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Khanepani mahasul-nirdharan-aayog
Khanepani mahasul-nirdharan-aayog
Khanepani mahasul-nirdharan-aayog
Khanepani mahasul-nirdharan-aayog
Khanepani mahasul-nirdharan-aayog
Khanepani mahasul-nirdharan-aayog
Khanepani mahasul-nirdharan-aayog
Khanepani mahasul-nirdharan-aayog
Khanepani mahasul-nirdharan-aayog
Khanepani mahasul-nirdharan-aayog
Khanepani mahasul-nirdharan-aayog
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Khanepani mahasul-nirdharan-aayog

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  • 1. vfg]kfgL dx;'n lgwf{/0f cfof]u P]g, @)^# k|df0fLs/0f / k|sfzg ldlt @)^#.*.* @)^# ;fnsf] P]g g= @( vfg]kfgL dx;'n lgwf{/0f cfof]usf] ;DaGwdf Joj:yf ug{ ag]sf] P]g k|:tfjgf M vfg]kfgL tyf ;/;kmfO{ ;]j fsf] dx;' n lgwf{/0f u/L dgfl;a d"Nodf pkef]QmfnfO{ u'0f:t/Lo / e/kbf]{ vfg]kfgL tyf ;/;kmfO{ ;]j f pknAw u/fO{ pkef]Qmfsf] lxt ;+/If0f ug{ vfg]kfgL dx;' n lgwf{/0f cfof]usf] :yfkgf ug]{ ;DaGwdf sfg"gL Joj:yf ug{ jf~5gLo ePsf] n], k|ltlglw;efsf] 3f]if0ff, @)^# hf/L ePsf] klxnf] jif{d f k|ltlglw;efn] of] P]g agfPsf] 5 . kl/R5]b–! k|f/lDes != ;+lIfKt gfd / k|f/De M -!_ o; P]gsf] gfd ævfg]kfgL dx;'n lgwf{/0f cfof]u P]g, @)^#Æ /x]sf] 5. -@_ of] P]g t'?Gt k| f/De x'g]5 . @= kl/efiff M ljifo jf k|;Ën] csf]{ cy{ gnfu]df o; P]gdf,– -s_ æcfof]u Æ eGgfn] bkmf # adf]lhd u7g ePsf] vfg]kfgL dx;'n lgwf{/0f cfof]u ;Demg' k5{ . -v_ æcWoIfÆ eGgfn] cfof] usf] cWoIf ;Demg' k5{ . -u_ æ;b:oÆ eGgfn] cfof]usf] ;b:o ;Demg' k5{ / ;f] zAbn] cfof]usf] cWoIf ;d]t nfO{ hgfpF5 . -3_ æk|fs[lts kfgLÆ eGgfn] ;gftgb]lv cjl:yt 9' Ë]wf/f, s'j f, gbL, vf]nf, Ogf/, kf]v/L, tfn jf ;txL k|fs[lts ;|f]taf6 lgM;[t ePsf] jf e"ldut ;|f]taf6 lgsflnPsf]] kfgL ;Demg' k5{ . -ª_ ævfg]kfgL ;]j fÆ eGgfn] k| fs[lts kfgLnfO{ k|zf]wg tyf z'l4s/0f u/L pkef]QmfnfO{ pknAw u/fpg] sfd ;Demg' k5{ . -r_ æ;/;kmfO{ ;]jfÆ eGgfn] dfgj dnd"qaf6 jf 3/] n', Jofkfl/s jf cf}Bf]lus pkof]u kZrft lgisfzg ePsf] kmf] x/ kfgL tyf To:tf] kfgLdf ldl>t ;a} lsl;dsf kmf]x/ kbfy{nfO{ gi6 ug]{, lgisfzg ug]{, k| zf] wg ug]{ jf z'l4s/0f ug]{ sfd ;Demg' k5{ . -5_ æ;]jfÆ eGgfn] vfg]kfgL jf ;/;kmfO{ ;] jf ;Demg' k5{ . -h_ æ;]jf k|0ffnLÆ eGgfn] vfg]kfgL jf ;/;kmfO{ ;]jf k|bfg ug]{ p2]Zon] lgdf{0f jf h8fg ul/Psf] kfOk, hnfzo, vfg]kfgL, kmf] x/ kfgL jf 9n ldl;Psf] kfgL k|zf]wg jf z'l4s/0f ug]{ Knf06 jf To:t} lsl;dsf cGo pks/0f jf ;+/rgf ;Demg' k5{ . 1
  • 2. -em_ æ;]jf k|b fosÆ eGgfn] dx;'n lnO{ ;]jf pknAw u/fpg] JolQm, pkef]Qmf ;d"x jf ;+ul7t ;+:yf ;Demg' k5{ . -`_ ædx;'nÆ eGgfn] ;]jf k|bfosn] ;]jf k|bfg u/] afkt pkef]Qmfaf6 lng kfpg] dx;' n ;Demg' k5{ . -6_ ætf]lsPsf]Æ jf ætf]lsP adf]lhdÆ eGgfn] o; P]g cGtu{t ag]sf] lgoddf tf]lsPsf] jf tf]lsP adf]lhd ;Demg' k5{ . kl/R5]b–@ cfof]usf] u7g tyf sfd, st{Jo / clwsf/ #= cfof]usf] u7g M -!_ vfg]kfgL tyf ;/;kmfO{ ;]j fsf] dx;' n lgwf{/0f u/L dgfl;a d"Nodf u'0f:t/Lo / e/kbf]{ vfg]kfgL tyf ;/;kmfO{ ;]j f pknAw u/fO{ pkef]Qmfsf] lxt ;+/If0f ug{ Pp6f vfg]kfgL dx;'n lgwf{/0f cfof] usf] u7g ul/Psf] 5 . -@_ pkbkmf -!_ adf]lhdsf] cfof]udf b]xfosf ;b:ox? /xg]5g M– -s_ dfGotfk| fKt lzIf0f ;+:yfaf6 Ol~hlgol/Ë, Joj:yfkg, cy{ zf:q jf ljQLo Joj:yfkgdf sDtLdf :gfts pkflw xfl;n u/L ;fj{hlgs ;+: yfdf Joj:yfksLo lhDd]jf/L lnO{ sDtLdf afx| jif{sf] cg'ej k| fKt u/]sf – cWoIf JolQmx?dWo]af6 g]kfn ;/sf/n] lgo'lQm u/]sf] JolQm -v_ dfGotfk| fKt lzIf0f ;+: yfaf6 cy{zf:q, ljQLo Joj:yfkg jf ljZn]if0f, rf68{ Psfp06]G;L jf jfl0fHo zf:qdf sDtLdf :gfts pkflw xfl;n u/L cfly{s d"NofÍg, n]vf jf ljQLo ljZn]if0f ;DaGwL sfddf sDtLdf bz jif{sf] – ;b:o cg'ej k|fKt u/]sf JolQmx?dWo]af6 g]kfn ;/sf/n] lgo'lQm u/]sf] Pshgf -u_ dfGotfk| fKt lzIf0f ;+: yfaf6 Ol~hlgol/Ë, ;dfhzf:q jf sfg"g ljifodf sDtLdf :gfts pkflw xfl;n u/L ;DalGwt If]qdf sDtLdf ;ft jif{sf] cg'ej k| fKt u/]sf dlxnf, blnt / hghfltdWo]af6 g]kfn ;/sf/n] lgo'Qm –;b:o u/]sf] Pshgf -#_ cWoIf tyf ;b:osf] kbfjlw rf/ jif{sf] x'g]5 / lghx? csf]{ Ps cjlwsf] nflu k'gM lgo'Qm x'g ;Sg] 5g . 2
  • 3. -$_ ;b:on] cfˆgf] sfo{e f/ ;DxfNg'cl3 cg';"rLdf pNn]v eP adf]lhdsf] 9fF rfdf zky lng' kg]{5 . -%_ cWoIfn] cfof]usf] s'g} clws[t sd{rf/LnfO{ cfof]usf] ;lrj eO{ sfd ug{ tf]Sg] 5 . -^_ cWoIf jf ;b:onfO{ lghsf] kbfjlw ;dfKt x'g' cufj} lghsf] kbaf6 x6fOg] 5}g . -&_ o; bkmfdf cGoq h'g ;'s} s'/f n]lvPsf] eP tfklg cWoIf jf ;b:on] kbLo lhDd]jf/L k"/f gu/]df jf OdfGbf/Lk"j{s sfd gu/]df jf lgh v/fa cfr/0fdf nfu]s f], zf/Ll/s jf dfgl;s ?kdf cIfd ePsf] jf ;]j f k|b fos;F u lghsf] cfly{s :jfy{ /x]s f] s'/f k|d fl0ft ePdf jf lghn] kmf}Hbf/L cleof]udf cbfntaf6 ;hfo kfPdf lghnfO{ cWoIf jf ;b:osf] kbaf6 h'g;'s} avt x6fpg ;lsg]5 . -*_ b]xfosf s'g} klg JolQm cWoIf jf ;b:osf] kbdf lgo'Qm x'g jf kbdf axfn /xg ;Sg] 5}g M– -s_ g]kfn ;/sf/sf] axfnjfnf sd{rf/L, -v_ /fhg}lts bnsf kbflwsf/L, -u_ ;]jf k|bfos jf ;]jf k|bfos;F u ;DalGwt s'g} ;+:yfdf sfo{/t jf To:tf] ;+:yfdf nufgL ePsf] jf To;df s'g} lsl;dsf] JolQmut :jfy{ /x]sf] JolQm, -3_ pkbkmf -@_ adf]lhdsf] of]Uotf tyf cg'ej gePsf] JolQm, / -ª_ k}+;¶L jif{ pd]/ k"/f ePsf] JolQm . $= l;kmfl/; ;ldlt M -!_ cWoIf tyf ;b:osf] lgo'lQmsf] nflu g]kfn ;/sf/ ;dIf l;kmfl/; k]z ug{ b]xfo adf]lhdsf] Pp6f l;kmfl/; ;ldlt /xg]5 M– -s_ /fli6«o of]hgf cfof]usf] ;b:o -;DalGwt If]q x]g]{_ – ;+ of] hs -v_ s'g} ljifodf sDtLdf :gftsf]Q/ pkflw xfl;n u/L vfg]kfgL tyf ;/;kmfO{sf] If]qdf sDtLdf kGw| jif{sf] cg'ej k|fKt u/]sf] JolQmx?dWo]af6 g]kfn ;/sf/n] tf]s]sf] JolQm – ;b:o -u_ Eff}lts of]hgf tyf lgdf{0f dGqfnosf] /fhkqflÍt k|yd >]0 fLsf] clws[t – ;b:o -@_ pkbkmf -!_ adf]lhdsf] ;ldltn] cWoIf jf ;b:osf] kbdf lgo'lQmsf] nflu l;kmfl/; ubf{ k| To]s kbsf] nflu sDtLdf b'O{ hgf JolQmsf] gfd l;kmfl/; ug'{ kg]{5 / g]kfn ;/sf/n] To;/L l;kmfl/; ul/Psf JolQmx?dWo]af6 cWoIf jf ;b:osf] kbdf lgo'lQm ug]{5 . -#_ pkbkmf -!_ adf]lhdsf] l;kmfl/; ;ldltsf] a} 7s ;DaGwL cGo sfo{ljlw ;f] ;ldlt cfk}m n] lgwf{/0f u/] adf]lhd x'g]5 . %= cfof]u :jzfl;t ;+: yf x'g] M -!_ cfof] u cljlR5Gg pQ/flwsf/jfnf :jzfl;t ;+ ul7t ;+ :yf x'g]5 . 3
  • 4. -@_ cfof]usf] ;a} sfd sf/afxLsf] nflu cfˆgf] Pp6f 5'§} 5fk x'g] 5 . -#_ cfof]un] JolQm ;/x rn, crn ;DklQ k| fKt ug{ , pkof]u ug{, vl/b ug{, laqmL ug{ jf cGo s'g} lsl;dn] Joj:yf ug{ ;Sg] 5 . -$_ cfof]u n] JolQm ;/x cfˆgf] gfdaf6 gfln; ph'/ ug{ / cfof]u pk/ klg ;f] xL gfdaf6 gfln; ph'/ nfUg ;Sg]5 . ^= cfof]usf] sfd, st{Jo / clwsf/ M cfof]usf] sfd, st{ Jo tyf clwsf/ b]xfo adf]lhd x'g]5 M– -s_ ;]jf k|bfosn] pkef]Qmf;Fu lng kfpg] ;]j fsf] dx;' n lgwf{/0f ug]{, -v_ ;]jf k|b fosn] dx;' n lgwf{/0fsf] lgldQ cfof] u ;dIf lgj]bg k]z ubf{ ckgfpg' kg]{ gLlt tyf sfo{ljlw :jLs[t ug]{, -u_ ;]jf k|bfosn] k|b fg ug]{ ;]j fsf] cg'udg u/L ;]j fsf] u'0 f:t/ sfod ug]{ u/fpg], -3_ ;]jf k|bfos / pkef]QmfaLr pTkGg ljjfb tf]lsP adf]lhd ;dfwfg ug]{ u/fpg], -ª_ ;]jf k|bfosn] k|b fg u/]sf] ;]jf;Fu ;DalGwt ljj/0f k|fKt u/L k|sfzg ug]{ u/fpg], -r_ dx;' n lgwf{/0f ;DaGwL dfkb08 lgwf{/0f u/L sfof{Gjog u/fpg], -5_ vfg]kfgL jf ;/;kmfO{ ;]j f ;DaGwdf g]kfn ;/sf/nfO{ cfjZos ;Nnfx / ;'emfj lbg], / -h_ tf]lsP adf]lhdsf cGo sfdx? ug]{ . &= cfof]usf] a}7s / lg0f{ o M -!_ cfof]usf] a} 7s cfjZostf cg';f/ a:g]5 . -@_ cfof]usf] a}7s cWoIfn] tf]s]sf] ldlt, ;do / :yfgdf a:g] 5 . -#_ pkbkmf -@_ df h'g ;'s} s'/f n]lvPsf] eP tfklg cfof]usf b'O{hgf ;b:on] cfof]usf] a}7s a:g cfjZos 5 egL cWoIf ;dIf lnlvt ?kdf cg'/f] w u/]df cWoIfn] Ps xKtfleq cfof]usf] a}7s af]nfpg' kg]{5 . -$_ cfof]usf s'n ;b:o ;+ Vofsf] krf; k|ltzt eGbf a9L ;b:ox? pkl:yt ePdf cfof]usf] a}7ssf] nflu u0fk"/s ;+ Vof k'u]s f] dflgg]5 . -%_ cfof]usf] a}7ssf] cWoIftf cWoIfn] ug]{ 5 / lghsf] cg'kl:yltdf ;b:ox?n] cfk"m x?dWo]a f6 5fg]sf] JolQmn] a}7ssf] cWoIftf ug]{5 . -^_ cfof]usf] a} 7sdf ax'dtsf] /fo dfGo x'g]5 / dt a/fa/ ePdf a}7ssf] cWoIftf ug]{ JolQmn] lg0ff{os dt lbg]5 . -&_ cfof]u n] cfjZos b]v]df g]kfn ;/sf/sf] s'g} lgsfosf] k|ltlglw jf s'g} :jb]zL jf ljb]zL ljz]i f1nfO{ cfof] usf] a} 7sdf efu lng cfdGq0f ug{ ;Sg] 5 . -*_ cfof] usf] lg0f{o cWoIfn] k|dfl0ft ug]{5 . -(_ cfof]usf] a} 7s ;DaGwL cGo sfo{ljlw cfof]u cfk}mn] lgwf{/0f u/] adf]lhd x'g]5 . 4
  • 5. *= cWoIf tyf ;b:osf] kfl/>lds tyf ;'ljwf M -!_ cWoIf cfof]usf] k"/f ;do sfd ug]{ k|d'v k|zf;sLo kbflwsf/L x'g]5 . -@_ cWoIfsf] kfl/>lds, ;'ljwf / ;]j fsf zt{ tyf sfd, st{Jo / clwsf/ tf]lsP adf]lhd x'g]5g . -#_ cfof]usf] a} 7sdf efu lnP afkt ;b:on] tf]lsP adf]lhd a} 7s eQf kfpg]5 . -$_ cof] usf] s'g} ;b:onfO{ s'g} lglZrt cjlw tf]sL cfof]usf] sfd u/fpg' k/]d f Ps k6sdf tLg dlxgfdf ga9g] u/L cfof]un] tf]lslbP adf]lhd kfl/>lds lbg] u/L cfof]u n] sfddf nufpg ;Sg]5 . (= sd{rf/L ;DaGwL Joj:yf M -!_ cfof]udf cfjZos ;+Vofdf sd{rf/Lx? /xg]5g . -@_ cfof]udf /xg] sd{rf/Lsf] lgo'lQm, kfl/>lds, ;]j fsf zt{ tyf ;'ljwf tf]lsP adf]lhd x'g]5g . kl/R5]b–# dx;' n lgwf{/0f tyf ph'/L ;DaGwL Joj:yf !)= dx;' n lgwf{/0f ug]{ cfwf/ M -!_ cfof]un] ;]jfsf] dx;' n lgwf{/0f ubf{ x|f; s§L, pko'Qm nfe, ;]jf ;~rfngsf] nfut, pkef]Qmf d"N o ;"rLsf] kl/jt{g, /f]oN6L, vfg]kfgL jf ;/;kmfO{ ;]jfsf] ;DaGwdf g]kfn ;/sf/sf] gLlt, kl/jTo{ ljb]zL d'b|fsf] ljlgdo b/ tyf bkmf !! df plNnlvt s'/fx? ;d] tsf] cfwf/df dx;'n lgwf{/0f ug]{]5 . -@_ pkbkmf -!_ adf]lhdsf] cfwf/df dx;' n lgwf{/0f ubf{ cfof] un] pkef]Qmfx?sf] a[xQ/ lxtnfO{ Wofgdf /fvL kfgLsf] u'0f:t/, pkef]Qmfsf] qmozlQm tyf ;]j fsf] :t/ ;d]tnfO{ ljrf/ ug'{ kg]{5 . !!= dx;' n lgwf{/0f ug{ lgj]bg lbg' kg]{ M ;]j f k|b fosn]] dx;'n lgwf{/0f u/fpg] ;DaGwdf b]xfosf ljj/0fx? ;lxt tf]lsP adf]lhdsf] 9fFrfdf cfof]u ;dIf lgj]bg lbg' kg]{5 M– -s_ k|:tfljt dx;'n lgwf{/0f ug'{ kg]{ cfwf/, -v_ dx;' n b/df kl/jt{g ug'{ kg]{ eP To;sf cfwf/, -u_ ;fljsdf lnO{ cfPsf] dx;'n / k|: tfljt dx;'n b/ :ki6 b]lvg] u/L tof/ ul/Psf] t'ngfTds d"No ;" rL, -3_ ;]jf k|bfosn] k|:tfj u/]sf] dx;' naf6 ;]j f ;~rfng, dd{t tyf ;+ef/ vr{ , x|f; s§L, ;] jf k|bfosn] ;]jf ;~rfngsf] nflu lnPsf] C0fsf] ;fjfF Aofhsf] e'QmfgL, jflif{s d"Noj[l¢af6 a9g] vr{ ;d]tsf] lx;fa u/L ;]jf k|bfosnfO{ x'g ;Sg] dgfl;a d'gfkmf, 5
  • 6. -ª_ k|:tfljt dx;'naf6 v08 -3_ adf]lhdsf] vr{ wfGg / d'gfkmf cfh{g ug{ kof{Kt x'g ] gb]lvPdf jf tTsfn dx;' n a9fpg gx'g] ePdf To:tf] ckof{Kttf k"lt{ ug{ ;] jf k|bfosn] klxrfg u/]sf] cfly{s ;| f]t / bL3{sfnLg of]hgfsf] dgfl;a cfwf/, -r_ ;]jf ;~rfng vr{d f ;fna;fnL x'g] j[l4 / k|:tfljt dx;'nsf] t' ngfTds ljZn]if0f, -5_ k|:tfljt dx;' n Joxf]g{ g;Sg] txsf pkef]QmfnfO{ dx;'ndf 5"6 ug]{ ;DaGwdf tof/ u/]sf] cfwf/ / To:tf] 5"6 dx;' nsf sf/0fn] cGo pkef]QmfnfO{ kg{ ;Sg] yk ef/, -h_ ;]jf k|bfosn] k|rlnt sfg"g adf]lhd :yfkgf ePsf] s'g} lgsfoaf6 ;]j f ;~rfng ug{ cg'dltkq k|fKt u/]sf] jf ;Demf}t f u/]sf]df To:tf] cg'dltkq jf ;Demf}t fsf] k|ltlnlk, -em_ tf]lsP adf]lhdsf cGo s'/fx? . !@= lgj]bg pk/ hfFra'em M -!_ bkmf !! adf]lhd lgj]bg k/]df cfof]u n] lgj]bg ;fy k]z ug'{ kg]{ cfjZos sfuhft tyf ljj/0f k] z u/] gu/]sf] ;DaGwdf cfjZos hfF ra'em ug]{5 . -@_ pkbkmf -!_ adf]lhd hfFra'em ubf{ lgj]bsn] k]z ug'{ kg]{ s'g} sfuhft jf ljj/0f k]z u/]sf] /x]g5 eg] To:tf] sfuhft jf ljj/0f k] z ug{ cfof]u n] lgj]bsnfO{ dgfl;a cjlw tf]sL lgj]bg btf{ ePsf] ldltn] kGw| lbgleq ;f] s'/fsf] ;" Rfgf lbg' kg]{5 . -#_ pkbkmf -@_ adf]lhd s'g} sfuhft jf ljj/0f k] z ug{ cfof]u n] cjlw tf]ls ;"Rfgf lbPsf]df h'g ldltdf To:tf] sfuhft jf ljj/0f k|fKt x'g cfpF 5 ;f]xL ldltnfO{ lgj]bg k/]sf] ldlt dflgg]5 . -$_ pkbkmf -!_ adf]lhd lgj]bg hfFra'em ubf{ lgj]bsn] k|:tfj u/]sf] dx;'n kl/jt{g ug{ cfjZos gb]lvPdf jf dx;'n kl/jt{g ug'{ kg]{ cfwf/ dgfl;a gePdf lgj]bg k/]sf] ldltn] ;f7L lbgleq ;DalGwt lgj]bsnfO{ ;f]sf] sf/0f v'nfO{ hfgsf/L lbg' kg]{5 . !#= dx;' n lgwf{/0f ug]{ M -!_ bkmf !@ adf]lhd cfof]u n] lgj]bg hfFra'em u/]kl5 lgj]bsn] k|:tfj u/]sf] dx;' n b/ adf]lhd jf ;+ zf] wg ;lxt cfof]u n] lgj]bg k/]sf] ldltn] ;f7L lbgleq dx;'n lgwf{/0f ug]{5 . t/ lgj]]bsn] k|:tfj u/]sf] dx;'n b/df aL; k|ltzteGbf a9L km/s kg]{ u/L cfof]u n] dx;' n lgwf{/0f ug]{ 5}g . -@_ pkbkmf -!_ adf]lhd cfof]u n] dx;' n lgwf{/0f ubf{ lgwf{l/t jf kl/jlt{t b/ nfu" x'g ] ldlt ;d]t tf]sL lbg' kg]{5 . -#_ pkbkmf -!_ adf]lhd dx;' n lgwf{/0f ubf{ cfof]un] bkmf !) / !! adf]lhdsf cfwf/sf] cltl/Qm k|rlnt sfg"g adf]lhd cg'dltkq k|fKt u/L jf ;Demf}t f u/L ;]j f ;~rfng ug]{ ;]jf 6
  • 7. k|bfossf] xsdf To:tf] ;Demf}t f ubf{ jf cg'dltkq k|bfg ubf{sf avt tf]lsPsf cGo zt{ ;d]tnfO{ dx;'n lgwf{/0fsf] cfwf/ agfpg ;Sg]5 . -$_ cfof]u n] pkbkmf -!_ adf]lhd dx;'n lgwf{/0f ug'{cl3 k|:tfljt dx;'n b/ v' nfO{ tf]lsP adf]lhd ;fj{ hlgs ;"rgf k|sfzg ug'{ kg]{5 . -%_ pkbkmf -$_ adf]lhdsf] ;"rgf k|sfzg eP kl5 k|:tfljt dx;'n b/sf ;DaGwdf pkef]Qmfaf6 s'g} ;' emfj jf k|ltlqmof k| fKt x'g cfPdf ;f] ;DaGwdf pkef]Qmf ;+:yfsf k|ltlglwx?;Fu k/fdz{ u/L To:tf] ;'emfjnfO{ ;d]t cfof]u n] dx;'n lgwf{/0fsf] cfwf/ dfGg ;Sg]5 . -^_ s'g} JolQmn] ;]jf k|bfosnfO{ jf ;]jf k|bfosn] s'g} JolQmnfO{ vfg]kfgL jf ;/;kmfO{ ;]jfsf] nflu Psd'i6 kfgL -aNs jf6/ ;KnfO{_ vl/b jf laqmL ug]{ ePdf To;/L vl/b jf laqmL ug]{ kfgLsf] vl/b jf laqmL d"No cfof] uaf6 k"j{ :jLs[t u/fpg' kg]{5 . -&_ o; bkmfdf cGoq h'g;'s} s'/f n]lvPsf] eP tfklg cfof]u n] Psd'i6 kfgL vl/b ug]{ pkef]Qmf / ;fwf/0f pkef]QmfnfO{ km/s km/s dx;'n lgwf{/0f ug{ ;Sg]5 . -*_ dx;' n lgwf{/0f ;DaGwL cGo sfo{ljlw tf]lsP adf]lhd x'g]5 . !$= ;"rgf k|sfzg ug'{ kg]{ M bkmf !# adf]lhd cfof]u n] lgwf{/0f u/]sf] dx;' n b/ ;j{;fwf/0fsf] hfgsf/Lsf] nflu k|sfzg ug'{ kg]{5 . !%= dx;' n k'g/fjnf]sg x'g ;Sg] M -!_ bkmf !# adf]lhd cfof] un] lgwf{/0f u/]sf] dx;'n pk/ lrQ ga'‰g] ;]jf k|b fosn] lrQ ga'‰gfsf] plrt / kof{K t sf/0f ;lxt dx;' n lgwf{/0f ePsf] ;"rgf kfPsf] ldltn] tL; lbgleq ef}lts of]hgf tyf lgdf{0f dGqfno ;dIf lgj]bg lbg ;Sg]5 . -@_ pkbkmf -!_ adf]lhd lgj]bg k|fKt ePdf g]kfn ;/sf/n] b]xfosf cWoIf tyf ;b:o /x]sf] Pp6f dx;'n k'g/fjnf]sg cfof] u u7g ug{ ;Sg]5 M– -s_ k'g/fj]bg cbfntsf] GofofwLz eO;s]sf] jf x'g of]U otf k'u]sf] JolQm – cWoIf -v_ Ol~hlgol/Ë ljifodf sDtLdf :gftsf]Q/ pkflw xfl;n u/L vfg]kfgL jf ;/;kmfO{sf] If]qdf sDtLdf kGw| jif{sf] cg'ej k|fKt u/]sf] JolQm – ;b:o -u_ Rff68{ PsfpG6]G;L jf jfl0fHo zf:qdf sDtLdf :gftsf]Q/ pkflw xfl;n u/L sDtLdf kGw| jif{sf] n]vfk/LIf0f ;DaGwL cg'ej k|fKt u/]sf] JolQm – ;b:o -#_ dx;'n k'g/fjnf]sg cfof]un] pkbkmf -!_ adf]lhd k|fKt x'g cfPsf lgj]bg pk/ cfjZos 5fgljg u/L bkmf !# adf]lhd lgwf{l/t dx;' n pk/ k'g/fjnf]sg ug{]{5 . 7
  • 8. -$_ dx;'n k'g/fjnf]sg cfof] un] pkbkmf -#_ adf]lhd dx;' n k'g/fjnf]sg ug'{cl3 tf]lsP adf]lhd ;fj{ hlgs ;'gjfO{ ;d]t ug{ ;Sg]5 . -%_ dx;' n k'g/fjnf]sg cfof]u n] pkbkmf -$_ adf]lhd ;fj{hlgs ;'gjfO{ ubf{ k|fKt x'g cfPsf ;' emfj ;d]tnfO{ cWoog u/L sfd k| f/De u/]sf] ldltn] tL; lbgleq dx;' n k'g/fjnf]sg u/L ;f]sf] ;fj{ hlgs ;"rgf k|sfzg ug'{ kg]{5 . -^_ pkbkmf -%_ adf]lhd k|sfzg u/]sf] dx;' n clGtd x'g]5 . -&_ dx;'n k'g /fjnf]sg cfof] usf] ;lrjfno ef} lts of] hgf tyf lgdf{0f dGqfnodf /xg]5 . -*_ ef}lts of]hgf tyf lgdf{0f dGqfnoaf6 tf]lsPsf] clws[tn] dx;' n k'g/fjnf]sg cfof]usf] ;lrj e} sfd ug]{5 . -(_ dx;'n k'g/fjnf]sg cfof]udf cfjZos kg]{ sd{rf/L ef}lts of]hgf tyf lgdf{0f dGqfnon] pknAw u/fpg]5 . -!)_ dx;'n k'g/fjnf]sg cfof]usf] a} 7s, lg0f{o ;DaGwL Joj:yf tyf ;f] cfof]usf cWoIf tyf ;b:osf] kfl/>lds tyf ;'ljwf tf]lsP adf]lhd x'g]5g . -!!_ pkbkmf -%_ adf]lhd dx;' n k'g/fjnf]sg ug]{ sfd ;dfKt ePkl5 dx;' n k'g/fjnf]sg cfof]u :jtM lj36g ePsf] dflgg]5 . !^= cfof]u n] z'Ns nufpg ;Sg] M cfof]u n] ;]jf k|bfos;F u lghn] pkef]Qmfaf6 lng] dx;'nsf] b'O{ k|ltztdf ga9g] u/L tf]lsP adf]lhd z'Ns nufO{ p7fpg ;Sg]5 . !&= cfof]u n] ph'/L ;'Gg ;Sg] M -!_ ;]j f k|b fosn] k|bfg u/]sf] ;] jf pk/ lrQ ga'‰g] pkef]Qmfn] tf]lsP adf]lhd cfof] u ;dIf ph'/ L lbg ;Sg]5 . -@_ pkbkmf -!_ adf]lhd pkef]Qmfn] cfof]udf ph'/L lbg'cl3 cfk"mn] k| fKt u/]sf] ;]j fsf ;DaGwdf lrQ ga'em]sf s'/f v' nfO{ ;] jf k|b fosnfO{ hfgsf/L u/fO{ ;s]sf] / To;df pkef]Qmfn] ;Gtf]ifk|b pkrf/ gkfPsf] x'g' kg]{ 5 . -#_ pkbkmf -!_ adf]lhd ph'/L k|fKt ePdf cfof]u n] cfjZos 5fgljg u/L ;]jfsf] :t/ ;'wf/sf ;DaGwdf ;DalGwt ;]jf k|bfosnfO{ lgb]{zg lbg ;Sg]5 / To:tf] lgb]{zgsf] kfng ug'{ ;DalGwt ;]j f k|bfossf] st{Jo x'g] 5 . !*= cfof]u n] ;hfo ug{ ;Sg] M -!_ s'g} ;]j f k|b fosn] cfof]u n] lgwf{/0f u/]sf] dx;' n nfu" gu/]df, cfof]u n] lgwf{/0f u/]sf] eGbf a9L dx;' n p7fPdf jf :jLs[t dfkb08 ljk/Lt c;dfg dx;' n nufPdf cfof] un] To:tf ;]j f k|bfosnfO{ s;'/sf] dfqf x]/L krf; xhf/ ?k} ofF ;Dd hl/afgf ug{ ;Sg]5 . -@_ pkef]Qmfn] lbPsf] ph'/L pk/ ;]jf k|b fosn] dgfl;a sf/afxL gu/]sf] s'/f pkef]Qmfn] k|dfl0ft u/]df cfof] un]] To:tf] ;]j f k|bfosnfO{ bz xhf/ ?k} ofF ;Dd hl/afgf ug{ ;Sg] 5 . 8
  • 9. -#_ s'g} pkef]Qmfn] b'Mv lbg] b'/fzon] ;] jf k|bfos lj?4 e'm§f ph'/ L u/]sf] k|dfl0ft ePdf ph'/Lsf] k|s[lt x]/L cfof]u n] To:tf pkef]QmfnfO{ kfFr xhf/ ?k} ofF;Dd hl/afgf ug{ ;Sg]5 . -$_ cfof]u n]] o; bkmf adf]lhd u/]sf] ;hfo pk/ ;DalGwt k'g/fj]bg cbfntdf k'g/fj]bg ug{ ;lsg]5 . !(= ljz]if sf]ifsf] :yfkgf M -!_ cfof]un] bkmf !* adf]lhd hl/afgf afkt k|fKt u/]sf] /sd hDdf ug{ Pp6f 5'§} ljz]if sf]ifsf] :yfkgf ug]{5 . -@_ pkbkmf -!_ adf]lhdsf] sf]ifdf /x]sf] /sd ;] jf k|bfosaf6 k|bfg ul/Psf] ;]j f k| fKt ug{ tf]lsP adf]lhdsf c;dy{ pkef]QmfnfO{ cg'bfg lbg]] sfddf vr{ ul/g]5 . -#_ pkbkmf -!_ adf]lhdsf] sf]ifsf] ;~rfng tyf Joj:yfkg ;DaGwL cGo s'/f tf]lsP adf]lhd x'g]5g . kl/R5]b–$ cfof]usf] sf]if tyf n] vfk/LIf0f ;DaGwL Joj:yf @)= cfof]usf] sf]if M -!_ cfof]usf] cfˆgf] Pp6f 5'§} sf]if x'g]5 / To:tf] sf]ifdf b]xfosf /sdx? /xg]5g M– -s_ g]kfn ;/sf/af6 k|fKt /sd, -v_ s'g} ljb]zL ;/sf/, cGt/f{li6«o ;+3 jf ;+:yfaf6 C0f jf ;xof]u afkt k|fKt /sd, t/ ljb]zL ;/sf/, cGt/f{li6«o ;+3 jf ;++:yfaf6 C0f jf ;xof]u lng'cl3 cfof]un] g]kfn ;/sf/sf] :jLs[lt lng' kg]{5 . -u_ bkmf !^ adf]lhd cfof] un] nufPsf] z'Ns afkt k| fKt /sd, -3_ cGo s'g} ;|f]taf6 k|fKt /sd . -@_ cfof]usf] ;Dk"0 f{ vr{ pkbkmf -!_ adf]lhdsf] sf]ifaf6 Joxf]l/g]5 . -#_ pkbkmf -!_ adf]lhdsf] /sd g]kfnsf] s'g} a}+s jf ljQLo ;+: yfdf vftf vf]nL hDdf ul/g]5 . -$_ pkbkmf -#_ adf]lhdsf] vftfsf] ;~rfng tf]lsP adf]lhd x'g]5 . @!= n]vf / n] vfk/LIf0f M -!_ cfof]usf] cfo Joosf] n]vf k|rlnt sfg"g adf]lhd /flvg] 5 . -@_ cfof]un] tf]lsP adf]lhd cfGtl/s n]vfk/LIf0f tyf cfGtl/s lgoGq0fsf] Joj:yf ug'{ u/fpg' kg]{5 . -#_ cfof]usf] n]vfsf] n]vfk/LIf0f dxfn] vf k/LIfsaf6 x'g]5 . -$_ g]kfn ;/sf/n] cfjZos b]v]df h'g;'s} avt cfof] usf] n] vf tyf tT;DaGwL sfuhft hfF Rg jf hF rfpg ;Sg] 5 . kl/R5]b–% 9
  • 10. ljljw @@= ljjfb ;dfwfg ug]{ M ;]jf k|bfos / pkef]QmfaLr jf k|rlnt sfg"g adf]lhd ;]jf k|bfg ug{ cg'dltkq lbg] lgsfo / ;]jf k|b fosaLr dx;'n ;DaGwdf s'g} ljjfb pTkGg ePdf cfof]un] tf]lsP adf]lhd To:tf] ljjfbsf] ;dfwfg ug]{5 . @#= ;ldlt jf pk;ldlt u7g ug{ ;Sg] M -!_ ;]jf k|bfosn] pkef]QmfnfO{ k|bfg ug{] ;]jfsf] cg'udg u/L pkef]Qmfx?sf] xs lxt ;+/If0f ug]{ ;DaGwdf cfof]u nfO{ ;' emfj lbg tyf ;] jfdf plrt kx'Fr gk'u]sf jf ;] jfsf] dx;'n ltg{ c;dy{ pkef]Qmfx?sf] lxt ;+/If0f ug{ cfof]un] cfjZostf cg';f/ pkef]Qmf ;] jf ;'emfj ;ldlt u7g ug{ ;Sg]5 . -@_ cfof]u n] of] P]g jf o; cGtu{t ag]sf] lgod adf]lhd cfk"mn] ;Dkfbg ug]{ sfd ;'rf? ?kn] ug{sf] nflu cfjZostf cg';f/ pk;ldlt u7g ug{ ;Sg]5 . -#_ pkbkmf -!_ jf -@_ adf]lhd ul7t ;ldlt jf pk;ldltsf] sfd, st{ Jo / clwsf/ tyf sfo{ljlw tf]lsP adf]lhd x'g]5 . @$= clwsf/ k|Tofof] hg M cfof]un] of] P]g jf o; cGtu{t ag]sf] lgod adf]lhd cfk"mnfO{ k|fKt clwsf/dWo] cfjZostf cg';f/ s]xL clwsf/ cWoIf, ;b:o, bkmf @# adf]lhdsf] s'g} ;ldlt jf pk;ldlt jf cfof]usf] s'g} clws[t sd{rf/LnfO{ k| Tofof]hg ug{ ;Sg] 5 . @%= jflif{s k|ltj]bg k]z ug'{ kg]{ M -!_ cfof] un] cfk"mn] jif{e/L ;Dkfbg u/]sf] sfdsf] ;+lIfKt ljj/0f, ;f]sf] k| zf;sLo vr{, cfo Joosf] ljj/0f tyf eljiodf ;~rfng ug]{ sfo{qmd ;d]t ;dfj]z u/L k|To]s jif{sf] c;f] h dlxgfleq g]kfn ;/sf/ ;dIf k|ltj]bg k]z ug'{ kg]{5 . -@_ pkbkmf -!_ adf]lhdsf] k|ltj]bg g]kfn ;/sf/n] cfjZostf cg';f/ cfof]u nfO{ ;fj{hlgs ug{ nufpg] 5 . @^= g]kfn ;/sf/;+Fu ;Dks{ M cfof]un] g]kfn ;/sf/;Fu ;Dks{ /fVbf ef}lts of]hgf tyf lgdf{0f dGqfno dfkm{t /fVg' kg]{5 . @&= lgod agfpg] clwsf/ M o; P]gsf] p2] Zo sfof{ Gjog ug{ cfof]u n] cfjZos lgod agfpg ;Sg]5 / To:tf] lgod g]kfn ;/sf/af6 :jLs[t ePkl5 nfu" x'g]5 . @*= lgb]{lzsf agfO{ nfu" ug{ ;Sg] M cfof]un] of] P]g / o; cGtu{ t ag]sf] lgodsf] cwLgdf /xL cfjZos lgb]{lzsf agfO{ nfu" ug{ ;Sg]5 . 10
  • 11. cg';"rL -bkmf # sf] pkbkmf -$_ ;Fu ;DalGwt_ zky d====================================O{Zj/nfO{ ;fIfL /fvL÷;To lgi7fk"j{s zky lnG5' ls cfof]usf] cWoIf÷;b:osf] x}l ;otn] dnfO{ ;'lDkPsf] lhDd]jf/L / st{Jo kfng s;}sf] 8/, qf;, df] nflxhf, kIfkft, å]if jf nf]edf gk/L lgikIf tyf OdfGbf/Lk"j{s ug]{5' / cfˆgf] st{ Jo kfngfsf] l;nl;nfdf hfgsf/L x'g cfPsf] uf]Ko s'/f k|rlnt sfg"gsf] kfngfsf] l;nl;nfdf afx]s s'g} cj:yfdf s;} nfO{ s'g} klg dfWodaf6 cfk"m kbdf axfn /x] jf g/x]sf] h'g;'s} cj:yfdf k|s6 ug]{ 5}g . ldlt M– b:tvt M====================== 11

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