Cover Photo: Training on search andrescue techniques using local resources,Kailali districtPhoto Courtesy: Mercy Corps
Government of Nepal                          Ministry of Home Affairs                                                     ...
Editorial BoardAmod Mani DixitBishal Nath Upreti, Ph.D.Deepak PaudelPitambar AryalPradip Kumar KoiralaShyam Sundar Jnavaly...
Foreword           | iii
Acknowledgement                  |v
Editorial                   NEPAL DISASTER REPORT 2011 Policies, Practices and Lessons tries to becomeEditorial           ...
Experiences gained and lessons learned from such rich engagement of the governmenthave also been described.Further, this C...
Planning for all administrative districts of Nepal, 2) Early Warning System - Forewarned                     is forearmed ...
Table of Content                                                                                                Table of C...
List of TablesList of Tables                      Table 1.1:      Top 10 hazards types and their impact in Nepal 1971-2010...
Table 5.1:    Loss of lives due to various disasters in Nepal from 1983 to 2010           148Table 5.2:    Human death due...
List of FiguresList of Figures                          Figure 1.1 : News coverage on Building Code Implementation from   ...
Figure 3.18: Diarrhorea outbreak in mid west and far west region                        106Figure 3.19: Number of cases an...
Acronym                  AAN     Action-Aid Nepal                           DERMP    Dharan Earthquake Risk               ...
EWS     Early Warning System                     KDRRI    Kailali Disaster Risk ReductionFAO     Food and Agriculture Orga...
NDMP    National Disaster Management Policy    SOHAM    Society of Hydrologists and                  NEA     Nepal Electri...
CHAPTER 1 : DISASTER RISKMANAGEMENT IN NEPAL    – AN OVERVIEW                       |1
Boat ferrying food and goods across what used to be normal dry land but then flooded, Koshi Flood                         ...
Chapter 1Disaster Risk Management in Nepal – An OverviewThe Context                                                       ...
landslide, deep scouring of the stream bed          High intensity rainfalls, which occur                 and the side slo...
EarthquakeThe entire territory of Nepal lies in high      The country has a long history of destructiveseismic hazard zone...
Nepal since 1987, with the exception of          unplanned urban settlements are the cause                 1989 and 1992 w...
rains or its late arrival causes partial drought    starvation. Such cold waves can causeaffecting major crops in differen...
The development of Disaster                        lives in one night. Several expert missions                            ...
of disaster risk management starting from       management and co-ordination; Mappingrisk reduction, mitigation to prepare...
Although the building code was unique in                      all government buildings and encouraged                   it...
conditions, occasional glacier lake outburst                   The objective of DPTC was to strengthenfloods, concentrated...
Earthquake Safety Day                            Local Self Governance Act 1999                   Raising awareness among ...
resources and constraints. A building                        • Put higher priority on the disasterinventory comprising 110...
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NEPAL DISASTER REPORT 2011 Policies, Practices and Lessons tries to become a compendium of understanding, concepts, experiences and lessons of disaster risk management (DRM) and emergency response planning and capacity building in Nepal. It tries to reflect the current status of DRM in Nepal

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  1. 1. Cover Photo: Training on search andrescue techniques using local resources,Kailali districtPhoto Courtesy: Mercy Corps
  2. 2. Government of Nepal Ministry of Home Affairs 2011 NEPALDISASTER REPORT Policies, Practices and Lessons Empowered lives. Resilient nations.
  3. 3. Editorial BoardAmod Mani DixitBishal Nath Upreti, Ph.D.Deepak PaudelPitambar AryalPradip Kumar KoiralaShyam Sundar JnavalySurya Narayan ShresthaContributorsBhubaneswari ParajuliBijay Krishna UpadhyayGopi Krishna BasyalKhadga Sen OliNisha ShresthaNiva UpretiSuraj ShresthaSuresh ChaudharyReviewersMeen B. Poudyal Chhetri, Ph.D.Ramesh GuragainDesign and LayoutChandan Dhoj Rana MagarPublished byMinistry of Home Affairs (MoHA), Government of Nepal; and Disaster Preparedness Network-Nepal (DPNet-Nepal)with support from United Nations Development Programme Nepal (UNDP), ActionAid Nepal andNational Society for Earthquake Technology-Nepal (NSET)This publication is copyright. But any part of this publication may be cited, copied, translated into other languagesor adapted to meet local needs without prior permission from Ministry of Home Affairs (MoHA) and DisasterPreparedness Network-Nepal (DPNet-Nepal) provided that the source is clearly stated.The opinions and recommendations expressed or mentioned in this report do not necessarily represent the officialposition and policy of the Ministry of Home Affairs and DPNet-Nepal.ISBN: 978-99933-710-1-4To order Nepal Disaster Report 2011, ContactDisaster Preparedness Network-Nepal (DPNet-Nepal)C/O NRCS, Red Cross Road, KalimatiPhone: 977 01 6226613, 977 01 4672165; Fax no: 977 01 4672165Email: dpnet@dpnet.org.np; Website: http://www.dpnet.org.np
  4. 4. Foreword | iii
  5. 5. Acknowledgement |v
  6. 6. Editorial NEPAL DISASTER REPORT 2011 Policies, Practices and Lessons tries to becomeEditorial a compendium of understanding, concepts, experiences and lessons of disaster risk management (DRM) and emergency response planning and capacity building in Nepal. It tries to reflect the current status of DRM in Nepal including peoples aspiration and portrays the efforts made by people and agencies - the government at the central and local levels, the international development partners, the civil society and national private businesses, and the people at the ward, tole (neighborhood) and community levels, to get out of the vicious cycle of poverty and disaster vulnerabilities. Thus, this document is a compilation of facts of disaster occurrence and the efforts made in Nepal in reducing the impact of the disasters and in getting prepared for future events. The document looks into the level of natural hazards the country is exposed to, tries to explore the social, economic, and political meanings of disasters for the country, and tries to make a case on why and how Nepal should address the issues of disaster risk management in order to preserve and enhance the well-known resilience of the Nepalese to adversaries and vagaries of nature, safeguard peoples life and property, and ensure incorporation of disaster risk reduction (DRR) into our developmental efforts. The message of this document is organized into five chapters. Chapter 1: Disaster Management in Nepal – An Overview lays out the context by providing facts on natural hazards in Nepal and their causative factors. It also provides a chronology of the development of DRM processes in the country including the governments initiatives in creating suitable policy and legal environments for effective DRR and response planning starting from the promulgation of the Natural Calamity (Relief) Act, 1982. These are given in the background of large disasters the country faced due to the 1988 Udaypur Earthquake, 1993 Floods in South-Central Nepal, lessons learned from managing these devastating events and the consequent milestone initiatives of the government such as the formulation of the National Building Code and the establishment of sector-specific Working Groups on Health, Logistics, Food and Agriculture etc. The establishment of the Disaster Prevention Technical Centre (DPTC), which subsequently metamorphosed into the Department of Water-induced Disaster Prevention (DWIDP), institutionalization of the annual Earthquake Safety Day, formulation and promulgation of the Local Self-Governance Act 1999, the Study on Earthquake Disaster Mitigation in Kathmandu Valley (SEDM) by MoHA and JICA in 2000-2002, efforts on Climate Change Impact Adaptation, constitution of the National Platform on DRR, formulation of the National Strategy for Disaster Risk Management (NSDRM), 2009 and drafting of the Disaster Risk Management Bill, preparation of Disaster Preparedness and Response Plans for a majority of districts, establishment and commissioning of the National Emergency Operations Centre (NEOC), creation of Disaster Cluster Groups, participation of Nepal in Global initiatives in DRR including the International Decade for Natural Disaster Reduction (IDNDR) and the International Strategy for Disaster Reduction (ISDR), participation in the formulation of Hyogo Framework of Action (HFA) and translation of its meaning to Nepalese context, formulation of National Action Plan for Disaster Management, participation in Global Platform for Disaster Risk Reduction. vi | Nepal Disaster Report 2011
  7. 7. Experiences gained and lessons learned from such rich engagement of the governmenthave also been described.Further, this Chapter 1 also reports on the milestone initiatives undertaken by the civilsociety organizations and NGOs and the lessons learned: e.g. establishment of Disaster EditorialManagement section in the Nepal Red Cross Society (NRCS), establishment of NationalSociety for Earthquake Technology-Nepal (NSET) and implementation of the KathmanduValley Earthquake Risk Management Program (KVERMP), establishment and landmarkcontributions of Disaster Preparedness Network-Nepal (DPNet-Nepal), Disaster ManagementNetwork Nepal (DiMaNN), National Network of Community Disaster ManagementCommittee (N-NCDMC), Nepal Geological Society (NGS), Nepal Landslide Society(NELS), The Society of Hydrologists and Meteorologists – Nepal (SOHAM-Nepal), NepalGIS Society (NEGISS), Association of International NGOs (AIN), and the Centre forDisaster Studies of the Institute of Engineering (IOE). Collective efforts of networks andagencies under such milestone programs as DIPECHO projects, Developing DRRTerminologies in Nepali language, efforts on sensitizing CA Members on DRR, MainstreamingDRR in Nepals Education System, Study on Strengthening Legal Preparedness forInternational Disaster Response are also described in terms of their contribution, impacts,challenges and lessons learned.Chapter 2: Disaster Data Analysis for 2010 provides disaster statistics for Nepal during1971-2010, with detailed description and analysis of disaster data for the year 2010. Itreports that epidemic presents itself as the most lethal hazard with a total toll of 16,521deaths from 3,413 events during the period of past four decades. The second and thirdhazards with huge toll of life are landslide and flood respectively. There were 95 episodesof damaging earthquake in Nepal or its surroundings, with a total toll of 873 lives dead.One has to remember that the medium sized Udaypur Earthquake of 1988 alone wasresponsible for a death toll of 721 persons and collapse / damage to several thousandhouses. Epidemics (130 deaths), and Landslide (67 deaths), Fire (61 deaths), Flood (27deaths) were the most lethal hazards in the year 2010. There were a total of 1,551 disasterevents in the year (almost three events per day) and more than two disaster-related deathsper day. Total monetary losses due to disaster in 2010 amounted almost to 11 billion NepaliRupees or about 1 % of GDP. The year 2010 is witnessed less disaster impact in comparisonto the years 2008, and 2009.Chapter 3: Impacts and Lessons of Major Past Disasters reports the event details,casualty and other societal impacts, damage to the different sector of economy includingbuilding, infrastructure, and provides an account of emergency response made. The eventsconsidered are the Udaypur Earthquake of 1988, the 1993 Flood of South-Central Nepal,Koshi Flood of 2008, and the 2009 Jajarkot Diarrhea Outbreak. While the events as wellas the impacts have been described in details, the report has tried to distill out the majorlessons and the needs for intervention in national mechanism of response in a strategicway.Chapter 4: Good Practices of Disaster Risk Management (DRM) provides detailsaccounts of about 13 DRM programs and concepts implemented in Nepal and rightlyconsidered as the "Good Practices". These are: 1) Disaster Preparedness and Response | vii
  8. 8. Planning for all administrative districts of Nepal, 2) Early Warning System - Forewarned is forearmed – a flood early warning system in Kailali district, 3) Establishing Community Based Early Warning Systems in Nepal – a flood early warning system implemented in Chitwan and Nawalparasi districts of Nepal, 4) Promoting Safer Construction Practice-Editorial Training the masons in Nepal, 5) Building Code Implementation in Dharan Municipality, 6) Child Centered Disaster Risk Reduction in Sunsari District, 7) DRR Income Generation Program (IGP)/Community Based Disaster Risk Reduction Program implemented in Ilam, Jhapa and Panchthar districts, 8) Developing and Implementing Emergency Response Plan of Bheri Zonal Hospital, 9) School Earthquake Safety Program (SESP), 10) Disaster Preparedness for Safer Schools (DPSS), 11) Community Based Disaster Risk Management in Nepal (CBDRM-N) implemented as pilot program in Kathmandu, Lalitpur and in Alapot VDC, 12) Local level Disaster Management Committees – Effective Vehiclesfor reducing disaster risk (Community Based Disaster Risk Management) in Banke, Makwanpur, Rasuwa and Kathmandu districts, and 13) Pre-Monsoon Workshops: Effective Tool to enhance National as well as Local Preparedness Planning for Flood Response. These good practices are described in terms of their contents, objectives, methodology, beneficiary, achievements, challenges, lessons learned and opportunities for further improvement, and their replication potentials. There were many more candidates of good practices, and not all could be accommodated, and the ones chosen were those that represented different locations, approaches, or contents. It is heartening to note that these are excellent examples that serve as evidence of the feasibilities of DRM in Nepal despite the very adverse economic and political situation. Chapter 5: Thematic Discussion on Economics of Disasters provides a discourse on the direct and indirect losses due to disaster events. The losses are presented separately for casualty, and damage to infrastructure (roads, dams, bridges, and buildings). An analysis of the impact on macroeconomics and on national GDP is also presented together with an analysis of the trend of investments on disasters against losses. It is to be emphasized here that the works represented in this compendium is the overall achievement made by Nepal with contribution of all agencies, public or private, academic or community-based. The successes as well as the failures are to be shared by all and further efforts to meet the identified challenges are to be made by all. Nepal suffers a loss of several million rupees every year due to damage of infrastructures by natural hazards. The official data for 1983-2010 shows that over 30 billion rupees were lost due to disasters; this is an average of about a billion Nepali Rupees every year. And the report makes a case that the situation should not continue this way because Nepal has learned and has developed capacity for disaster risk management as demonstrated by the good practices. The real need is to scale up the successes and to institutionalize the methodologies. That is the real Challenge! viii | Nepal Disaster Report 2011
  9. 9. Table of Content Table of ContentCHAPTER 1 : DISASTER RISK MANAGEMENT IN NEPAL – AN OVERVIEW 1 The Context 3 The development of Disaster Risk Management in Nepal 8 Government Initiatives and Policy Intervention 8 Global Initiatives and Nepals Participation 25 Initiatives by Civil Society Organizations 34 Summary 45 Timeline: Disaster Risk Management in Nepal 47CHAPTER 2: DISASTER DATA ANALYSIS FOR 2010 51 Disasters in Year 2010 53 Economic Loss due to Disasters in year 2010 59 Comparison of 2010 with disaster data of past 5 year’s 64 Disaster Information for Nepal 65 Conclusions 68CHAPTER 3 : IMPACTS AND LESSONS OF MAJOR PAST DISASTERS 71 The 1988 Udaypur Earthquake 73 The 1993 Flood of South-Central Nepal 81 The Koshi Flood 2008 92 The 2009 Jajarkot Diarrhea Outbreak 106CHAPTER 4: GOOD PRACTICES ON DISASTER RISK MANAGEMENT 115 Disaster Preparedness and Response Planning 118 Early Warning System - Forewarned is forearmed 120 Establishing Community Based Early Warning Systems in Nepal 122 Promoting Safer Construction Practice- Training the masons in Nepal 124 Building Code Implementation in Dharan Municipality 126 Child Centered Disaster Risk Reduction 128 DRR Income Generation Program (IGP)/Community Based Disaster Risk Reduction Program 130 Developing and Implementing Emergency Response Plan of Bheri Zonal Hospital 132 School Earthquake Safety Program (SESP) 134 Disaster Preparedness for Safer Schools (DPSS) 136 Community Based Disaster Risk Management in Nepal (CBDRM-N) 138 Local level Disaster Management Committees – Effective Vehicles for reducing disaster risk (Community Based Disaster Risk Management) 140 Pre-Monsoon Workshops: Effective Tool to Enhance National as well as Local Preparedness Planning for Flood Response 142CHAPTER 5: THEMATIC DISCUSSION ON ECONOMICS OF DISASTERS 145 Background 147 Damage and Losses 147 Economic values of damage and losses 155 Damage and loss Vs. Investments 159 Past studies 161 Summary and Conclusions 163REFERENCES 165 | ix
  10. 10. List of TablesList of Tables Table 1.1: Top 10 hazards types and their impact in Nepal 1971-2010 3 Table 1.2: Regional Mean Temperature Trends for the period 1977-94 (°C per year) 16 Table 1.3: IDNDR Day celebration (1991-1999) 27 Table 2.1: Top 10 hazards types and their impact in Nepal 1971-2010 53 Table 2.2: Loss of human lives and property due to disasters in 2010, Nepal 54 Table 2.3: Disaster effects on Human Population, 2010 56 Table 2.4: No. of building damaged and destroyed by different type of disasters in Nepal, 2010 58 Table 2.5: Loss due to all types of disasters compared to gross domestic products 61 Table 2.6: Events catagories as per the Hazard Type 67 Table 2.7: Economic losses due to disasters, 2010 69 Table 3.1: Losses due to infrastructure damage/failure 82 Table 3.2: Infrastructure Damage in July 1993 in Nepal 83 Table 3.3: Estimated loss of lives and property from landslides and floods of 19-22 July 1993 84 Table 3.4: Damage due to Flood and Landslide in July 1993 85 Table 3.5 : Families affected and the number of housing constructed by Tzu Chi Foundation 91 Table 3.6: Number of households and population figures for the affected VDCs 92 Table 3.7: Number of deaths and injuries 92 Table 3.8: Damage to properties 93 Table 3.9: Extent of damage to cultivated land 93 Table 3.10: Loss of household goods in number 93 Table 3.11: Damage of roads and trails 93 Table 3.12: Loss of crops in 2008 Koshi flood 94 Table 3.13: Loss of fruits in 2008 Koshi flood 94 Table 3.14: Losses of vegetables in 2008 Koshi flood 94 Table 3.15: Number of livestock lost in 2008 Koshi flood 94 Table 3.16: Estimated monetary loss in 2008 Koshi flood 95 Table 3.17: Number of days when the flow of goods and services were closed 96 Table 3.18: Details of Compensation after 2008 Koshi flood 101 Table 3.19: Details of the cumulative number of treated and deaths since 1st May 2009 to 23, August 2009 107 x| Nepal Disaster Report 2011
  11. 11. Table 5.1: Loss of lives due to various disasters in Nepal from 1983 to 2010 148Table 5.2: Human death due to disasters during 1971-2010 149 List of TablesTable 5.3: Summary of effects on human lives due to disasters during 1971-2010 150Table 5.4: Summary of Effects of Human Lives due to Disasters during 1983-2010 151Table 5.5: Damage of properties and Estimated Economic Loss (Value in 2010) due to Disasters during 1983 – 2010 152Table 5.6: Damage of Private and Public Properties due to disasters during 1971-2010 153Table 5.7: Year-wise Damage of Private and Public Properties due to disasters during 1971-2010 154Table 5.8: Year-wise economic value of damages (in Million NRs.) 156Table 5.9: Major Hazard-wise Economic Value of Damages (in Million NRs.) 158Table 5.10: Ex-ante and ex-post investments in Nepal during 1998-2008 (in million US Dollars) 160Table 5.11: Total disaster losses and ex-ante and ex-post investments in disasters during (1998-2008) in Million USD 161Table 5.12: Infrastructure damage in July 1993 in Nepal 162 List of BoxesBox 1.1: Measuring earthquakes 5Box 1.2 : Main Recommendations of SEDM 13Box 1.3: Tokyo Declaration for International Decade for Natural Disaster Reduction 25Box 1.4: Excerpts from remarks during first IDNDR day celebration in Nepal 26 List of BoxesBox 1.5: Resolution of 1995 IDNDR Day 28Box 1.6: Excerpts from remarks during first IDNDR day celebration in Nepal 28Box 1.7: Components of National Action Plan 1996 29Box 1.8: Earthquake scenario of Kathmandu Valley 36Box 1.9: List of DPNet Nepal Member Organizations 38Box 1.10: Disaster related Keywords interpreted, developed and adapted by Dhulikhel Workshop 2008 42Box 1.11: Addressing Disaster in Periodic Plans 44Box 1.12: Findings and Recommendations of IDRL Study 46Box 2.1: Major Disasters in the Year 2010 54Box 2.2: Extensive and Intensive Risk 63Box 3.1: Post 1988 Diary 80Box 3.2: July 1993 Floods and Landslides of South Central Nepal 84Box 3.3: Secondary Effects of Koshi Flood 96Box 3.4: Prompt activation of DDRC & CNDRC 97Box 3.5: Quick Initial Rescue and Relief 98Box 3.6: Reconstruction and Rehabilitation after 2008 Koshi flood 103 | xi
  12. 12. List of FiguresList of Figures Figure 1.1 : News coverage on Building Code Implementation from “The Rising Nepal” 10 Figure 1.2: Then Prime Minister, Home Minister and distinguished guests observing models on earthquake resistant building construction at Earthquake Safety Day 2010, Lalitpur 11 Figure 1.3: Comparison between temperatures in Kathmandu and global and all-Nepal temperature 16 Figure 1.4: All Nepal temperature trend (1975-2006) 16 Figure 1.5: Effect of global warming is more acutely manifested in higher altitude (Chhuksang, Mustang) 16 Figure 1.6: Constituent Assembly Members at the sensitization workshop 43 Figure 2.1: Trend of hazard occurrence in past decades in Nepal, 1971-2010 55 Figure 2.2: Seasonality of occurrences of selected hazard types by month 57 Figure 2.3: Effect of natural disasters in building damage by hazard types 2010 59 Figure 2.4: Trend of reported loss value in DesInventar Database for Nepal 1971-2010, by decades 62 Figure 2.5: Major peaks of impact in terms of deaths due to intensive disasters in 2010 62 Figure 2.6: Loss of human lives by districts during 2009 (left) and 2010 (right) 64 Figure 2.7: Loss of human lives due to major disaster events in Nepal in year 2009 and 2010 64 Figure 2.8: Annual time series distribution of disaster occurrence and human deaths, 2005-2010 65 Figure 3.1: Earthquake intensity map 73 Figure 3.2: Sectorwise loss 73 Figure 3.3: Building damage in Naya Bazar of Dharan 74 Figure 3.4: The damage of road in Koshi Highway 74 Figure 3.5: During the relief distribution 76 Figure 3.6: Area affected by landslides and flood disasters during high intensity rainfall of July 19 & 20, 1993 81 Figure 3.7: Floor plan of a typical duplex unit providing basic housing for two families in Mangalpur 88 Figure 3.8: Stone Masonry in Foundation 88 Figure 3.9: Weakness in building construction 88 Figure 3.10: Brick building under construction 88 Figure 3.11: Pre Cast RCC lintel above the opening 89 Figure 3.12: Improper bonding of masonry units 89 Figure 3.13: Detached toilet blocks for the houses 89 Figure 3.14: Koshi Flood Map 92 Figure 3.15: People seeking for temporary shelter after 2008 Koshi flood 97 Figure 3.16: Shelter, storm and struggle for life after Koshi flood 2008 99 Figure 3.17: Distribution of compensation after 2008 Koshi flood 100 xii | Nepal Disaster Report 2011
  13. 13. Figure 3.18: Diarrhorea outbreak in mid west and far west region 106Figure 3.19: Number of cases and deaths by districts 107 List of FiguresFigure 3.20: Trends of diarrheal cases in mid and far western region of Nepal 108Figure 3.21: Treatment of diarrhea patient Khagenkot Health Post, Jajarkot 109Figure 3.22: IEC materials to raise awareness in WASH/UNICEF 110Figure 4.1: Street Drama on Disaster Awareness performed in Kathmandu October 2012 117Figure 4.2: Guidance note on DPRP 119Figure 4.3: Water –level-gauge installed at the river bank 121Figure 4.4: Communicating using an upstream recorder 121Figure 4.5: One of the Installed tower, Local resident informing on the gauge reading 123Figure 4.6: Local resident practicing on the siren 123Figure 4.7: Practical demonstration in the field 125Figure 4.8: Participants involved in group work 125Figure 4.9: Concerned Stakeholders jointly announcing the building code implementation 127Figure 4.10: Constructing Sill and Lintel bands has become popular in Dharan 127Figure: 4.11:Practice on the flood response technique 129Figure 4.12: Students permforming duck, cover & hold on 129Figure 4.13: Kitchen Gardening in Panchthar in DRR implemented communities 131Figure 4.14: Murdirmaya Tumbapo and her husband with their buffalos, which they were able to buy with a helping hand from the DRR program 131Figure 4.15: Spatial Plan for Emergency Response Scenario -1 132Figure 4.16: Nonstructural Mitigation work at the hospital 133Figure 4.17: Students observing the retrofitting work in one of the selected school 134Figure 4.18: Students participating in the earthquake drill program 135Figure 4.19: School Emergency Evacuation Plan Painted on walls of school building 137Figure 4.20: Students demonstrating and practicing Duck Cover And hold during School Earthquake Drill 137Figure 4.21: Communities attending orientation lecture on Earthquake safety 139Figure 4.22: Participants performing practical exercise during the LSAR training 139Figure 4.23: DMC Meeting 141Figure 4.24: DMC member orienting the community 141Figure 4.25: Distiguished guests at the dias during the workshop 143Figure 4.26: Participant of the workshop 143Figure 5.1: Percentage of loss of life due to various types of disasters in Nepal during 1983-2010 149Figure 5.2: Loss of human lives in Nepal due to disasters 1983-2010, as reported in two databases (MoHA and DesInventar) 151Figure 5.3: Proportion of economic losses due to different hazards in the total economic losses during 1971-2010 155Figure 5.4: Trend of ex-ante and ex-post investments in Nepal 160Figure 5.5: Total Disaster Losses and Ex ante and ExPost Investments in disasters during (1998-2008) in millionUSD 161 | xiii
  14. 14. Acronym AAN Action-Aid Nepal DERMP Dharan Earthquake Risk ADB Asian Development Bank Management ProgramAcronym ADPC Asian Disaster Preparedness Center DHM Department of Hydrology and Meteorology ADRA Adventist Development and Relief Agency DHS Department of Health Services AEPC Alternative Energy Promotion Centre DHWG Disaster Health Working Group AINTDGM Association of INGOs in Nepal Task DiMANN Disaster Management Network Group on Disaster Management Nepal AMCDRR Asian Ministerial Conference on DIMS Disaster Inventory/Information Disaster Risk Reduction Management System APF Armed Police Force DIS Digital Information System APN Asia-Pacific Network DLSA District Lead Support Agency DMC Disaster Management Committee ARC American Red Cross DMG Department of Mines and Geology AUDMP Asian Urban Disaster Mitigation DMSP Disaster Mitigation Support Program Program DOI Department of Irrigation AWD Acute Watery Diarrhea DOR Department of Roads BDMT Basic Disaster Management Training DPC Disaster Preparedness Committee BZH Bheri Zonal Hospital DPNet-Nepal Disaster Preparedness Network- CA Constituent Assembly Nepal CBDRMN Community Based Disaster Risk DPRP Disaster Preparedness and Response Management in Nepal Plan CBO Community Based Organization DPSS Disaster Preparedness for Safer Schools CBS Central Bureau of Statistics DPTC Disaster Prevention Technical Center CCDRR Child-Centered Disaster Risk Reduction DPHO District Public Health Office DRM Disaster Risk Management CDO Chief District Officer DRR Disaster Risk Reduction CDRF Central Disaster Relief Fund DRRSP Disaster Risk Reduction through CDS Center for Disaster Studies Schools Project CEAARRC Central Earthquake Affected Areas DSCWM Department of Soil Conservation and Reconstruction and Rehabilitation Watershed Management Committee DUDBC Department of Urban Development CECOD Center for Community Development and Building Construction CNDRC Central Natural Disaster Relief DWIDP Department of Water Induced Committee Disaster Prevention CRED Centre for Research on the EAARRP Earthquake Affected Areas Epidemiology of Disasters Reconstruction and Rehabilitation DAO District Administration Office Project DCWB District Child Welfare Board ECHO European Commission’s DDC District Development Committee Humanitarian Aid Department DDRC District Disaster Relief Committee EDCD Epidemiology and Disease Control Division DEO District Education Office EPC Environment Protection Council DEPROSC-Nepal Development Project Service Center- Nepal ESD Earthquake Safety Day EU European Union xiv | Nepal Disaster Report 2011
  15. 15. EWS Early Warning System KDRRI Kailali Disaster Risk ReductionFAO Food and Agriculture Organization InitiativesFCHV Female Community Health Volunteer KMC Kathmandu Metropolitan CityFMIS Farmer Managed Irrigation System KVERMP Kathmandu Valley Earthquake Risk Management Project AcronymGAR Global Assessment Report LARED Latin American Research EducationGDP Gross Domestic Production and DevelopmentGHI Geo-Hazards International LSAR Light Search and RescueGIS Geographic Information System LSGA Local Self Governance ActGLOFs Glacial Lake Outburst Floods LSMC Lalitpur Sub Metropolitan CityGPS Global Positioning System LWF Lutheran World FederationHFA Hyogo Framework for Action LWR Lutheran World ReliefHI Handicap International MCH Maternal Child HealthHICS Hospital Incident Command System MCPM Minimum Conditions andHKH Hindu Kush Himalaya Performance MeasurementsHRDC Hospital and Rehabilitation Center for MDGs Millennium Development Goals the Disabled Children MEDEP Micro-Enterprise DevelopmentHVCA Hazard, Vulnerability and Capacity Program Assessment MHPP Ministry of Housing and PhysicalIASC Inter Agency Standing Committee PlanningICAO International Civil Aviation MMI Modified Mercalli Intensity Scale Organization MoAC Ministry of Agriculture andICIMOD International Centre for Integrated Cooperatives Mountain Development MoFSC Ministry of Forest and SoilIATF/DR Inter-Agency Task Force on Disaster Conservation Reduction MoHA Ministry of Home AffairsIDA International Development MoLD Ministry of Local Development Association MoST Ministry of Science and TechnologyIDNDR International Decade for Natural Disaster Reduction MoWR Ministry of Water ResourcesIDP Internally Displaced Person MRT Mandatory Rule of ThumbIFRC International Federation of Red Cross NA Nepalese Army and Red Crescent Societies NAPA National Adaptation Program ofINF International Nepal Fellowship ActionINGO International Non-Governmental NAST Nepal Academy of Science and Organization TechnologyINSARAG International Search and Rescue NBC Nepal Building Code Advisory Group NCDM Nepal Center for DisasterIOE Institute of Engineering ManagementIPCC Intergovernmental Panel on Climate NCDM National Council for Disaster Change ManagementIRA Initial Rapid Assessment NCRA Natural Calamity (Relief) Act-1982ISDR International Strategy for Disaster NDC National Development Council Reduction NDMA National Disaster ManagementITDG Intermediate Technology Authority Development Group NDMF Natural Disaster Management ForumJICA Japan International Cooperation Nepal Agency NDMF Natural Disaster Management FormJYRC Junior Youth Red Cross Nepal | xv
  16. 16. NDMP National Disaster Management Policy SOHAM Society of Hydrologists and NEA Nepal Electricity Authority Meteorologists NEA Nepal Engineers’ Association SOP Standard Operating Procedure NEGIS Nepal GIS Society SMC School Management CommitteeAcronym NELS Nepal Landslide Society TU Tribhuvan University NEOC National Emergency Operations UN United Nations Center UNCHS United Nations Center for Human NEPAP National Environmental Policy and Settlements Action Plan UNCRD United Nations Center for Regional NEWAH Nepal Water for Health Development NFHP Nepal Family Health Programme UNDMS United Nations Disaster Management Secretariat NFI Non Food Item UNDMT United Nations Disaster Management NGO Non-Governmental Organization Team NGS Nepal Geological Society UNDP United Nations Development NHEICC National Health Education Programme Information and Communication UNDRO United Nations Disaster Relief Center Organization NP Nepal Police UNESCO United Nations Educational Scientific NPC National Planning Commission and Cultural Organization NPDRR National Platform for Disaster Risk UNFCCC United Nations Framework Reduction Convention on Climate Change NNCDMC National Network of Community UNICEF United Nations Children’s Fund Disaster Management Committee UNISDR United Nations International Strategy NRCS Nepal Red Cross Society for Disaster Reduction NRRC Nepal Risk Reduction Consortium UNOCHA United Nations Office for the NSDRM National Strategy for Disaster Risk Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs Management USAID United States Agency for NSET National Society for Earthquake International Development Technology - Nepal USAID-NFRP USAID- Nepal Flood Recovery OECD Organization for Economic Co- Program operation and Development VDC Village Development Committee OFDA Office of the U.S. Foreign Disaster VFL Views from the Frontline Assistance WCDR World Conference on Disaster ORS Oral Rehydration Solution Reduction PVA Participatory Vulnerability WECS Water and Energy Commission Assessment Secretariat PVCA Participatory Vulnerability Capacity WFP World Food Program Assessment WHO World Health Organization SAR Search and Rescue WMO World Meteorological Organization SBDPTOT School Based Disaster Preparedness WOREC Womens Rehabilitation Center Training of Trainers WSSI World Seismic Safety Initiative SDC Swiss Development Coopertion WSSDO Water Supply and Sanitation Division SEDM Study on Earthquake Disaster Office Mitigation for Kathmandu Valley WVI World Vision International SESC School Earthquake Safety Committee WWF World Wildlife Fund SESP School Earthquake Safety Program YARCN Youth Awareness Raising Center SFRALSO Saptakoshi Flood Rehabilitation Nepal Agriculture and Livestock Service Office xvi | Nepal Disaster Report 2011
  17. 17. CHAPTER 1 : DISASTER RISKMANAGEMENT IN NEPAL – AN OVERVIEW |1
  18. 18. Boat ferrying food and goods across what used to be normal dry land but then flooded, Koshi Flood Photo Courtesy: www.everestunsencored.org2|
  19. 19. Chapter 1Disaster Risk Management in Nepal – An OverviewThe Context Chapter 1Nepal is exposed to several types of natural during the monsoon periods (June-August).as well as human-induced hazards. A wide Most of the flood disasters take place alongvariety of physiographical, geological, the banks of the larger rivers such as Mechi,ecological and hydro-meteorological factors Kankai, Koshi, Kamala, Bagmati, East Rapti,contribute to the high levels of hazards Narayani (Gandak), West Rapti, Babai, Table 1.1: Top 10 hazards types and their impact in Nepal 1971-2010S.N. Hazard Type Number of Number of Number of Affected records/events deaths injury population 1 Epidemics 3413 16521 43076 512967 2 Landslide 2705 4327 1446 555607 3 Flood 3377 3899 461 3665104 4 Fire 4936 1293 1097 252074 5 Thunderstorm 1034 986 1810 6668 6 Accident 1000 969 359 2137 7 Earthquake 95 873 6840 4539 8 Cold wave 320 442 83 2393 9 Structural Collapse 389 404 596 2016 10 Boat Capsize 135 269 124 410 11 Other events 2651 999 1335 928331 Total 20055 30982 57227 5932246Source : DesInventar, 2011faced; while demographic factors such as Karnali and Mahakali rivers. Riversrapid population growth, slow economic originating from the Siwaliks are mostly ofdevelopment and the resulting rampant ephemeral nature, being wild during thepoverty, widespread unawareness on the monsoon season, and they also pose highpossibilities and means of mitigation, limited flood hazards to the Tarai. Extensivefirm political and social commitment etc. inundation in the Tarai plain is due toalso make the country extremely prone to frequent change in the river courses, bankdisasters. The major types of natural hazards erosion and erosion in the river meanders.of concern and their impact are listed in In the mountainous regions, rivers are inTable 1.1 and major hazards are described spates during the monsoon season. Bankbriefly. undercutting, inundation of the flood plainsFlood are the results. But more disastrous are the floods in the high gradient tributary streamsFlood is a recurrent problem in the Tarai as due to cloud bursts or high intensity rainfallwell as in the mountain regions. concentrated usually in a small catchment.Most part of Tarai faces problem of floods Such flash floods cause triggering of |3
  20. 20. landslide, deep scouring of the stream bed High intensity rainfalls, which occur and the side slopes and they rapidly develop frequently during the monsoon season are into debris flows capable of transporting found to have triggered many highly several cubic meter sized boulders. destructive debris slides and debris flowChapter 1 The problem of flooding in the Tarai is also along the high gradient hill slope channels. high due to the high bed load, in addition Majority of the landslides in Nepal occur to the suspended load, carried by the rivers. in the late monsoon periods. Incessant In the plains, almost all the rivers are rainfall during the period, when the widening and cutting their banks each year. antecedent moisture content of the land Landslide and Debris Flow surface reaches a certain critical stage, is found to be accompanied by landslides. The causes of landslides in Nepal can be assigned to a complex interaction of several Earthquake is another important landslide factors which are natural as well as human triggerer. Apart from developing fissures activity related. High relief, concentrated both along and parallel to the hill slopes, monsoon rainfall, withdraw of underlying and thus generating the potentials for debris as well as lateral supports by toe cutting and slides, the earthquakes are found to trigger bank erosion, presence of weaker rocks, a variety of landslide types including huge active neotectonic movements and a complex rock slide, rock fall and slumps. Some of geological history, which has resulted in the very big landslides have been reported very intense faulting, folding and fracturation to have been initiated by the Nepal-Bihar of the rocks, are the natural factors causing earthquake of 1934 AD. landslides in Nepal. But human activities Debris flows are frequent in the mountainous are also responsible for the very high extent, parts of the country. They are caused by and they add to the density of landslides in deep scouring of the stream bed and side the country. Overgrazing of protective slope by a high gradient stream. Materials grassy cover, mass felling of trees leading are the deeply weathered rock and colluvium to an unprecedented deforestation, in the middle mountains and the thick glacial disturbance of the hill slopes by road/canal deposits in the high mountains. Damming construction, non consideration of the of rivers and tributaries due to landslides geologic conditions in the corresponding and debris and subsequent sudden breaching location, planning or designs of infrastructures etc. are some of the important of the dam is another important phenomena anthropogenic factors leading to landslides. for the generation of debris flows. In the higher mountains, debris flows are frequently There are other social causes for the greater generated by Glacial Lakes Outburst Floods extent of damage. Unawareness on the part (GLOFs) due to the breaching of the of the population and the decision makers moraines or glacier ice damming the lakes. may be cited as the most important of all the anthropogenic activity related indirect The debris flow travels usually to greater causes of landslides. distances along the river valley and destroy terraces, infrastructures and settlements All these factors set the stage for the landslide along its course. Destruction of bridges, to take place. But the stability balance is hyd r o p owe r f a c i l i t i e s a n d o t h e r usually tipped by one of the two triggers, infrastructures along the Sunkoshi and Bhote namely; a) rainfall/cloud burst, and b) Koshi rivers in 1967 and 1996 were due to earthquake, excavation and transitory debris flows. stresses. 4| Nepal Disaster Report 2011
  21. 21. EarthquakeThe entire territory of Nepal lies in high The country has a long history of destructiveseismic hazard zone. The countrys high earthquakes. In this century alone, overseismicity is related to the movement of 11,000 people have lost their lives in four Chapter 1tectonic plates along the Himalayas that has major earthquakes. A 1934 AD earthquakecaused several active faults. A total of 92 produced strong shaking in Kathmanduactive faults have been mapped throughout Valley, and destroyed 20 percent andthe country by the Seismic Hazard Mapping damaged 40 percent of the valley’s buildingand Risk Assessment for Nepal carried out stock (NSET, 1999). In Kathmandu itself,as part of the Building Code Development one quarter of all homes was destroyed.Project – 1992-1994 (MHPP, 2994). Earth- Many of the temples in Bhaktapur werequakes of various magnitudes occur almost destroyed as well. This earthquake was notevery year and have caused heavy losses of an isolated event. Three earthquakes oflives. similar size occurred in Kathmandu Valley in the 19th Century: in 1810, 1833, and 1866The entire country falls in a high earthquake AD. The most recent earthquake that badlyintensity belt: almost the whole of Nepal hit Nepal was the earthquake of 1988 whichfalls in high intensity scale of MMI IX and was a moderate size earthquake (MagnitudeX for the generally accepted recurrence 6.5) affecting mostly the eastern part ofperiod. The seismic zoning map of Nepal, Nepal. 721 people lost their lives in thiswhich depicts the primary (shaking hazard), earthquake.divides the country into three zones Based on the data available from theelongated in northwest-southeast direction; Department of Mines and Geology, CBSthe middle part of the country is slightly (1998) concludes that earthquakes of morehigher than the northern and the southern than or equal to 5.0 on the Richter scaleparts. have occurred at least once every year inBox 1.1: Measuring earthquakes The Modified Mercalli Intensity (MMI)The Richter scale ScaleThe Richter scale or the local magnitude The MMI scale is used for measuring the(ML) scale assigns a single number to intensity of earthquake. It quantifies thequantify the amount of seismic energy effects of an earthquake on the earthsreleased by an earthquake. The Richter surface, human beings, object of naturemagnitude of an earthquake is determined and man-made structures on a scale offrom the logarithm of the amplitude of MMI I through MMI XII. MMI I denoteswaves recorded by seismographs the lowest intensity, and a shaking of MMI(adjustments are included to compensate XII can cause total destruction. Thefor the variation in the distance between strongest shaking usually occurs near thethe various seismographs and the epicenter (epi-central intensity) and theepicenter). Because of the logarithmic intensity of shaking decreases with thebasis of the scale, an increase by a whole increase of distance from the epicenter.number in magnitude represents a 10-fold This decrease is called "attenuation” andincrease in amplitude; in terms of energy the mathematical expression of thean increase by a whole number, decrease in the level of shaking is calledcorresponds to an increase of about 32 “Attenuation Relationship”. The scale istimes the amount of energy released. commonly abbreviated as MMI. |5
  22. 22. Nepal since 1987, with the exception of unplanned urban settlements are the cause 1989 and 1992 when no such events were for the potentially high risk from epidemic. recorded. The current disaster database of gastro-enteritis, cholera, encephalitis, Nepal shows that there were 22 earthquakes meningitis, dysentery and diarrhea accountChapter 1 with magnitudes ranging from 4.5 to 6.5 on for more than 50% of the total deaths due the Richter scale throughout the country to epidemics. Break out of epidemics after for last 37 years period (1971-2007). About a major disaster such as flood and earthquake 34,000 buildings were destroyed and 55,000 etc. is quite frequent. were damaged (DesInventar, 2007) during this period due to earthquakes. Epidemics of contagious diseases have two Many studies have been carried out in the peaks: during the months of May and June, past to evaluate the earthquake risk of before the rainy season begins and in August, Kathmandu Valley. The most significant the height of the monsoon. Unsafe drinking among such studies are: the Study on water and poor sanitation are the main causes Earthquake Disaster Mitigation for of water-borne diseases in Nepal. Water- Kathmandu Valley conducted in 2002 by borne diseases continue to take lives in Ministry of Home Affairs (MoHA) with Nepal. In fact, over 80 per cent of all illness suppor t from Japan Inter national is attributed to inadequate access to clean Coopertation Agency (JICA); and the water supplies, poor sanitation and poor earthquake risk assessment and scenario hygiene practices. development in 1997 by Kathmandu Valley Earthquake Risk Management Project Fire (KVERMP) implemented by the National Forest fires are prevalent in the Tarai forests Society for Earthquake Technology – Nepal as well as in the forests belonging to the (NSET). A simple loss estimation carried Siwaliks and middle mountains. Although out during the KVERMP suggested that in damages by such fires have been severe in case of a reoccurrence of similar shaking terms of environmental degradation, these to that of 1934 in Kathmandu Valley would have not been followed as disasters to result in the following consequences: death: communities. 40,000, injury: 95,000, homeless population: On the other hand, disasters due to fires in 600,000 – 900,000 , and building damage: settlements are common in the Tarai where 60% (NSET, 1999). Recent studies have most of the houses are thatched roof and shown that the situation is not much different clustered and there is little fire safety in other cities also. measures implemented. Fires are sporadic Epidemic also in the mountain settlements. Most fire Epidemics are in fact the number one killer disasters occur during summer (April - July) in Nepal, with an average of 410 deaths per when temperatures are high and strong year. During 1983-2010, 22,306 people lost winds occur. The large number of small fire their lives (MoHA,2004;DWIDP, 2010). incidences has a cumulative effect throughout Fifty-two per cent of those deaths were the country caused by epidemics. The pattern is not Drought much changed during later time as well. A severe drought hit Nepal during 1981- Lack of treated drinking water supply and 1982 causing heavy damage to crops leading poor hygiene conditions, not only in the to a decline in Gross Domestic Product rural areas but also in the crowded, (GDP) by about 1.4%. Failure of monsoon 6| Nepal Disaster Report 2011
  23. 23. rains or its late arrival causes partial drought starvation. Such cold waves can causeaffecting major crops in different parts of famines and result in numerous fatalities.the country. Uneven distribution of the November to February are the months formonsoon rains, with several parts of the the cold waves. Chapter 1country not receiving the required rains inthe required time for the major crop is a Heat waves with rise in atmospheric averagerecurrent phenomenon. Since a large part temperature well above the average of aof the country still depends on rainfall for region have been reported to induce adversecultivation, such phenomena affect the effects on human populations, crops,agriculture production of the country very properties and services. This is common inadversely. Tarai region in southern Nepal.Storm The flat plains of Tarai in the south of theStorms (line-squalls) with heavy rainfall and country also show the highest level ofhail are common during the summer months susceptibility to liquefaction.in the tropical and sub-tropical parts of the Cyclonic wind is a hazard that destroyscountry. Major damage from storms has horticultural crops in spring, while hailstormbeen recorded in eastern Nepal (1980) and causes significant harm to the summer asmid-western Nepal (1983). Storm winds of well as winter crops, especially in theeven moderate velocities have major effects mountainous areas of the country.in the Tarai, where most of the houses andstructures are lightly roofed. Historically, famines have occurred becauseThe most occurring disaster in March/April of drought, crop failure, pestilence, andand October are hailstorms that have a because of human-induced causes such asdisastrous effect especially on agriculture. war or misguided economic policies. FaminesWhile most of the hail that precipitates from are not frequently reported as other naturalthe clouds is fairly small and virtually disaster events in Nepal but every year theyharmless, there have been cases of golf ball have serious effect on people in the country.sized hail that causes much damage especially Rarely lives are lost by famine but the effectto the standing crops and inflict injuries. on people is high.Thunderstorms dominate the weather during Glacial Lakes Outburst Floods (GLOFs)May to September. A thunderstorm is and Avalanches are typical of high Himalayann o r m a l l y a c c o m p a n i e d by h e av y regions. The problem of GLOFs is beingprecipitation. During wintertime, especially intensified due to the climate change resultingin December and January, the northern areas in accelerated melting of the glacier tonguesof Nepal suffer harsh snow storms. and rapid enlargement of the glacial lakesOther Hazards contained by natural moraine dams. Several glacial lakes have been mapped in Nepal.In Nepal, cold waves –related casualties have Snow avalanches are prevalent in thetaken place not much in the very cold places Himalayan region – they pose risk to thein the high Himalayas, but in the sub-tropical high mountain tourism industry.Tarai. They have also caused death and injuryto livestock and wildlife. If a cold wave is Other hazards including boat capsize, frost,accompanied by heavy and persistent snow, accidents (caused by natural phenomenon),grazing animals may be unable to reach leaks, panic, pollution, sedimentation,needed food and die of hypothermia or structural collapse are also recorded in Nepal. |7
  24. 24. The development of Disaster lives in one night. Several expert missions fielded by Office of Foreign Disaster Risk Management in Nepal Assistance (OFDA), United Nations Disaster As stated, Nepal is prone to various kinds Relief Organization (UNDRO) and UnitedChapter 1 of frequently occurring disasters. Flood, Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural landslide, fire, epidemics, drought are some Organization (UNESCO) also recomme- regular events which cause huge loss of life nded for comprehensive approach for and property every year; whereas, large disaster management in the country. earthquakes on the other hand, are less frequent but when they occur, cause severe Government Initiatives and damage and destruction. Developmental Policy Intervention achievements gained in decades are lost Natural Calamity (Relief) Act, 1982 within few seconds and minutes during such large disasters. Economics of such disaster Prior to 1982, rescue, relief as well as losses are also great: a significant proportion resettlement of disaster victims were carried of Gross Domestic Product (GDP) is lost out in Nepal on an ad-hoc basis, primarily every year due to large, medium and small as a social work. The Government of Nepal disasters. Therefore, fighting with disaster promulgated the Natural Calamity (Relief) events through effective search, rescue and Act in 1982 to carry out rescue, relief works relief to disaster victims; timely and equitable in a systematic manner. The Act has since reconstruction and rehabilitation; and then been amended thrice (first in 1986, mitigation in the long run always required second in 1989 and third in 1992) enunciating significant amount of time, efforts and the significance of the pre-disaster and post budget from the government and local disaster activities. communities. Management of disasters and The Act was instrumental in imparting an disaster risks have been a key area of work. organized approach to disaster management in the country. It helped develop an There was a time when occurrence of natural organizational structure from central to local hazard events were regarded as the acts of level, to deal with response and relief works. god or divine power and each disaster event Furthermore, the Act provided the basis for was treated on a case to case basis. The coordination among various agencies, management consisted in providing relief government and non-government in in the form of cash grants, cloths and food emergency response activities. grains on ad-hoc basis from the available resources. However, it has been widely felt that the present Act, just can not address the whole More systematic work related to disaster risk spectrum of hazard mitigation and disaster management began in Nepal only after 1982 risk reduction issues. The Act does not when the Natural Calamity (Relief) Act was discriminate between the different types of first promulgated. Starting from 1970s, the disaster for management purposes. It needs necessity for a more organised treatment of incorporation of the whole philosophy of natural disaster started being felt in the the possibility of disaster reduction and country due mainly to the experience gained should still further emphasise the pre-event while administrating relief works and surveys activities for risk reduction. There has been of several disasters, such as the landslide at a general consensus that the country requires Deurali (Pokhara) in 1974 which claimed 62 a new act to incorporate the whole spectrum 8| Nepal Disaster Report 2011
  25. 25. of disaster risk management starting from management and co-ordination; Mappingrisk reduction, mitigation to preparedness, earthquake hazard patterns and analyse risksresponse and reconstr uction and to various types of buildings andrehabilitation. development patterns; Formulate a national Chapter 1 building code, incorporating earthquake-Lessons of 1988 Earthquake and resistant standards and guidelines; DevelopDevelopment of National Building new and improved building materials andCode earthquake-resistant standards and guidelines;The magnitude 6.5 Udayapur earthquake of and Provide staff training in the sheltereastern Nepal that occurred in the morning sector.of 21 August 1988 was a major turning point In addition to the Shelter Policyfor Nepal in terms of starting the concepts Development, the project consisted of afor risk reduction and mitigation. One of component for the development of Nationalthe key lessons realized during this Building Code. The Building Codeearthquake was the need for formulation component of the project comprised ofand enforcement of building codes that three distinct sub-components:ensure the earthquake safety of residentialand all other buildings. Significant number 1) Seismic Hazard Mapping and Riskof private houses and public buildings were Assessment of Nepal: to establish an appropriate level of design againstdamaged and destroyed due to the lack of earthquake-induced damage in Nepalseismic features. This realization led to theformulation of a project concept for 2) Preparation and Implementation ofdevelopment of building code and long- National Building Codeterm shelter policy and plans. 3) Development of Alternative Building Materials and TechnologiesIn 1988, the then newly formed Ministry ofHousing and Physical Planning (MHPP), The project, in 1994, finally completed therequested technical assistance from United formulation of Nepal National BuildingNations Development Forum (UNDP) and Code and two other studies.UNCHS for institutional development and The Building Code developed was uniquecapability strengthening of MHPP and in itself; it incorporated provisions forformulation of a long term shelter policy making buildings earthquake-resistant, itfor Nepal. Subsequently in 1990, a three- addressed the problems not only of theyear program of Policy and Technical engineered buildings but also those housesSupport to Urban Sector (PTSUS - UNDP/ in rural, semi-urban and urban areas whichUNCHS PROJECT NEP/88/054) was are mostly constructed without the inputinitiated within the MHPP. Originally from qualified building/structural engineers.scheduled to be completed in 1992, the It has four levels of code documents:project was extended until December 1993. i. Buildings designed with InternationalThe project consisted of seven components: State-of-the-art provisionsFormulation of a National Shelter Policy ii. Provisions for Professionally Engineeredand Implementation Strategy based on a Buildingscomprehensive shelter needs assessment; iii. Mandatory Rules of Thumb for mostlyPreparation of a national shelter sector available urban and semi-urban residentialTraining Needs Assessment and Strategy; buildingsStrengthening of MHPP capabilities in iv. Guidelines for rural construction |9
  26. 26. Although the building code was unique in all government buildings and encouraged its nature to address the problems of Nepal to implement it in all municipal areas. it was not enforced immediately. It took 1993 Flood of South Central Nepal several years to be formally enforced by theChapter 1 and Sectoral Working Groups Government of Nepal. In 2003 only, the Government of Nepal decided to make the Three sectoral working groups, namely building code compliance mandatory in Health, Logistics, and Food and Agriculture were established during the flood response of 1993 in order to achieve better coordination and effective response. In 1994, the government requested the international community to help continue the three sectoral working groups in order to prepare sectoral contingency plans for future disasters. The UN system agreed to continue and coordinate the three sectoral working groups. The responsibility of the sectoral working g roups, which included representatives from the government, the UN, donors and NGOs, was to provide support to the government’s on-going relief efforts in the sectors of food and agriculture, health, and logistics. In 1995, the sectoral working groups produced three manuals that were revised in 1999. These manuals were intended to serve as the rolling plans. The meetings and activities of the Working Groups gradually decreased over the years, and virtually became non-existing. However, at the end of 2000, the Epidemiology and Disease Control Division (EDCD) of Department of Health Services, Ministry of Health, and World Health Organization (WHO) decided to revitalise the Disaster Health Working Group (DHWG). Later, the DHWG prepared a health sector emergency preparedness and disaster response plan. Establishment of Disaster Prevention Technical Center (DPTC) Nepal suffers from various types of water- induced disasters such as soil erosion, landslides, debris flow, flood, bank erosion Figure 1.1 : News coverage on Building Code Implementation from “The Rising Nepal” etc. due to its rugged topographically weak geological formations, active seismic 10 | Nepal Disaster Report 2011
  27. 27. conditions, occasional glacier lake outburst The objective of DPTC was to strengthenfloods, concentrated monsoon rains capability of the government to cope withassociated with unscientific land utilizations. disasters such as landslides, debris flows,These phenomena induce severe impacts soil erosion and flooding through Chapter 1on the vital infrastructures of the nation development of technology suitable to Nepalsuch as roads, houses, hydropower, irrigation and training of personnel working in theseand drinking water facilities, cause loss of fields.agricultural lands, properties and human To institutionalize the objectives andlives posing a severe threat to the sustainable achievements of the DPTC, the Departmentdevelopment of the country. In order to of Water Induced Disaster Preventionpromote prevention and mitigation of these (DWIDP) was established on 7 Februarydisasters in Nepal, an agreement was signed 2000 under the Ministry of Water Resources.between Government of Nepal and the The then River Training Division of theGovernment of Japan on 7 October 1991 Department of Irrigation was merged infor the establishment of Water Induced the organizational structure of the DWIDPDisaster Prevention Technical Centre to strengthen its institutional capability. Seven(DPTC) as a joint undertaking of concerned Division and five Sub-Division offices wereagencies of GoN with the Ministry of Water established so as to mitigate the water-Resources (MoWR) as leading agency, and induced disasters throughout the country.the cooperation of the Government of Japan Since then, DWIDP has been workingthrough Japan International Cooperation towards prevention and mitigation of waterAgency (JICA) for the initial five years and induced disasters as well as towards post-later extended for two and half years until disaster rehabilitation and reconstruction.March 1999. Figure 1.2: Then Prime Minister, Home Minister and distinguished guests observing models on earthquake resistant building construction at Earthquake Safety Day 2010, Lalitpur Photo Courtesy: NSET | 11
  28. 28. Earthquake Safety Day Local Self Governance Act 1999 Raising awareness among people and Local Self Governance Act 1999 (LSGA, authorities on impending earthquake risk 1999) gave a momentum to the process ofChapter 1 and on ways to mitigating the risks is a key decentralization and devolution of authority. for reducing the risk. Realizing this, Nepal It helped empower the local governments has been observing every year 15th or 16th to undertake disaster management activities. of January (2nd day of Magh as per Nepali LSGA gave the responsibilities in terms of Calendar) as the Earthquake Safety Day with reducing risks associated to disasters and several earthquake awareness-raising managing the disasters to local governments. activities. The day is obser ved in This opened up tremendous opportunities commemoration of the devastation caused for preparing plans, programs and by 1934 Nepal-Bihar earthquake which implementing actions to reduce disaster risks occurred on 15th January 1934. In 1999, at the local level. Some municipalities, VDCs Government of Nepal declared the and DDCs started good initiatives such as Earthquake Safety Day and established an disaster risk management master planning, Earthquake Safety Day National Committee training of professionals and staff, for observing the Day annually throughout implementation of community based disaster the country. ESD National Committee led risk management programs etc. However, by Ministry of Home Affairs (MoHA) draws due to the current vacuum in terms of representatives from all emergency response elected representatives, the local authorities organizations and critical facilities. ESD is have not been able to perform at the required observed annually with varieties of awareness level. activities that extend for many days. The Moreover, other legal tools such as key events are the national meeting, regulations, by-laws etc. to support the awareness rally, earthquake safety exhibition, implementation of the provisions of LSGA symposium, public broadcast of earthquake have not been in place, which has hindered safety message by the Home Minister; shake- the process to a larger extent. table demonstration of building models with and without seismic safety elements; children The Study on Earthquake Disaster essay and painting competitions; earthquake Mitigation in Kathmandu Valley safety walkathon, street drama etc. Numerous (SEDM) publications such as information leaflets, Ministry of Home Affairs (MoHA) and the calendars, posters on earthquake safety are Japan International Cooperation Agency distributed to the public. Earlier, the day (JICA) carried out a project “The Study on used to be observed at the central level in Earthquake Disaster Mitigation in the Kathmandu only; but now the ESD Kathmandu Valley, Kingdom of Nepal” programs are also organized in several (MoHA/HMGN-JICA, 2002) in municipalities and district headquarters. It cooperation with several Nepalese has been realized that the celebration of institutions. The study undertook detailed such a day with awareness raising activities loss estimation for 3 scenario earthquakes. has contributed much to revisit year-long Assessment of potential casualty and damage efforts, renew national commitments toward to infrastructures was done at the municipal earthquake safety promotion and help raise ward level. Different sur veys were public awareness. undertaken for assessing the available 12 | Nepal Disaster Report 2011
  29. 29. resources and constraints. A building • Put higher priority on the disasterinventory comprising 1100 typical buildings mitigation and preparedness policies andrepresenting the valley was prepared. confirm it in the 5 year national planDamage analysis of existing building stock, • Empower local autonomous bodies for Chapter 1public facilities and lifeline networks was risk managementbased on the building inventory. This studyalso undertook a social structure survey that • Promote public awareness to earthquakeexplored existing social norms that disaster and give support to target groupscontributed to disaster resiliency of the for resilient capacity on self-help basissociety. The existing policy and legal The SEDM proposed generation andenvironment was also researched . implementation of earthquake disasterIt ended up with proposing several schemes reduction plans at different levels of thefor making seismic risk coping mechanism government. It was suggested that theoperational and sustainable. The following individual disaster management plans shouldare some key recommendations of the study: be prepared at each level of government and institutions by the method of full• Build a coordination mechanism by establishing a permanent structure such participatory planning by all stakeholders. as National Disaster CouncilBox 1.2 : Main Recommendations of SEDMMechanisms for Sustainable Development of Operations Centre; and advising employees of theirDisaster Management responsibilities in case of disaster.Currently Nepal lacks the necessary mechanisms for Key elements of emergency plans and manuals includesustainable disaster management. It is clear that the the assignment of responsibilities/authority, thefollowing steps must be taken to improve the capacity establishment of systems for command/control/for disaster management in Nepal: communications/coordination, and the collection/dissemination of information.1) Establish a strong legal base for a comprehensive risk management system. Emergency response/recovery planning should be2) Create sustainable mechanisms for inter- prepared for prompt/proper decision-making and governmental and inter-institutional coordination. smooth execution of the decided measures before,3) Ensure that the Tenth Five-Year Plan, currently in during, and after a disaster. The importance of preparation, includes plans and funding for firm communication for the initial response should be disaster mitigation measures. recognised, as well as the importance of the role of the media in communication.4) Promote and strengthen self-governance of local bodies for risk management. Protection of Life and Property5) Promote public awareness on self-protection Many difficulties are anticipated in the initial stages of against earthquake disasters and outreach to the disaster, including search and rescue operations, targeted groups. medical services, cremation, drinking water and food,Need to Maintain Governance public health care, security, fire-fighting, managementThe government, at all levels, is responsible for of volunteers, safety inspections of structures andproviding continuity of effective leadership, direction infrastructure, debris removal and disposal, shelter andof emergency operations, and management of recovery temporary housing, etc. Due to inadequate responseoperations. For this reason, it is essential that planning and systems for inter-institutionalgovernmental entities continue to function during and coordination, public onsite services in an emergencyfollowing a disaster. This requires that they take actions are likely to be deficient for the time being. Communityon preparedness such as: preparing plans/manuals to involvement and the sense of self-protection by theguide initial response; establishing systems for people are accordingly indispensable.communications/coordination, including an Emergency | 13

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