Upabhokta samrakshan
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in...5
×
 

Upabhokta samrakshan

on

  • 557 views

Nepal Laws & Acts Related to DRR & DEVELOPMENT

Nepal Laws & Acts Related to DRR & DEVELOPMENT

Statistics

Views

Total Views
557
Views on SlideShare
557
Embed Views
0

Actions

Likes
0
Downloads
3
Comments
0

0 Embeds 0

No embeds

Accessibility

Upload Details

Uploaded via as Adobe PDF

Usage Rights

© All Rights Reserved

Report content

Flagged as inappropriate Flag as inappropriate
Flag as inappropriate

Select your reason for flagging this presentation as inappropriate.

Cancel
  • Full Name Full Name Comment goes here.
    Are you sure you want to
    Your message goes here
    Processing…
Post Comment
Edit your comment

Upabhokta samrakshan Upabhokta samrakshan Document Transcript

  • pkef]Qmf ;+/If0f P]g, @)%$ nfndf]x/ / k|sfzg ldlt @)%$.!).!%.$ ;+zf]wg ug]{ P]g != s]xL g]kfn P]g ;+zf]wg ug]{ P]g, @)%% @)%%.!).& @)%$ ;fnsf] P]g g+= @) pkef]Qmfsf] ;+/If0f ug]{ ;DaGwdf Joj:yf ug{ ag]sf] P]g k|:tfjgf M pkef]Qmfsf] :jf:Yo, ;'ljwf / cfly{s lxt sfod /fVg, pkef]Uo j:t' jf ;]jfsf] u'0f:t/, kl/df0f Pj+ d"Nosf] clgoldttfaf6 pkef]Qmf ju{nfO{ ;+/If0f k|bfg u/L pkef]Uo j:t' jf ;]jfsf] u'0f jf pkof]lutf 36fpg jf lemSg gkfpg] Joj:yf ug{, Psflwsf/ Pj+ cg'lrt Jofkfl/s s[ofsnfkåf/f d"No clej[l4 x'g ;Sg] cj:yfnfO{ /f]Sg / pkef]Uo j:t' jf ;]jfsf] pkof]lutf Pj+ k|of]u ;DaGwL em'§f tyf e|dfTds k|rf/ k|;f/ x'g glbO{ ;'/lIft tyf u'0f:t/o'Qm pkef]Uo j:t' jf ;]jfsf] laqmL ljt/0f, lgsf;L, k}7f/L / ;~ro ;DaGwL Joj:yf ug{ tyf pkef]QmfnfO{ kg]{ dsf{sf] lj?4 pkrf/ lbnfpg] lgsfosf] :yfkgf u/L pkef]Qmfsf] xs, lxt / clwsf/sf] ;+/If0f ug]{ Joj:yf ug{ jfG5gLo ePsf]n], >L % dxf/fhlw/fh jL/]Gb| jL/ ljqmd zfxb]jsf] zf;gsfnsf] 5AaL;f}+ jif{df ;+;bn] of] P]g agfPsf] 5 . != ;+lIfKt gfd / k|f/De M -!_ o; P]gsf] gfd æpkef]Qmf ;+/If0f P]g, @)%$Æ /x]sf]5 . -@_ of] P]g @)%% ;fn a}zfv ! ut]b]lv k|f/De x'g]5 . @= kl/efiff M ljifo jf k|;Ën] csf]{ cy{ gnfu]df o; P]gdf, – -s_ æpkef]QmfÆ eGgfn] s'g} pkef]Uo j:t' jf ;]jf pkef]u jf k|of]u ug]{ JolQm jf ;+:yf ;Demg' k5{ . -v_ ækl/ifbÆ eGgfn] bkmf # adf]lhd u7g ePsf] pkef]Qmf ;+/If0f kl/ifb ;Demg' k5{ .
  • -u_ æIfltk"lt{ ;ldltÆ eGgfn] bkmf @# adf]lhd u7g ePsf] Ifltk"lt{ ;ldlt ;Demg' k5{ . -3_ æpkef]Uo j:t'Æ eGgfn] pkef]Qmfn] pkef]u jf k|of]u ug]{ j:t' jf j:t'x?sf] ;lDd>0faf6 ag]sf] kbfy{ ;Demg' k5{ / ;f] zAbn] pkef]Uo j:t'sf] lgdf{0fdf k|of]u x'g] sRrf kbfy{, /ª, ;'uGw jf /;fognfO{ ;d]t hgfpF5 . -ª_ æ;]jfÆ eGgfn] s'g} sfdsf] lgldQ s'g} klg lsl;dsf] ;]jf z'Ns jf k|ltkmn lnO{ k|bfg ul/Psf] >d, ;'ljwf jf k/fdz{ ;Demg' k5{ . -r_ æpTkfbgÆ eGgfn] pkef]Uo j:t' agfpg], tof/ ug]{, k|;f]wg ug]{, kl/0ft ug]{, KoflsË ug]{, k'gM KoflsË ug]{, P;]DalnË ug]{ jf n]an nufpg] k|lqmof jf ;f] ;DaGwdf ckgfO{g] ;Dk"0f{ jf s'g} k|lqmof ;Demg' k5{ . -5_ æn]anÆ eGgfn] pkef]Uo j:t' jf pkef]Uo j:t' /flvPsf] efF8fdf n]lvPsf], 5flkPsf], lnyf] ul/Psf], lrGx nufOPsf], ODaf];{ ul/Psf], ;dfj]z ul/Psf] jf cGo s'g} lsl;dn] b]vfOPsf] 6ofu, lrGx, t:jL/ jf cGo ljj/0ffTds j:t' ;Demg' k5{ . -h_ æcg'lrt Jofkfl/s s[ofsnfkÆ eGgfn] s'g} klg pkef]Uo j:t' jf ;]jfsf] jf:tljs u'0f:t/, kl/df0f, d"No, gfktf}n 9fFrf jf agfj6 cflb 9fF6L jf em'SofO{ To:tf] pkef]Uo j:t' jf ;]jf laqmL ljt/0f jf k|bfg ug]{, cGo JolQmn] pTkfbg u/]sf] pkef]Uo j:t'sf] u'0f:t/, kl/df0f, d"No, gfktf}n, 9fFrf, agfj6 cflbdf c;/ kf/L laqmL ljt/0f ug]{ sfo{ ;Demg' k5{ . -em_ æsd;n pkef]Uo j:t'Æ eGgfn] b]xfosf] s'g} cj:yfsf] pkef]Uo j:t' ;Demg' k5{ M– -!_ bkmf !! adf]lhd lgwf{l/t ul/Psf] u'0f:t/eGbf sDtL x'g] u/L x'g' kg]{ kbfy{sf] kl/df0f 36fOPsf] jf csf]{ s'g} kbfy{sf] ;lDd>0f ul/Psf], -@_ :jf:YonfO{ xflgsf/s x'g] u/L ;8]sf], un]sf] jf kmf]xf]/d}nf jf ljiffbL cj:yfdf /flvPsf] jf tof/ ul/Psf] jf s'g} /;fog, /ª jf af:gf k|of]u ul/Psf], -#_ s]xL jf ;Dk"0f{ efu s'g} /f]uL jf /f]usf/s kz', k+IfL jf xflgsf/s jg:kltaf6 agfOPsf],
  • -$_ of] P]g jf o; P]g cGtu{t ag]sf] lgod adf]lhd hf/L ul/Psf] cfb]zdf tf]lsPsf] Go"gtd cfjZos u'0f:t/eGbf 36]sf] jf clwstd u'0f:t/ tf]lsPsf]df ;f] eGbf a9]sf] . -`_ ælaqm]tfÆ eGgfn] yf]s jf v'b|f ?kdf pkef]Uo j:t' jf ;]jf laqmL ljt/0f ug]{ JolQm, ;/sf/L jf u}/ ;/sf/L ;+:yf jf ;xsf/L ;+:yf ;Demg' k5{ . -6_ æk|of]uzfnfÆ eGgfn] pkef]Uo j:t'sf] z'4tf, k"0f{tf jf u'0f:t/ k/LIf0f ug]{ p2]Zon] :yfkgf ePsf] g]kfn ;/sf/af6 dfGotf k|fKt lgsfo ;Demg' k5{ . -7_ æpkef]Qmf ;+:yfÆ eGgfn] pkef]Qmfsf] xs lxt ;+/If0f tyf ;Dj4{g ug]{ p2]Zon] k|rlnt sfg"g adf]lhd :yfkgf ePsf] ;+:yf ;Demg' k5{ . -8_ ælg/LIf0f clws[tÆ eGgfn] bkmf !$ adf]lhd lgo'Qm jf tf]lsPsf] lg/LIf0f clws[t ;Demg' k5{ . -9_ ætf]lsPsf]Æ jf ætf]lsP adf]lhdÆ eGgfn] o; P]g cGtu{t ag]sf] lgoddf tf]lsPsf] jf tf]lsP adf]lhd ;Demg' k5{ . #= pkef]Qmf ;+/If0f kl/ifbsf] u7g M -!_ pkef]Qmfsf] xs lxt ;+/If0f ;DaGwL ljifodf gLlt lgdf{0f ug{ tyf pkef]Qmfsf] xs lxtsf ;DaGwdf g]kfn ;/sf/nfO{ ;'emfa lbgsf] nflu Pp6f pkef]Qmf ;+/If0f kl/ifb u7g x'g]5 . -@_ pkbkmf -!_ adf]lhdsf] kl/ifbdf b]xfo adf]lhdsf cWoIf tyf ;b:ox? /xg] 5g M– -s_ cfk"lt{ dGqL jf cfk"lt{ /fHodGqL – cWoIf -v_ ;efklt, ljsf; tyf ;~rf/ ;ldlt, k|ltlglw ;ef – ;b:o -u_ ;lrj, cfk"lt{ dGqfno – ;b:o -3_ ;lrj, pBf]u dGqfno – ;b:o -ª_ ;lrj, s[lif dGqfno – ;b:o -r_ ;lrj, u[x dGqfno – ;b:o -5_ ;lrj, jfl0fHo dGqfno – ;b:o -h_ dxflgb]{zs, g]kfn u'0f;t/ tyf
  • gfktf}n ljefu – ;b:o -em_ cWoIf, g]kfn pBf]u jfl0fHo dxf;+3 – ;b:o -`_ pkef]Qmfsf] xs lxt;Fu ;DalGwt u}/ ;/sf/L ;+:yfaf6 g]kfn ;/sf/n] dgf]gLt u/]sf] k|ltlglw tLghgf – ;b:o -6_ pkef]Qmfsf] xs lxt;Fu ;DalGwt If]qdf sfo{/t dlxnfx? dWo]af6 g]kfn ;/sf/n] dgf]gLt u/]sf] dlxnf k|ltlglw b'O{hgf – ;b:o -7_ g]kfn ;/sf/n] tf]s]sf] g]kfn ;/sf/sf] clws[t – ;b:o -#_ pkbkmf -@_ sf] v08 -`_ / -6_ adf]lhd dgf]gLt ;b:ox?sf] kbfjlw b'O{ jif{sf] x'g]5 / lghx? Ps cjlwsf] nflu k'gM dgf]gLt x'g ;Sg]5g . -$_ kl/ifbsf cWoIf tyf ;b:ox?n] g]kfn ;/sf/n] tf]lslbP adf]lhdsf] a}7s eQf kfpg]5g . $= kl/ifbsf] sfd, st{Jo / clwsf/ M -!_ kl/ifbsf] sfd, st{Jo / clwsf/ b]xfo adf]lhd x'g]5 M– -s_ pkef]Qmfsf] xs lxt ;+/If0f, cfk"lt{ Joj:yf / pkef]Uo j:t' tyf ;]jfsf] d"No, u'0f:t/, z'4tf ;DaGwL ljifodf g]kfn ;/sf/nfO{ ;'emfa lbg] . -v_ pkef]QmfnfO{ pkef]Uo j:t' tyf ;]jfsf] ;DaGwdf ;'/lIft u/fpg To:tf j:t' tyf ;]jfsf] u'0f:t/sf ;DaGwdf hfgsf/L u/fpg pkef]Qmfsf] xs lxt ;DaGwL ;"rgfx? k|rf/ k|;f/ ug]{, u/fpg] . -u_ pkef]QmfnfO{ pkef]Uo j:t' tyf ;]jfsf] d"No, u'0f, kl/df0f, z'4tf tyf cg'lrt Jofkfl/s s[ofsnfksf ;DaGwdf ;"lrt ug]{, u/fpg] . -3_ pkef]Qmfsf] xs lxt ;+/If0f ug]{ ;DaGwdf cg';Gwfg ug]{, u/fpg] . -ª_ pkef]Qmfsf] xs lxt ;+/If0f ;DaGwdf eO/x]sf gLlt kl/jt{g ug]{ jf gofF gLlt agfpg] ;DaGwdf g]kfn ;/sf/nfO{ ;'emfa lbg] . -r_ pkef]Qmfsf] xs lxt ;+/If0f ;DaGwL /fli6«o tyf cGt/f{li6«o ;"rgfx? cBfjlws /fVg] tyf /fVg nufpg] .
  • -5_ pkef]Qmfsf clwsf/x?sf] cg'udg ug]{ u/fpg] / cg'udg ubf{ b]lvPsf q'6Lx?sf] ;'wf/ ug{ g]kfn ;/sf/nfO{ ;'emfa lbg] . -h_ g]kfn ;/sf/n] tf]lslbP adf]lhdsf sfd ug]{, u/fpg] . -em_ pkef]Qmfsf] xs lxt ;+/If0f ug]{ ;DaGwdf pko'Qm ;Dem]sf] cGo sfd ug]{, u/fpg] . -@_ kl/ifbsf] ;lrjfnosf] sfd cfk"lt{ dGqfnon] ug]{5 . %= kl/ifbsf] a}7s ;DaGwL sfo{ljlw M -!_ kl/ifbsf] a}7s cWoIfn] tf]s]sf] ldlt, ;do / :yfgdf a:g]5 . -@_ kl/ifbsf] ;Dk"0f{ ;b:o ;+Vofsf] sDtLdf krf; k|ltzteGbf a9L ;b:ox? pkl:yt ePdf kl/ifbsf] a}7ssf nflu u0fk"/s ;+Vof k'u]sf] dflgg]5 . -#_ kl/ifbsf] a}7ssf] cWoIftf cWoIfn] ug]{5 / lghsf] cg'kl:yltdf ;b:ox?n] cfkm"dWo]af6 5fg]sf] JolQmn] a}7ssf] cWoIftf ug]{5 . -$_ kl/ifbsf] lg0f{o kl/ifbsf] ;b:o–;lrjåf/f k|dfl0ft ul/g]5 . -%_ kl/ifbsf] a}7s ;DaGwL cGo sfo{ljlw kl/ifb cfkm}+n] lgwf{/0f u/] adf]lhd x'g]5 . ^= pkef]Qmfsf] clwsf/sf] ;+/If0f tyf ;Dj4{g M -!_ pkef]Qmfsf] xs lxt ;+/If0f ug]{ k|of]hgsf] lgldQ k|To]s pkef]QmfnfO{ b]xfosf clwsf/x? k|fKt x'g]5g M– -s_ hLp, Hofg, :jfYo tyf ;DklQdf xfgL k'¥ofpg] pkef]Uo j:t' tyf ;]jfsf] laqmL ljt/0faf6 ;'/lIft x'g kfpg] clwsf/, -v_ cg'lrt Jofkfl/s s[ofsnfkaf6 ;'/lIft x'gsf] lgldQ pkef]Uo j:t' tyf ;]jfsf] d"No, u'0f, kl/df0f, z'4tf, u'0f:t/ cflb af/] ;"lrt x'g] clwsf/, -u_ oyf;Dej k|lt:kwf{Tds d"Nodf pkef]Uo j:t' tyf ;]jfsf] 5gf}6 ug{ kfpg] cj;/df ljZj:t x'g] clwsf/, -3_ pkef]Qmfsf] xs lxt ;+/If0fsf ;DaGwdf pko'Qm lgsfoaf6 ;'g'jfO{ x'G5 eGg] s'/fdf ljZj:t x'g] clwsf/, -ª_ cg'lrt Jofkfl/s s[ofsnfkaf6 pkef]Qmfx?df x'g] zf]if0f tyf dsf{sf] lj?4 ;'g'jfO{ / Ifltk"lt{ kfpg] clwsf/, /
  • -r_ pkef]Qmf lzIffsf] clwsf/ . -@_ pkbkmf -!_ df plNnlvt pkef]Qmfsf] clwsf/sf] ;+/If0f tyf ;Da4{g ug]{ jftfj/0fsf] ;[hgf ug{sf] lgldQ g]kfn ;/sf/n] kl/ifbnfO{ cfjZos lgb]{zg lbg]5 . &= dfu, cfk"lt{ jf d"Nodf k|lts"n k|efj kfg{ gx'g] M s;}n] klg s'g} JolQm;Fu ldnL b]xfosf s'g} sfd u/L s'g} pkef]Uo j:t' jf ;]jfsf] dfu, cfk"lt{ jf d"Nodf k|lts"n k|efj kfg{ x'b}g M– -s_ s'g} pkef]Uo j:t'sf] nflu rflxg] sRrf kbfy{sf] sf]6f lgwf{/0f u/L jf s'g} pkef]Uo j:t'sf] pTkfbg 36fpg jf To:t} cGo s'g} sfd u/L, -v_ s'g} pkef]Uo j:t' jf ;]jf ;l~rt u/L jf cGo tj/n] s[lqd cefj v8f u/L jf lgwf{l/t ;do jf :yfgdf dfq dTo:tf] j:t' jf ;]jf laqmL ljt/0f ug]{ u/L jf To:t} cGo s'g} sfd u/L . *= pkef]Uo j:t' jf ;]jfsf] cfk"lt{nfO{ Jojl:yt tyf lgolGqt ug]{ clwsf/ M -!_ pkef]Qmfsf] xs lxt ;+/If0f ug{sf] lgldQ pkef]Uo j:t' jf ;]jfsf] cfk"lt{nfO{ Jojl:yt, lgolGqt tyf lgoldt ug{ g]kfn ;/sf/n] b]xfo adf]lhdsf] clwsf/ k|of]u ug]{5 M– -s_ pkef]Uo j:t' jf ;]jfsf] u'0f:t/, d"No lgwf{/0f / cfk"lt{ Joj:yf ;DaGwL gLlt lgdf{0f ug]{, -v_ pkef]Qmfsf] xs lxtdf k|lts"n c;/ kfg]{ lsl;dsf Psflwsf/ tyf cg'lrt Jofkfl/s s[ofsnfknfO{ cg'udg, /f]syfd / lgoGq0f ug]{ ;DaGwdf sfo{ of]hgf agfO{ pQm sfo{ of]hgf sfof{Gjog ug]{, -u_ b]z leq vkt x'g] pkef]Uo j:t'sf] dfu / cfk"lt{ l:yltsf] ljZn]if0f tyf ;dLIff ug]{, -3_ pkef]Uo j:t'sf] pTkfbs, laqm]tf jf ljt/sx?n] cjfl~5t tl/sfn] u/]sf] d"No j[l4nfO{ /f]Sg cfjZos Joj:yf ug]{, -ª_ pkef]Uo j:t'sf] s[lqd jf cg'ko'Qm tj/n] cefj ;[hgf ug]{ lsl;dsf cg'lrt Jofkfl/s s[ofsnfknfO{ xtf]T;flxt ug]{ .
  • -@_ pkef]Qmfsf] xs lxt ;+/If0f, cfk"lt{ Joj:yf lgoldt / pkef]Uo j:t' tyf ;]jfsf] d"No Pj+ u'0f:t/ lgoGq0f ;DaGwL Joj:yfx?sf] k|efjsf/L 9+uaf6 sfof{Gjog ug{ g]kfn ;/sf/n] cfjZos Joj:yf ug]{5 . (= pkef]Uo j:t'df pNn]v ug'{kg]{ s'/fx? M pTkfbsn] pkef]Uo j:t'sf] n]andf b]xfosf s'/fx? clgjfo{ ?kdf pNn]v ug'{ kg]{5 M– -s_ pTkfbssf] gfd, 7]ufgf / pBf]usf] btf{ gDa/ . -v_ vfB kbfy{ / cf}iflw h:tf pkef]Uo j:t'df pQm j:t'sf] ld>0f, To;sf] kl/df0f / tf}n . -u_ u'0f:t/ lgwf{/0f ePsf] pkef]Uo j:t'df ;f] j:t'sf] u'0f:t/ -3_ pkef]Uo j:t' pkef]u ug]{ tl/sf / ;f] j:t' pkef]u u/]af6 x'g ;Sg] k|efj . -ª_ pkef]Uo j:t'sf] d"No, Aofr gDa/, pTkfbg ldlt / pkef]usf] Dofb ;lsg] ldlt . -r_ On]S6«f]lgs, xf8{jo/ tyf oflGqs h:tf pkef]Uo j:t'df ;f] j:t'sf] Uof/]06L, Uof/]06L ldlt tyf cGo cfjZos s'/fx? . -5_ k|HjngzLn, b'3{6gfhGo jf ;lhn};Fu 6'6km'6 x'g ;Sg] pkef]Uo j:t'df ;f] j:t'sf] ;'/Iffsf] nflu ckgfpg' kg]{ s'/fx? . -h_ tf]lsP adf]lhdsf cGo s'/fx? . !)= pkef]Uo j:t' jf ;]jfsf] ;DaGwdf ug{ gx'g] sfd M s;}n] klg s'g} pkef]Uo j:t' jf ;]jfsf] ;DaGwdf b]xfosf s'g} sfd ug{, u/fpg x'Fb}g M– -s_ sd;n pkef]Uo j:t'sf] pTkfbg, laqmL ljt/0f jf lgsf;L k}7f/L ug{ . -v_ pkef]QmfnfO{ em'Sofpg] u/L s'g} pkef]Uo j:t'sf] gSsn ug{ . -u_ s'g} pkef]Uo j:t' jf ;]jfnfO{ csf]{ pkef]Uo j:t' jf ;]jf xf] egL jf lgDg:t/sf] pkef]Uo j:t' jf ;]jfnfO{ pRr:t/sf] pkef]Uo j:t' jf ;]jf xf] egL 9fF6L jf em'SofO{ laqmL ljt/0f ug{ .
  • -3_ s'g} pkef]Uo j:t' jf ;]jfsf] k|of]u, pkof]lutf jf k|efjsfl/tfsf] ;DaGwdf em'§f jf e|fdfTds k|rf/ k|;f/ jf lj1fkg ug]{ lsl;dn] cg'lrt Jofkfl/s s[ofsnfk ug{ . -ª_ pkef]Qmfsf] :jf:Yodf k|lts"n c;/ kg]{ lsl;dsf pkef]Uo j:t' jf ;]jfsf] pTkfbg jf laqmL ljt/0f ug{ . -r_ tf]lsP adf]lhdsf cGo sfdx? Ug{ . !!= pkef]Uo j:t' jf ;]jfsf] u'0f:t/ M -!_ s'g} pkef]Uo j:t' jf ;]jfdf s'g} kbfy{sf] u'0f:t/ jf dfqf s'g kl/lw leqsf] x'g' kg]{5 eGg] s'/fsf] lgwf{/0f ePsf] /x]5 eg] g]kfn ;/sf/n] To:tf] j:t' jf ;]jfsf] u'0f:t/sf] lgwf{/0f tf]lsP adf]lhdsf] k|lqmof k"/f u/L ug]{5 . -@_ pkbkmf -!_ adf]lhd s'g} pkef]Uo j:t' jf ;]jfsf] u'0f:t/ lgwf{/0f ul/Psf] s'/fsf] ;"rgf g]kfn ;/sf/n] g]kfn /fhkqdf ;"rgf k|sfzg ug'{ kg]{5 . !@= d"No ;"rL /fVg' kg]{ M laqm]tfn] laqmL ljt/0f ug]{ k|To]s pkef]Uo j:t'sf] yf]s / v'b|f d"No :ki6 ?kdf c+lst d"No ;"rL laqmL :yndf ;a}n] b]Vg] 7fpFdf /fVg' kg]{5 . !#= g]kfn ;/sf/n] hfFra'em / lg/LIf0f ug{ ;Sg] M -!_ s;}n] pkef]Qmfsf] xs lxtdf k|lts"n c;/ kfg]{ lsl;dn] cg'lrt Jofkfl/s s[ofsnfk ul//x]sf] Psflwsf/ sfod u/L jf cGo s'g} tl/sfåf/f pkef]Uo j:t' jf ;]jfsf] d"No tyf cfk"lt{ Joj:yfnfO{ k|efljt kfg]{ sfd ul//x]sf] jf sd;n pkef]Uo j:t'sf] pTkfbg jf laqmL ljt/0f ul//x]sf] jf of] P]g jf o; P]g cGtu{t ag]sf] lgod ljk/Lt sfd sf/afxL eO/x]sf]5 eGg] ljZjf; x'g] dgfl;j sf/0f ePsf g]kfn ;/sf/n] cfjZos hfFra'em / lg/LIf0f ug{, u/fpg ;Sg]5 . -@_ pkbkmf -!_ adf]lhd hfFra'em / lg/LIf0faf6 bf]ifL b]lvPsf pTkfbs, l8n/, Ph]06, laqm]tf, JolQm jf ;+:yfnfO{ g]kfn ;/sf/n] k|rlnt sfg"g adf]lhd cfjZos sf/afxL ug]{5 . !$= lg/LIf0f clws[t lgo'Qm ug{ jf tf]Sg ;Sg] M ahf/ tyf cfk"lt{ Joj:yfnfO{ k|efjsf/L agfO{ pkef]QmfnfO{ plrt d"Nodf :t/o'Qm pkef]Uo j:t' jf ;]jf ;/n ?kdf pknAw u/fpg] sfo{sf] cg'udg ug{ g]kfn ;/sf/n] tf]lsP adf]lhd lg/LIf0f clws[tx? lgo'Qm ug{ jf lg/LIf0f clws[tsf] ?kdf sfd ug{ s'g} clws[t sd{rf/LnfO{ tf]Sg ;Sg]5 .
  • !%= lg/LIf0f clws[tn] lg/LIf0f, hfFra'em jf vfgtnf;L ug{ ;Sg] M -!_ s'g} 7fpFdf ;'/lIft, c;/o'Qm jf u'0f:t/ gePsf] pkef]Uo j;t'sf] pTkfbg jf laqmL ljt/0f eO/x]sf] jf ;]jf k|bfg u/]sf] jf P]g jf o; P]g cGtu{t ag]sf] lgod ljk/Lt s'g} sfd sfdsf/afxL eO/x]sf]5 eGg] ljZjf; x'g] dgfl;a sf/0f ePdf lg/LIf0f clws[tn] To:tf] 7fpFdf lg/LIf0f, hfFra'em jf vfgtnf;L ug{ ;Sg]5 . -@_ pkbkmf -!_ adf]lhd lg/LIf0f, hfFra'em jf vfgtnf;L ubf{ ;'/lIft, c;/o'Qm jf u'0f:t/ gePsf] pkef]Uo j:t'sf] pTkfbg jf laqmL ljt/0f eO/x]sf] jf ;]jf k|bfg u/]sf] jf of] P]g jf o; P]g cGtu{t ag]sf] lgod ljk/Lt sfd sf/afxL eO/x]sf] b]lvPdf lg/LIf0f clws[tn] To:tf] pkef]Uo j:t'sf] tf]lsP adf]lhd gd"gf lnO{ tf]lsPsf] cjlwsf] nflu To:tf] pkef]Uo j:t'sf] pTkfbg jf laqmL ljt/0f ug{ jf ;]jf k|bfg ug{ /f]s nufpg]5 . -#_ pkbkmf -@_ adf]lhd lg/LIf0f clws[tn] u/]sf] sfd sf/afxL ;DaGwL k|ltj]bg tLg lbgleq g]kfn ;/sf/ ;dIf k]z ug'{ kg]{5 . -$_ lg/LIf0f clws[tn] lg/LIf0f, hfFra'em jf vfgtnf;L ubf{ ckgfpg' ug]{ sfo{ljlw tf]lsP adf]lhd x'g]5 . -%_ lg/LIf0f clws[tsf] cGo sfd, st{Jo / clwsf/ tyf lg/LIf0f clws[tn] lbPsf] k|ltj]bg sfof{Gjog ;DaGwL Joj:yf tf]lsP adf]lhd x'g]5 . !^= pkef]Uo j:t'sf] k/LIf0f M lg/LIf0f clws[tn] bkmf !% adf]lhd lnPsf] pkef]Uo j:t'sf] gd"gf k/LIf0fsf] nflu tf]lsPsf] cjlwleq k|of]uzfnfdf k7fpg' kg]{5 . !&= sd;n pkef]Uo j:t' hkmt x'g] M bkmf !^ adf]lhd k/LIf0fsf] nflu k7fOPsf] pkef]Uo j:t'sf] gd"gf k|of]uzfnfdf k/LIf0f x'Fbf sd;n pkef]Uo j:t' 7xl/Pdf ;DalGwt pkef]Uo j:t'x? hkmt x'g]5g . !*= ;hfo M b]xfosf] sfd sf/afxL ug]{ u/fpg]nfO{ s;"/sf] dfqf x]/L b]xfo adf]lhd ;hfo x'g]5 M– -s_ bkmf & ljk/Lt sfd sf/afxL ug]{ u/fpg]nfO{ tLg jif{;Dd s}b jf krf; xhf/ ?k}ofF;Dd h/Ljfgf jf b'j} ;hfo .
  • -v_ bkmf ( sf] •=========== v08 -s_ ljk/Lt sfd sf/afxL ug]{ u/fpg]nfO{ b'O{ jif{;Dd s}b jf tL; xhf/ ?k}ofF;Dd hl/jfgf jf b'j} ;hfo . -u_ bkmf !) sf] v08 -s_ ljk/Lt sfd sf/afxL ug]{ u/fpg]nfO{ tLg jif{;Dd s}b jf krf; xhf/ ?k}ofF;Dd hl/jfgf jf b'j} ;hfo . -3_ bkmf !) sf] v08 -v_, -u_ / -3_ ljk/Lt sfd sf/afxL ug]{ u/fpg]nfO{ kfFr jif{;Dd s}b jf Ps nfv ?k}ofF;Dd hl/jfgf jf b'j} ;hfo . -ª_ bkmf !) sf] v08 -ª_ ljk/Lt sfd sf/afxL ug]{ u/fpg]nfO{ b]xfo adf]lhd ;hfo x'g]5 M– -!_ HofgnfO{ vt/f k'Ug] ePdf rf}w jif{;Dd s}b jf kfFr nfv ?k}ofF;Dd hl/jfgf jf b'j} ;hfo . -@_ z/L/sf] s'g} cËsf] zlQm IfL0f jf x/0f x'g ;Sg] ePdf bz jif{;Dd s}b jf kfFr nfv ?k}ofF;Dd hl/jfgf jf b'j} ;hfo . -#_ cGo cj:yfdf kfFr jif{;Dd s}b jf tLg nfv ?k}ofF;Dd hl/jfgf jf b'j} ;hfo . -r_ dfly plNnlvt sfd sf/afxL afx]s of] P]g jf o; P]g cGtu{t ag]sf] lgod ljk/Lt cGo sfd sf/afxL ug]{ u/fpg]nfO{ b'O{ jif{;Dd s}b jf Psnfv ?k}ofF;Dd hl/jfgf jf b'j} ;hfo . !(= g]kfn ;/sf/ jfbL x'g] M o; P]g cGtu{tsf] d'2f g]kfn ;/sf/ jfbL x'g]5 . @)= d'2fsf] txlssft / bfo/L M -!_ o; P]g adf]lhd ;hfo x'g] s;"/ ;DaGwL d'2fsf] txlssft lg/LIf0f clws[tn] ug]{5 / To:tf] txlssftsf] sfd k"/f ePsf] k}+lt; lbgleq ;DalGwt lhNnf cbfnt ;dIf d'2f bfo/ ug'{ kg]{5 . -@_ pkbkmf -!_ adf]lhd d'2f txlssft / bfo/ ubf{ lg/LIf0f clws[tn] ;/sf/L jsLnsf] /fo lng ;Sg]5 / To:tf] d'2fsf] k|lt/Iff ;/sf/L jsLnaf6 x'g]5 . @!= ;+lIfKt sfo{ljlw ckgfpg' kg]{ M o; P]g cGtu{t bfo/ ePsf] d'2fsf] sf/afxL / lsgf/f ubf{ ;+lIfKt sfo{ljlw P]g, @)@* adf]lhdsf] sfo{ljlw ckgfpg' kg]{5 . • s]xL g]kfn P]g ;+zf]wg ug]{ P]g, @)%% åf/f lemlsPsf] .
  • @@= Ifltk"lt{sf] bfaL ug{ ;Sg] M o; P]gsf] ljk/Lt x'g] u/L pkef]Uo j:t' jf ;]jf laqmL ljt/0f jf k|bfg u/]sf] sf/0faf6 s'g} pkef]QmfnfO{ s'g} klg lsl;dsf] xfgL gf]S;fgL x'g uPdf To:tf] pkef]Qmfsf] tkm{af6 s'g} pkef]Qmf ;+:yfn] To:tf] pkef]Uo j:t' jf ;]jf laqmL ljt/0f jf k|bfg ug]{ JolQmaf6 Ifltk"lt{ e/fO{ kfpF egL Ifltk"lt{ ;ldlt ;dIf To;/L xfgL gf]S;fgL k'u]sf] k}+tL; lbgleq ph'/L ug{ ;Sg]5 . @#= Ifltk"lt{ ;ldlt M -!_ bkmf @@ adf]lhd k/]sf] ph'/L pk/ 5fglag u/L pkef]QmfnfO{ k'Ug uPsf] xfgL gf]S;fgL afkt Ifltk"lt{ lbnfpgsf] lgldQ k|To]s lhNnfdf b]xfo adf]lhd Ps Ifltk"lt{ ;ldltsf] u7g x'g]5 M– -s_ k|d'v lhNnf clwsf/L – cWoIf -v_ lhNnfGofolwjQmf – ;b:o -u_ lhNnf d]l8sn clws[t – ;b:o -3_ g]kfn ;/sf/n] tf]s]sf] lhNnf pkef]Qmf ;+:yfsf] k|ltlglw – ;b:o -ª_ k|ltlglw, lhNnf pBf]u jfl0fHo ;+3 – ;b:o -r_ g]kfn ;/sf/n] tf]s]sf] cles[t – ;b:o–;lrj -@_ Ifltk"lt{ ;ldltn] Ifltk"lt{sf ;DaGwdf k/]sf] ph'/Ldf tf]lsPsf] cjlwleq lg0f{o ug'{ kg]{5 / ;f] lg0f{o ubf{ ckgfpg' kg]{ sfo{ljlw tf]lsP adf]lhd x'g]5 . @$= Ifltk"lt{ lbnfpg] M bkmf @@ adf]lhd Ifltk"lt{sf] lgldQ k/]sf] ph'/L pk/ 5fglag u/L Ifltk"lt{ ;ldltn] pkef]QmfnfO{ xfgL gf]S;fgL k'Ug uPsf] 7x/ u/]df xfgL gf]S;fgLsf] cfwf/df Ifltk"lt{ afktsf] /sd pkef]Qmf jf lghsf] xsjfnfnfO{ lbnfpg]5 . @%= k'g/fj]bg M bkmf @$ adf]lhd Ifltk"lt{ ;ldltn] u/]sf] lg0f{o pk/ lrQ ga'emg] JolQmn] ;f] lg0f{o ePsf] ldltn] k}+tL; lbgleq ;DalGwt k'g/fj]bg cbfntdf k'g/fj]bg ug{ ;Sg]5 . @^= k|rlnt sfg"g adf]lhd d'2f rnfpg ;lsg] M o; P]g adf]lhd s;"/ 7xl/g] sfd sf/afxL cGo k|rlnt sfg"g cGtu{t klg s;"/ 7xl/g] /x]5 eg] pQm k|rlnt sfg"g adf]lhd d'2f rnfpg o; P]gn] afwf k'¥ofPsf] dflgg] 5}g . @&= pk;ldlt u7g ug{ ;Sg] M -!_ o; P]gsf] p2]Zo k"lt{sf] nflu g]kfn ;/sf/ jf kl/ifbn] cfjZos pk;ldltx? U7g ug{ ;Sg]5 .
  • -@_ pkbkmf -!_ adf]lhd ul7t pk;ldltx?sf] sfd, st{Jo, clwsf/ / sfo{ljlw g]kfn ;/sf/ jf kl/ifbn] tf]lslbP adf]lhd x'g]5 . @*= clwsf/ k|Tofof]hg M g]kfn ;/sf/ jf kl/ifbn] o; P]g adf]lhd cfkm"nfO{ k|fKt clwsf/x? dWo] cfjZostfcg';f/ s]xL clwsf/ bkmf @& adf]lhd ul7t pk;ldlt jf s'g} clws[t sd{rf/LnfO{ k|Tofof]hg ug{ ;Sg]5 . @(= c;n lgotn] u/]sf] sfdsf] arfp M lg/LIf0f clws[t, Ifltk"lt{ ;ldlt jf g]kfn ;/sf/n] s'g} sd{rf/Ln] of] P]g jf o; P]g cGtu{t ag]sf] lgod adf]lhd cfˆgf] st{Jo kfng ubf{ c;n lgotn] u/]sf] sfd sf/jfxL k|lt lgh JolQmut ?kn] hjfkmb]xL x'g] 5}g . #)= lgod agfpg ;Sg] M o; P]gsf] p2]Zo k"lt{sf] nflu g]kfn ;/sf/n] cfjZos lgodx? agfpg ;Sg]5 . ========================================================= b|i6Jo M s]xL g]kfn P]g ;+;f]wg ug]{ P]g, @)%% åf/f ?kfGt/ ePsf zAbx? M– ælhNnf ;/sf/L clwjQmfÆ sf] ;§f ælhNnfGofolwjQmfÆ .