………….‬ ‫ﻓﻀﻴﺤﺔ ‪.……..…………………IB‬‬ ‫ﺍﻟﱪﳌﺎﻥ ﺍﻷﻭﺭﰊ …….………‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻮﺯﺍﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺴﻮﻳﺪﻳﺔ ….…………..……‬ ‫ﻓﺘﺮﺓ ﺣﻜﻢ ﺍﳌﻤﺎﻟﻴﻚ ……………….‬ ‫ﺍﳉﻴﻮﺵ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺯﻳﺔ ﺗﺘﺘﻨﻘﻞ ﻣﺎﺑﲔ ﺍﳌﺪﻥ ﺍﻟﺴﻮﻳﺪﻳﺔ....‬ ‫ﺟﺒﻬﺔ ﺳﻮﻳﺪﻳﺔ ﺿﺪ ﺍﻟﺸﻴﻮﻋﻴﺔ…………...‬ ‫ﻋﻤﻠﻴﺔ ﺍﻧﻜﻠﱪﻳﺖ ………….…..‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﺠﺴﺲ……………..…………‬ ‫ﺣﻜﻮﻣﺔ ﺍﻻﺷﺘﺮﺍﻛﻲ ﺍﻟﺪﳝﻘﺮﺍﻃﻲ…………‬ ‫ﺑﺪﺍﻳﺔ ﺣﻜﻮﻣﺔ ﺍﻷﺣﺰﺍﺏ………………‬ ‫ﺍﻷﻣﻢ ﺍﳌﺘﺤﺪﺓ……………………..‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻜﺘﻼﺕ ﺍﳊﺰﺑﻴﺔ…………………..‬ ‫ﺍﻧﺘﺨﺎﺑﺎﺕ ﻋﺎﻡ 8491……………….‬ ‫ﻓﻀﻴﺤﺔ ﺍﳌﻠﻚ ﻛﻮﺳﺘﺎﻑ ﺍﳋﺎﻣﺲ ………..‬ ‫ﺍﳌﻠﻚ ﻛﻮﺳﺘﺎﻑ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﱐ ﺃﻭﺩﻟﻮﻑ…………‬‫01‬
  • 12. ‫ﻓﻀﻴﺤﺔ )‪…………(pojk-prostitution‬‬ ‫ﺍﳊﻜﻮﻣﺔ ﺍﻻﺗﻼﻓﻴﺔ -ﺍﻻﺷﺘﺮﺍﻛﻲ ﻭﺍﻟﻮﺳﻂ…...‬ ‫ﳎﻠﺲ ﺩﻭﻝ ﺍﻟﺸﻤﺎﻝ…………………‬ ‫ﺍﻧﺘﺨﺎﺑﺎﺕ ﻋﺎﻡ 2591……………….‬ ‫ﳘﺮﺷﻠﺪ ﺳﻜﺮﺗﲑ ﻋﺎﻡ ﻟﻸﻣﻢ ﺍﳌﺘﺤﺪﺓ………‬ ‫ﺍﻧﺘﺨﺎﺑﺎﺕ ﺍﺳﺘﻔﺘﺎﺋﻴﺔ ﺣﻮﻝ ﺍﳌﺮﻭﺭ ………..‬ ‫ﺍﻧﺘﺨﺎﺑﺎﺕ ﻋﺎﻡ 5591……………….‬ ‫ﺍﻧﺘﺨﺎﺑﺎﺕ ﺍﺳﺘﻔﺘﺎﺋﻴﺔ ﺣﻮﻝ ﺍﻟﺘﻘﺎﻋﺪ………..‬ ‫ﺣﻜﻮﻣﺔ ﺍﻻﺷﺘﺮﺍﻛﻲ ﺍﻟﺪﳝﻘﺮﺍﻃﻲ…………‬ ‫ﺍﻧﺘﺨﺎﺑﺎﺕ ﻋﺎﻡ 8591……………….‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺒﺪﻳﻞ ﺍﳉﺪﻳﺪ ‪………mitten-alternativ‬‬ ‫ﺍﻧﺘﺨﺎﺑﺎﺕ ﻋﺎﻡ 0691……………….‬ ‫ﺣﺮﺏ ﺍﻟﻜﻮﻧﻐﻮﺍ………………………‬ ‫ﺣﺎﺩﺛﺔ ﺍﻟﺴﻜﺮﺗﲑ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻡ ﻟﻸﻣﻢ ﺍﳌﺘﺤﺪﺓ……..‬ ‫ﺍﻧﺘﺨﺎﺑﺎﺕ ﻋﺎﻡ 4691………………‬ ‫ﻓﻀﻴﺤﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺠﺴﺲ ﻓﻨﺮﺳﺘﺮﱘ……………‬ ‫ﺃﻏﺘﻴﺎﻝ ﺭﺋﻴﺲ ﺍﻟﻮﺯﺭﺍﺀ ﺃﻭﻟﻮﻑ ﺑﺎﳌﺔ………‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻤﻴﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﻌﻨﺼﺮﻱ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺴﻮﻳﺪ ………‬ ‫ﻓﻀﻴﺤﺔ ﻭﺯﻳﺮﺓ ﺍﻟﻌﺪﻝ …………….‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻮﺯﺍﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺴﻮﻳﺪﻳﺔ ….…..……‬ ‫ﻓﺘﺮﺓ ﺣﻜﻢ ﺍﳌﻤﺎﻟﻴﻚ ………….‬‫11‬
  • 13. ‫ﺧﺮﻭﺷﻮﻑ ﳚﺬﻑ ﺑﻨﻔﺴﻪ ﺍﳊﻜﻮﻣﺔ ﺍﻟﺴﻮﻳﺪﻳﺔ...‬ ‫ﺍﻷﻓﺮﻳﻘﻲ ﻟﻮﺛﺮﻛﻨﻚ ﳝﻨﺢ ﺟﺎﺋﺰﺓ ﻧﻮﺑﻞ……...‬ ‫ﺳﺎﺭﺗﺮ ﻳﺮﻓﺾ ﺍﺳﺘﻼﻡ ﺟﺎﺋﺰﺓ ﻧﻮﺑﻞ………..‬ ‫ﺣﺮﻛﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﺮﺭ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﳌﻴﺔ………………..‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻀﺎﻣﻦ ﻣﻊ ﺍﻟﺸﻌﺐ ﺍﻟﻔﻴﺘﻨﺎﻣﻲ………….‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺒﺘﺮﻭﻝ…………………………‬ ‫ﲡﺮﻳﺪ ﺍﳌﻠﻚ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺴﻠﻄﺔ ﺍﻟﺴﻴﺎﺳﻴﺔ………..‬ ‫ﺍﻧﺘﺨﺎﺑﺎﺕ ﻋﺎﻡ 0791……………….‬ ‫ﺣﻜﻮﻣﺔ ﺃﻭﻟﻮﻑ ﺑﺎﳌﺔ………………...‬ ‫ﻧﲑﻭﺩﺍ ﳝﻨﺢ ﺟﺎﺋﺰﺓ ﻧﻮﺑﻞ………………‬ ‫ﺍﳌﻠﻚ ﻛﺎﺭﻝ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﺩﺱ ﻋﺸﺮ ﻛﻮﺳﺘﺎﻑ……..‬ ‫ﻓﻀﻴﺤﺔ ‪...…………………… IB‬‬ ‫ﺍﻧﺘﺨﺎﺑﺎﺕ ﻋﺎﻡ 3791……………….‬ ‫ﺳﻴﺎﺳﺔ ﺍﻟﻴﺎﻧﺼﻴﺐ…………………..‬ ‫ﺍﺩﺍﻧﺔ ﺍﳊﺮﺏ ﺍﻷﻣﺮﻳﻜﻴﺔ……………….‬ ‫ﺗﺄﺛﲑﺍﺕ ‪……………….……Pomperposse‬‬ ‫ﺍﻟﱪﳌﺎﻥ ﺍﳉﺪﻳﺪ…………………….‬ ‫ﺍﻧﺘﺨﺎﺑﺎﺕ ﻋﺎﻡ 6791………….……‬ ‫ﻫﺰﳝﺔ ﺍﻻﺷﺘﺮﺍﻛﻲ ﺍﻟﺪﳝﻘﺮﺍﻃﻲ……..…….‬ ‫ﺍﳊﻜﻮﻣﺔ ﺍﻟﱪﺟﻮﺍﺯﻳﺔ…………………‬ ‫ﺍﻧﺘﺨﺎﺑﺎﺕ ﻋﺎﻡ 9791……………….‬ ‫ﺍﻧﺘﺨﺎﺑﺎﺕ ﺍﺳﺘﻔﺘﺎﺋﻴﺔ ﺣﻮﻝ ﺍﻟﻄﺎﻗﺔ…………‬ ‫ﺃﻭﻟﻮﻑ ﺑﺎﳌﺔ ﻳﺘﻮﺳﻂ ﺑﲔ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺍﻕ ﻭﺍﻳﺮﺍﻥ…….‬‫21‬
  • 14. ‫ﺍﻧﺘﺨﺎﺑﺎﺕ ﻋﺎﻡ 2891……………….‬ ‫ﺣﻜﻮﻣﺔ ﺍﻻﺷﺘﺮﺍﻛﻲ ﺍﻟﺪﳝﻘﺮﺍﻃﻲ ………...‬ ‫ﺍﳌﺒﺎﺩﺭﺓ ﳊﻞ ﺍﻟﻘﻀﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻔﻠﺴﻄﻴﻨﻴﺔ………….‬ ‫ﺍﻏﺘﻴﺎﻝ ﺭﺋﻴﺲ ﺍﻟﻮﺯﺭﺍﺀ ﺃﻭﻟﻮﻑ ﺑﺎﳌﺔ………..‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻤﻴﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﻌﻨﺼﺮﻱ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺴﻮﻳﺪ .……..……‬ ‫ﻓﺘﺮﺓ ﺣﻜﻢ ﺍﳌﻤﺎﻟﻴﻚ ……….……….‬‫31‬
  • 15. ‫ﻓﻀﻴﺤﺔ ﺍﻻﺷﺘﺮﺍﻛﻲ ﺍﻟﺪﳝﻘﺮﺍﻃﻲ …………‬ ‫ﺍﻧﺘﺨﺎﺑﺎﺕ ﻋﺎﻡ 8891………….……‬ ‫ﻓﻀﻴﺤﺔ ﺭﻓﻌﺖ ﺍﻟﺴﻴﺪ………………..‬ ‫ﳒﻴﺐ ﳏﻔﻮﻅ ﳝﻨﺢ ﺟﺎﺋﺰﺓ ﻧﻮﺑﻞ………….‬ ‫ﻭﺯﻳﺮ ﺍﳌﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﻳﻌﻠﻢ ﺍﻟﻄﻠﺒﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﻴﺰﺍﻧﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﻟﺔ.…‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺴﻮﻳﺪ ﺗﻘﺪﻡ ﻃﻠﺐ ﺍﻟﻌﻀﻮﻳﺔ ﻟﻼﲢﺎﺩ ﺍﻷﻭﺭﰊ...‬ ‫ﺍﻧﺘﺨﺎﺑﺎﺕ ﻋﺎﻡ 1991……………….‬ ‫ﺍﳊﻜﻮﻣﺔ ﺍﻟﱪﺟﻮﺍﺯﻳﺔ…………………‬ ‫ﺍﻧﺘﺨﺎﺑﺎﺕ ﻋﺎﻡ 4991……………….‬ ‫ﺍﻧﺘﺨﺎﺑﺎﺕ ﻋﺎﻡ 5991 ﻟﻠﱪﳌﺎﻥ ﺍﻷﻭﺭﻭﰊ……‬ ‫ﺗﺼﺮﻳﺢ ﺍﳊﻜﻮﻣﺔ …………………..‬ ‫ﺍﻧﺘﺨﺎﺑﺎﺕ ﻋﺎﻡ 8991……………….‬ ‫ﺣﻜﻮﻣﺔ ﺍﻻﺷﺘﺮﺍﻛﻲ ﺍﻟﺪﳝﻘﺮﺍﻃﻲ…………‬ ‫ﻣﻴﺰﺍﻧﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﻟﺔ……………………..‬ ‫ﺍﻧﻘﺎﺫ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻠﺔ ﺍﻟﺴﻮﻳﺪﻳﺔ………………..‬ ‫ﺩﻭﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﱪﳌﺎﻥ ﻭﺍﻟﻨﺸﻴﺪ ﺍﻟﻮﻃﲏ…………..‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺖ ﺩﺍﺧﻞ ﺍﻟﱪﳌﺎﻥ………………‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺴﻠﻄﺔ ﺍﻟﺴﻮﻳﺪﻳﺔ…………………..‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺪﳝﻘﺮﺍﻃﻴﺔ……………………….‬ ‫ﺣﻘﻮﻕ ﺍﻻﻧﺴﺎﻥ……………………‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺪﻋﻢ ﺍﳌﺎﺩﻱ ﻟﻸﺣﺰﺍﺏ………………‬ ‫ﺍﳊﺰﺏ ﺍﻻﺷﺘﺮﺍﻛﻲ ﺍﻟﺪﳝﻘﺮﺍﻃﻲ………….‬ ‫ﺍﳊﺰﺏ ﺍﻟﻴﺴﺎﺭﻱ ﺍﻟﺸﻴﻮﻋﻲ…………….‬‫41‬
  • 16. ‫ﺣﺰﺏ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﺔ-ﺍﳋﻀﺮ…………………‬ ‫ﺍﳊﺰﺏ ﺍﳌﺴﻴﺤﻲ ﺍﻟﺪﳝﻘﺮﺍﻃﻲ .………….‬ ‫ﺣﺰﺏ ﺍﻷﺟﺎﻧﺐ -ﺍﻟﺴﻮﻳﺪﻳﻦ ﺍﳉﺪﺩ ……...‬ ‫ﺣﺰﺏ ﺍﶈﺎﻓﻈﲔ ﺍﻟﻴﻤﲔ……………….‬ ‫ﺣﺰﺏ ﺍﻟﺸﻌﺐ ﺍﻟﻠﻴﱪﺍﱄ……………….‬ ‫ﺣﺰﺏ ﺍﻟﻮﺳﻂ ….‬ ‫ﺍﻻﻧﺘﺨﺎﺑﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻣﺔ ….………………‬ ‫ﺣﺮﺏ ﺍﻟﺰﻫﻮﺭ…………………….‬ ‫ﺳﻴﺎﺳﺔ ﺍﻟﻄﺮﻳﻖ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻟﺚ………………..‬ ‫ﺍﺟﺮﺍﺀﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺖ ...………………‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻮﺯﺍﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺴﻮﻳﺪﻳﺔ ..……………….‬ ‫ﺍﳌﻠﻮﻙ ………………………….‬ ‫ﺍﳌﺼﺎﺩﺭ…………………………‬‫51‬
  • 17. ‫ﺍﻟﺪﻳ ﺟ ﺔ‬‫ﺍﻟﺴﻮﻳﺪ , ﺑﻠﺪ ﻣﺴﺎﺣﺘﻪ 054 ﺍﻟ ﻛﻴﻠﻮﻣﺘﺮ ﻣﺮﺑﻊ ﻭﻃﻮﻟﻪ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺸﻤﺎﻝ ﺍﱃ ﺍﳉﻨﻮﺏ 4751 ﻛﻴﻠ ﻮ ﻣ ﺘﺮ‬‫ﻭﻳﻌﺪ ﺭﺍﺑﻊ ﺃﻛﱪ ﺩﻭﻟﺔ ﺑﻌﺪ ﺭﻭﺳﻴﺎ ﻭﻓﺮﻧﺴﺎ ﻭﺍﺳﺒﺎﻧﻴﺎ , ﺗﻌﻮﻱ ﻛﻼﺑﻪ ﻋﻨﺪﻣﺎ ﺗﻜﺘﺸ ﺃﺛﺮ ﻭﺭﺍﺋﺤﺔ ﺍﻟﻮﻋ ﻞ‬ ‫ﺍﻟ )‪ (älg‬ﻣﻦ ﺳﻂ ﻏﺎﺑﺎﺗﻪ ﺍﻟﻜﺜﻴﻔﺔ ﻭﺃﺷﺠﺎﺭ ﺍﻟ )‪ ( furu, gran, björk‬ﻭﻫﻨﺎﻙ ﳒﺪ ﺻﺨﻮﺭ ﺍﻟﻜﺮﺍﻧﻴﺖ )‪ (granit‬ﺍﻟ‬‫ﺗﺮﺍﻛﻤﺖ ﺃﺛﺮ ﺍﻟﻔﺘﺮﺓ ﺍﳉﻠﻴﺪﻳﺔ )‪ (istiden‬ﺑﻴﻨﻤﺎ ﺗﺘﺤﻮﻝ ﻏﺎﺑﺎﺗﻪ ﻣﻦ ﺃﻗﺼﻰ ﺍﻟﺸﻤﺎﻝ ﺑﺎﲡﺎ )‪ (polcirkeln‬ﺍﱃ ﺃﺭﺍﺿ ﻲ ﻗﺎﺣﻠ ﺔ‬‫ﻭﺣﺸﺔ ﱂ ﺗﻐﻴﺐ ﺍﻟﺸﻤﺲ ﻓﻴﻬﺎ ﻻ ﻟﻴﻼ ﻭﻻ ﺎﺭﹶﺍ ﻭﻛﻞ ﺷﻲﺀ ﻣﻐﻄﻰ ﺑﻄﺒﻘﺔ ﺛﻠﺠﻴﺔ ﻴﻜﺔ ﻭﳒﺪ ﺣﻴﻮﺍﻧﺎﺗﻪ ﺍﻟﻮﺣﺸﻴﺔ ﻛﺎﻟﺪﺏ ﰲ ﻧ ﻮﻡ‬ ‫ﹶ‬ ‫ﻋﻤﻴﻖ‬‫)ﻧﻮﻡ ﺍﻟﺸﺘﺎﺀ( ﺑﻨﻔﺲ ﺍﻟﻮﻗﺖ ﺗﻌﻮﻡ ﻛﺎﺳﺤﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺜﻠﻮﺝ )‪ (isbrytarna‬ﰲ ﺍﳋﻠﻴﺞ ﺍﻟﺒﻮﺗﲏ )‪ (Bottniska viken‬ﺑﲔ ﺍﻟﺴ ﻮﻳﺪ‬‫ﻭﻓﻨﻠﻨﺪﺍ ﻟﺘﺴﻬﻴﻞ ﺍﳌﻼﺣﺔ ﺑﲔ ﻣﻮﺍﻧ )‪ (Luleå, Umeå, Piteå‬ﻣﻦ ﺃﺟﻞ ﻧﻘﻞ ﺍﻷﺧﺸﺎﺏ ﻭﺍﳌﻌﺎﺩﻥ )‪ (Malm‬ﰲ ﺣ ﲔ‬‫ﳒﺪ ﺣﻴﻮﺍﻧﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺮﻧﺔ )‪ (renarna‬ﺗﺒﺤﺚ ﻋﻦ ﺃﻛﻞ )‪ (lav‬ﻣﻦ ﲢﺖ ﺍﻟﺜﻠﻮﺝ ﻭﻣﺎﻟﻜﻴﻬﺎ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﻣﺮ )‪ (Samerna‬ﺟﺎﻟﺴ ﲔ ﺃﻣ ﺎﻡ‬‫ﻣﻮﺍﻗﺪ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺭ ﻳﺘﻔﺮﺟﻮﻥ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﱪﺍﻣﺞ ﺍﻟﺘﻠﻔﺰﻳﻮﻧﻴﺔ ﻭﻳﺴﺘﺨﺪﻣﻮﻥ ﺍﻷﻧﺘﺮﻧﻴﺖ ﺑﺎﻧﺘﻈﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﺴﻮﺍ ﺍﻟﻔﻀﻮﻟﻴﲔ ﳌﺸﺎﻫﺪﺓ ﺲ ﻭﺳﻂ ﺍﻟﻠﻴ ﻞ‬‫)‪ (midnattssolen‬ﻭﻳﺘﺴﻮﻗﻮﻥ ﺍﳌﻨﺘﻮﺟﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻴﺪﻭﻳﺔ ﻭﻳﺘﻄﻠﻌﻮﻥ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﺳﺎﻃﲑ ﺍﻟﺸﻤﺎﻝ ﺧﺎﺻ ﺔ )‪ (Ragnarök‬ﺍﻟ ﻮﺍﺭﺩﺓ ﰲ‬ ‫ﹶ‬‫ﺍﻻﳒﻴﻞ )‪ , (Harmagedon‬ﺍﻧﻄﺒﺎﻕ ﺍﻟﺴﻤﺎﺀ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻷﺭ ﻭ ﺎﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﺸﺮﻳﺔ ﺍﻟ ﺗﺒﺪﺃ ﻠﻮﻝ ﻓﺼﻞ ﺍﻟﺸﺘﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﺭ ﺛﻼﺙ ﺳﻨﻮﺍﺕ‬‫ﻣﺘﺘﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻧﻌﺪﺍﻡ ﺍﻟﻔﺼﻮﻝ ﺍﻷﺧﺮ ﺗﺘﺒﻌﻬﺎ ﻣﺒﺎﺷﺮﺓ ﺛﻼﺙ ﺳﻨﻮﺍﺕ ﻣﻦ ﺍﳊﺮﻭﺏ ﺍﻟﺪﺍﻣﻴﺔ ﺗﻨﺘﻬﻲ ﻋﻨﺪﻣﺎ ﺗﻠﻬﻢ ﺫﺋﺎ ﻢ ﺍﻟﺸﻤﺲ ﻭﺍﻟﻘﻤ ﺮ‬‫ﻭﺗﻔﻴﺾ ﺍﻟﺒﺤﺎﺭ ﻭﻏﺮﻕ ﺍﻟﺒﺎﺧﺮﺓ ﺍﻟ ﺻﻨﻌﺖ ﻣﻦ ﺃ ﺎﻓﺮ ﺍﳌﻮﺗﻰ ﻓﺠﺄﺓ ﲣﺮﺝ ﻣﻦ ﻭﺳﻂ ﺍﻟﺒﺤﺎﺭ ﺃﻓﻌﻰ ﺿﺨﻤﺔ ﺗﻔﺮﺯ ﻮﻣﻬﺎ ﰲ ﻛ ﻞ‬ ‫ﹶ‬ ‫ﺍﻻﲡﺎﻫﺎﺕ ﻭﻭﺟﺪ ﺍﳍﺔ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺭ ﺍﻧﻔﺴﻬﻢ ﰲ ﺣﺮﺏ ﻣﻊ ﺍﻟﻔﺮﺍﻋﻨﺔ )‪ (jättar‬ﻭﻣﺎﺕ ﺍ ﳍﻪ )‪ (Tor‬ﻭ )‪ (Oden‬ﺳﻘﻄﺖ ﺍﻟﻨﺠﻮﻡ ﺍﻟ‬ ‫ﺧﻠﺨﻠﺖ ﺍﻟﺴﻤﺎﺀ ﻭﺍﻷﺭ .‬ ‫)‪ (Svearnas rike‬ﺍﻟﻠﺬﻳﻦ ﻗﻄﻨﻮﺍ ﺳﻮﺍﺣﻞ )‪ (Mälarens stränder‬ﺍﻟ ﺗﺼﺐ ‪(rinner‬‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺴﻮﻳﺪ ﻫﻮ ﺑﻠﺪ ﺍﻟﺴﻮﻳﺪﻳﲔ‬‫)‪ ut‬ﰲ )‪ (östersjön‬ﺑﻌﺪ ﺫﻭﺑﺎﻥ ﺍﳉﻠﻴﺪ ﻗﺒﻞ ﻋﺸﺮﺓ ﺍﻻﻑ ﺍﻟﺴﻨﲔ ﺣﻴﺚ ﺗﺆﻛﺪ ﺍﻻﻛﺘﺸ ﺎﻓﺎﺕ ﺍﻷﺛﺮﻳ ﺔ ﰲ ﲑﺓ‬‫)‪ (Helgö‬ﻋﻠﻰ ﻭﺟﻮﺩ ﻣﺮﻛﺰ ﲡﺎﺭﻱ ﻳﺆﻛﺪ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﺣﺘﻜﺎﻙ ﺍﻟﺘﺠﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺏ ﻣﻊ )‪ (Svearna‬ﻣﻦ ﺧﻼﻝ ﺍﻟﻌﺜﻮﺭ ﻋﻠ ﻰ‬‫ﻋﻤﻼﺕ ﻋﺮﺑﻴﺔ ﻭﻣﺎ ﺃﻛﺪ ﺃﺑﻦ ﻓﻀﻼﻥ ﻣﺒﻌﻮﺙ ﺍﳋﻠﻴﻔﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺒﺎﺳﻲ ﻫﺎﺭﻭﻥ ﺍﻟﺮﺷﻴﺪ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻛﺘﺐ ﻟﻠﺨﻠﻴﻔﺔ ﻭﻭﺻﻔﻬﻢ ﺑﺄﻧ ﻪ ﱂ‬‫ﻳﺮ ﻣﺜﻞ ﺗﻠﻚ ﺍﻷﺟﺴﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﻨﺸﻄﺔ , ﻃﻮﺍﻝ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﻣﺔ ﻛﺄﺷﺠﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻨﺨﻴﻞ ﺷﻘﺮﺍﺀ ﺍﳋﺪﻭﺩ ﻛﺎﻟﻮﺭﻭﺩ ﻳﺒﻴﻌﻮﻥ ﻧﺴ ﺎﺋﻬﻢ ﺍﻟﻔﺎﺗﻨ ﺔ ﻟﻠﺘﺠ ﺎﺭ‬ ‫ﻭﻳﺘﻔﺮﺟﻮﻥ ﻋﻠﻴﻬﻦ ﻋﻨﺪﻣﺎ ﳝﺎﺭﺳﻦ ﺍﳉﻨﺲ ﻛﺎﳊﻤﲑ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﺋﻬﺔ.‬‫ﺍﻻ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﺴﻮﻳﺪ ﻫﻮ ﺑﻠﺪ ﺻﻐﲑ , ﻳﻌﺮﻑ ﻴﻊ ﺳﻜﺎﻧﻪ ﺑﻌﻀﻬﻢ ﺍﻟﺒﻌﺾ , ﻟﻜﻦ ﱂ ﻳﺘﻢ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺎﺭﻑ ﻣﻦ ﺧ ﻼﻝ‬‫ﺍﻟﻜﺮﻡ ﻭﺍﻟﺼﺪﺍﻗﺔ ﺍﳊﻤﻴﻤﺔ ﺑﲔ ﺍﻟﺴﻮﻳﺪﻳﲔ ﻭﺍ ﺎ ﻣﻦ ﺧﻼﻝ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﻘﻞ ﺑﲔ ﺘﻠ ﻣﺮﺍﻛﺰ ﺍﻟﺴﻠﻄﺔ ﺃﻭ ﻳﻌﻤﻠ ﻮﻥ‬‫ﻼﻝ‬ ‫ﺿﻤﻦ ﺘﻠ ﺍﻟﻮ ﺎﺋ .ﻧﺴﺘﻄﻴﻊ ﺃﻥ ﻧﺼ ﺍﻟﺴﻮﻳﺪ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺷ ﻜﻞ ﻛﺮﺓ ﺃﺭﺿﻴﺔ ﳑﻠﻮﺀﺓ ﺑﺎﻟﻨﻮﺍﻓﺬ ﻭﻋﻨﺪﻣﺎ ﻧﻨﻈﺮ ﻣﻦ ﺧ‬ ‫-1-‬
  • 18. ‫ﺃﺣﺪ ﻧﻮﺍﻓ ﺬﻫﺎ ﻧﺮ ﺍﳉﻨﺮﺍﻻﺕ ﻭ ﺃﺻﺤﺎﺏ ﺭ ﻭﺱ ﺍﻷﻣ ﻮﺍﻝ )‪ (Wallenbeg‬ﻭﻧﺮ ﺃﺻﺤ ﺎﺏ ﺍﻟﻌ ﺮﺵ , ﺍﻟﺴﻴﺎﺳ ﻴﲔ ,‬ ‫ﺍﻻﺩﺍﺭﻳﲔ ﺍﻟﺼﺤﻔﻴﲔ ﻭﻣﺎﻟ ﻜﻲ ﺍﻷﺳﻬﻢ ) ‪.(aktieägarna‬‬‫ﺍﻟﺸﺨﺼﻴﺔ ) ‪ (Stig Ericsson‬ﻫﻮ ﺃﺣﺪ ﺍﻟﺴﻮﻳﺪﻳﻦ ﺍﻟﺬﻳﻦ ﻛﺎﻧﻮﺍ ﻳﻌﻤﻠﻮﻥ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻘﻴﺎﺩﺓ ﺍﻟﻌﺴﻜﺮﻳﺔ ﻭﰲ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺵ ﻭﻛﺎﻥ ﻟﻪ ﺣﻀ ﻮﺭ ﰲ‬‫ﺍﻟﺼﺤﺎﻓﺔ ﻭﻳﻘﺮﺭ ﰲ ﺍﺩﺍﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻛﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻼﻗﺔ ﻓﻨﺮﺍ ﻳﻀ ﻣﻦ ﺧﻼﻝ ﻛﻞ ﻧﻮﺍﻓﺬ ﺍﻟﻜﺮﺓ ﺍﻷﺭﺿﻴﺔ ﺒﺚ ﻛﱪﺕ ﻫﺬ ﺍﻟﺸ ﺨﺼﻴﺔ‬‫ﻭﺭﻏﻢ ﺗﻘﺎﻋﺪ ﻣﻦ ﺍﺣﺪ ﻣﻬﺎﻣﻪ ﺍﻟﻌﺴﻜﺮﻳﺔ ﺃﺳﺘﻤﺮ ﰲ ﻣﻬﺎﻣﻪ ﻣﻊ ﺍﳌﻠﻚ ) ‪ (Gustav VI Adolf‬ﻭﰲ ﻧﻔﺲ ﺍﻟﻮﻗﺖ ﻋﻀ ﻮﺍ ﰲ‬‫ﺘﻠ ﺍﳍﻴﺌﺎﺕ ﺍﻻﺩﺍﺭﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﺑﻌﺔ ﻟﺒﻌﺾ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻛﺎﺕ ﻭﺍﻟﺒﻨﻮﻙ ﻣﻨﻬﺎ )‪ (Enskilda Banken‬ﻭﻛ ﺎﻥ ﻣﺴ ﺆﻭﻻ ﻋ ﻦ ﺟﺮﻳ ﺪﺓ‬ ‫ﹶ‬ ‫)‪ (Dagbladet‬ﳊﺪ ﻋﺎﻡ 7691.‬‫ﺍﳉﻤﻴﻊ ﻳﻌﺮﻑ ﺍﻟﺸﺨﺼﻴﺔ )‪ (Wallenberg‬ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻳﻠﻘﺐ ﺑ ) ‪ ( finansvalpen‬ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻛﺎﻥ ﻳﺸﻐﻞ ﻋﺪﺓ ﻣﻨﺎﺻﺐ ﻣﻨﻬﺎ ﻣﺪﻳ ﺮ‬‫ﺍﻟﺒﻨﻮﻙ ﺍﻻﺳﻜﻨﺪﻧﺎﻓﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﳌﺴﺆﻭﻝ ﻋﻦ ﺷﺮﻛﺔ ﺻﻨﺎﻋﺔ ﺍﻟﺴﻴﺎﺭﺍﺕ )‪ (Saab-Scania‬ﻭﺃﺣﺪ ﺍﻟﺸﺨﺼﻴﺎﺕ ﺍﻟ ﺗﻘ ﺮ‪r‬ﺭ ﰲ ﺷ ﺮﻛﺔ‬‫ﺍﻟﺘﺄﻣﲔ )‪ (Skandia‬ﻣﺴﺆﻭﻝ ﺷﺮﻛﺔ )‪ (ASEA‬ﻭﻋﻨﺪﻣﺎ ﻧﻮﺭﻕ ﻛﺘﻠﻮﻙ ﺍﻻ ﺎﺀ ﳒﺪ ﺃﻳﻀﺎ ) ‪ (Gyllenhammar‬ﻣﺴ ﺆﻭﻻ‬‫ﹶ‬ ‫ﹶ‬ ‫ﻛﺒﲑﹶﺍ ﻭﻳﻘﺮﺭ ﻣﻊ ﺃﺑﻴﻪ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻛﺎﻥ ﻣﺪﻳﺮﹶﺍ ﻋﺎﻣﺎ ﻟﺪ ﺷﺮﻛﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺄﻣﲔ )‪ (Skandia‬ﺍﻟ ﺗﺘﻜﻮﻥ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻛﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﹶ‬ ‫)‪ (,Svea, öresund, Skåne‬ﺑﺎﻻﺿﺎﻓﺔ ﺍﱃ ﺷﺮﻛﺔ ) ‪ ( Thule‬ﺍﻟ ﻛﺎﻥ ﻣﻦ ﺑﲔ ﺍﳌﺴﻴﻄﺮﻳﻦ ﻋﻠﻴﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﻋﺎﺋﻠﺔ ﺭﺋﻴﺲ ﺍﻟﻮﺯﺭﺍﺀ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﺑﻖ )‪.(Olof Palme‬‬ ‫ﳌﺎ ﺭﻥ ﺟﺮﺱ ﺍﳍﺎﺗ ﺫﺍﺕ ﻳﻮﻡ ﺃﺟﺎﺏ )‪ (Gyllenhammar‬ﻭﺍﺫﺍ ﺑ )‪ (Wallenberg‬ﻳﺴﻠﻢ ﺑﻠﻄ ﻋﱪ ﺟ ﻬﺎﺯ ﺍﳍ ﺎﺗ‬ ‫ﻭﻳﻌﺮﻑ ﻧﻔﺴﻪ - ‪Goddag , det är J.Wallenberg‬‬ ‫‪ - Det måste vare fel‬ﺃﺟﺎﺏ )‪.(Gyllenhammar‬‬ ‫-‪ -Det avgör jag själv‬ﺃﺟﺎﺏ )‪ (Wallenberg‬ﻭﺍﺳﺘﻤﺮ ﻳﺘﺴﺎﺀﻝ‬ ‫)‪ ( är det här Gyllenhammare, junior‬ﻫﻞ ﺍﻧﺘﻢ )‪ (Gyllenhammar‬ﺍﻷﺻﻐﺮ‬ ‫- ﻧﻌﻢ ﺃﺟﺎﺏ )‪(Gyllenhammar‬‬‫‪ Då är det precis rätt‬ﺃﻛﺪ )‪ (Wallenberg‬ﻭﺃﺧﺬ ﻳﺴﺄﻝ ﻓﻴﻤﺎ ﺍﺫﺍ ﻳﺮﻏﺐ )‪ (Gyllenhammar‬ﺃﻥ ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﳏﺎﺳ ﺐ ﰲ‬ ‫ﺷﺮﻛﺔ ﺍﳌﻨﺎﺟﻢ ﻟﻠﻤﻌﺎﺩﻥ )‪.(Stora Kopparberg‬‬‫ﻟﻜﻦ ﺣﻀﺮﺗﻜﻢ ﺗﻌﺮﻑ ﺑﺄﻧﲏ ﺃﻓﺘﻘﺮ ﺍﱃ ﺧﱪﺓ ﰲ ﻫ ﺬﺍ ﺍ‪ ‬ﺎﻝ ﻭﺣ ﻻ ﺃﻋ ﺮﻑ ﻛﻴﻔﻴ ﺔ ﺃﺩﺍﺀ ﺗﻠ ﻚ ﺍﳌﻬﻤ ﺔ , ﺃﺟ ﺎﺏ‬ ‫)‪.(Gyllenhammar‬‬‫ﺃﻧﺎ ﺃﻗﺮﺭ ﻓﻴﻤﺎ ﺍﺫﺍ ﺃﻧﺖ ﻣﻨﺎﺳ ﺐ ﻟﻠﻮ ﻴﻔ ﺔ ﺃﻡ ﻻ ) ‪ ( jag avgör om ni är lämplig för jobbet‬ﻫﻜ ﺬﺍ ﺭﺩ‬ ‫) ‪ ( Wallenberg‬ﻭﺃﻛﺪ ﻣﺮﺓ ﺃﺧﺮ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺳﺆﺍﻟﻪ ﻫﻞ ﺍﳉﻮﺍﺏ ﻧﻌﻢ ﺃﻡ ﻻ‬ ‫) ‪. ( är svaret ja eller nej‬‬‫ﻭﺑﻌﺪ ﺃﻗﻞ ﻣﻦ ﻧﺼ ﻋﺎﻡ ﻣﻦ ﳑﺎﺭﺳﺔ ﳌﻬﻨﺔ ﺍﶈﺎﺳﺒﺔ ﰲ ﺷﺮﻛﺔ ﺍﳌﻨﺎﺟﻢ ﺃﺳﺘﻠﻢ )‪ (Gyllenhammar‬ﻭﺳﻂ ﻋﺎﻡ 0791 ﻣﻜﺎﳌ ﺔ‬‫ﺍﺧﺮ ﻭﻣﻬﻤﺔ ﻣﻦ )‪ (Hartmann‬ﺃﺣﺪ ﺍﳌﺴﺆﻭﻟﲔ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﺑﻘﲔ ﻟﺸﺮﻛﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺄﻣﲔ )‪ (Skandia‬ﻭﻣﺴﺆﻻ ﻛﺒ ﲑﹶﺍ ﰲ )‪(Göteborg‬‬ ‫ﹶ‬ ‫ﻭﺷﺮﻛﺔ )‪ (Volvo‬ﻭﺍﳌﺴﺆﻭﻝ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺷﺮﻛﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﲑﺓ )‪ (Pripps‬ﻭﺣ ﻣﺴﺆﻭﻝ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺒﻨﻚ ﺍﻻﺳﻜﻨﺪﻧﺎﰲ , ﻳﻄﻠﺐ ﻣﻨﻪ ﺍﺩﺍﺭﺓ ﺷﺮﻛﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺴﻴﺎﺭﺍﺕ )‪ (Volvo‬ﰲ )‪.(Göteborg‬‬ ‫-2-‬
  • 19. ‫ﻟﻜﻦ )‪ ( Gyllenhammar‬ﻻ ﻳﻔﻘﻪ ﺷﻴ ﻻ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺘﻘﻨﻴﺔ ﻭﺣ ﻻ ﻳﻮﺟﺪ ﻟﺪﻳﻪ ﺍﳌﺎﻡ ﺣﻮﻝ ﺷﺮﻛﺔ )‪ (Volvo‬ﻓﻬﻮ ﻏﺮﻳ ﺐ ﻋ ﻦ‬‫ﺍﻟﺼﻨﺎﻋﺔ ﻓﻜﺎﻥ ﺃﻳﻀﺎ ﻣﻦ ﺍﳌﻮ ﻔﲔ ﺍﻟﺬﻳﻦ ﻛﺎﻥ ﳚﻠﺲ ﻣﻨﻌﺰﻻ ﻛﺒﺎﻗﻲ ﺍﳌﻮ ﻔﲔ ﺍ ﺧﺮﻳﻦ ﰲ ﻣﺎﻳﺴﻤﻰ )‪ (glasburar‬ﺩﻭﻥ ﺍﻻﺗﺼﺎﻝ‬ ‫ﹶ‬ ‫ﹶ‬ ‫ﺑﺎ ﺧﺮﻳﻦ ﻭﻫﻜﺬﺍ ﺃﺻﺒﺢ )‪ ( Gyllenhammar‬ﻳﻘﺮﺭ ﰲ ﺷﺆﻭﻥ ﺷﺮﻛﺔ )‪ (Atlas Copco‬ﻭﺷ ﺮﻛﺔ ﺍﳌﻌ ﺎﺩﻥ ‪(Stora‬‬‫)‪ Kopparberg‬ﻟﻜﻦ ﻣﺎ ﻛﺎﻧﺖ ﺗﻠﻚ ﺍﳌﻜﺎﳌﺎﺕ ﻣﻔﺎﺟﺌﺔ ﺑﺎﻟﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﺍﱃ )‪ (Gyllenhammar‬ﻷﻥ ﻋﻤﻪ )‪ (Engellau‬ﻫ ﻮ ﰲ‬‫ﺍﳊﻘﻴﻘﺔ ﻣﺴﺆﻭﻝ ﺷﺮﻛﺔ )‪ (Volvo‬ﰲ )‪ (Göteborg‬ﻴﺚ ﻛﱪﺕ ﺷ ﺨﺼﻴﺔ )‪ (Gyllenhammar‬ﻭﺑ ﺪﺃ ﻳﺪﺧ ﻞ ﰲ‬‫ﻣﺸﺎﺭﻳﻊ ﺿﺨﻤﺔ ﻭﻳﺘﻜﻠﻢ ﻣﺒﺎﺷﺮﺓ ﻣﻊ ﺭ ﺳﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﻮﺯﺭﺍﺀ ﻭﻛﺒﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﺴﻴﺎﺳﻴﲔ ﻭﻛﺎﻧﺖ ﺑﺪﺍﻳﺔ ﻫﺬ ﺍﳌﺸﺎﺭﻳﻊ , ﺍﳌﺸ ﺮﻭﻉ‬‫ﺍﻟﻨﺮﻭﳚﻲ , ﻣﻦ ﺃﺟﻞ ﺟﻌﻞ ﺍﻟﻨﺮﻭﻳﺞ ﺑﻠﺪ ﺻﻨﺎﻋﻲ ﻭﺍﻟﺴﻮﻳﺪ ﺑﻠﺪ ﻧﻔﻄﻲ , ﻭﻫﻜﺬﺍ ﻧﺮﺍ ﻳﻀﻲﺀ ﻣﻦ ﺧﻼﻝ ﻛﻞ ﻧﻮﺍﻓﺬ ﺍﻟﻜﺮﺓ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﺭﺿﻴﺔ .‬‫ﺷﻜﻠﺖ ﺍﳊﻜﻮﻣﺔ ﺍﻟﻨﺮﻭﳚﻴﺔ ﻣﺒﺎﺷﺮﺓ ﺑﻌﺜﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﺴﺘﻮ ﻋﺎﻝ ﺗﺮﺃﺳﻬﺎ ﺍﶈﺎﻣﻲ ﻭﻭﺯﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﺪﻓ ﺎﻉ ‪ Christian Hauge‬ﻭﺑ ﺪﺃﺕ‬ ‫ﹶ‬‫ﺍﳊﻜﻮﻣﺔ ﺍﻟﱪﺟﻮﺍﺯﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﺴﻮﻳﺪﻳﺔ , ﻭﺭﺋﻴﺲ ﺍﻟﻮﺯﺭﺍﺀ )‪ , (Fälldin‬ﰲ ﺑﺪﺍﻳﺔ ﻋﺎﻡ 8791 ﺍﻫﺘﻤﺎﻣﻬﺎ ﻭﺍﻧﺸﻐﺎﳍﺎ ﺑﺎﳌﺸﺮﻭﻉ ﺧﺎﺻ ﺔ ﺃﻥ‬ ‫ﹶ‬‫ﻣﺴﺄﻟﺔ ﺍﻟﻄﺎﻗﺔ ﻭﻟﺪﺕ ﺻﻌﻮﺑﺎﺕ ﺳﻴﺎﺳﻴﺔ ﻛﺒﲑﺓ ﺩﺍﺧﻞ ﺍﻟﺴﻮﻳﺪ ﻭﺃﻥ ﻭﺟﻮﺩ ﻮﻳﻞ ﻛﺎﰲ ﻟﻠﻄﺎﻗﺔ ﻫﻮ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﺷﺠﻊ ﺭﺋﻴ ﺲ ﺍﻟ ﻮﺯﺭﺍﺀ‬‫)‪ (Fälldin‬ﺃﻥ ﻳﺘﺼﻞ ﺑﺮﺋﻴﺲ ﺍﻟﻮﺯﺭﺍﺀ ﺍﻟﻨﺮﻭﳚﻲ )‪ (Odvar Nordli‬ﻷﻥ ﻣﺜﻞ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﳌﺸﺮﻭﻉ ﻳﺘﻄﻠﺐ ﺍﺗﻔﺎﻗﻴ ﺔ ﻣﺒﺎﺷ ﺮﺓ ﺑ ﲔ‬ ‫ﺍﳊﻜﻮﻣﺘﲔ ﻭﻳﺘﻄﻠﺐ ﺃﻳﻀﺎ ﺗﻐﻴﲑ ﻗﺎﻧﻮﻥ ﺍﻟﻀﺮﺍﺋﺐ ﻭﻣﻦ ﻣﻌﺮﻓﺔ ﻭﺟﻬﺔ ﻧﻈﺮ ﺍﳌﻌﺎﺭﺿﺔ ﺍﻟﺴﻮﻳﺪﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻛ ﺎﻥ ﻳﻘﻮﺩﻫ ﺎ ‪(Olof‬‬ ‫ﹶ‬ ‫)‪. Palme‬‬‫ﻟﻘﺪ ﻛﺎﻥ )‪ (Olof Palme‬ﰲ ﺫﻟﻚ ﺍﻟﻮﻗﺖ ﰲ ﺿﻊ ﻛﺌﻴﺐ ﻧﺘﻴﺠﺔ ﻫﺰﳝﺔ ﺣﺰﺑﻪ ﰲ ﺍﻻﻧﺘﺨﺎﺑﺎﺕ ﻭﻓﻘﺪﺍﻧﻪ ﻣﻨﺼ ﺐ‬‫ﺭﺋﻴﺲ ﺍﻟﻮﺯﺭﺍﺀ ﻭﻫﻮ ﺍﻟﺸﻴ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﱂ ﻳﻬﻀﻤﻪ ﺑﻌﺪ , ﺣﻴﺚ ﻛﺎﻥ ﻗﻠﻘﹶﺎ ﻭﺣﺰﻳﻨﹶﺎ ﻷﻧﻪ ﱂ ﳝﻠ ﻚ ﻧﻔ ﺲ ﺍﻟﻘ ﺪﺭﺓ‬‫ﺍﻟﺴﻴﺎﺳﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﺑﻘﺔ ﻋﻨﺪﻣﺎ ﻛﺎﻥ ﻳﺘﺮﺃﺱ ﺣﻜﻮﻣﺔ ﺗﺴﺘﻄﻴﻊ ﺍﲣﺎﺫ ﻗﺮﺍﺭ ﺎﻋﻲ ﻭﻓﻌﺎﻝ ﻟﻜﻦ ﺭﻏﻢ ﺫﻟﻚ ﺃﻛ ﺪ‬‫ﻋﻠﻰ ﺩﻋﻤﻪ ﻟﻠﻤﺸﺮﻭﻉ ﻭﺳﻮﻑ ﻳﻌﻤﻞ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺗﺸﺠﻴﻌﻪ ﺣ ﰲ ﺣﺎﻟﺔ ﳎﻴﺌﻪ ﻟﻠﺴﻠﻄﺔ ﻣﺮﺓ ﺛﺎﻧﻴﺔ ﻭﻫﻮ ﺍﻟﺸ ﻲﺀ‬‫ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﺷﺠﻊ )‪ (Gyllenhammar‬ﺍﻻﺳﺘﻤﺮﺍﺭ ﰲ ﺍﳌﺸﺮﻭﻉ ﻭﺍﻻﻋﻼﻥ ﻋﻦ ﻧﻘﻞ ﺷﺮﻛﺔ ﺍﻟﺴﻴﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﱃ ﺍﻟ ﻨﺮﻭﻳﺞ‬‫ﻟﻴﺆﻛﺪ ﻟﻠﻨﺮﻭﳚﻴﲔ ﻋﻦ ﺭﻏﺒﺔ ﻭﺟﺪﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﺴﻮﻳﺪﻳﲔ ﰲ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍ‪‬ﺎﻝ . ﻟﻜﻦ ﻋﻠﻰ )‪ (Gyllenhammar‬ﺃﻳﻀﺎ ﺍﻗﻨ ﺎﻉ‬ ‫ﹶ‬‫ﺷﻌﺒﻪ ﻭﺍﳌﺴﺆﻭﻟﲔ ﺍﻟﺴﻮﻳﺪﻳﻦ ﻭﻣﺴﺎﻋﺪﻳﻪ ﺑﺄﻥ ﻧﻘﻞ ﺍﳌﻘﺮ ﺍﻟﺮﺋﻴﺴﻲ ﻟﺸﺮﻛﺔ )‪ (Volvo‬ﺍﱃ ﺍﻟﻨﺮﻭﻳﺞ ﻫﻮ ﻟﻴﺲ ﺍﻷﻫ ﻢ‬ ‫ﻭﺍ ﺎ ﺍﺟﺮﺍﺀ‬ ‫-3-‬
  • 20. ‫ﺮﺍﺭﺍ‬ ‫ﻃﺒﻴﻌﻲ ﻷﺟﻞ ﺍﳌﺮﺍﻫﻨﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻨﺮﻭﻳﺞ ﻭﺟﻌﻠﻪ ﻳﺘﻄﻮﺭ ﺻﻨﺎﻋﻴﺎ ﻛﺎﻟﺴﻮﻳﺪ ﺭﻏﻢ ﺃﻧﻪ ﻳﺴﺒﺐ ﺃﺿ‬ ‫ﹶ‬ ‫ﺘﻤﺮﺍﺭ ﺷ ﺮﻛﺔ )‪(Volvo‬‬ ‫ﻟﺸﺮﻛﺔ )‪ . (Volvo‬ﺃﻥ ﻋﺮ ﺍﳌﻮﺩﻳﻞ ﺍﳉﺪﻳﺪ ﻟﺴﻴﺎﺭﺓ )‪ (Volvo‬ﻭﺍﺳ‬‫ﺍﳌﻨﺎﻓﺴﺔ ﰲ ﺍﻻﺳﻮﺍﻕ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﳌﻴﺔ ﻳﺘﻄﻠﺐ ﺭ ﻭﺱ ﺃﻣﻮﺍﻝ ﺿﺨﻤﺔ ﻭﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻛﺔ ﺗﻔﺘﻘﺮ ﺍﱃ ﻫﺬ ﺍﻷﻣ ﻮﺍﻝ‬‫ﻭﱂ ﳚﺪ ﻫﻨﺎﻙ ﻣﻦ ﻳﺰﻭﺩﻫﺎ ﺑﺘﻠﻚ ﺍﻷﻣﻮﺍﻝ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻮﻗﺖ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻳﺘﻄﻠﺐ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺴﻮﻳﺪ ﺍ‪‬ﻲﺀ ﺑ ﺎﳌﻮﺩﻳﻞ‬ ‫ﺍﳉﺪﻳﺪ ﻭﻛﺎﻥ ﺍﳊﻞ ﺍﻟﻮﺣﻴﺪ ﻫﻮ ﻣﺘﺎﺑﻌﺔ ﺍﻻﺗﻔﺎﻗﻴﺔ ﻣﻊ ﺍﻟﻨﺮﻭﻳﺞ ﺍﻟ ﺳﻮﻑ ﺗﺪﻓﻊ 057 ﻣﻠﻴﻮﻥ ﻛﺮﻭﻥ‬‫ﻣﺒﺎﺷﺮﺓ ﺍﱃ ﺷﺮﻛﺔ )‪ (Volvo‬ﺃﻱ ﻣﺎ ﻳﻌﺎﺩﻝ % 04 ﻣﻦ ﺃﺳﻬﻢ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻛﺔ ﻭﻫﻲ ﻣﻦ ﻣﺼﻠﺤﺔ ﺍﻟﺴ ﻮﻳﺪ‬‫ﺍﻟ ﲢﺼﻞ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺣﺼﺔ ﻛﺒﲑﺓ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻨﻔﻂ ﻭﺗﺼﺒﺢ )‪ (Volvo‬ﺃﻳﻀﺎ ﺷﺮﻛﺔ ﻧﻔﻄﻴﺔ ﻛﺒﲑﺓ ﺗﺴ ﺎﻫﻢ ﰲ‬ ‫ﹶ‬ ‫ﺍﻧﺘﺎﺝ ﺍﻟﻨﻔﻂ ﻣﺴﺘﻘﺒﻼ ﺩﻭﻥ ﺃﻥ ﺗﻘﺪﻡ ﻻ ﻣﻮﺍﺭﺩ ﻭﻻ ﻣﺆﻫﻼﺕ.‬ ‫ﹶ‬‫ﺃﻥ ﻓﺘﺮﺓ ﺍﳒﺎﺯ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﳌﺸﺮﻭﻉ ﻫﻲ ﻃﻮﻳﻠﺔ ﺟﺪﹶﺍ ﻭﻣﻠﻴﺌﺔ ﺑﺎﻟﺼﻌﻮﺑ ﺎﺕ ﻭﺍﳌﺸ ﺎﺣﻨﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺴﻴﺎﺳ ﻴﺔ‬‫ﺑﺎﻻﺿﺎﻓﺔ ﺍﱃ ﻣﺎ ﻳﺮﺍﻭﺩ ﺍﻟﺴﻮﻳﺪﻳﻦ ﻣﻦ ﻗﻠﻖ ﺣﻮﻝ ﻣﺴﺘﻘﺒﻞ ﺷﺮﻛﺘﻬﻢ , )‪ , (Volvo‬ﻭﻫ ﻞ ﳝﻜ ﻦ‬‫ﺃﻋﺎﺩ ﺎ ﺍﱃ ﻭﺿﻌﻬﺎ ﺍﻟﻄﺒﻴﻌﻲ ﰲ ﺣﺎﻟﺔ ﻓﺸﻞ ﺍﳌﺸﺮﻭﻉ , ﻭ ﻫﻞ ﺃﻥ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻨﺮﻭﻳﺞ ﻛﻄﺮﻑ ﺻﺤﻴﺢ‬‫ﻭﻣﺎ ﻫﻲ ﻣﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻨﺮﻭﳚﻴﲔ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﺼﻨﺎﻋﺔ ﻭﻋﻠﻰ )‪ (Gyllenhammar‬ﺍﻻﺟﺎﺑﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻛﻞ ﺗﻠ ﻚ‬‫ﺍﻷﺳﺌﻠﺔ ﻭﺗﱪﻳﺮ ﺍﻗﻨﺎﻉ ﺍﻟﻜﻞ ﺑﺄﻥ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﳌﺸﺮﻭﻉ ﻫﻮ ﺻﺤﻴﺢ ﻭﻣﻔﻴﺪ ﻟﻠﺴﻮﻳﺪ ﻭﻫﻜﺬﺍ ﺍﲣ ﺬﺕ‬‫ﻤﻰ )-‪(principöverenskommelse-letter of intent‬‬ ‫ﺮﻭﻉ ﻣﺎﻳﺴ‬ ‫ﺍﳋﻄ ﻮﺓ ﺍﻻﻭﱃ ﻟﻠﻤﺸ‬‫ﻭﺃﺧﺬ)‪ (Gyllenhammar‬ﻳﺴﺘﻌﻴﺪ ﺍﻧﻔﺎﺳﻪ ﻭﻳﺘﻈﺎﻫﺮ ﺑﻨﺠﺎ ﺍﳌﺸﺮﻭﻉ ﺧﺎﺻﺔ ﺃﻧﻪ ﻓﺸﻞ ﺳ ﺎﺑﻘﺎ ﰲ‬ ‫ﹶ‬ ‫ﹶ‬‫ﳏﺎﻭﻟﺔ ﺩﻣﺞ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻛﺎﺕ )‪ (Volvo- Saab-Scania‬ﻣﻊ ﺑﻌﻀﻬﺎ .ﻭﻫﻜ ﺬﺍ ﺍﻧﺸ ﻐﻞ ﺭ ﺳ ﺎﺀ ﻭﺯﺭﺍﺀ‬‫ﺍﻟﺪﻭﻟﺘﲔ ﻭﺍﺷﺨﺎ ﻋﺪﻳﺪﻳﻦ ﺫﻭ ﻣﺴﺘﻮ ﻋﺎﱄ ﻟﻼﻋﻼﻥ ﺭ ﻴﺎ ﻋﻦ ﳏﺘﻮ ﺍﳌﺸ ﺮﻭﻉ -ﺷ ﺮﺍﺀ‬ ‫ﹶ‬‫ﺍﻟﻨﺮﻭﻳﺞ 04 ﺑﺎﳌﺌﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺷﺮﻛﺔ )‪ ( Volvo‬ﲟﺒﻠ 057 ﻣﻠﻴﻮﻥ ﻛﺮﻭﻥ ﺷﺮ ﺃﻥ ﺗﺘﻨﺎﺯﻝ ﺍﻟﻨﺮﻭﻳﺞ ﻋ ﻦ‬ ‫ﺃﺭﺑﺎ ﺍﻷﺳﻬﻢ ﳌﺪﺓ ﺴﺔ ﺳﻨﻮﺍﺕ.‬ ‫- ﺣﻖ ﺍﻟﺴﻮﻳﺪ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﻘﻴﺐ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﻨﻔﻂ ﻭﺍﻟﻐﺎﺯ ﰲ ﺛﻼﺙ ﺣﻘﻮﻝ )‪ (fällt i Nordsjön‬ﻭﺿﻤﺎﻥ ﺣﻖ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺴﻮﻳﺪ ﰲ ﺷﺮﺍﺀ ﻛﻤﻴﺔ ﻣﻌﻴﻨﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻨﻔﻂ ﺍﳋﺎﻡ )‪. (råolja‬‬‫- ﺗﻀﻤﻦ ﺍﻟﺴﻮﻳﺪ ﺗﻄﻮﺭ ﺻﻨﺎﻋﻲ ﻟﻠﺴﻴﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻨﺮﻭﻳﺞ ﻭﺗﻨﻘﻞ ﺍﳌﻘﺮ ﺍﻟﺮﺋﻴﺴﻲ ﻟﺸﺮﻛﺔ ﺍﻟﺴ ﻴﺎﺭﺍﺕ‬ ‫)‪ (Volvo Penta‬ﻣﻦ ﻳﺘﺒﻮﺭﻱ ﺍﱃ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﺻﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﻨﺮﻭﳚﻴﺔ , ﺍﻭﺳﻠﻮﺍ .‬
  • 21. ‫ﻫﺬ ﻫﻲ ﺍﻟﻨﻘﺎ ﺍﻟﺮﺋﻴﺴﻴﺔ ﺍﻟ ﺗﻀﻤﻨﺘﻬﺎ )‪ (letter of intent‬ﻭﻳﻘﻮﻡ )‪ (Gyllenhammar‬ﺑﺎﻻﺗﺼ ﺎﻝ‬‫ﻣﺒﺎﺷﺮﺓ ﺑﺮﺋﻴﺲ ﺍﻟﻮﺯﺭﺍﺀ ﺍﻟﻨﺮﻭﳚﻲ )‪ (Nordli‬ﻭﺭﺋﻴﺲ ﺍﻟﻮﺯﺭﺍﺀ ﺍﻟﺴﻮﻳﺪﻱ )‪ (Fälldin‬ﻟﻴﻌﻠﻤﻬﻢ ﺑﻨﺘ ﺎﺋﺞ‬ ‫ﹶ‬ ‫ﻣﺆ ﺮ ﺍﺳﺘﻜﻬﻮﱂ ﻭ ﺍﻭﺳﻠﻮﺍ.‬‫ﺑﺪﺃ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻀﲑ ﳌﺆ ﺮ ﺧﺎ ﺑﺎﻟﺴﻮﻳﺪﻳﲔ ﻟﺘﺒﻠﻴﻐﻬﻢ ﺑﺎﳌﺸﺮﻭﻉ ﻭﻫﺬﺍ ﺃﻳﻀﺎ ﻳﺘﻄﻠﺐ ﻣﺆ ﺮ ﺻﺤﻔ ﻲ ,‬ ‫ﹶ‬‫ﻣﻘﺎﺑﻼﺕ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺮﺍﺩﻳﻮﺍ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻠﻔﺰﻳﻮﻥ ﻭﻋﻠﻰ )‪ (Gyllenhammar‬ﺃﻥ ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﻣﺴﺘﻌﺪﹶﺍ ﻟﻼﺟﺎﺑﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﺳﺌﻠﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺼﺤﻔﻴﲔ ﻭﺍﻗﻨﺎﻉ ﺍﻟﻜﻞ.‬‫ﺃﻥ ﺩﺧﻮﻝ ﺍﻟﺴﻮﻳﺪ ﰲ ﻗﻄﺎﻉ ﺍﻟﻨﻔﻂ ﺍﻟﺪﻳﻨﺎﻣﻴﻜﻲ ﻭﺑﻨﻔﺲ ﺍﻟﻮﻗﺖ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﻤﺮﺍﺭ ﰲ ﺻﻨﺎﻋﺔ ﺍﻟﺴ ﻴﺎﺭﺍﺕ‬‫ﻭﺗﻄﻮﻳﺮ ﺍﳌﻮﺩﻳﻞ ﺍﳉﺪﻳﺪ ) 047 ,067 ,‪ (Volvo‬ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﺧﻄﻂ ﻟﻪ ﺍﻟﺴﻮﻳﺪﻳﻦ ﰲ ﻏﺎﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﺴﺮﻳﺔ ﻭﺍﺳﺘﻐﻼﻝ‬ ‫ﻣﺎﻳﺄﱐ ﻣﻦ ﺍﳌﺸﺮﻭﻉ ﺍﻟﻨﺮﻭﳚﻲ ﻟﺘﻤﻮﻳﻞ ﺍﻧﺘﺎﺝ ﻫﺬ ﺍﳌﻮﺩﻳﻼﺕ ﻫﻮ ﻣﺎ ﻄﻂ ﻟﻪ ﺍﻟﺴﻮﻳﺪﻳﻦ .‬‫ﻏﲑ ﺍﻧﻪ ﻻﺗﺰﺍﻝ ﻫﻨﺎﻙ ﺍﻧﺘﻘﺎﺩﺍﺕ ﺿﺪ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﳌﺸﺮﻭﻉ ﳊﺪ ﺍ ﻥ ﻟﻜﻦ ﺍﺳﺘﻤﺮ )‪ (Gyllenhammar‬ﻳﻌﺘﻤﺪ‬‫ﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﺆﻳﺪﻳﻪ ﺧﺎﺻﺔ ﻋﻤﻪ )‪ (Gunnar Engellan‬ﺍﳌﺴﺆﻭﻝ ﺍﻟﻜﺒﲑ ﰲ ﺷﺮﻛﺔ )‪ (Volvo‬ﻭﺑﻌﺪ ﺩﺭﺍﺳﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﹶ‬‫ﻭﻣﻨﺎﻗﺸﺎﺕ ﺣﺎﺩﺓ ﻭﻣﻜﺜﻔﺔ ﻗﺮﺭ ﻋﺮ ﺍﳌﻮﺩﻳﻞ ﺍﳉﺪﻳﺪ ﰲ )‪ (Torslanda‬ﻓﻘﻂ ‪‬ﻤﻮﻋﺔ ﺧﺎﺻﺔ ﻣ ﻦ‬‫ﻛﺒﺎﺭ ﺍﳌﺴﺆﻭﻟﲔ ﻭﳌﺎ ﺑﺪﺃ ﻳﻮﻡ ﺍﻟﻌﺮ ﺣﻈﺮ ﺍﻟﻜﻞ ﻣﺎﻋﺪ ﻋﻤﻪ ﳑﺎ ﺍﺻﺒﺢ )‪ (Gyllenhammar‬ﻗﻠﻘ ﺎ‬‫ﹶ‬‫ﻓﺄﺗﻀﺢ ﻓﻴﻤﺎ ﺑﻌﺪ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﻌﻢ ﻛﺎﻥ ﻳﺴﻮﻕ ﺳﻴﺎﺭﺗﻪ ﻭﺧﻠﻔﻪ ﻳﺴﲑ ﺃﺣﺪ ﺍﳌﺴﺆﻭﻟﲔ ﻭﻓﺠ ﺄﺓ ﺍﳓﺮﻓ ﺖ‬ ‫ﹶ‬‫ﺳﻴﺎﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﻌﻢ ﻭﺍﺻﻄﺪﻣﺖ ﰲ ﺷﺠﺮﺓ ﺩﺍﺧﻞ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﺑﺔ ﺑﺴﺒﺐ ﺗﻌﺮﺿﻪ ﳉﻠﻄﺔ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺪﻣ ﺎ ﻭﻣ ﺎﺕ ﰲ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﺴﺘﺸﻔﻰ ﻣﺆﺧﺮﹶﺍ ﳑﺎ ﻓﻘﺪ )‪ (Gyllenhammar‬ﺃﻫﻢ ﻣﺆﻳﺪﻳﻪ ﻟﻨﻔﻴﺬ ﺍﳌﺸﺮﻭﻉ .‬‫ﻟﻜﻦ ﺭﻏﻢ ﺫﻟﻚ ﺍﺳﺘﻤﺮ ﰲ ﻋﻤﻞ ﺍﳌﺸﺮﻭﻉ ﻭﺃﺧﺬﺕ ﺍﻟﻨﻘﺎﺷﺎﺕ ﺗﺪﻭﺭ ﺩﺍﺧﻞ ﺍﻟﱪﳌ ﺎﻥ ﺍﻟ ﻨﺮﻭﳚﻲ‬‫)‪ (storting‬ﻭﺍﻟﱪﳌﺎﻥ ﺍﻟﺴﻮﻳﺪﻱ )‪ (riksdagen‬ﺑﺎﻻﺿﺎﻓﺔ ﺍﱃ ﺍﻧﺸﻐﺎﻝ ﺍﳌﻨﻈﻤﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻨﻘﺎﺑﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﳊﺰﺑﻴ ﺔ ﰲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻞ ﲣﻠﻠﺘﻬﺎ ﺍﺟﺘﻤﺎﻋﺎﺕ ﻣﻜﺜﻔﺔ ﻭﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﺴﺘﻮﻳﺎﺕ ﻋﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺃﺟﻞ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﻤﺮﺍﺭ ﰲ ﺍﳌﺸﺮﻭﻉ.‬‫ﺔ )‪(Fälldin‬‬ ‫ﻟﻜﻦ ﺍﻟﺼﺪﻣﺔ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻧﻴﺔ ﺍﻟ ﱂ ﻳﻜﻦ )‪ (Gyllenhammar‬ﻳﺘﻮﻗﻌﻬﺎ ﻫﻮ ﺳﻘﻮ ﺣﻜﻮﻣ‬‫ﺑﺴﺒﺐ ﻣﺴﺄﻟﺔ ﺍﻟﻄﺎﻗﺔ )‪ (kärnkraftsfrågan‬ﻧﺘﺞ ﻋﻨﻬﺎ ﺃﺯﻣﺔ ﺣﻜﻮﻣﻴﺔ , ﺧﺎﺻﺔ ﺃﻥ ﺭﺋﻴﺲ ﺍﻟ ﻮﺯﺭﺍﺀ‬ ‫ﹶ‬‫)‪ (Fälldin‬ﻛﺎﻥ ﺍﻟﺸﺨ ﺍﻟﻮﺣﻴﺪ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻳﻌﺮﻑ ﺑﻜﻞ ﺗﻔﺎﺻﻴﻞ ﺍﳌﺸﺮﻭﻉ ﻭﲢﻤ ﻞ ﻣﺴ ﺆﻭﻟﻴﺔ‬ ‫6‬
  • 22. ‫ﺍﺳﺘﻤﺮﺍﺭ . ﺣﺪﺙ ﺫﻟﻚ ﰲ ﺮﻑ ﱂ ﻳﻜﻦ ﺍﻟﻮﻗﺖ ﻓﻴﻪ ﻛﺎﻓﻴﺎ ﳑﺎ ﺟﻌﻞ )‪ (Gyllenhammar‬ﻳﺸ ﻌﺮ‬ ‫ﹶ‬ ‫ﺑﺄﻥ ﻗﻠﺒﻪ ﺍﻧﻔﺼﻞ ﻋﻦ ﺟﺴﺪ .‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﻳﺔ ﺣﺎﻝ ﺗﻜﻮﻧﺖ ﺣﻜﻮﻣﺔ ﺟﺪﻳﺪﺓ ﻣﻦ ﺣﺰﺏ ﺍﻟﺸﻌﺐ ﻭﺍﺻﺒﺢ )‪ (Ola Ullsten‬ﺭﺋﻴﺴﺎ ﻟﻠﻮﺯﺭﺍﺀ‬ ‫ﹶ‬ ‫ﻟﻜﻨﻪ ﻣﺎ ﻛﺎﻥ ﻣﻠﻤﺎ ﺑﻜﻞ ﺗﻔﺎﺻﻴﻞ ﺍﳌﺸﺮﻭﻉ ﻭ ﻞ ﻳﺪﻭﺭ ﺍﻟﺴﺆﺍﻝ ﺣﻮﻝ ﻣﺎ ﺍﺫﺍ ﻫ ﺬﺍ ﺍﳌﺸ ﺮﻭﻉ‬ ‫ﹶ‬ ‫ﺳﻴﺪﻓﻦ ﺑﺴﺒﺐ ﺍﻷﺯﻣﺔ ﺍﳊﻜﻮﻣﻴﺔ ﺃﻡ ﻻ ﻋﻠﻰ )‪ (Gyllenhammare‬ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻞ ﻣﻦ ﺟﺪﻳﺪ ﻣ ﻦ ﺃﺟ ﻞ‬‫ﺍﻗﻨﺎﻉ ﺍﳊﻜﻮﻣﺔ ﺍﳉﺪﻳﺪﺓ ﻭﺭﺋﻴﺲ ﺍﻟﻮﺯﺭﺍﺀ ﺍﳉﺪﻳﺪ ﳌﺘﺎﺑﻌﺔ ﺍﳌﺸﺮﻭﻉ ﻭﻭﺿﻌﻪ ﰲ ﻣﻘﺪﻣ ﺔ ﺟ ﺪﻭﻝ‬ ‫ﺍﻋﻤﺎﳍﺎ . ﺍﳌﺸﻜﻠﺔ ﻫﻲ ﺃﻥ ﺍﳊﻜﻮﻣﺔ ﺍﳉﺪﻳﺪﺓ ﺗﺘﻜﻮﻥ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻻﻗﻠﻴﺔ ﻭﻟﻴﺲ ﳍﺎ ﺩﻋﻢ ﻭﺍﺳﻊ ﰲ ﺍﻟﱪﳌﺎﻥ‬ ‫ﻭﺗﻮﺟﺪ ﻫﻨﺎﻙ ﺧﻄﻮﺭﺓ ﰲ ﻋﺪﻡ ﺍﺳﺘﻤﺮﺍﺭ ﺍﻻﺗﻔﺎﻗﻴﺔ ﺃﻭ ﻟﺮﲟﺎ ﲡﺮﻱ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﺗﻐﲑﺍﺕ ﺍﺿﺎﻓﻴﺔ ﺗﺆﺧﺮ ﻋﻤﻞ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﺸﺮﻭﻉ ﺃﻭ ﺍﺳﺘﻤﺮﺍﺭ ﺍﻷﺯﻣﺔ ﺍﳊﻜﻮﻣﻴﺔ .‬ ‫ﺍﻻ ﺍﻧﻪ ﱂ ﺪﺙ ﺷﻲﺀ ﻣﻦ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﻘﺒﻴﻞ ﻭﺃﺩﺕ ﺍﳊﻜﻮﻣﺔ ﺍﳉﺪﻳﺪﺓ ﻭﺍﺟﺒﻬﺎ ﻭﺍﺳﺘﻤﺮ ﺍﳌﺸﺮﻭﻉ ﻛﻤ ﺎ‬ ‫ﺧﻄﻂ ﻟﻪ ﻭﻫﻜﺬﺍ ﺍﳒﺎﺯ ﺍﳌﺮﺣﻠﺔ ﺍﻷﺳﺎﺳﻴﺔ ﻟﻠﻤﺸﺮﻭﻉ ﻭﻗﺮﺭ ﻋﻘﺪ ﻣﺆ ﺮ ﻟﺮ ﺳﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﻮﺯﺭﺍﺀ ﻀﻮﺭ‬ ‫)‪ (Gyllenhammare‬ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻗﺮﺭ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺮﺍﺣﺔ ﻭﻗﻀﺎﺀ ﺑﻌﺾ ﺍﻟﻮﻗﺖ ﻣﻊ ﻋﺎﺋﻠﺘﻪ ﻭﻋﺪﻡ ﺍﻻﺟﺎﺑﺔ ﻋﻠ ﻰ‬ ‫ﺍﳍﺎﺗ ﻭﺣ ﻋﺪﻡ ﺎﻉ ﺍﻻﺧﺒﺎﺭ ﻭﺍﻻﺑﺘﻌﺎﺩ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﺼﺤﻔﻴﲔ ﳊﲔ ﺍﻟﺘﻮﺟﻪ ﺍﱃ ﺍﳌﺆ ﺮ .‬‫ﻦ ﺷ ﺮﻛﺔ )‪(Volvo‬‬ ‫ﻓﺠﺄﺓ ﺭﻥ ﺟﺮﺱ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺖ ﻭﺍﺫﺍ ﺑﺜﻼﺙ ﺍﺷﺨﺎ , ﺍﺛﻨﺎﻥ ﻣﻨﻬﻤﺎ ﻣﺴﺆﻭﻟﲔ ﻣ‬‫ﻭﺍ ﺧﺮ ﺳﻴﺎﺳﻲ ﻭﳌﺎ ﻓﺘﺢ )‪ ( Gyllenhammare‬ﺍﻟﺒﺎﺏ ﻗﺎﻝ ﻟﻪ ﺃﺣﺪﻫﻢ ﻟﺪﻳﻨﺎ ﺧ ﱪﹶﺍ ﻣ ﻬﻢ ﺟ ﺪﹶﺍ‬‫ﻭﻋﺎﺟﻼ ﳚﺐ ﺗﺒﻠﻴﻐﻚ ﺑﻪ , ﻭﻫﻮ ﺍ ﺎﺀ ﺍﳌﺸﺮﻭﻉ ﻭﺍﻟﻐﺎﺀ ﺍﻻﺗﻔﺎﻗﻴﺔ ﻣﻊ ﺍﻟﻨﺮﻭﻳﺞ ﻓﻮﺭﺍﹶ, ﻷﻧﻚ ﺳ ﻮﻑ‬ ‫ﹶ‬ ‫ﺗﻘﻀﻲ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺷﺮﻛﺘﻨﺎ ﻭﺍﳌﻄﻠﻮﺏ ﻣﻨﻚ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺿﻤﲑﻙ .‬ ‫ﻟﻘﺪ ﻌﺖ ﻛﻞ ﻣﺎ ﺃﺩﻟﻴﺘﻢ ﺑﻪ , ﻭ ﲟﺎ ﺃﻧﲏ ﻣﺴﺆﻭﻝ ﻭﺍﻧﺘﻢ ﻣﻮ ﻔﲔ ﻟﺪ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻛﺔ ﺃﻃﻠ ﺐ ﻣ ﻦ‬ ‫ﺃﺣﺪﻛﻢ ﺃﻥ ﻳﻠﺘﺰﻡ ﺑﺄﻣﺮ ﻱ ﻭ ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﻣﺴﺘﻌﺪ ﻟﺘﻨﻔﻴﺬ ﻣﻬﻤﺘﻪ ﻭﺍﻟﺬﻫﺎﺏ ﻣﻌ ﻲ ﳌﺼﻠﺤ ﺔ )‪(Volvo‬‬ ‫ﻭﺷﻜﺮﹶﺍ ﻟﻮﺟﻬﺔ ﻧﻈﺮﻛﻢ.‬ ‫ﺃﺻﺮ )‪ (Gyllenhammare‬ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﺳﺘﻤﺮﺍﺭ ﺍﳌﺸﺮﻭﻉ ﻭﺑﻌﺪ ﺍﻗﻨﺎﻉ ﺍﻟﻜﻞ ﻣﻦ ﺧﻼﻝ ﺍﳌﺸﺎﺭﻛﺔ ﰲ ﻣﺆ ﺮ‬ ‫ﺭ ﺳﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﻮﺯﺭﺍﺀ ﺍﺻﻄﺪﻡ ﻣﺮﺓ ﺃﺧﺮ ﺑﺎﳌﻔﺎﺟﺌﺔ ﺍﻻﺧﺮ ﻭﺍﻟ ﻣﺎ ﻛﺎﻥ ﻳﺘﻮﻗﻌﻬﺎ ﻭﻫﻲ ﻋﺪﻡ ﻣﺮﺍﻋﺎﺗﻪ‬ ‫7‬
  • 23. ‫(‬ ‫ﳊﺎﻣﻠﻲ ﺍﻷﺳﻬﻢ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻛﺔ ﺍﻟﺬﻳﻦ ﺍﺻﺒﻮﺍ ﻗﻠﻘﲔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺭ ﻭﺱ ﺃﻣﻮﺍﳍﻢ ﻓﺄﺧﺬ ﺭﺋﻴﺲ ﻣﻨﻈﻤﺘ ﻬﻢ‬ ‫) ‪ Aktiesparanas ordförande‬ﻳﺼﺮ :‬ ‫) ‪Vem tror han att han är egentligen, den här (Gyllenhammare‬‬ ‫‪Han uppträder som om han tror att han är en statsman och‬‬ ‫‪påstår att det Volvo gör är rätt. Och här har han fått‬‬ ‫,‪uppställning från två regeringar . Men förbanne mej‬‬ ‫,‪det är väl aktieägarna som bestämmer till slut‬‬ ‫.‪inte de här regeringarna‬‬ ‫ﻫﻜﺬﺍ ﻭﺿﻊ ﻣﺎﻟﻜﻲ ﺍﻷﺳﻬﻢ ﺣﺪﹶﺍ ﻟﻠﻤﺸﺮﻭﻉ ﺍﻟﻨﺮﻭﳚﻲ - ﺍﻟﺴﻮﻳﺪﻱ ﻭﺩﻓﻨﻪ .‬ ‫ﻛﺎﻥ ﺟﻮﺍﺏ )‪ (Gyllenhammare‬ﻗﺒﻞ ﻗﺮﺍﺭ ﺗﻘﺪﱘ ﺍﺳﺘﻘﺎﻟﺘﻪ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻨﺤﻮ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﱄ:‬ ‫.‪Vi har inte fått aktieägarnas förtroende att genomföra affären med Norge‬‬ ‫ﺭﻏﻢ ﺫﻟﻚ ﺍﺳﺘﻤﺮ )‪ (Gyllenhammare‬ﻣﻬﻤﺘﻪ ﰲ ﺷﺮﻛﺔ )‪ (Volvo‬ﻭﺍﺳﺘﻄﺎﻋﺖ ﺍﻟﺸ ﺮﻛﺔ ﻋ ﺮ‬‫ﻣﻮﺩﻳﻞ 047 , 067 ﻋﺎﻡ 2891ﻭﺍﻟ ﻛﻠﻔﺖ ﺴﺔ ﻣﻠﻴﺎﺭﺩ ﻛﺮﻭﻥ ﻭﰲ ﻋﺎﻡ 5891 ﺃﻋﻠﻨﺖ ﺍﻟﺸ ﺮﻛﺔ‬‫ﻋﻦ ﺃﺭﺑﺎﺣﻬﺎ ﻭﻗﺪﺭﻫﺎ ﺳﺘﺔ ﻣﻠﻴﺎﺭﺩ ﻛﺮﻭﻥ ﻭﺍﺳﺘﻄﺎﻋﺖ ﺑﻌﺪ ﺫﻟﻚ ﻋﺮ ﺍﳌﻮﺩﻳﻞ 058 ﻭ069 ﺑﻨﻔﺲ‬‫ﺍﻟﻮﻗﺖ ﺃﺩﻋﻰ ﺑﺄﻥ )‪ (Gyllenhammare‬ﻛﺎﻥ ﻣﻦ ﺑﲔ ﺍﳌﺮﺷﺤﲔ ﻛﺴﻜﺮﺗﲑ ﻋﺎﻡ ﻟﻼﻣﻢ ﺍﳌﺘﺤ ﺪﺓ‬‫ﻭﻫﺬﺍ ﻟﻴﺲ ﺑﺎﻟﺸﻴ ﺍﻟﻐﺮﻳﺐ ﻷﻥ ﺍﻟﺴﻮﻳﺪ ﻗﺎﺩﺕ ﺍﻷﻣﻢ ﺍﳌﺘﺤﺪﺓ ﻣﺎﺑﲔ 3591-1691 ﺑﻌﺪ ﺍﻧﺘﺨﺎﺏ‬‫)‪ (Dag Hammarskjöld‬ﺳﻜﺮﺗﲑ ﻋﺎﻡ ﻟﻸﻣﻢ ﺍﳌﺘﺤﺪﺓ ﻭﻣﻦ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﺒﻠﺪ , ﺍﻟﺴﻮﻳﺪ , ﺗﻮﺯﻉ ﺟﻮﺍﺋ ﺰ‬ ‫ﻧﻮﺑﻞ .‬‫ﺔ,‬ ‫ﻭ‬ ‫ﻟﺔ,‬ ‫ﺔ, ﻳ ﺔ,‬ ‫ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﺴﻮﻳﺪ ﻫﻲ ﺑﻠﺪ ﺍﳌﻨﻈﻤﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺸﻌﺒﻴﺔ , ﻣﻨﻈﻤﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻮ‬ ‫ﺔﻭ‬ ‫ﺭﻳ‬ ‫ﺔ,ﺣ‬ ‫ﺴ ﺔ,‬ ‫ﺔﻭ ﻼ ﺔ,‬ ‫ﻟﺟ‬ ‫ﻟ ﺪ ﻭﻣﻨﻈﻤﺎﺕ ﻟﻠﻤﺘﻘﺎﻋﺪﻳﻦ ﻭﺣﺎﻣﻠﻲ ﺍﻻﺳﻬﻢ ﺑﺎﻻﺿﺎﻓﺔ ﺍﱃ ﻭﺟﻮﺩ‬‫ﺳﻴﺎﺳﻴﺔ ﻭﺩﻳﻨﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﺟﺘﻤﺎﻋﻴﺔ ﻴﺚ ﺗﺴﻮﺩ ﺍﻟﺪﳝﻘﺮﺍﻃﻴﺔ ﺑﺮﺍﻣﺞ ﻛﻞ ﻫﺬ ﺍﳌﻨﻈﻤﺎﺕ ﺑﻨﻔﺲ ﺍﻟﻄﺮﻳﻘ ﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟ ﺎﺭﺱ ﰲ ﺍﺩﺍﺭﺓ ﺍﳊﻜﻮﻣﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺒﻠﺪﻳﺔ.‬ ‫8‬
  • 24. ‫ﺍﻻ ﺃﻥ ﺍﳍﻴﻜﻞ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﻈﻴﻤﻲ ﻟﻸﺣﺰﺍﺏ ﻫﻲ ﻣﺘﺸﺎ ﺔ ﻭﻣﻦ ﺍﺣﺪ ﻣﻬﺎﻣﻬﺎ ﻫﻮ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻀﲑ ﻟﻼﻧﺘﺨﺎﺑﺎﺕ ,‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻣﺔ ﻛﻨﺼﺐ ﺃﻛﻮﺍﺥ ﺍﻧﺘﺨﺎﺑﻴﺔ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﺣﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻣﺔ ﻭﺃﻥ ﺗﻮﺍﺟﺪﻫﻢ ﰲ ﺍﻻﻣﻜﺎﻥ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻣﺔ ﻳﺴ ﻬﻞ‬ ‫ﻟﻠﻤﻮﺍﻃﻨﲔ ﺍﻻﺗﺼﺎﻝ ﺍﳌﺒﺎﺷﺮﺓ ﻢ ﻭﺍﺟﺮﺍﺀ ﻧﻘﺎﺷﺎﺕ ﻣﻌﻬﻢ ﻭﺍﳊﺼﻮﻝ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﺟﻮﺑﺔ ﻟﺮﲟﺎ ﻣﻘﻨﻌﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﺃﺳﺌﻠﺘﻬﻢ ﻭﺍﻟ ﳍﺎﺍ ﻣﺪﻟﻮﻟﲔ ﺃﻭﳍﻤﺎ ﺗﺴﻬﻴﻞ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﳌﻮﺍﻃﻨﲔ ﺍﳊﺼﻮﻝ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﻋﻦ ﺗﻠ ﻚ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﺣﺰﺍﺏ ﻭﻣﺎﻫﻲ ﺍﻻﺟﺮﺍﺀﺍﺕ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﻮﻋﻮﺩ ﺍﻟ ﳝﻜﻦ ﺃﻥ ﺗﻨﻔﺬﻫﺎ ﻟﻮ ﻓﺎﺯﺕ ﰲ ﺍﻻﻧﺘﺨﺎﺑﺎﺕ ﻛ ﻲ‬ ‫ﻳﺴﺘﻄﻴﻊ ﺍﳌﻮﺍﻃﻦ ﻣﻌﺮﻓﺔ ﺍﻟﻔﻮﺍﺭﻕ ﺑﲔ ﺳﻴﺎﺳﺔ ﺗﻠﻚ ﺍﻷﺣﺰﺍﺏ ﻭﺑﺎﻟﺘﺎﱄ ﻳﻘﺮﺭ ﻷﻱ ﺣﺰﺏ ﺳ ﻮﻑ‬ ‫ﻳﻌﻄﻲ ﺻﻮﺗﻪ ﻟﻪ , ﻭﺛﺎﻧﻴﺎ ﻫﻲ ﻃﺮﻳﻘﺔ ﻛﺴﺐ ﺣﺰﺑﻴﺔ ﻟﺰﻳﺎﺩﺓ ﺃﻋﺪﺩ ﺃﻋﻀﺎﺋﻬﺎ .‬ ‫ﹶ‬ ‫ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﺴﻴﺎﺳﺔ ﻫﻲ ﰲ ﺍﳊﻘﻴﻘﺔ ﺻﺮﺍﻉ ﺑﲔ ﺘﻠ ﺍﳊﺮﻛﺎﺕ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﺘﺠﻤﻌﺎﺕ ﺣﻮﻝ ﻛﻴﻔﻴ ﺔ ﺗﻨﻈﻴ ﻢ‬ ‫ﺍﳋﻼﻑ ﺣﻮﻝ ﻛﻴﻔﻴ ﺔ ﺍﲣ ﺎﺫ‬ ‫ﺍ‪‬ﺘﻤﻊ ﻭﻛﻴ ﺳﻴﻜﻮﻥ ﺍ‪‬ﺘﻤﻊ ﻭﺗﺘﺼ ﺑﻌﺎﻣﻠﲔ ﺃﺣﺪﳘﺎ‬‫ﺍﻟﻘﺮﺍﺭ ﺍﻟﺴﻴﺎﺳﻲ ﻭﺍﻟﻌﺎﻣﻞ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﱐ ﻳﺘﻌﻠﻖ ﲟﺤﺘﻮ ﺍﻟﻘﺮﺍﺭ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻫﻮ ﺩﺍﺋﻤﺎ ﻋﺮﺿﺔ ﻟﻠﺨﻼﻓﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺪﺍﺋﻤﺔ ,‬ ‫ﹶ‬ ‫ﺍﳋﻼﻓﺎﺕ ﺣﻮﻝ ﺍﻟﻀﺮﺍﺋﺐ ﻭﻗﻮﺍﻧﲔ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻞ , ﺍﺣﺘﺮﺍﻡ ﺣﻘﻮﻕ ﺍﻻﻧﺴﺎﻥ ﻓﻬﻲ ﻛﻠﻬﺎ ﺳﻴﺎﺳﺔ ﺻ ﺮﺍﻉ‬ ‫ﻭﳏﻮﺭ ﺃﺳﺎﺳﻲ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺴﻴﺎﺳﺔ.‬ ‫ﺩﻋﻨﺎ ﺃﻻﻥ ﻧﺘﺠﻮﻝ ﰲ ﺗﺎﺭﻳ ﺍﻟﺴﻮﻳﺪ ﺍﻟﺴﻴﺎﺳﻲ ﻭﺟﺬﻭﺭ ﺍﻷﺣﺰﺍﺏ ﺍﻟﺴﻮﻳﺪﻳﺔ ﻟﻨﺘﻌﺮﻑ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻛﻴﻔﻴ ﺔ‬ ‫ﲢﻮﻝ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﺒﻠﺪ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻔﻘﺮ ﻭﺍﳉﻮﻉ ﺍﱃ ﺑﻠﺪ ﺻﻨﺎﻋﻲ ﻣﺘﻄﻮﺭ ﺫﻭ ﺭﻓﺎﻫﻴﺔ ﻋﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﻭﻋﻦ ﻛﻴﻔﻴﺔ ﺗﻄ ﻮﺭ‬ ‫ﺭ‬ ‫ﺔ‬ ‫ﺣ‬ ‫ﻭﺟ ﺪ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺪﳝﻘﺮﺍﻃﻴﺔ ﻓﻴﻪ ﺩﻋﻨﺎ ﻧﺘﺴﺎﺀﻝ ,‬ ‫ﻮﻳﺪ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺴ‬ ‫9‬