Nepal van ain

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Nepal van ain

  1. 1. jg P]g, @)$( nfndf] x/ / k| sfzg ldlt @)$(.!).% ;+ zf] wg ug{ ag]s f] P] g != jg -klxnf] ;+ zf] wg_ P] g, @)%% @)%%.!).@! @)$( ;fnsf] P] g g+= $( jg h·nsf] ;+/ If0f / ;' Joj:yf ug{ ag]sf] P]g k| :tfjgf M ;j{ ;fwf/0f hgtfsf] cfwf/e" t cfjZostf k" /f ug{ , ;fdflhs tyf cfly{ s ljsf; ug{ tyf :j:y jftfj/0fsf] k| j 4{g ug{ / /fli6« o jgnfO{ ;/sf/åf/f Jojl:yt jg, ;+ /lIft jg, ;fd'bflos jg, sa'lnotL jg / wfld{ s jgsf] ?kdf Joj:yfkg u/L jgsf] ljsf;, ;+/ If0f tyf jg k}bfjf/sf] ;b' kof] u ug{ / lghL jgsf] ;+ /If0f / ljsf;df ;xof] u k'¥ofpg jf~5gLo ePsf] n], >L % dxf/fhflw/fh jL/] Gb| jL/ ljqmd zfxb] jsf] zf;gsfnsf] PSsfO;f}+ jif{ df ;+ ;bn] of] P]g agfPsf] 5 . kl/R5]b – ! k| f/lDes != ;+lIfKt gfd / k|f/De M -!_ o; P] gsf] gfd æjg P]g, @)$(Æ /x]s f]5 . -@_ of] P]g g] kfn ;/sf/n] g] kfn /fhkqdf ;" rgf k|sflzt u/L tf]l slbPsf] ldltb]lv k| f/De x'g]5 . ` @= kl/efiff M ljifo jf k| ;·n] csf]{ cy{ gnfu] df o; P]g df,– -s_ æjgÆ eGgfn] k"0 f{ jf cf+lzs ?kdf ?vx?n] 9flsPsf] If] q ;D´g' k5{ . -v_ æjg l;dfgf lrGxÆ eGgfn] /fli6« o jgsf] l;dfgf 5' 6o fpg nufOPsf] sf7, 9' ·f, l;d]G 6 jf c? s'g} j:t's f] vDaf jf lrGxk6 ;D´g' k5{ / ;f] zAbn] k| rlnt sfg"g adf]l hd hUuf gfkhfF r u/L tof/ u/] s f] gS;fdf cªlst jg l;dfgf lrGx ;d] tnfO{ hgfpg]5 . -u_ æjg k} bfjf/Æ eGgfn] jgdf /x]sf] jf kfOPsf] jf jgaf6 NofOPsf] b]xfosf] k}b fjf/ ;D´g' k5{ M– -!_ sf7, bfp/f, uf] n, v}/ sr, vf] 6f] , sf7sf] t] n, af] qmf, nfxf, lkknf, lkknL, jf ` of] P] g ldlt @)%! ;fn r} q @) ut] b] lv k|f /De x' g] u/L tf]l sPsf] -g]kfn /fhkq ldlt @)%!.!@.@)_ . 1
  2. 2. -@_ ?v, kft, kmn, km" n, df}j f, lr/fOtf] , s' 6sL / ;a} k|s f/sf h·nL h8La" 6L, jg:ktL tyf tLgsf ljleGg efu jf c·, jf -#_ r§fg, df6f], 9' ·f, lu§L, afn' j f, jf -$_ kz' kG5L, jGohGt' / kz' kG5L jf jGohGt' sf] cfv] 6f] kxf/ . -3_ æsfo{ of] hgfÆ eGgfn] jftfj/0fLo ;Gt'ng sfod /fvL jgsf] ljsf;, ;+/If0f tyf jg k}bfjf/sf] pkof]u / laqmL ljt/0f ug{ tof/ ul/Psf] / o; P]g adf]l hd :jLs[ t jg;DaGwL sfo{ of]hgf ;D´g' k5{ . -ª_ æ/fli6« o jgÆ eGgfn] lghL jg afx] s g]kfn clw/fHo leqsf] jg l;dfgf nufOPsf] jf gnufOPsf] ;a} jg ;D´g' kb{5 / ;f] zAbn] jgn] 3]l/Psf] jf jgsf] 5]p5fpdf /x]s f] ktL{ jf P] nfgL hUuf tyf jgleq /x] sf af6f] , kf] v/L, tfn jf vf] nfgfnf / au/ ;d] tnfO{ hgfpF 5 . -r_ æ;/sf/åf/f Jojl:yt jgÆ eGgfn] kl/R5]b –# adf]lhd g] kfn ;/sf/n] Joj:yfkg ug]{ /fli6«o jg ;D´g' k5{ . -5_ æ;+/lIft jgÆ eGgfn] ljz]i f jftfj/0fLo, j}1 flgs jf ;f+: s[l ts dxŒ jsf] 7fgL g]kfn ;/sf/n] of] P] g adf]l hd ;+/lIft jgsf] ?kdf 3f]lift u/]s f] /fli6«o jg ;D´g' k5{ . -h_ æ;fd' bflos jgÆ eGgfn] ;fd"l xs lxtsf] nflu jgsf] ljsf;, ;+/If0f / pkof] u ug{ bkmf @% adf]lhd pkef] Qmf ;d"xnfO{ ;'lDkPsf] /fli6« o jg ;D´g' k5{ . -´_ æsa'l notL jgÆ eGgfn] bkmf #! df pNn]l vt p2] Zox?sf] nflu k|rlnt sfg" g adf]l hd :yflkt s' g} ;+ :yf, jg k}b fjf/df cfwfl/t pBf] u jf ;d' bfonfO{ bkmf #@ adf]l hd sa'l notL jgsf] ?kdf k|b fg ul/Psf] /fli6«o jg ;D´g' k5{ . -`_ æwfld{ s jgÆ eGgfn] jgsf] ljsf;, ;+/If0f / pkof] u ug{ bkmf #% adf]l hd s' g} wfld{s lgsfo, ;d" x jf ;d'bfonfO{ ;'lDkPsf] /fli6«o jg ;D´g' k5{ . -6_ ælghL jgÆ eGgfn] k| rlnt sfg"g adf]l hd s' g} JolQmsf] xs k'Ug] lghL hUufdf nufO{ x' s f{ Psf] jf ;+ /If0f ul/Psf] jg ;D´g' k5{ . -7_ ædGqfnoÆ eGgfn] g] kfn ;/sf/ jg tyf e" –;+/If0f dGqfno ;D´g' k5{ . -8_ æljefuÆ eGgfn] g] kfn ;/sf/sf] jg ljefu ;D´g' k5{ . 2
  3. 3. -9_ ælhNnf jg clws[ tÆ eGgfn] lhNnf jg sfof{ nosf] k| d'v ;D´g' k5{ . -0f_ æjg clws[ tÆ eGgfn] ljefu / cGtu{ tsf sfof{ nox?df vl6Psf ;a} txsf /fhkqf+l st k| fljlws sd{ rf/Lx? ;D´g' k5{ . -t_ æjg ;xfosÆ eGgfn] /fhkqcg+lst k|fljlws sd{ rf/Lx? ;D´g' k5{ . -y_ æ;ldltÆ eGgfn] bkmf ( adf]l hd ul7t ;ldlt ;D´g' k5{ . -b_ æpkef] Qmf ;d"x Æ eGgfn] ;fd' bflos jgsf] Joj:yf tyf pkof] u ug{ bkmf $@ adf]l hd btf{ ePsf] pkef] Qmf ;d" x ;D´g' k5{ . -w_ æjg;DaGwL k§fÆ eGgfn] bkmf #@ cGtu{t k| bfg ul/Psf] k§f ;D´g' k5{ . -g_ æk§fjfnfÆ eGgfn] bkmf #@ adf]l hd jg;DaGwL k§f k| fKt ug]{ JolQm ;D´g' k5{ . -k_ æcf} hf/Æ eGgfn] jg If]q df cfjfb jf vghf] t ug{ k|o f] u ul/g] ;a} lsl;dsf s[lif cf} hf/ tyf ?v la?jf tf5g], sf6g] , v's'/ L, a~r/f], cf/f tyf d] zLg ;d] t ;D´g' k5{ . -km_ æaf]´ jfxsÆ eGgfn] uf8f, 6« s , nx/L, df] 6/, 6]«S 6/, gfp, 8' ·f jf jg k}b fjf/ nflb Nofpg] o:t} cGo ;fwg jf hgfj/ ;D´g' k5{ . -a_ ærf} kfofÆ eGgfn] h'g;' s} hftsf] kfNt' rf/v' §] hgfj/ ;D´g' k5{ . -e_ æ6fF rfÆ eGgfn] sf7 jf v8f ?vdf nufOg] 5fk, lrGx jf lgzfgf ;D´g' k5{ . -d_ ætf]l sPsf]Æ jf ætf]lsP adf]l hdÆ eGgfn] o; P] g cGtu{ t ag]sf] lgodx?df tf]lsPsf] jf tf]lsP adf]l hd ;D´g' k5{ . kl/R5]b – @ /fli6«o jgsf] ;Ldf lgwf{/ 0f / cGo Joj:yf #= jg l;dfgf M lhNnf jg clws[ tn] o; kl/R5] bdf n]lvPsf] s'/fx?sf cwLgdf /xL ;DalGwt lhNnfsf] /fli6«o jgsf] l;dfgf 5' 6ofO{ jg l;dfgf lrGx nufpg ;Sg]5 . $= hUuf k|f Kt ug]{ ;"rgf M -!_ bkmf # adf]l hd /fli6« o jgsf] l;dfgf 5' 6ofpFbf ;f] jg jf To;sf] l;dfgfsf] ;+ /If0fsf] lgldQ lhNnf jg clws[ tn] ;f] jg leqsf] jf ;f] jgsf] l;dfgf;+ u hf]l 8Psf] ;fj{ hlgs jf s'g} JolQmsf] lghL hUuf / ;f] hUufdf ag]s f] 3/, 5fk|f] ;d] t jgsf] l;dfgfleq kf/L 5' 6o fpg kg]{ ePdf ;f] sf] sf/0f / To:tf hUuf k| fKt ug]{ s'/fsf] ;fj{ hlgs ;" rgf ;DalGwt JolQmsf] 3/ b} nf] / ufpF ljsf; ;ldlt jf 3
  4. 4. gu/kflnsfsf] sfof{ no, dfn jf dfnkf] t sfof{ nodf / ;f] hUuf ePsf] :yfgdf ;a} n] b] Vg] u/L 6fF ; ug{' kg]{ 5 . -@_ pkbkmf -!_ adf]l hdsf] ;" rgfdf b]x fosf s'/fx? ;d] t v' nfpg' kg]{5 M– -s_ k| fKt ul/g] hUuf jf 3/sf] If]qkmn / rf/ lsNnf tyf hUufsf] lsl;d, -v_ To:tf] hUufdf xsb} of ePsf] jf ef] urng ul//x] s f ;/f] sf/jfnf JolQmx?n] of] ;" rgf 6fF ; ePsf] jf hfgsf/L kfPsf] ldltn] af6f] sf] Dofb afx] s ;Q/L lbg leq lhNnf jg clws[ t ;dIf cfkmgf] xsef] usf] k| df0f ;lxt Ifltk"l t{ sf] dfu bfjL u/L bvf{: t lbg cfpg' / ;f] Dofb leq bvf{:t lbg gcfPdf kl5 s'g} ph'/ nfUg] 5}g eGg] s'/ f . %= 3/ hUuf k|f Kt ug]{ s'/fdf ph'/ ug{ M -!_ ug] bkmf $ sf] pkbkmf -!_ adf]l hd 3/ hUuf k| fKt ul/g] s' /fsf] ;" rgf 6fF; ePsf] d f ;f] ;" rgfdf lrQ ga'‰g] ;/f]s f/jfnf JolQmn] ;f] ;" rgf 6fF; ePsf] ldltn] af6f] sf] Dofb afx] s k}+ tL; lbgleq ;ldlt ;dIf ph'/ lbg ;Sg]5 . -@_ pkbkmf -!_ adf]l hd k/] s f] ph' /Ldf cfjZos hfF ra'´ u/L ;ldltn] lg0f{o ug]{ 5 . -#_ pkbkmf -@_ adf]l hd ;ldltn] u/]s f] lg0f{o pk/ lrQ ga' ‰g] JolQmn] To:tf] lg0f{osf] ;" rgf kfPsf] ldltn] k}+ tL; lbgleq k'g/fj]b g cbfntdf k'g/fj]b g lbg ;Sg]5 . ^= Ifltk"lt{ /sd M -!_ o; kl/R5] b cGtu{ t k| fKt ul/g] 3/ hUuf afkt lbOg] Ifltk"l t{sf] /sd lgwf{/0f ubf{ ;ldltn] b]x fosf s'/ fx? larf/ u/L lgwf{/0f ug{' kg]{ 5 M– -s_ bkmf $ sf] pkbkmf -!_ cGtu{ t ;" rgf hf/L ePsf ldltdf ufpF ahf/df rn]sf b/n] ;f] 3/ hUufsf] df] n, -v_ ;f] hUufdf ePsf] v8f afnL / ?v ;d] t lng] eP ;/f] sf/jfnf JolQmn] Aoxf]g{' kg]{ gf]S ;fgL, -u_ ;/f] sf/jfnf JolQmnfO{ cfÇgf] a;f]a f; jf ;/f] sf/sf] 7fpF 5f] 8L cGt hfg s/ nfu]d f To;/L hfFb f Joxf]g{' kg]{ dgfl;a dflkmssf] vr{ . -@_ pkbkmf -!_ adf]l hd Ifltk"l t{ sf] /sd lgwf{ /0f ePkl5 lhNnf jg clws[ tn] To:tf] /sd lng cfpg' egL ;/f] s f/jfnfnfO{ ;" rgf lbg' kg]{5 . 4
  5. 5. -#_ pkbkmf -@_ adf]l hdsf] ;" rgf kfPsf] ldltn] k}+ tL; lbgleq Ifltk"l t{sf] /sddf lrQ ga' ‰g] JolQmn] dGqfno ;dIf k'g/fj]bg ug{ ;Sg] 5 . To:tf] k'g/fj] bgdf dGqfnoaf6 ePsf] lg0f{o clGtd x' g]5 . -$_ pkbkmf -@_ adf]l hdsf] ;" rgf kfPsf] jf pkbkmf -#_ adf]l hd lg0f{o ePsf] ldltn] kfF r jif{l eq pQm Ifltk"lt{ sf] /sd lng gcfPdf ;f] /sd ;l~rt sf]i fdf hDdf x'g]5 . &= Ifltk"lt{ lbg] M bkmf ^ sf] pkbkmf -!_ adf]l hd lgwf{/0f ul/Psf] Ifltk"l t{s f] /sd lhNnf jg clws[ tn] ;/f] s f/jfnf JolQmnfO{ ;/sf/L sf]ifaf6 lbg' kg]{ 5 . *= hUuf sAhfdf lng M bkmf ^ sf] pkbkmf -@_ adf]l hd Ifltk"l t{ sf] /sd lgwf{/0f ePsf] lng] ;" rgf lbPkl5 pQm 3/ hUuf lhNnf jg clws[ tn] sAhfdf lng ;Sg]5 / ;f] ldltb]lv pQm 3/ hUuf g] kfn ;/sf/sf] x'g] 5 . (= ;ldltsf] u7g M o; kl/R5] bsf] k|o f] hgsf] nflu k| To] s lhNnfdf b]x fo adf]l hdsf] Ps ;ldlt u7g x' g]5 M– -s_ k| d'v lhNnf clwsf/L – cWoIf -v_ lhNnf ljsf; ;ldltn] tf] s]sf] ;b:o – ;b:o -u_ ;DalGwt ufpF ljsf; ;ldltsf] cWoIf jf gu/kflnsfsf] k|d' v – ;b:o -3_ dfnkf] t clws[ t – ;b:o -ª_ lhNnf ;/sf/L clwjQmf – ;b:o -r_ lhNnf l:yt d] G 6Lg]G ; gfkL zfvfsf k|d' v – ;b:o -5_ lhNnf jg clws[ t jf lghn] tf]lslbPsf] jg clws[ t –;b:o–;lrj !)= ;/hdLg a'‰g] M lhNnf jg clws[ tn] cfjZos k/]d f k| fKt ul/g] 3/ jf hUufdf xsb} of k'Ug] JolQmsf] c+lzof/, 7]s bf/, aGwsL ;fx' jf ;f] hUuf sdfpg] JolQm / ;f] hUufsf] kl5Nnf] tLg jif{ sf] s" t, lt/f] jf d'gfkmf af/] ;/hdLg a' ‰g ;Sg]5 . !!= /fli6«o jgsf] l;dfgfleq lghL hUuf kfg{ / k|fKt ug{df k|ltaGw M o; kl/R5] bdf cGoq h'g;'s} s'/ f n]l vPsf] ePtfklg s'g} lghL 3/ jf hUuf /fli6« o jgsf] l;dfgfleq kfbf{ jf To:tf] 3/ jf hUuf k| fKt ubf{ b] xfodf n]l vPsf] s' /fx?sf cwLgdf /xL ug{' kg]{5 M– -s_ /fli6«o jg aflx/ /Ltk" j{s btf{ cfjfb e} ;s]sf] lghL hUuf / To:tf] hUufdf 3/ ag]s f] eP ;f] ;d] t /fli6«o jg jf To;sf] l;dfgfsf] ;+/If0fsf nflu k| fKt ug{ 5
  6. 6. cTofjZos ePdf afx]s k| fKt ul/g] 5} g / ;f] adf]lhd k| fKt ubf{ s' g} Ps} JolQmsf] hUuf dWo] t/fO{ df eP b'O{ laufxf / pkTosfdf / kxf8df eP rf/ /f] kgL eGbf a9L hUuf g] kfn ;/sf/sf] k"j{ :jLs[l t a] u/ k| fKt ul/g] 5}g / t/fO{d f kfF r laufxf / pkTosf / kxf8df bz /f] kgL eGbf a9L To:tf] hUuf ;f] hUuf wgLsf] d~h'/ Ln] afx]s s' g} cj:yfdf k| fKt ug{ ;lsg] 5}g . -v_ rf/}l t/ /fli6« o jgn] 3]l /Psf] jf /fli6« o jgleqsf] s'g} JolQmsf] gfddf btf{ e}/fv] sf] 3/ hUuf k| fKt u/L /fli6«o jgsf] l;dfgfleq kf/L 5' 6o fpg ;lsg]5 . !@= k"/} hUuf k|fKt ug{ M o; kl/R5]b adf]l hd hUufsf] s]x L efu lng] sf/jfO{ ubf{ ;f] k| ug] hUufsf] wgLn] k"/} 3/ hUuf g] kfn ;/sf/af6 lnOof] ; egL lgj]bg u/] df / pQm :yfgdf lgj] bssf] s] jn b' O{ ljufxf jf ;f] eGbf sd hUuf /x]5 eg] ;f] hUufsf] s]x L efu dfq lng] ug{ x'Fb}g . k"/} 3/ hUuf o; kl/R5] b adf]l hd u/L lng' kg]{5 . !#= lhNnf jg clws[t / ;ldltnfO{ cbfntsf] clwsf/ x'g] M o; kl/R5]b adf]l hd cfkm" ;dIf k] z x' g cfPsf] s' g} s' /fsf] lg0f{o ug{ sf nflu ;/f]s f/jfnf JolQmx? / lghx?sf ;fIfLx?nfO{ l´sfpg], a' ‰g] , Dofb tf/] v lbg] / lghx?af6 lnvt u/fpg] ;d] t k| rlnt sfg"g adf]l hd cbfntn] kfP ;/xsf] clwsf/ lhNnf jg clws[ t / ;ldlt b' a}nfO{ x'g]5 . !$= lghL hUufsf] nut sf6g]] M -!_ sf6g o; kl/R5]b adf]lhd s' g} JolQmsf] lghL hUuf k| fKt u/L /fli6«o jgleq kf/L 5' 6o fOPkl5 To;/L k| fKt ul/Psf] lghL hUufsf] If] q kmn, ;fF w, lsNnf, df} hf OToflb ;a} ljj/0f vf] nL lhNnf jg clws[ tn] :yfgLo dfn jf dfnkf] t sfof{ nodf hgfp lbg' kg]{ 5 / ;f] adf]lhd dfnkf] t sfof{ non] klg ;f] hUufsf] dfnkf] t jf s/sf] nut s§f ug{ sf/jfxL u/L To;sf] ;" rgf g] kfn ;/sf/, dfnkf] t ljefudf lbg' kg]{ 5 . -@_ pkbkmf -!_ adf]l hd nut s§f x' g] hUufsf] wgLn] ;f] hUuf /fli6«o jgleq kf/L 5' 6ofPsf] ldltb]l v ;f] hUufsf] dfnkf] t jf c? s'g} lsl;dsf] s/ a'´ fpg' kg]{ 5} g . !%= an k|of]u ug{ ;Sg M lhNnf jg clws[ tn] o; kl/R5]b adf]lhd sf/jfO{ ubf{ jf 3/ jf ;Sg] hUuf sAhfdf lnFb f s;} n] afwf lj/f] w u/] df cfjZos an k| of] u u/L sf/jfxL ug{ / 3/ hUuf sAhfdf lng ;Sg]5 . !^= hUuf btf{ ug{ gx'g] M -!_ /fli6«o jgleqsf] hUuf s;} n] klg btf{ ug{ jf u/fpg x'F b}g . 6
  7. 7. -@_ pkbkmf -!_ df n]l vPsf] hUuf btf{ u/fOPsf] ePtfklg ;f] btf{ sf] gftfn] To:tf] hUuf bfjL ug{ kfOg] 5} g / To:tf] btf{ :jtM ab/ x' g]5 . -#_ of] P]g k|f/De x'geGbf cl3 s;} n] /fli6«o jgsf] s'g} efu g] kfn ;/sf/sf] :jLs[l t a]u/ u}/ sfg"gL ?kn] btf{ u/fPsf] /x] 5 eg] To:tf] btf{ klg of] P]g k|f/De ePkl5 :jtM ab/ x'g]5 / To:tf] btf{s f] nut s§f ul/g]5 . !&= /fli6«o jgdf s'g} JolQmnfO{ xs k|f Kt gx'g] M g] kfn ;/sf/ jf g] kfn ;/sf/af6 clwsf/ k| fKt clwsf/Laf6 k§f jf k'l h{ u/L jf c? s'g} k|s f/n] xs jf ;x'l not k| fKt u/]s f] df afx]s s' g} JolQmnfO{ /fli6«o jgdf s'g} lsl;dsf] xs jf ;x'l not k| fKt x'g] 5}g . !*= /fli6«o jgdf xs a]rlavg ug{ gx'g] M g] kfn ;/sf/sf] cfb] z adf]l hd afx] s s'g} JolQmn] /fli6«o jgdf cfkm" n] kfPsf] xs jf ;x'l not c? s;} nfO{ laqmL aGws, bfg bftJo jf ;§f u/L jf c? s'g} k|s f/n] xs 5f8L lbg' x'Fb} g . !(= /fli6«o jgdf af6f], vf]nf aGb ug]{ clwsf/ M g] kfn ;/sf/n] jf g] kfn ;/sf/af6 clwsf/ vf] k| fKt clwsf/Ln] jgsf] ljsf; / ;+/If0fsf] lgldQ /fli6« o jgleq kg]{ hf] ;'s}s f] lghL jf ;fj{ hlgs af6f] jf vf] nf aGb ug{ ;Sg]5 . t/ To;/L aGb ug{' cufj} To;sf] ;§f oyf;Dej TolQs} ;'l jwfhgs csf]{ af6f] jf vf] nf pknJw u/fO{ lbg' kg]{5 . kl/R5]b – # ;/sf/åf/f Jojl:yt jg;DaGwL Joj:yf @)= sfo{ of]hgf M -!_ ;/sf/åf/f Jojl:yt jgsf] Joj:yfkgsf] nflu ljefun] tf]lsP adf]l hd sfo{ of] hgf tof/ u/L :jLs[l tsf] nflu dGqfno ;dIf k] z ug{' kg]{ 5 . -@_ pkbkmf -!_ adf]lhd k]z ePsf] sfo{ of] hgfdf s'g} x]/ km] / ug{ cfjZos b] v]d f dGqfnon] To:tf] sfo{ of] hgf ljefudf lkmtf{ k7fpg ;Sg]5 / cfjZos x] /km]/;lxt ljefuaf6 k|fKt x'g cfPkl5 ;f] sfo{ of] hgf dGqfnon] :jLs[ t ug]{5 . -#_ pkbkmf -@_ adf]lhd :jLs[ t ePsf] sfo{ of] hgf lhNnf jg clws[ tn] cf– cf gf] lhNnfdf nfu" ug]{5 . @!= ;/sf/åf/f Jojl:yt jgdf cGo sfo{ ug{df k|ltaGw M sfo{ of] hgfn] lglb{i 6 u/] s f sfo{ tyf jg ljsf; sfo{ afx]s ;/sf/åf/f Jojl:yt jgdf cGo s' g} klg sfo{ ug{ kfOg] 5}g . 7
  8. 8. @@= ;/sf/åf/f Jojl:yt jgsf] jg k}bfjf/sf] :jfldTj / laqmL ljt/0f M -!_ ;/sf/åf/f Jojl:yt jgsf] jg k} b fjf/df g]kfn ;/sf/sf] :jfldTj /xg] 5 . -@_ pkbkmf -!_ adf]lhdsf] jg k}b fjf/ pkof] u ug{ , x6fpg jf laqmL ljt/0f ug{ , lgsf;L ug{ jf cf];f/k;f/ ug{ tf]lsPsf] clwsf/Ln] tf]lsP adf]l hd Ohfht lbg ;Sg]5 . -#_ pkbkmf -@_ adf]lhd Ohfht lbOg] jg k} b fjf/sf] d"No jf b:t"/ tf]lsP adf]l hd x'g] 5 . kl/R5]b – $ ;+ /lIft jg ;DaGwL Joj:yf @#= ;+/lIft jg M -!_ g]kfn ;/sf/nfO{ /fli6« o jgsf] s' g} efu ljz]i f jftfj/0fLo, a}1flgs jf ;f+: s[l ts dx jsf] jf cGo ljz]i f dx j ePsf] nfu]d f To:tf] /fli6«o jgsf] efunfO{ ;+/lIft jgsf] ?kdf 3f]lift ug{ ;Sg] 5 . -@_ pkbkmf -!_ adf]lhd g] kfn ;/sf/n] /fli6« o jgsf] s' g} efunfO{ ;+/lIft jgsf] ?kdf 3f]lift u/] kl5 To;sf] ;" rgf g] kfn /fhkqdf k|s flzt ug{' kg]{5 . @$= ;+/lIft jgleq jg Joj:yfkg of]hgf M -!_ ;+/lIft jgdf ul/g] jg;DaGwL sfo{x ?sf] Joj:yfkgsf] nflu ljefun] tf]l sP adf]l hd sfo{ of] hgf tof/ u/L :jLs[l tsf] nflu dGqfno ;dIf k]z ug{' kg]{ 5 . -@_ pkbkmf -!_ adf]lhd k]z ePsf] sfo{ of] hgfdf s'g} x]/ km] / ug{ cfjZos b] v]d f dGqfnon] To:tf] sfo{ of] hgf ljefudf lkmtf{ k7fpg ;Sg]5 / cfjZos x] /km]/;lxt ljefuaf6 k|fKt x'g cfPkl5 ;f] sfo{ of] hgf dGqfnon] :jLs[ t ug]{5 . -#_ pkbkmf -@_ adf]lhd :jLs[ t ePsf] sfo{ of] hgf lhNnf jg clws[tn] nfu" ug]{ 5 . -$_ pkbkmf -@_ adf]l hd :jLs[ t ePsf] sfo{ of] hgfnfO{ sfof{G jog ug{s f] nflu tf]lsP adf]l hdsf] cg'dltkq lbg / pQm sfo{ of] hgfnfO{ k| efjsf/L?kdf sfof{ Gjog ug{ cfjZos kg]{ h'g;' s} lsl;dsf ;" rgfx? hf/L ug]{ clwsf/ lhNnf jg clws[ tnfO{ x' g]5 . kl/R5]b – % ;fd'b flos jg;DaGwL Joj:yf 8
  9. 9. @%= ;fd'bflos jg ;'Dkg] M -!_ pkef] Qmf ;d" x n] sfo{ of] hgf adf]l hd jgsf] ljsf;, ;+/ If0f, pkof] u, Joj:yfkg ug{ tyf :jtGq ?kn] jg k} bfjf/sf] d" No lgwf{/0f u/L laqmL ljt/0f ug{ kfpg] u/L lhNnf jg clws[ tn] /fli6« o jgsf] s' g} efu tf]lsP adf]l hd ;fd' bflos jgsf] ?kdf pkef] Qmf ;d"x nfO{ ;' Dkg ;Sg] 5 . To;/L ;fd' bflos jg ;'D kbf lhNnf jg clws[ tn] ;fd'b flos jg x:tfGt/0fsf] k| d f0fkq lbg]5 . -@_ pkbkmf -!_ sf] k|of] hgsf] nflu lhNnf jg clws[ tn] pkef] Qmfx?nfO{ kl/rfng u/L tf]lsP adflhd pkef] Qmf ;d"x u7g ug{ / sfo{ of] hgf tof/ ug{ cfjZos k| fljlws Pj+ cGo ;xof] u pknJw u/fpg ;Sg]5 . @^= sfo{ of]hgfdf ;+zf]wg M -!_ pkef]Qmf ;d"x n] ;fd' bflos jg Joj:yfkg ;DaGwL sfo{o f] hgfdf cfjZostf cg' ;f/ ;dofg' s"n ;+ zf] wg ug{ ;Sg] 5 / To:tf] ;+ z f] wgsf] hfgsf/L lhNnf jg clws[ tnfO{ lbg' kg]{5 . -@_ pkbkmf -!_ adf]l hd pkef] Qmf ;d"x n] sfo{ of] hgfdf u/]sf] ;+ zf] wgn] jftfj/0fdf pNn] vgLo k|l ts" n c;/ kg]{ b]l vPdf lhNnf jg clws[ tn] To:tf] ;+ zf] wgsf] hfgsf/L k| fKt ePsf] tL; lbgleq pkef] Qmf ;d"x nfO{ ;f] ;+zf] wg nfu" gug{ lgb]{zg lbg ;Sg]5 / To:tf] lgb]{zgsf] kfngf ug{' pkef] Qmf ;d"xsf] st{ Jo x'g]5 . @&= ;fd'bflos jg lkmtf{ lng ;lsg M -!_ bkmf @% adf]l hd ;'lDkPsf] ;fd' bflos jgdf ;lsg] pkef]Qmf ;d" x n] sfo{ of] hgf adf]l hd sfo{ ;~rfng ug{ g;s]d f jf jftfj/0fdf pNn] vgLo k|lts" n c;/ kg]{ s'g} sfo{ u/] df jf of] P]g / o; P]g cGtu{ t ag]s f] lgod adf]l hd kfng ug{' kg]{ zt{x? kfng gu/]df lhNnf jg clws[ tn] tf]lsP adf]l hd To:tf] pkef]Qmf ;d"xsf] btf{ vf/] h ug{ / To:tf] ;fd'bflos jg lkmtf{ lng] lg0f{o ug{ ;Sg]5 . t/ To;/L pkef]Qmf ;d" xsf] btf{ vf/] h u/L ;fd' bflos jg lkmtf{ lng] lg0f{o ug{' cl3 To:tf] pkef] Qmf ;d"xnfO{ cfkmgf] ;kmfO{ k]z ug]{ df}s f lbOg]5 . ⊕ -!s_ pkbkmf -!_ df h'g;'s} s'/ f n]lvPsf] eP tfklg pkef] Qmf ;d"xsf kbflwsf/Lx?n] ;d' b fosf] lxtsf] gfddf ljwfg / sfo{ of] hgf ljkl/t s'g} sfd sf/afxL u/] s f] egL pkef] Qmfsf] ph'/ L k/]d f To:tf kbflwsf/LnfO{ o; P] g adf]lhd ;hfo x' g]5 . ⊕ klxnf] ;+zf] wg4f/f yk . 9
  10. 10. -@_ pkbkmf -!_ adf]lhd lhNnf jg clws[ tn] u/]sf] lg0f{o pk/ lrQ ga' ‰g] pkef]Qmf ;d"x n] tf]lsP adf]l hd If] q Lo jg lgb]{ zs ;dIf ph'/ ug{ ;Sg] 5 . To:tf] ph'/ Ldf If]q Lo jg lgb]{zsn] u/] sf] lg0f{o clGtd x' g]5 . ⊕ -#_ pkbkmf -!_ / -@_ df h' g ;'s} s'/ f n]l vPsf] eP tfklg pkef] Qmf ;d"xsf kbflwsf/Lx?n] ;d'b fosf] lxtsf] gfddf of] P]g / o; P]g cGtu{ t ag] sf] lgod ljkl/t sfd sf/afxL u/]df lghx?nfO{ o; P]g adf]l hd ;hfo ug{ afwf k'¥ ofPsf] dflgg] 5}g . @*= ;fd'bflos jg k'gM ;'Dkg ;lsg M bkmf @& sf] pkbkmf -!_ adf]l hd lkmtf{ lnPsf] ;lsg] ;fd'b flos jg ;f]x L bkmfsf] pkbkmf -@_ adf]l hd tT;DaGwL lg0f{o ab/ ePdf lhNnf jg clws[ tn] ;fljss} pkef] Qmf ;d"x nfO{ k'gM ;'D kg' kg]{5 . To:tf] lg0f{ o ;b/ ePdf lhNnf jg clws[ tn] bkmf @% adf]l hdsf] k|l qmof k" /f u/L pkef]Qmf ;d" x k' gu{ 7g u/L ;f] ;fd'b flos jg ;'Dkg' kg]{ 5 . @(= sfo{ of]hgf ljk/Lt sfd ug]{nfO{ x'g] ;hfo M ;fd'b flos jgdf s'g} pkef] Qmfn] sfo{ of] hgf ljk/Lt x'g] s'g} sfd u/]d f lghnfO{ ;DalGwt pkef] Qmf ;d"x n] pko' Qm ;hfo ug{ ;Sg]5 / s'g} xflg gf]S ;fgL ePsf] d f lauf] ;d]t c;" n pk/ ug{ ;Sg]5 . #)= ;fd'bflos jgnfO{ k|fyldstf lbg' kg{ M o; P]g df cGoq h' g;' s} s'/f n]l vPsf] ePtfklg kg] ;fd'b flos jgsf] ?kdf pkef] Qmf ;d"xnfO{ ;'D kg pko' Qm x'g] /fli6«o jgsf] s'g} klg efunfO{ sa'l notL jgsf] ?kdf lbOg] 5} g . ⊕ #)s=;fd'b flos jgsf] ljsf;sf] nflu vr{ ug'{ kg]{ M ;fd' b flos jg pkef]Qmf ;d" x n] sfo{ of] hgf adf]l hd cfh{ g u/]sf] cfoaf6 sDtLdf kRrL; k|l tzt /sd ;fd'bflos jgsf] ljsf;, ;+ /If0f / Joj:yfkg sfo{df vr{ ug'{ kg]{5 / afF sL /sd cGo ljsf; sfo{s f] nflu vr{ ug{ ;Sg]5 . kl/R5]b – ^ sa'l notL jg;DawL Joj:yf #!= sa'lnotL jg k|bfg ug]{ M g]kfn ;/sf/n] b]xfosf p2] Zox?sf] nflu /fli6«o jgsf] s'g} notL efu sa'l notL jgsf] ?kdf k|b fg ug{ ;Sg]5M– -s_ jg k}bfjf/df cfwfl/t pBf] ux?nfO{ cfjZos kg]{ sRrf kbfy{ pTkfbg ug{ , ⊕ klxnf] ;+zf] wg4f/f yk . ⊕ klxnf] ;+zf] wg4f/f yk . 10
  11. 11. -v_ a[Iff/f]k0f u/L jg k}bfjf/sf] pTkfbgdf clej[l 4 u/L laqmL ljt/0f ug{ jf pkof] u ug{ , -u_ jgsf] ;+/If0f / ljsf; x'g] u/L ko{ 6g Joj;fo ;~rfng ug{ , -3_ jgsf] ;+/If0f / ljsf; x'g] u/L s[lif jg afnL sfo{ ;~rfng ug{ , -ª_ jgsf] ;+/If0f / ljsf; x'g] u/L sL6, ktË tyf jGohGt' sf] kmfd{ ;~rfng ug{ . #@= sa'lnotL jgsf] k§f M -!_ bkmf #! df pNn]lvt p2] Zox?sf] nflu sa'l notL jg lng rfxg] k| rlnt sfg" g adf]l hd :yflkt ;+ ul7t ;+: yf, pBf] u jf ;d' bfon] sa'l notL jgsf] ?kdf lng rfx] sf] jgsf] If] qkmn / rf/ lsNnf, p2] Zo k| fKt ug{sf] nflu ul/g] sfo{x ?sf] of] hgfa4 sfo{qmd tyf tf]lsPsf] cGo ljj/0fx? / cfly{ s ;DefJotf k|ltj]bg ;lxt If] qLo jg lgb]{ zs ;dIf lgj] bg lbg' kg]{ 5 . -@_ pkbkmf -!_ adf]l hd s'g} lgj]b g kg{ cfPdf If] q Lo jg lgb]{ zsn] cfjZos hfF ra'´ u/L lgj] bsn] dfu u/] adf]l hd jf To;df 36a9 u/L sa'lnotL jg k|b fg ug{ pko' Qm b]l vPdf cf gf] l;kmfl/z ;lxt :jLs[l tsf] nflu ljefu dfkm{ t dGqfnodf n] vL k7fpg' kg]{5 . To;/L n] vL k7fpFbf lgj]bssf] dfudf yk36 ul/Psf] eP lgj]bssf] ;xdlt lng' kg]{5 . -#_ pkbkmf -!_ adf]lhd :jLs[l tsf] nflu n] vL cfPkl5 dGqfnon] tT;DaGwL kq k|fKt ePsf] ldltn] tL; lbgleq :jLs[l t lbg] glbg] s'/fsf] lg0f{o ug]{5 / To;sf] hfgsf/L ljefu dfkm{ t If] qLo jg lgb]{ zsnfO{ lbg]5 . -$_ pkbkmf -#_ adf]lhd hfgsf/L k| fKt ePkl5 dGqfnon] :jLs[l t lbg] lg0f{o u/] s f]df To:tf] hfgsf/L k| fKt ePsf] ldltn] tL; lbg leq If]q Lo jg lgb]{zsn] tf]lsP adf]l hd jg;DaGwL k§f tof/ u/L tf]lsPsf] b:t'/ lnO{ lgj]b snfO{ ;f] k§f;lxt sa'l notL jg k|bfg ug{' kg]{ 5 / dGqfnon] :jLs[l t glbg] lg0f{o u/] sf]d f To:tf] hfgsf/L k| fKt ePsf] ldltn] tLg lbgleq To;sf] hgfp lgj]bsnfO{ lbg' kg]{5 . ##= sa'lnotL jg lkmtf{ lng ;lsg M -!_ bkmf #@ adf]l hd k| bfg ul/Psf] sa'l notL jgdf ;lsg] k§fjfnfn] jg;DaGwL k§f adf]l hd sfo{ ;~rfng ug{ g;s]df jf jftfj/0fdf pNn] vgLo k|lts" n k| e fj kg]{ s'g} sfo{ u/] d f jf of] P] g / o; P]g cGtu{t ag]sf] lgod adf]l hd kfng ug{' kg]{ s'/ fx? kfng gu/] d f If]qLo jg lgb]{z sn] tf]lsP adf]l hd jg;DaGwL k§f vf/] h u/L To:tf] sa'l notL jg lkmtf{ lng] lg0f{o ug{ ;Sg]5 . 11
  12. 12. t/ To;/L jg ;DaGwL k§f vf/] h u/L sa'l notL jg lkmtf{ lng] lg0f{o ug{' cl3 ;DalGwt k§fjfnfnfO{ cf gf] ;kmfO{ k] z ug]{ df}s f lbOg]5 . -@_ pkbkmf -!_ adf]lhd If] qLo jg lgb]{z sn] u/] sf] lg0f{o pk/ lrQ ga' ‰g] k§fjfnfn] To:tf] lg0f{osf] ;" rgf kfPsf] ldltn] k}+ tL; lbg leq k' g/fj]bg cbfntdf k'g/fj] bg lbg ;Sg]5 . #$= sa'lnotL jgdf af6f], vf]nf aGb ug{ ;lsg M s'g} sa'l notL jgleqsf] hf] ;'s}s f] lghL ;lsg] jf ;fj{ hlgs af6f] jf vf] nf aGb ug{' k/] df ;DalGwt k§fjfnfn] To;/L aGb ug{' cufj} To;sf] ;§f oyf;Dej TolQs} ;'l jwfhgs af6f] jf vf] nf pknJw u/fO{ lbg' kg]{ 5 . kl/R5]b – & wfld{s jg;DaGwL Joj:yf #%= wfld{s jg M -!_ s'g} wfld{s:yn jf To;sf] jl/kl/sf] /fli6«o jgsf] ljsf;, ;+ /If0f / pkof] u ug{ rfxg] s'g} wfld{s lgsfo, ;d" x jf ;d'b fon] To:tf] jgsf] If]q kmn, rf/ lsNnf, To:tf] jgdf ul/g] sfo{x ? tyf tf]l sP adf]l hdsf cGo ljj/0fx? v' nfO{ lhNnf jg clws[ t ;dIf lgjb] g lbg' kg]{ 5 . -@_ pkbkmf -!_ adf]lhdsf] lgj]bg kg{ cfPdf lhNnf jg clws[ tn] cfjZos hfF ra'´ u/L lgj]b sn] dfu u/] adf]l hd jf To;df 36a9 u/L wfld{s jgsf] ?kdf To:tf] wfld{s lgsfo, ;d"x jf ;d'bfonfO{ ;'Dkg ;Sg]5 . To;/L jg ;'D kbf k/Dk/fut pkef]Qmfx?sf] xs lxtdf c;/ gkg]{ Joj:yf ldnfpg' kg]{5 . #^= wfld{s jgdf jg ;DaGwL sfo{sf] ;~rfng M wfld{s jgdf /x]sf jg k}b fjf/ ;DalGwt wfld{s lgsfo, ;d" x jf ;d'b fon] Jofkfl/s k|of] hg afx]ssf cGo wfld{ s sfo{ df pkof] u ug{ ;Sg]5 . t/ jftfj/0fdf pNn] vgLo k|lts" n c;/ kg]{ u/L jf ;fj{ hlgs ?kdf xflg gf]S;fgL x' g] u/L jf hnfwf/ If]q df e" –Ifo x'g ;Sg] u/L ?v s6fg ug{ kfOg] 5} g . #&= wfld{s jg lkmtf{ lng ;lsg] M -!_ bkmf #% adf]l hd ;'lDkPsf] wfld{s jgdf ;DalGwt ;lsg wfld{s lgsfo, ;d" x jf ;d'bfon] bkmf #^ ljk/Ltsf] sfo{ u/]d f jf wfld{s jgdf ug{' kg]{ sfo{ ;~rfng ug{ g;s]df jf of] P]g / o; P]g cGtu{ t ag]sf] lgod adf]l hd kfng ug{' kg{ s'/ fx? kfng gu/]df lhNnf jg clws[ tn] To:tf] wfld{s jg lkmtf{ lng] lg0f{o ug{ ;Sg]5 . 12
  13. 13. t/ wfld{ s jg lkmtf{ lng] lg0f{ o ug{' cl3 ;DalGwt wfld{s lgsfo, ;d"x jf ;d' b fonfO{ cfÇgf] ;kmfO{ k]z ug]{ df}s f lbOg]5 . -@_ pkbkmf -!_ adf]lhd lhNnf jg clws[ tn] u/]sf] lg0f{o pk/ lrQ ga' ‰g] wfld{s lgsfo, ;d"x jf ;d'b fon] tf]lsP adf]l hd If] q Lo jg lgb]{zs ;dIf ph'/ ug{ ;Sg]5 . To:tf] ph'/ Ldf If]q Lo jg lgb]{zsn] u/] sf] lg0f{o clGtd x' g]5 . kl/R5]b –* lghL jg;DaGwL Joj:yf #*= lghL jg ;DaGwL Joj:yf M lghL jgsf] wgLn] cfÇgf] O{R5f cg' ;f/ lghL jgsf] ljsf;, ;+ /If0f, Joj:yfkg ug{ tyf jg k}b fjf/sf] pkof] u ug{ jf d"No lgwf{ /0f u/L laqmL ljt/0f ug{ ;Sg]5 . #(= lghL jgsf] k|df0fkq M -!_ lghL jg btf{ u/fpg rfxg] s'g} JolQm jf ;+ : yfn] lghL jg btf{ u/fO{ kfpF egL lhNnf jg sfof{ nodf lgj]bg lbg ;Sg]5 . -@_ pkbkmf -!_ adf]l hd kg{ cfPsf] lgj]b gdf cfjZos nut v8f u/L lhNnf jg clws[ tn] tf]lsP adf]l hd k|df0fkq lbg]5 . -#_ pkbkmf -@_ adf]l hd k|d f0fkq k| fKt u/] sf lghL jg wgLnfO{ cfjZos k| fljlws ;xof] u lhNnf jg sfof{ non] pknJw u/fpg ;Sg]5 . $)= g]kfn ;/sf/sf] :jfldTjdf /xg] M -!_ a;f]a f; jf k' gaf{ ; ul/Psf hUufx?df To:tf] hUuf ;/sf/sf] k|bfg ubf{s f] avtb]l v g} /x]s f ?vx? g] kfn ;/sf/sf] :jfldTjdf /xg]5g . pQm ?vx? g]kfn ;/sf/n] oyf;Dej rfF 8f] x6fpg' kg]{5 . -@_ pkbkmf -!_ df pNn]l vt ?vx? ljgf Ohfht x6fpg] JolQmnfO{ /fli6«o jgdf s;" / u/] ;/x ;hfo x'g]5 . kl/R5]b – ( pkef]Qmf ;d"xsf] u7g;DaGwL Joj:yf $!= pkef]Qmf ;d"xsf] u7g M ;fd'l xs lxtsf nflu s'g} jgsf] ljsf; / ;+/ If0f ug{ tyf jg k}bfjf/sf] pkof] u ug{ rfxg] To:tf] jgsf] ;DalGwt pkef] Qmfx?n] tf]lsP adf]l hd pkef]Qmf ;d"x u7g ug{ ;Sg]5 g . 13
  14. 14. $@= pkef]Qmf ;d"xsf] btf M -!_ btf{ bkmf $! adf]l hd u7g ul/Psf] pkef] Qmf ;d"xnfO{ btf{ u/fpg pkef]Qmf ;d"x sf] ljwfg;lxt lhNnf jg clws[ t ;dIf tf]l sP adf]l hdsf] 9fF rfdf b/vf:t lbg' kg]{5 . -@_ pkbkmf -!_ adf]lhdsf] b/vf:t kg{ cfPdf lhNnf jg clws[ tn] cfjZos hfF ra'´ u/L To:tf] pkef]Qmf ;d"x nfO{ tf]lsP adf]l hd btf{ u/L tf]l sPsf] 9fF rfdf btf{sf] k| df0fkq lbg' kg]{5 . -#_ jg P]g, @)!* cGtu{ t sfo{ of] hgf adf]l hd ;fd' bflos jgsf] Joj:yfkg ul//x]sf pkef] Qmf ;d"xn] klg of] P]g k|f/De ePsf] ldltn] Ps jif{leq btf{s f] nflu pkbkmf -!_ adf]l hd bvf{: t lbg' kg]{5 . -$_ pkbkmf -#_ sf] k| o f] hgsf] nlu lhNnf jg clws[ tn] cfjZos ;xof]u pknJw u/fpg ;Sg]5 . $#= pkef]Qmf ;d"x ;+ul7t ;+:yf x'g] M -!_ bkmf $! adf]l hd ul7t pkef] Qmf ;d"x cljlR5Gg pQ/flwsf/jfnf Ps :jzfl;t / ;+ ul7t ;+ :yf x' g]5 . -@_ pkef]Qmf ;d"xsf] cfÇgf] Pp6f 5' §} 5fk x'g]5 . -#_ pkef] Qmf ;d" xn] JolQm ;/x rn crn ;DklQ k|fKt ug{, pkef]u ug{ , a]r lavg ug{ jf cGo lsl;dn] aGbf]j:t ug{ ;Sg] 5 . -$_ pkef]Qmf ;d"xn] JolQm ;/x cfÇgf] gfdaf6 gfln; ph'/ ug{ / ;f] pk/ klg ;f]x L gfdaf6 gfln; ph'/ nfUg ;Sg]5 . $$= k|ltj]bg lbg' kg{ M -!_ pkef]Qmf ;d"x n] k| To] s jif{ cfly{ s jif{ ;dfKt ePsf] Ps dxLgf kg] leq tf]l sP adf]lhd cfly{s ljj/0f tyf ;fd'b flos jgsf] l:ylt ;d] t v' nfO{ cf gf] s[ofsnfksf] jflif{s k|l tj]bg lhNnf jg sfof{ no ;dIf k] z ug{' kg]{5 . -@_ pkbkmf -!_ adf]l hd k|fKt jflif{ s k|ltj]bgsf] cfwf/df lhNnf jg sfof{ non] ;DalGwt pkef] Qmf ;d"x nfO{ cfjZos ;'´ fj lbg ;Sg]5 . $%= pkef]Qmf ;d"xsf] sf]if M -!_ pkef]Qmf ;d"xsf] cf gf] Pp6f 5'§} sf]if x' g]5 . -@_ sf]i fdf b]xfosf /sdx? hDdf ul/g] 5M– -s_ g]kfn ;/sf/af6 k| fKt cg'b fg /sd, -v_ s'g} JolQm jf ;+ : yfaf6 k| fKt cg'bfg, ;xfotf jf bfg bftJosf] /sd, 14
  15. 15. -u_ jg k}bfjf/sf] laqmL ljt/0faf6 k| fKt /sd, -3_ hl/jfgfaf6 k| fKt /sd, -ª_ cGo s'g} ;| f]taf6 k| fKt /sd . -#_ pkef]Qmf ;d"x sf] tkm{af6 ul/g] vr{ pkbkmf -!_ adf]l hdsf] sf]i faf6 Aoxf]l/g]5 . -$_ pkef]Qmf ;d" x n] ;fd'bflos jgsf] ljsf;sf] lgldQ vr{ u/L sf]i fdf afFs L /x] sf] /sd cGo ;fj{ hlgs lxtsf] sfo{ d f vr{ ug{ ;Sg]5 . -%_ sf]i fsf] ;~rfng tf]l sP adf]l hd x'g]5 . kl/R5]b – !) j] jfl/;L jf bl/of a'b L{ sf7;DaGwL Joj:yf $^= xssf] k|df0f gk'u eP;Dd sf7 g]kfn ;/sf/sf] 7xg{ M -!_ aufO{ NofPsf] , lsgf/f nfu] sf] , ;/sf/sf] 7xg] c8s] sf] , 8'a] sf] ;a} sf7 6fF rf lgzfgfx? nfu]s f] jf 6fF rf lgzfgf v's]{s f], abn] sf] jf p8] sf] jf s' g} t/xaf6 d]l 6Psf] sf7 / 6fF rf lgzfgf gnfu]sf] sf7x? s;} n] cf gf] xssf] k| df0f gk'¥ofP;Dd g]kfn ;/sf/sf] ;DklQ 7xl/g] 5 . -@_ pkbkmf -!_ adf]lhdsf sf7x? jg clws[t n] j]jfl/;L jf bl/of a'bL{ sf7sf] lgldQ tf]lslbPsf] s' g} l8kf] df hDdf ug{ ;lsg] 5 . -#_ g]kfn ;/sf/n] g] kfn /fhkqdf ;" rgf k|s flzt u/L s'g} hft jf lsl;dsf sf7nfO{ pkbkmf -!_ / -@_ df n]l vPsf s'/ fx? nfu" gx'g] ug{ ;Sg]5 . $&= j]jfl/;L jf bl/of a'bL{ sf7sf] ;"rgf M bkmf $^ sf] pkbkmf -@_ adf]lhd j] jfl/;L jf bl/of a'b L{ sf7 hDdf ePkl5 To:tf] sf7sf] k" /f ljj/0f / nut ;lxtsf] ;" rgf ;DalGwt lhNnf jg clws[ tn] ;DalGwt jg sfof{ nodf 6fF ; ug{' kg]{ 5 / To:tf] sf7df xsbfjL ug]{ n] kGw| lbgleq cfÇgf] xs bfjLsf] ;a"b k|d f0f ;lxtsf] b/vf:t pQm jg sfof{ nodf k]z ug{' kg]{5 . $*= xsbfjL pk/ sf/jfxL M -!_ bkmf $& adf]l hd s;} sf] b/vf:t kg{ cfPdf ;DalGwt jg clws[ tn] cfjZos txlssft u/L u/fO{ b/vf:tjfnfsf] xs bfjL eP gePsf] s'/ fsf] lg0f{o u/L To;sf] ;" rgf b/vf:tjfnfnfO{ lbg' kg]{5 / s;} sf] xsbfjL ePsf] 7x/] df To:tf] sf7 l8kf]df Nofpg / hDdf ug{ nfu]s f] vr{ lghaf6 pk/ u/L sf7 lghnfO{ ;'D kL lbg]5 . 15
  16. 16. -@_ pkbkmf -!_ adf]lhd jg clws[ tn] xs bfjL gePsf] egL u/]s f] lg0f{odf lrQ ga' ‰g] JolQmn] To:tf] lg0f{o sf] ;" rgf kfPsf] ldltn] kGw| lbgleq ;DalGwt If]q Lo jg lgb]{z s ;dIf ph'/ ug{ ;Sg] 5 . -#_ s'g} sf7df s;} sf] xs bfjL c:jLsf/ u/] sf]] jf To:tf] sf7 /f]s] sf] jf x/fPaf6 x'g uPsf] gf]S ;fgLsf] x/hfgf g] kfn ;/sf/ jf jg clws[ taf6 bfjL ug{ kfOg] 5}g . -$_ s;}s f] xsbfjL gk' u]sf j]j fl/;L jf bl/of a'b L{ sf7x? lhNnf jg clws[ tn] tf]lsP adf]l hd laqmL ljt/0f ug{ ;Sg] 5 . ⊕ $*s=sf]if bflvnf ug'{ kg{ M -!_ s=sf] s= kg] bkmf $* sf] pkbkmf -$_ adf]lhd a] jfl/;L jf bl/of a'bL{ sf7x?sf] laqmL ljt/0faf6 k| fKt /sd dWo] af6 krf; k|ltzt /sd lhNnf ljsf; ;ldltsf] sf]i fdf / afFs L /sd ;+l rt sf]i fdf bflvnf ug'{ kg]{5 . -@_ pkbkmf -!_ adf]l hd lhNnf ljsf; ;ldltsf] sf]i fdf hDdf ePsf] /sd dWo] a f6 krf; k|l tzt /sd lhNnf ljsf; ;ldltn] lhNnfleqsf] jg ljsf;sf] lglZrt of] hgf agfO{ ;f] of] hgf sfof{ Gjogdf vr{ ug'{ kg]{ 5 . kl/R5]b – !! ck/fw / b08 ;hfo $(= /fli6«o jgdf dgfxL ePsf sfo{x? M s;} n] klg of] P] g jf o; P] g cGtu{t ag] sf lgoddf cGoyf Joj:yf ePsf]df afx]s /fli6«o jgdf b]xfosf sfd sf/jfxL ug{ jf u/fpg / ;f] ug]{ u/fpg] pBf] u ;d]t ug{ x'Fb}g . To:tf] s' g} sfd sf/jfxL u/] df s;" / u/] sf] dflgg] 5 M– -s_ jg If] qsf] hUuf kmfF 8g , hf] Tg, vGg jf cfjfb ug{ jf To:tf] hUufdf 3/ 5fk| f] agfpg . -v_ cfuf] nufpg jf cfunfuL x' g hfg] s'g} sfo{ ug{ . -u_ rf} kfofnfO{ tf]lsPsf] jg If] qleq k;fpg jf r/fpg . -3_ jg If] qaf6 jg k}b fjf/ x6fpg, cf] ;f/ k;f/ ug{ jf laqmL ljt/0f ug{ . -ª_ ?v jf la?jf sf6 g, xfF uf laF uf l5dNg, vf] 6f] jf af] qmf l´Sg jf s'g} klg k|s f/n] gf]S;fgL ug{ . ⊕ klxnf] ;+zf] wg4f/f yk . 16
  17. 17. -r_ O{hfht k| fKt u/L ?v sf6b f, 9fNbf, l3;fbf{ jf jg If]q aflx/ n} hfF bf nfk/jfxL;+ u cGo s'g} jg k}b fjf/ gf]S;fg ug{ . -5_ 9'+ ·f, lu§L, afn' jf jf df6f] l´Sg, uf] n jf r"g kf]Ng jf oL j:t'x?af6 c? tof/L dfn agfpg jf oL j:t'x? ;ªs ng ug{ . -h_ jg k}bfjf/ lng k" hL{ kfPsf] df k' hL{ zt{ pNnª3g u/L jg k} bfjf/ gf]S;fgL ug{ . -´_ ljb] z lgsf;L ug{ k|l taGw nfu] sf] jg k}b fjf/ ljb] z lgsf;L ug{ . -`_ jg l;dfgf lrGx pv]Ng, ;fg{ , km]g{ , d] 6g jf laufg{ . -6_ g;{/ Ldf /x]s f] jf a[I ff/f] k0f ul/Psf] la?jf sf6g, efFR g, pv]Ng jf c? s' g} k|s f/n] gf]S;fg ug{ . -7_ g;{/ L jf a[ Iff/f] k0f ul/Psf] If] qsf vDaf, tf/sf] af/ jf To:tf c? ;DklQ laufg{ jf rf] /L ug{ . -8_ 6fF rf jf lg;fgf sLt]{ ug{ jf sf7 jf v8f ?vdf nufOPsf ;/sf/L 6fF rf, lg;fgf km]g{, laufg{ jf d] 6g . -9_ lzsf/ v]Ng . -0f_ of] P]g / o; P] g cGtu{ t ag] sf lgodsf] alv{ nfk cGo s'g} s;"/ ug{ . %)= b08 ;hfo M -!_ b]xfosf] s;"/ ug]{ JolQmnfO{ b]x fo adf]l hd ;hfo x' g]5 M– -s_ bkmf $( sf] v08 -s_ cGtu{ tsf] s;"/ ug]{ nfO{ To:tf] hUuf /fli6«o jgdf ;dfj]z u/L bzxhf/ ?k}ofF ;Dd hl/jfgf jf Ps jif{ ;Dd s} b jf b'a} ;hfo x'g]5 / ;f] hUufdf agfPsf] 3/ jf 5fk| f] ;d] t hkmt x'g]5 . To:tf] s;"/ ubf{ jg k} bfjf/ x6fPsf] jf gf]S ;fgL u/]sf] eP lghnfO{ ;f] afkt x'g] ;hfo ;d] t x'g]5 . -v_ bkmf $( sf] v08 -v_ cGtu{ tsf] s;"/ ug]{nfO{ lauf] c;" n u/L bz xhf/ ?k}ofF ;Dd hl/jfgf jf Ps jif{ ;Dd s} b jf b' a} ;hfo x'g]5 . -u_ bkmf $( sf] v08 -u_ cGtu{ tsf] s;"/ ug]{ nfO{ k| To]s rf} kfofsf] b]xfosf b/n] hl/jfgf x'g] 5 M– -!_ e] 8f, afv| f hftsf] eP kfF r ?k}ofFb]l v krf; ?k} ofF ;Dd . -@_ xfQL hftsf] eP kfF r ;o ?k}o fFb]l v Ps xhf/ ?k}ofF ;Dd . -#_ cGo rf} kfof eP bz ?k}o fFb]lv Ps ;o ?k}ofF ;Dd . 17
  18. 18. -3_ bkmf $( sf] v08 -3_, -ª_, -r_, -5_ jf -h_ cGtu{ tsf] s;"/ ug]{ nfO{ s;"/;+ u ;DalGwt jg k} b fjf/ hkmt u/L b]x fo adf]l hdsf] ;hfo x'g]5M– -!_ Ps;o ?kf} o fF ;Ddsf] lauf] eP Ps ;o ?k}ofF ;Dd hl/jfgf . -@_ Ps ;o ?k}o fFb] l v dfly Ps xhf/ ?k} ofF ;Ddsf] lauf] eP lauf] adf]l hd hl/jfgf . -#_ Ps xhf/ ?k}o fFb]l v dfly kfF r xhf/ ?k}o fF ;Ddsf] lauf] eP lauf] adf]l hd hl/jfgf jf 5 dxLgf;Dd s} b jf b' a} . -$_ kfF r xhf/ ?k}o fF eGbf a9Lsf] lauf] eP lauf]s f] bf] Aa/ hl/jfgf jf Ps jif{ ;Dd s}b jf b' a} . -ª_ bkmf $( sf] v08 -´_ cGtu{ tsf] s;"/ ug]{ nfO{ s;"/ ;+u ;DalGwt jg k}b fjf/ hkmt u/L lauf] adf]l hd hl/jfgf jf kfF r jif{ ;Dd s} b jf b' a} . -r_ bkmf $( sf] v08 -`_ jf -8_ cGtu{ tsf] s;"/ ug]{ nfO{ kfF r;o ?k}ofFb]l v bz xhf/ ?k}o fF ;Dd hl/jfgf jf Ps jif{ ;Dd s} b jf b' a} . -5_ bkmf $( sf] v08 -6_ cGtu{ tsf] s;"/ ug]{ nfO{ s;"/sf] dfqf x]/ L k|lt la?jfsf] Ps ;o ?k}o fF ;Dd hl/jfgf x'g] 5 / ;f]xL s;"/ k'g M ug]{ nfO{ s;"/ sf] dfqf cg' ;f/ pQm ;hfodf Ps xhf/ ?k}ofF ;Dd yk hl/jfgf ;d] t x'g]5 . -h_ bkmf $( sf] v08 -7_ cGtu{ tsf] s;" / ug]{ nfO{ lauf] c;" n u/L kfF r xhf/ ?k}ofF ;Dd hl/jfgf jf 5 dxLgf;Dd s} b jf b' a} ;hfo x' g]5 . -´_ bkmf $( sf] v08 -9_ cGtu{ tsf] s;"/ ug]{ nfO{ k| rlnt sfg"g df Joj:yf eP cg' ;f/ ;hfo x' g]5 . -`_ bkmf $( sf] v08 -0f_ cGtu{ tsf] s;" / ug]{ nfO{ lauf] eP lauf] c;" n u/L Ps xhf/ ?k} ofF ;Dd hl/jfgf x' g]5 . -@_ bkmf !^ sf] pkbkmf -!_ cGtu{ t s;"/ ug]{ JolQm jf ;/sf/L sd{ rf/LnfO{ bz xhf/ ?k}+of;Dd hl/jfgf jf b'O{ jif{ ;Dd s}b jf b'a} ;hfo x' g]5 . %!= x}/fgL ug]{ lgotn] sAhf jf lu/ tf/ ug]{nfO{ ;h M -!_ dgfl;a ;hfo dflkmssf] sf/0f geO{ jg;DaGwL sfo{ ug]{ s'g} sd{ rf/L jf k|x/L sd{ rf/Ln] /Lz O{l jn] jf x}/ fgL ug]{ lgotn] dfn j:t' sAhf u/]df jf s;} nfO{ lu/ tf/ u/]df To:tf sd{ rf/LnfO{ Ps xhf/ ?k}o fF ;Dd hl/jfgf x'g]5 . 18
  19. 19. -@_ pkbkmf -!_ df n]l vPsf sd{ rf/Lsf] lgot To:tf] lyof] eGg] s'/ f k| d fl0ft ug]{ ef/ ph'/ jfnf dfly /xg]5 . %@= st{Jo kfng ubf{ afwf c8rg k'¥ofPdf M o; P]g adf]lhd ;/sf/L sd{ rf/Ln] cfÇgf] c8rg kbLo st{Jo kfng ubf{ s;} n] afwf c8 rg k'¥ofPdf lghnfO{ Ps xhf/ ?k} ofF ;Dd hl/jfgf jf 5 dxLgf;Dd s}b jf b'a} ;hfo x'g]5 . %#= s;"/bf/nfO{{ pDsfpg]nfO{ ;hfo M o; P]g cGtu{ tsf] s;"/ ug]{nfO{ pDsfpg] JolQmnfO{ bf/nfO s;"/bf/nfO{ x'g] ;/xsf] ;hfo x' g]5 . %$= b'?T;fxg lbg]nfO{ ;hfo M o; P]g cGtu{tsf] s;"/ ug{ b' ?T;fxg lbg] jf ldnf]d tf] ug]{ JolQmnfO{ s;" /bf/nfO{ x'g] ;/xsf] ;hfo x'g]5 . kl/R5]b – !@ s;"/ sf] hfF ra'´ / sfo{l jlw %%= s;"/ /f]Sg cfjZos sf/jfxL ug{ M s;} n] of] P]g adf]lhd ;hfo x'g] s;" / ug{ nfu] sf] 5 ug] eGg] z+s f nfu]d f jf s;"/ ub}{ sf] cj:yfdf km]nf kf/] df jg;DaGwL sfd ug]{ sd{ rf/L jf k|x/L sd{rf/Ln] ;f] ck/fw x' g gkfpg] k| aGw ug{' kg]{ 5 / ;f] sfdsf] nflu rflx+ bf] an k|of] u u/L cfjZos sf/jfxL ug{ ;Sg]5 . %^= ljz]if clwsf/ M -!_ o; P] g cGtu{ tsf] jg;DaGwL s;"/df ;+ nUg s;" /bf/ jg If] qleq jf aflx/ kqmg nfUbf kqmg glbg] jf klqm;s] kl5 klg lghnfO{ 5' 6fO{ n} hfg s;} n] x"nx'H ht u/L s;" /bf/nfO{ eufO{ n} hfg] cj:yf k/L kqmg] s} Hofg hf]l vd x' g] kl/l:ylt eO{ xltof/ grnfO{ gx'g] cj:yf kg{ cfPdf jg ;' /Iffsf] nflu vl6Psf sd{ rf/Ln] 3"F 8f d'gL nfUg] u/L uf] nL rnfpg ;Sg]5 . -@_ /fli6«o jg If] qsf] hUuf s;} n] cfjfb u/]sf] jf To:tf] hUufdf 3/, 5fk| f] agfO;s]sf] eP klg lhNnf jg clws[ t jf lghn] tf]s] sf] jg clws[ t jf jg ;xfosn] ;f] cfjfbL x6fpg jf 3/, 5fk| f] eTsfpg ;Sg] 5 / afnL ;d] t hkmt ug{ ;Sg]5 . -#_ pkbkmf -@_ df h'g ;'s} s'/ f n]l vPsf] ePtfklg o; P]gn] x'g] c? ;hfodf ;f] pkbkmfdf n]l vPsf] s'/ fn] s'g} c;/ kfg]{ 5}g . %&= vfgtnf;Lsf] clwsf/ M -!_ o; P] g adf]lhd ;hfo x'g] s;"/ ePsf] 5 eGg] dgfl;a dflkmssf] sf/0f ePdf slDtdf jg ;xfos bhf{ ;Ddsf] sd{ rf/L jf ;xfos k|x/L lg/LIfs bhf{ s f] sd{ rf/Ln] s' g} :yfgsf] vfgtnf;L lng ;Sg]5 . 19
  20. 20. -@_ pkbkmf -!_ adf]lhd vfgtnf;L lng] JolQmn] vfgtnf;L lng' kg]{ sf/0f vf] nL vfgtnf;L lng] :yfgsf] wgL jf tTsfn ;f] :yfg k|of] u ul//x]sf] JolQmnfO{ ;f] :yfgdf k| j]z ug{' eGbf cufj} ;" rgf lbP/ dfq vfgtnf;L lng' kg]{5 . -#_ pkbkmf -!_ adf]l hd vfgtnf;L lnF bf slDtdf b'O{ hgf ;fIfL /fvL tL ;fIfLx?sf] /f]xj/df vfgtnf;L lng' kg]{5 . -$_ dflg; a;f] af; u/] sf] 3/df vfgtnf;L lng' k/]d f ;f] 3/df :jf:gLdflg; eP x6g ;" rgf / df} sf lbg' k5{ . -%_ o; bkmfdf n]l vPsf] s' g} s' / fn] vfgtnf;L lng] sd{ rf/LnfO{ ;"o f{ :tb]l v ;" of]{ bo geP;Dd dflg; a;f] a f; u/] sf] 3/df k| j] z ug{ kfpg] clwsf/ x'g] 5}g . :ki6Ls/0f M of] bkmfsf] k|of] hgsf] nflu æ:yfgÆ eGgfn] kfn, 8' ·f tyf ljleGg lsl;dsf ;jf/Lsf ;fwgnfO{ ;d] t hgfpF5 . %*= jg k}bfjf/ / tT;DaGwL dfn j:t' sAhf ug{ ;Sg M -!_ s'g} jg k}bfjf/sf] ;DaGwdf of] ;Sg] P]g pNnª3 g ePsf] 5 eGg] e/kbf]{ sf/0f b]l vPdf To:tf] jg k}b fjf/ / s;"/ ;+ u ;DalGwt xltof/, 8' f, ;jf/L tyf rf} kfofnfO{ jg;DaGwL sfo{ ug]{ s' g} sd{ rf/L jf k|x/L sd{ rf/Ln] sAhf ug{ ;Sg] 5 . -@_ pkbkmf -!_ adf]l hd sAhf ug]{ sd{ rf/Ln] ;f] sAhf ul/Psf] dfnsf] ljj/0f vf] nL s;"/ ;+ u ;DalGwt JolQmnfO{ ;f] sf] e/kfO{ lbO{ To:tf] dfndf vf; lrGx nufO{ gfk hfF r u/L ;se/ rfF 8f] Onfsf jg sfof{ no jf lhNnf jg sfof{ nodf k|l tj]bg k]z ug{' kg]{5 . -#_ pkbkmf -!_ adf]lhd sAhf ul/Psf] jg k}b fjf/ afx]ssf] cf}hf/, xltof/, 8' ·f, ;jf/L, rf}kfof OTofbL tf]lsPsf] lbg / :yfgdf bflvnf ug]{ zt{df dfnwgL jf ;DalGwt ufpF ljsf; ;ldlt jf gu/kflnsfsf] ;b:o jf :yfgLo enfbd LnfO{ hdfgLsf] sfuh u/fO{ slDtdf /fhkqcg+lst låtLo >]0fLsf] jg ;xfos bhf{;Ddsf] sd{ rf/Ln] To:tf] dfn j:t' 5f8L lbg ;Sg]5 . %(= ljgf jf/]G6 lu/kmtf/ ug]{ clwsf/ M -!_ lu/kmtf/ s'g} JolQmn] o; P] g adf]l hd ;hfo x'g] s;"/ u/] sf] jf ug{ nfu]]s f] 5 / lghnfO{ lu/kmtf/ gu/]df lgh efuL hfg] ;Defjgf 5 eGg] nfu] d f jg;DaGwL sfd ug]{ sd{ rf/L jf k|x /L sd{ rf/Ln] lghnfO{ ljgf jf/]G6 lu/kmtf/ ug{ ;Sg]5 . 20
  21. 21. -@_ pkbkmf -!_ adf]l hd lu/kmtf/ ul/Psf] JolQmnfO{ ;f] lu/kmtf/ ug]{ sd{ rf/Ln] af6f]sf] Dofb afx]s rf} a L; 306fleq d'2f x] g]{ clwsf/L ;dIf pkl:yt u/fpg' kg]{ 5 . ⊕ -#_ s'g} s;"/sf] l;nl;nfdf lu/kmtf/ ul/Psf] JolQmsf] ;DaGwdf rf} j L; 306fleq txlssft k"/ f gx' g] eO{ lghnfO{ y'g fdf /fvL txlssft hf/L /fVg' kg]{ b]l vPdf txlssft ug]{ sd{ rf/Ln] lghnfO{ d'2 f x]g]{ clwsf/L ;dIf pkl:yt u/fO{ ;f] d'2f x]g]{ clwsf/Lsf] cg' dlt lnP/ dfq y' gfdf /fVg' kg]{5 . ;f] adf]l hd cg' dtL dfUbf y'g fdf k/] s f] JolQm pk/sf] cleof] u, To;sf] cfwf/, lghnfO{ y'g fd} /fvL txlssft ug'{ kg]{ sf/0f / lghsf] aofg sfuh e} ;s] s f] eP aofg sfuhsf] Joxf] /f :ki6 ?kdf pNn] v ug'{ kg]{ 5 . ⊕ -$_ pkbkmf -#_ adf]l hd y'g fdf /fVg] cg'dlt dfu]d f d' 2f x]g]{ clwsf/Ln] ;DalGwt sfuhftx? x]/ L txlssft ;Gtf]i fhgs ?kdf eP jf gePsf] ljrf/ u/L ;Gtf]ifhgs ?kdf txlssft e}/x] sf] b]l vPdf k6s k6s u/L a9Ldf kRrL; lbg;Dd y'gfdf /fVg] cg' dlt lbg ;Sg]5 . ⊕ %(s= b;L k|df0f k]z ug]{ ;DaGwL Joj:yf M -!_ o; P]g adf]lhd s;"/ x'g] ck/fwdf a/fdb ePsf jg k}bfjf/ jf To:tf] s;"/ x'g] sfo{ ug{ sf] nflu k|of] u ePsf ;fwg jf cf} hf/ b;L k| df0fsf] ?kdf d' 2f x]g]{ clwsf/L ;dIf k]z ug'{ kg]{ 5 . -@_ pkbkmf -!_ df h'g ;' s} s'/ f n]l vPsf] eP tfklg o; P]g adf]l hd s;" / x'g] ck/fwdf a/fdb ePsf jg k}b fjf/, cf} hf/ tyf cGo ;fwg b;L k| df0fsf] ?kdf d' 2f x]g]{ clwsf/L ;dIf k]z ug{ g;lsg] ePdf To:tf] b;L k| d f0f glhssf] jg sfof{ nosf] lhDdfdf /fvL ;f]sf] d' r'Nsf k] z u/]df b;L k| df0f k]z u/] ;/x dflgg]5 . -#_ d'2f x]g]{ clwsf/Ln] To:tf] b;L k| df0f /fv] s f] 7fpF d f 8f]/ v6fO{ k|l tj]bg lnO{ sf/afxL ug{ o; bkmfn] afwf k'¥ofPsf] dflgg] 5} g . ⊕ klxnf] ;+zf] wg4f/f yk . ⊕ klxnf] ;+zf] wg4f/f yk . ⊕ klxnf] ;+zf] wg4f/f yk . 21
  22. 22. ^)= d'2fsf] txlssft / bfo/L M -!_ bfo/L o; P]g adf]l hd ;hfo x' g] s;"/ ;DaGwL d' 2 fsf] txlssft slDtdf /fhkqcg+l st låtLo >]0 fLsf] jg ;xfos bhf{s f] sd{ rf/Ln] ug]{5 / d'2f x]g]{ clwsf/L ;dIf ;DalGwt jg sfof{ nosf] gfdaf6 d' 2f bfo/ ug]{5 . -@_ pkbkmf -!_ adf]l hd d'2 f bfo/ ubf{ ;/sf/L jsLnsf] /fo ;Nnfx lng' kg]{ 5 . ^!= g]kfn ;/sf/ jfbL x'g] M o; P]g cGtu{ tsf] d' 2f g] kfn ;/sf/ jfbL x' g]5 . ^@= sAhf ul/Psf] jg k}bfjf/, cf}hf/, xltof/, 8' f, ;jf/L tyf rf}kfofsf] dfn wgL kQf gnfu]df ug]{ M o; P] g adf]l hd ;hfo x'g] s;"/l;t ;DalGwt dfn j:t's f] wgL kQf gnfu] df txlssft ug]{ sd{ rf/Ln] sAhf ul/Psf] dfn j:t's f] xsbf/ s' g} eP xsbfjL ug{ cfpg' egL ;a} n] b] Vg] 7fpF df ;ft lbgsf] Dofb lbO{ ;" rgf 6fF ; ug{' kg]{ 5 . pQm dfn j:t' pk/ xsbfjL k/] lg0f{o sf] nflu d'2f x]g]{ clwsf/L ;dIf k] z ug{' kg]{ 5 . pQm dfn j:t' pk/ xsbfjL gk/] jf d' 2f x] g]{ clwsf/Laf6 xsbfjL k'Ug] g7x/L km} ;nf ePdf To:tf] dfn j:t' g] kfn ;/sf/sf] x'g]5 . ^#= ;8L unL hfg] dfn j:t' / rf}kfof lnnfd ug{ ;lsg M o; P] g cGtu{ t ;hfo x'g] ;lsg] s;"/ sf] ;DaGwdf sAhf ul/Psf ;8L unL hfg] dfn j:t' jf ;+/If0f k|b fg ug{ g;lsg] cj:yfsf dfn j:t' / rf} kfofnfO{ glhssf] jg sfof{ no jf ;'/lIft :yfgdf NofO{ lhNnf jg clws[ tn] lnnfd laqmL ug{ ;Sg] 5 . To;/L lnnfd laqmLaf6 cfPsf] /sd kl5 7x/] adf]l hd ug]{ u/L w/f} 6Ldf cfDbfgL afFl wg]5 . ^$= k"k{If;DaGwL Joj:yf M -!_ o; P]g adf]lhd lu/ tf/ ul/Psf] JolQmnfO{ Ps jif{ jf ;f] eGbf a9L s} bsf] ;hfo x'g ;Sg] jg;DaGwL d' 2fsf] cleof] udf tTsfn k| fKt k| d f0faf6 s;"/bf/ b]l vPdf jf To:tf] k|df0faf6 s;"/bf/ b]l vg] dgfl;j dflkmssf] cfwf/ b]lvPdf To:tf] cleo' QmnfO{ k" k{I fsf] nflu y'gfdf /fvL sf/jfxL ug{' kg]{ 5 . -@_ pkbkmf -!_ df n]l vPb]lv afx] ssf c? s;" /bf/nfO{ lghnfO{ x'g ;Sg] s}b jf hl/jfgfsf] pkNnf] xb;Ddsf] gub w/f} 6 jf h] yf hdfgL lbP tf/] vdf / lbg g;s] df y' g fdf /fvL d'2 fsf] k" k{If ug{' k5{ . t/ k6s] s;"/bf/nfO{ w/f} 6Ldf 5f8g kfOg] 5} g . 22
  23. 23. -#_ pkbkmf -!_ jf -@_ adf]lhd cleo' QmnfO{ y'g fdf /fvL sf/jfxL ubf{ y'g fdf /x] sf lbgx?nfO{ s} bdf u0fgf u/L s;"/bf/nfO{ x'g;Sg] ;hfosf] xbeGbf a9L lbg y'g fdf /fVg kfOg] 5}g . ^%= d'2f x]g]{ clwsf/L M -!_ o; P]g cGtu{ t bz xhf/ ?k} ofF ;Dd hl/jfgf jf Ps jif{ ;Dd s}b jf b'a} ;hfo x'g] d' 2f lhNnf jg clws[ tn] sf/jfxL / lsgf/f ug]{5 . -@_ pkbkmf -!_ adf]lhd lhNnf jg clws[tn] d' 2fsf] sf/jfxL / lsgf/f ubf{ ljz]i f cbfnt P]g, @)#! adf]l hdsf] sfo{ljlw / clwsf/sf] k|o f] u ug]{5 . -#_ pkbkmf -!_ adf]lhd lhNnf jg clws[ tn] u/]s f] lg0f{o pk/ lrQ ga' ‰g] kIfn] lg0f{osf] ;" rgf kfPsf] ldltn] k}+ tL; lbgleq k' g/fj] bg cbfntdf k' g/fj]bg ug{ ;Sg]5 . ^^= a/fdb ePsf] dfn j:t' hkmt x'g] M of] P]g adf]l hd ;hfo x'g] s;"/ u/] s f] 7xl/Pdf s;"/ df a/fdb ePsf ;a} af]´ jfxs, cf} hf/, rf} kfof / cGo ;fwgx? hkmt x'g] 5g . t/ lauf] bz xhf/ ?k}ofF e Gbf slDt df] n kg]{ jg k}bfjf/ nfbL Nofpg] 6]«S 6/, 6« s , nx/L, df] 6/ / cGo ;jf/L ;fwgsf] xsdf To:tf] ;jf/L ;fwg hkmt gu/L pQm sfo{ ug]{ nfO{ cGo bkmfn] x' g] ;hfodf bz xhf/ ?k}ofF ;Dd yk ;hfo x'g]5 . kl/R5]b – !# ljljw ^&= g]kfn ;/sf/sf] e"–:jfldTj /xg] M o; P]g adf]l hdsf] ;fd'b flos jg, sa'l notL jg tyf ;/sf/sf] wfld{s jg If]qx?df g] kfn ;/sf/sf] e" –:jfldTj /xg]5 . ^*= jg k|of]u ug{ ;Sg M -!_ o; P]g df cGoq h'g ;'s} s'/ f n]lvPsf] ePtfklg /fli6«o ;Sg] k| fyldstf k| fKt of] hgf ;~rfng ug{ jgsf] k| of] u ug{' afx] s cGo s' g} klg ljsNk gePdf / To:tf] of] hgf ;~rfng ubf{ jftfj/0fdf pNn] vgLo k|lts" n c;/ gkg]{ ePdf To:tf] of] hgf ;~rfng ug{sf] lgldQ g] kfn ;/sf/n] ;/sf/åf/f Jojl:yt jg, ;+/lIft jg, ;fd'bflos jg, sa'l notL jg jf wfld{ s jgsf] s' g} efu k|o f] u ug{ :jLs[l t lbg ;Sg]5 . -@_ pkbkmf -!_ adf]l hd jgsf] k|o f] u ug{ :jLs[lt lbbf s'g} JolQm jf ;d'b fonfO{ s' g} xflg gf]S ;fgL x' g] ePdf g] kfn ;/sf/n] tT;DaGwdf pko' Qm Joj:yf u/L lbg' kg]{ 5 . 23
  24. 24. ^(= k|fljlws ;xof]u lbg M s'g} pkef] Qmf ;d"x , k§fjfnf, wfld{ s lgsfo, ;d"x jf ;d'bfo jf lbg] lghL jgsf] wgLn] ;fd'bflos jg, sa'l notL jg, wfld{s jg jf lghL jgsf] ljsf; / ;+ /If0fsf] nflu s' g} k| fljlws ;xof] u dfu u/] df ;DalGwt lhNnf jg clws[ tn] To:tf] k| fljlws ;xof] u pknJw u/fO{ lbg ;Sg]5 . &)= jg If]qdf k|j]z lgif]w M -!_ jg ;+/ If0fsf] b[li6sf] 0 faf6 cfjZos b]lvPdf tf]l sPsf] clws[ tn] /fli6«o jg jf ;+/lIft jgsf] ;Dk"0 f{ efu jf s' g} efudf lglZrt ;dosf] nflu ;" rgf k| sflzt u/L k| j]z lgif] w ug{ ;Sg]5 . t/ tf]lsPsf] clws[ tn] tf]lslbPsf] af6f] a f6 cfjt hfjt ug{ o;n] s'g} k|l taGw nufPsf] dflgg] 5} g . -@_ pkbkmf -!_ adf]lhd lgif] w u/] s f] If]qdf lgif] wf1f pNnª 3g u/L k| j]z ug]{ nfO{ kfF r;o ?k}o fF ;Dd hl/jfgf jf Ps dxLgf;Dd s}b jf b'a} ;hfo x'g]5 . ⊕ &)s= k|ltaGw nufpg ;Sg M g] kfn ;/sf/n] g] kfn /fhkqdf ;" rgf k| s fzg u/L h}l js ;Sg] ljljwtf / jftfj/0f ;+/If0fsf] k| o f] hgsf] nflu tf]lsPsf] jg k}bfjf/sf] ;+ sng, s6fg, pkef] u, cf] ;f/ k;f/, laqmL ljt/0f jf ljb]z lgsf;Ldf k|l taGw nufpg ;Sg]5 . ⊕ &)v=;z:q jg /Ifs ;DaGwL Joj:yf M -!_ = g]kfn ;/sf/åf/f ;+/lIft / Jojl:yt jgsf] ;' /Iffsf] nflu dGqfnon] ;z:q jg /Ifssf] Joj:yf ug{ ;Sg] 5 . -@_ pkbkmf -!_ adf]lhdsf] ;z:q jg /Ifssf] lgo'l Qm, ;] jfsf] zt{ / ;'l jwf ;DaGwL Joj:yf tf]l sP adf]lhd x'g]5 . &!= c;n lgotn] sfd u/]sf]df arfp M o; P]gn] lbPsf] clwsf/sf] k|o f] u c;n lgotn] u/] s f]df s' g} klg ;/sf/L sd{ rf/L JolQmut tj/n] pQ/bflo x'g] 5}g . &@= lgod agfpg] clwsf/ M o; P]gsf ljleGg kl/R5] bdf pNn]l vt p2] Zo k"l t{ ug{s f] nflu g]kfn ;/sf/n] cfjZos lgodx? agfpg ;Sg] 5 . &#= afl´Pdf ug]{ M of] P]g jf o; P]g cGtu{ t ag] s f lgodx?df n]l vPsf]d f ;f]xL adf]l hd / c?df k| rlnt sfg" g adf]l hd x' g]5 . &$= vf/]hL / arfp M -!_ b]xfosf P]gx? vf/] h ul/Psf 5g M– ⊕ klxnf] ;+zf] wg4f/f yk . ⊕ klxnf] ;+zf] wg4f/f yk . 24
  25. 25. -s_ jg P]g , @)!* -v_ jg ;+ /If0f -ljz]i f Joj:yf_ P]g, @)@$ -@_ of] P]g k| f/De x'g' eGbf cl3 jg P]g , @)!* / jg ;+/ If0f -ljz]i f Joj:yf_ P]g, @)@$ / pQm P]g adf]l hd agfOPsf] lgod jf lgsflnPsf] cfb] z cGtu{ t ul/Psf] sfd o;} P] g cGtu{ t eP u/]s f] dflgg]5 . 25

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