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Guthi sansthan-ain

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  • 1. u'7L ;+:yfg P]g, @)## nfndf]x/ / k|sfzg ldlt @)##.&.$ ;+zf]wg != u'7L ;+:yfg -klxnf] ;+zf]wg_ P]g, @)$! @)$!.*.@$ @= u'7L ;+:yfg -bf];|f] ;+zf]wg_ P]g, @)$( @)$(.!).% #= s]xL g]kfn sfg"g ;+zf]wg ug{] P]g, @)^# @)^#.^.@* @)## ;fnsf] P]g g+= $! u'7 L ;+:yfg ;DaGwL sfg"gnfO{ ;+zf]wg / PsLs/0f ug{ ag]sf] P]g k|:tfjgf M g]kfnsf] ;+ljwfgsf] wf/f %( n] u'7L /sdnfO{ ;/sf/L sf]ifaf6 cnu u/]sf]n] /fhu'7LnfO{ g]kfn ;/sf/sf] cwLgaf6 l´sL Ps ;+:yfgsf] lhDdf ;'DkL /fhu'7Lx?nfO{ ;'Jojl:yt ?kn] ;~rfng u/fpg u'7L ;+:yfgsf] :yfkgf ePsf]df, ljleGg ju{sf hgtfsf aLr ;';DaGw sfod /fVg] / ;j{;fwf/0f hgtfsf] cfly{s lxt / g}ltstf sfod /fVg] p2]Zon] u'7L ;+:yfg ;DaGwL sfg"gnfO{ ;+zf]wg / PsLs/0f u/L a9L k|efjsf/L / ;fdlos Joj:yf ug{ jf~5gLo ePsf]n], >L % dxf/fhflw/fh jL/]Gb| jL/ ljqmd zfxb]jaf6 /fli6«o k~rfotsf] ;Nnfx / ;Ddltn] of] P]g agfOaS;]sf]5 . kl/R5]b – ! k|f /lDes != ;+l IfKt gfd, lj:tf/ / k|f /De -!_ o; P]gsf] gfd æu'7L ;+:yfg P]g, @)##Æ /DeM /x]sf]5 . -@_ o; P]gsf] lj:tf/ g]kfne/ x'g]5 . -#_ of] P]g t'?Gt k|f/De x'g]5 . @= kl/efiff kl/ efiffM ljifo jf k|;Ën] csf]{ cy{ gnfu]df o; P]gdf– efiff -s_ æ;+:yfgÆ eGgfn] bkmf # cGtu{tsf] u'7L ;+:yfg ;D´g'k5{ . -v_ æcWoIfÆ eGgfn] u'7L ;+:yfgsf] cWoIf ;D´g'k5{ . 1
  • 2. -v!_ æ;ldltÆ eGgfn] bkmf ( cg';f/ ul7t ;~rfns ;ldlt ;D´g'k5{ . -v@_ æ;b:oÆ eGgfn] ;ldltsf] ;b:o ;D´g'k5{ . -v#_ æk|zf;sÆ eGgfn] ;+:yfgsf] k|zf;s ;D´g'k5{ . -u_ æu'7LÆ eGgfn] s'g} d7 jf s'g} b]jL–b]jtfsf] kj{, k"hf jf hfqf rnfpg jf s'g} wfld{s jf k/f]ksf/L sfdsf] nflu s'g} dlGb/, b]j:yn, wd{zfnf, kf6L– kf}jf, Ogf/, kf]v/L, tnfp, wf/f, lkofp, af6f], 3f6, k'n, rf}tf/f, uf}r/g, afu, au}rf, hËn, k':tsfno, kf7zfnf, cf}ifwfno, lrlsT;fno 3/, Odf/t jf ;+:yf agfpg], rnfpg jf To:sf] ;+/If0f ug{ s'g} bftfn] cfˆgf] rn crn ;DklQ jf cfo:tf cfpg] c? s'g} ;DklQ jf /sddf cfˆgf] xs 5f8L /fv]sf] u'7L ;d]tnfO{ ;D´g'k5{ . -3_ æ/fhu'7LÆ eGgfn] of] P]g k|f/De x'Fbfsf] cj:yfdf u'7L ;+:yfgsf] xs bfloTj eO{ u'7L ;+:yfgn] aGbf]j:t / ;~rfng u/L cfPsf] /fhu'7L ;D´g'k5{ . -ª_ æ5"6u'7LÆ eGgfn] cfo:tfaf6 u'7Lsf] k"hf, kj{ OToflb bfgkq lnvt adf]lhdsf] sfd rnfO{ afFsL /x]sf] u'7Lsf] z]if s;/ jf ;nfdL;Dd /fhu'7Ldf a'´fpg] u/L jf u'7L rnfpg]n] g} z]if vfg] u/L u'7L ;+:yfg P]g, @)@! k|f/De x'g' cufj} ;/sf/L u'7L nutdf u'7L btf{ u/fO{ jf btf{ u/fpg' kg]{ u/L To:tf] u'7Lsf] hUufsf] g]kfn ;/sf/df a'´fpg' kg]{ dfnkf]t jf lt/f] a'´fpg' gkg]{ u/fO{ / u'7Lsf] btf{ u'7Lof/n] g} u'7L rnfpg kfpg] u/L 5"6 kfPsf] u'7LnfO{ ;D´g'k5{ . -r_ ælghL u'7LÆ eGgfn] /fhu'7L / 5"6 u'7L afx]ssf] b'lgofFsf] lghL u'7L ;D´g'k5{ . -5_ æu'7Lof/Æ eGgfn] 5"6 u'7L jf lghL u'7Lsf bftf jf bftfsf xsjfnf u'7L rnfpg jf u'7Lsf] z]if s;/ vfg kfpg] xs ePsf JolQm / To:tf u'7Lsf] ;fna;fnL b/aGbLsf] dxGt / k"hf/LnfO{ ;D´g'k5{ . -h_ æu'7L /}tfg gDa/L hUufÆ eGgfn] btf{jfnfn] ;+:yfgnfO{ dfnkf]t a'´fpg' kg]{ hUuf ;D´g'k5{ .  klxnf] ;+zf]wgåf/f yk . 2
  • 3. -´_ æu'7L gDa/L hUufÆ eGgfn] ;+:yfgn] hUufjfnfsf] x}l;otn] g]kfn ;/sf/nfO{ dfnkf]t a'´fpg' kg]{ hUuf ;D´g'k5{ . -`_ æu'7L t}gfyL hUufÆ eGgfn] s;}sf] gfddf btf{ gePsf] u'7L ;+:yfgsf] ;Dk"0f{ clwsf/ /x]sf] hUuf ;D´g'k5{ . -6_ æu'7L cwLg:y hUufÆ eGgfn] btf{jfnfn] ;+:yfgnfO{ lhG;L a'´fO{ cfPsf] hUuf ;D´g'k5{ . -7_ æu'7L lhdLbf/LÆ eGgfn] s'g} lhdLbf/L df}hfdf u'7Lsf] xs eO{ u'7Ldf dfnkf]t bflvn x'g] lhdLbf/LnfO{ ;D´g'k5{ . -8_ ætf]lsPsf]Æ jf ætf]lsP adf]lhdÆ eGgfn] o; P]g cGtu{t ag]sf] ljlgoddf jf g]kfn ;/sf/n] ;do ;dodf g]kfn /fhkqdf ;"rgf k|sflzt u/L hf/L u/]sf] cfb]zdf tf]lsPsf] jf tf]lsP adf]lhd ;D´g'k5{ . kl/R5]b – @ :yfkgf / Joj:yf #= u'7 L ;+:yfg sfod /xg]M -!_ u'7L ;+:yfg P]g, @)@! cGtu{t :yfkgf ePsf] u'7L ;+:yfg o;} P]g cGtu{t :yfkgf ePsf] dfgL sfod} /xg]5 . -@_ ;+:yfg cljlR5Gg pQ/flwsf/jfnf Ps :jzfl;t / ;Ël7t ;+:yf x'g]5 . o;sf] sfdsf] lgldQ Pp6f cfˆgf] 5fk x'g]5 . o;n] cfˆgf] gfdaf6 gfln; ph"/ ug{ ;Sg]5 / o; pk/ klg ;f]xL gfdaf6 gfln; ph"/ nfUg ;Sg]5 . -#_ o; P]gsf] / o; P]g cGtu{t ag]sf] ljlgodsf] cwLgdf /xL ;+:yfgn] rn–crn ;DklQ k|fKt ug{, ef]u ug{ / s'g} k|sf/n] x:tfGt/0f ul/lbg ;Sg]5 . -$_ ;+:yfgsf] k|wfg sfof{no sf7df8f}+df /xg]5 . ∝ $= ========================== ∝ %= ========================== ¥ klxnf] ;+zf]wgåf/f ;+zf]lwt . ∝ klxnf] ;+zf]wgåf/f vf/]h .  bf];|f] ;+zf]wgåf/f l´lsPsf] . ♣ s]xL g]kfn sfg"g ;+zf]wg ug{] P]g, @)^# 4f/f ;+zf]lwt . ¥ klxnf] ;+zf]wgåf/f ;+zf]lwt . 3
  • 4. ^= sd{r f/L tyf ;Nnfxsf/sf] lgo'l Qm -!_ ;+:yfgn] cfjZostfg';f/ sd{rf/L / QmM ;Nnfxsf/x?sf] lgo'lQm ug{ ;Sg]5 / lghx?sf] lgo'lQm / ;]jfsf] zt{ tf]lsPadf]lhd x'g]5 . -@_ pkbkmf -!_ df h'g;'s} s'/f n]lvPsf] eP tfklg g]kfn ;/sf/n] cfjZos b]v]df ;do–;dodf ;+:yfgsf sd{rf/Lx?sf] b/aGbL yk–36 ug{ ========= ;Sg]5 . &= ljåt ljåt ;ldltsf] u7g M♣-!_ ;+:yfgdf wfld{s, ;fdflhs / z}lIfs If]qdf Voflt k|fKt ljåfg tyf ;fw' ;Gtx? dWo]af6 g]kfn ;/sf/af6 dgf]gLt Ps hgf ;efklt ;lxt kfFrhgf ;b:o /x]sf] Ps ljåt ;ldlt /xg]5 . -@_ ;+:yfgsf] cWoIfn] tf]s]sf] sd{rf/L ljåt ;ldltsf] ;lrj x'g]5 . -#_ ;+:yfgsf] cWoIfn] ljåt ;ldltsf] a}7sdf efu lng' kg]{5 . ♣-$_ pkbkmf -!_ adf]lhd dgf]gLt ;b:ox?sf] sfof{jlw rf/ aif{sf] x'g]5 . sfof{jlw ;dfKt ePkl5 lghx?nfO{ k'gM dgf]gLt ug{ ;lsg]5 . t/ g]kfn ;/sf/n] pko'Qm ;Dem]df lghx?sf] sfof{jlw k"/f gx'Fb} lghx?sf] ;§f csf]{ JolQmnfO{ dgf]gLt ug{ ;Sg]5 . -%_ ljåt ;ldltsf ;b:ox?n] ;f] ;ldltsf] a}7sdf efu ln+bf tf]lsP adf]lhdsf] kfl/>lds jf eQf kfpg]5g . *= ljåt ljåt ;ldltl;t /fo – ;Nnfx lng ;lsg]M /fo– ;ldltn] cfjZos b]v]df b]xfosf ljifox?df ljåt ;ldltl;t /fo–;Nnfx lng ;Sg]5 . -s_ u'7L ;DaGwL k|frLg /Lltl:ylt, -v_ wfld{s ljlw, k/Dk/f Pj+ wd{ ;DaGwL cGo Joj:yf . (= ;ldltsf] u7g -!_ ;+:yfgsf] sfo{ ;~rfngsf] lgldQ g]kfn ;/sf/n] b]xfosf u7gM ;b:ox? ePsf] Ps ;~rfns ;ldlt u7g ug]{5 M– ¥ klxnf] ;+zf]wgåf/f ;+zf]lwt . 4 bf];|f] ;+zfwgåf/f ;+zf]lwt . 4
  • 5. -s_ g]k fn ;/sf/n] tf] s]s f] JolQm –cWoIf -v_ k|ltlglw, u[ x dGqfno -/f=k=k|y d >]0 fL_ –;b:o -u_ k|ltlglw, sfg"g, Gofo tyf ;+;bLo Joj:yf dGqfno -/f=k=k|y d >]0fL_ –;b:o -3_ k|ltlglw, lzIff tyf ;+:s[lt dGqfno -/f=k= k|y d >]0 fL_ –;b:o -ª_ dxf–lgb]{ zs, dfnkf] t ljefu –;b:o -r_ g]kfn ;/sf/n] b]zsf wfld{s, ;fdflhs If]qaf6 dgf]gLt u/]sf u'7L ;DaGwL sfddf cg' ej k|fKt tLg hgf JolQm –;b:o -5_ k|z f;s –;b:o–;lrj -@_ ;+:yfgdf sfo{sfl/0fL cWoIf lgo'Qm ePdf ;ldltsf] ;lrjsf] sfd cWoIfn] tf]s]sf] ;+:yfgsf] sd{rf/Ln] ug]{5 . -#_ pkbkmf -!_ sf] v08 -5_ adf]lhd dgf]gLt ePsf ;b:oxsf] sfof{jlw tLg jif{sf] x'g]5 / sfof{jlw ;dfKt ePkl5 k'gM dgf]gLt x'g ;Sg]5g . t/ g]kfn ;/sf/n] pko'Qm ;D´]df s'g} dgf]lgt ;b:osf] sfof{ljlw ;dfKt gx'Fb} lghsf] ;§f csf]{ JolQmnfO{ dgf]gLt ug{ ;Sg]5 . (s= ;ldltsf] sfd, st{J o / clwsf/ -!_ ;+:yfgsf] ;a} sfd sf/jfO{sf] /]vb]v, clwsf/M lgoGq0f / Joj:yf ;ldltn] ug]{5 . -@_ o; P]g cGtu{t ;+:yfgnfO{ ePsf] ;a} clwsf/x?sf] k|of]u tyf st{Josf] kfng ;ldltn] ug]{5 . -#_ ;ldltn] ljåt ;ldltaf6 l;kmfl/z ul/Psf pko'Qm ;'´fjx? sfof{Gjog ug]{5 . ∝ !)= ========================= !!= ;b:o x'g cof]Uotf b]xfosf] s'g} JolQm otfM ;ldlt jf ljåt ;ldltsf] ;b:o x'g of]Uo dflgg] 5}g M–  klxnf] ;+zf]wgåf/f yk . ∝ klxnf] ;+zf]wgåf/f vf/]h . 5
  • 6. • -s_ ============= -v_ ;fx"sf] bfdf;fxLdf k/]sf] JolQm, -u_ ax'nf jf dfgl;s ;Gt'ng /lxt JolQm, -3_ g}lts ktg b]lvg] kmf}Hbf/L cleof]udf cbfntaf6 s;"/bf/ 7x/L s}bsf] ;hfo kfPsf] JolQm, -ª_ PSsfO; jif{ pd]/ k"/f gePsf] JolQm, jf -r_ ;+:yfg;+usf] 7]Ssfdf ;/Ls /x]sf] jf ;+:yfg;+usf] s'g} sf/f]jf/df lghL cfly{s :jfy{ lglxt /x]sf] JolQm . !@= ;b:o sfod g/xg] cj:yf b]xfosf] cj:yfdf s'g} JolQm cj:yfM ;ldlt jf ljåt ;ldltsf] ;b:o sfod /xg] 5}g M– -s_ bkmf !! df plNnlvt s'g} cof]Uotf ePdf, -v_ ;b:otfaf6 /fhLgfdf u/]df, -u_ d'gfl;a sf/0f geO{ ;ldlt jf ljåt ;ldltsf] cg'dlt a]u/ ;ldlt jf ljåt ;ldltsf] a}7sdf nuftf/ tLg k6s cg'kl:yt ePsf]df g]kfn ;/sf/n] x6fPdf, -3_ bkmf & sf] pkbkmf -$_ / bkmf ( sf] pkbkmf -#_ sf] k|ltaGwfTds jfSof+z adf]lhd g]kfn ;/sf/n] s'g} ;b:osf] ;§f c?nfO{ g} dgf]gLt u/]df . !@s= k|z f;ssf] lgo'l Qm M g]kfn ;/sf/n] ;+:yfgdf Ps hgf k|zf;s lgo'Qm ug]{5 . !#= ;+:yfgsf] sf]i f -!_ ;+:yfgsf] cfˆgf] Pp6f 5'§} sf]if x'g]5 . ;f] sf]ifdf b]xfosf fM /sd hDdf ul/g]5g M– -s_ g]kfn ;/sf/af6 k|fKt ePsf] cg'bfg, -v_ s'g} lgoldt >f]taf6 k|fKt ePsf] /sd, ¥ klxnf] ;+zf]wgåf/f ;+zf]lwt . • klxnf] ;+zf]wgåf/f lemlsPsf] .  klxnf] ;+zf]wgåf/f yk . ¥ klxnf] ;+zf]wgåf/f ;+zf]lwt . 6
  • 7. -u_ u'7L hUufaf6 k|fKt dfnkf]t jf cGo cfo:tf, -3_ u'7L cwLg:y hUufnfO{ /}tfg gDa/L hUufdf kl/0ft u/L btf{ ubf{ k|fKt /sd, -ª_ ;+:yfgnfO{ k|fKt c? s'g} /sd . -@_ ;+:yfgsf] ;a} gubL ;+:yfgsf] gfddf g]kfn /fi6« a}+s jf ;ldltn] tf]s]sf] s'g} a}+sdf /flvg]5 . -#_ ;+:yfgsf] tkm{af6 ug'{ kg]{ ;a} vr{ ;+:yfgsf] sf]ifaf6 Joxf]l/g]5 . -$_ pkbkmf -#_ df h'g;'s} s'/f n]lvPsf] eP tfklg pkbkmf -!_ sf] v08 -3_ adf]lhd k|fKt /sd / ;+:yfgsf] gfddf /x]sf] hfoh]yf laqmL eO{ ;f] afkt k|fKt /sd ;+:yfgsf] cIfo sf]ifsf] ?kdf /flvg]5 / To:tf] /sd s'g} a}+sdf d'2tL vftfdf hDdf ug]{ jf 3/ k;n agfpg] h:tf :yfoL nufgL ug]{ afx]s c? ;fna;fnL vr{ ug{ kfOg] 5}g . cIfo sf]ifsf] nufgLaf6 k|fKt cfDbfgLsf] slDtdf kRrL; k|ltzt /sd clgjfo{ ?kdf ;f]xL sf]ifdf hDdf u/L afFsL /sd ;+:yfgsf] sfddf vr{ ug{ ;lsg]5 . !$= ;+:yfgsf] n]v f / n]v fk/LIf0f -!_ ;+:yfgsf] n]vf k|rlnt g]kfn sfg"g adf]lhd fk/LIf0fM /flvg]5 . -@_ ;+:yfgsf] n]vfk/LIf0f dxfn]vf k/LIfsaf6 x'g]5 . !%= ;+:yfgsf] cfly{s jif{ / jflif{s k|ltj]bg -!_;+:yfgsf] cfly{s jif{ g]kfn ;/sf/sf] gM cfly{s jif{ ;/x x'g]5 . -@_ ;+:yfgn] k|To]s cfly{s–jif{ cGt ePsf] 5 dxLgfleq cfˆgf] cfly{s l:ylt / cfˆgf] sfdsf] jflif{s k|ltj]bg g]kfn ;/sf/df k]z ug]{5 . kl/R5]b – # ;+:yfgsf] sfd st{J o :yfgsf] !^= /fhu'7 Lsf] aGbf]a:t / ;~rfng M -!_ ;+:yfgsf] cdfgtL, /fhu'7L, d7, dlGb/sf] aGbf]]a:t / ;~rfngsf] nflu cfjZostfg';f/ dxGt, k'hf/L, Joj:yfks / c? sfdbf/, sd{rf/Lsf] lgo'lQm u/L bfgkq lnvt eP ;f] / k/Dk/f adf]lhdsf] kj{ k"hf OToflb ug'{ kg]{ sfd cdfgtaf6} u/fpg]5 / To:tf] cdfgtL u'7L, d7, 7
  • 8. dlGb/sf] cfo:tf u'7L sf]if / u'7L lhG;L df}Hbftdf hDdf u/L vr{ u'7L sf]if / u'7L lhG;L df}Hbftaf6 g} Joxf]l/g]5 . -@_ /fhu'7Ldf kl/0ft ePsf 5"6u'7L / lghLu'7Lsf xsdf ;+:yfgn] To:tf u'7Lsf bfgkq, lnvt / k/Dk/f adf]lhd kj{, k"hf OToflb ug'{ kg]{ sfd g/f]lsg] / wd{ nf]k gx'g] u/L eO/x]sf] sfdbf/, sd{rf/L / vr{sf] b/aGbLdf a9L jf cgfjZos s6fO{ gofF b/aGbL sfod u/L pkbkmf -!_ adf]lhd cdfgtaf6 u'7Lsf] sfo{ ;~rfng gu/fO{ ;+:yfgn] cfˆg}} /]vb]v, lgoGq0f / lgb]{zgdf a9Ldf kfFr jif{ ;Ddsf] cjlw tf]sL To:tf] u'7Lsf] aGbf]a:t / ;~rfng ;fljsdf rnfO{ cfPsf] btf{ u'l7of/, dxGt, k"hf/L jf c? s;}nfO{ ;'Dkg ;Sg]5 . t/, To;/L ;'lDkPsf]df b/aGbL adf]lhd vr{ s6fO{ afFsL ar]sf] cfo:tf ;+:yfgdf a'´fpg' kg]{5 . !&= ;+:yfgsf] sf d, st{J o tyf clwsf o; P]gdf :ki6 Joj:yf eP afx]s ;+:yfgsf] sfd, clwsf/M sfd, st{Jo tyf clwsf/ b]xfoadf]lhd x'g]5M– -!_ /fhu'7Ldfly ;+:yfgdf xs bfloTj /fvL Joj:yf tyf ;~rfng ug{, -@_ 5"6u'7L tyf lghLu'7LnfO{ /fhu'7Ldf lnO{ cdfgtaf6 Joj:yf / ;~rfng ug]{ jf o; P]gdf Joj:yf eP adf]lhd ;~rfng u/fpg], -#_ bfgkq lnvt k/Dk/f adf]lhdsf] wfld{s kj{ k"hf wd{nf]k gx'g] u/L rnfpg] jf rnfpg nufpg], -$_ /fhu'7Lsf] rn crn ;DklQ jf To;af6 ePsf] cfDbfgL xfn e}/x]sf] / yk s'g} wfld{s, z}lIfs, ;fdflhs, ;fF:s[lts jf k/f]ksf/L ;+:yf jf sfo{df nufpg], -%_ /fhu'7Lsf] cfDbfgLaf6 kmh"n vr{ 36fO{ r'xfj6 /f]sL /fhu'7LnfO{ a9L Jojl:yt ?kn] ;~rfng ug{ cfjZost cfg';f/ sd{rf/L / vr{sf] gofF b/aGbL nut agfpg], -^_ s'g} cg'bfg, bfg, bftJo, rn crn, ;DklQ, k|fKt ug]{, -^s_ d7 dlGb/df r9g] e]6L3f6Lsf] Joj:yf ug]{,  klxnf] ;+zf]wgåf/f yk . 8
  • 9. -^v_ k|frLg u/uxgf / wfld{s, ;fF:s[lts j:t'x?sf] nut /fvL ;+/If0f ug]{ u/fpg], -^u_ s'g} u'7Lsf] sfdsf] lgldQ vr{ ug'{ kbf{ ;se/ ;f]xL u'7Lsf] cfo:tfaf6 vr{ ug]{, -&_ v]tL, jfujfgL / kz'kfng ug]{, -*_ /fhu'7Laf6 ug'{ kg]{ s'g} sfd ug{ ;+:yfgsf tkm{af6 7]Ssf lbg] s/f/ ug]{, -(_ 3/, k;n agfO{ axfndf lbg], -!)_ ;+:yfgsf tkm{af6 rnfpg' kg]{ s'g} sfg"gL sf/jfO{ rnfpg] jf ;+:yfg pk/ rn]sf] s'g} sfg"gL sf/jfO{sf] k|lt/Iff ug]{ / cbfntsf] km};nf adf]lhd ug]{, -!!_ /fhu'7Lsf] cfo:tf /sdaf6 u'7L rnfpg], vr{ ug]{, afFsL /sdaf6 hu]8f sf]if v8f ug]{ / ;f] sf]ifaf6 ;'/lIft nufgL ug]{, -!@_ u'7L t}gfyL hUufdf ;+:yfgn] cfkm} v]tL ug{ jf df]xL nufO{ v]tL ug{ lbg], -!#_ of] P]g / k|rlnt sfg"gadf]lhd /fhu'7Lsf] Joj:yf ;~rfng ubf{ kl/cfPsf] c? sfd ug]{ . !*= ;+:yf gn] ug{ gx'g ] sfd ;+:yfgn] b]xfosf] sfd ug{ x'Fb}gM– yfgn] sfdM -!_ u'7L hUufdf g]kfn ;/sf/sf] :jLs[lt a]u/ u'7Lsf] :jfldTj 5fl8lbg], -@_ u'7L P]nfgL hUuf g]kfn ;/sf/sf] gLlt lj?4 gDa/Ldf btf{ ug]{, -#_ ;+:yfgnfO{ gf]S;fg jf /fhu'7Lsf] wd{–sfo{df afwf kg]{ s'g} sfd sf/jfO{, cfly{s sf/f]af/ jf cGo Joj:yf ;DaGwL sfd ug]{ . !(= 5"6 u'7 Lsf] xs bfloTj ;+:yfgdf ;g]M{ ;a} 5"6 u'7L /fhu'7Ldf kl/0ft eO{ To:tf] 5"6 u'7Lsf] rn crn hfoh]yf, b]jd"lt{ ;d]t pk/ 5"6 u'7Lsf] eO/fv]sf] ;a} clwsf/ ;+:yfgdf ;g]{5 / To:tf 5"6 u'7Lsf u'l7of/ vfGuLbf/sf] ;a} xs clwsf/ ;dfKt x'g]5 . !(s= lghL u'7 Lsf] nut -!_ lghL u'7Lsf u'7Lof/n] u'7Lsf] nut tf]lsP adf]lhdsf] ghL nutM 9fFrfdf ;+:yfgdf lbg' kg]{5 . 4 bf];|f] ;+zfwgåf/f ;+zf]lwt . 9
  • 10. -@_ pkbkmf -!_ adf]lhd nut k|fKt ePkl5 ;+:yfgn] JolQmut jf kfl/jfl/s ?kdf / ;fdflhs lxtsf] nflu /flvPsf lghL u'7Lsf] nut tf]lsP adf]lhd 5'§f5'§} /fVg' kg]{5 . @)= lghL u'7 Lsf] xs bfloTj ;+:yfgn] lng ;Sg]M -!_ s'g} lghL u'7Lsf] bftf ;d]t ;a} jf clwsf+z u'7Lof/x?n] To:tf] lghL u'7Lsf] xs bfloTj ;+:yfgn] g} Joxf]g]{ u/L aGbf]a:t / ;~rfng ;+:yfgaf6 g} x'g lnlvt cg'/f]w u/]df ;+:yfgn] To:tf] u'7Lsf] xs bfloTj lnO{ aGbf]j:t / ;~rfng ug{ ;Sg]5 . -@_ JolQmut jf kfl/jfl/s ?kdf /flvPsf lghL u'7L afx]s ;fdflhs lxtsf] nflu /flvPsf lghL u'7Lsf u'7Lof/n] lznfkq, wd{kq, bfgkq cflbdf n]lvP adf]lhd ;f] u'7Lsf] ;~rfng gu/L u'7Lsf] ;DklQ lxgfldgf u/]sf] b]lvPdf u'l7of/n] lnlvt cg'/f]w gu/] klg ;+:yfgn] To:tf] u'7Lsf] lhDdf lnO{ aGbf]j:t ;~rfng ug{ ;Sg]5 . -#_ kz'klt cdfnsf]6 srx/Ldf s"t a'´fpg' kg]{ jf kz'klt u'xo]Zj/L;+u ;DalGwt ;a} vfnsf u'7Lsf] hUufsf] hUuf k|zf;g u'7L ;+:yfgn] lhDdf lnO{ aGbf]a:t / ;~rfng ug{ ;Sg]5 . -$_ pkbkmf -!_ jf -@_ adf]lhd ;+:yfgn] xs bfloTj lnPkl5 To:tf] lghL u'7L /fhu'7Ldf kl/0ft eO{ To:tf] lghL u'7Lsf] rn, crn hfoh]yf, b]jd"lt{ ;d]t pk/ lghL u'7L jf bftf u'l7of/sf] e}/x]sf] ;a} clwsf/ ;+:yfgdf ;g]{5 / To:tf] lghL u'7Lsf bftf, u'7Lof/, vfGuLbf/sf] ;a} xs clwsf/ ;dfKt x'g]5 . @!= /fhu'7 Ldf kl/0ft ePsf] 5"6 u'7 L / lghLu'7Lsf] ljj/0f hfoh]yf a'´fpg]M bkmf !( / @) adf]lhd /fhu'7Ldf kl/0ft ePsf] 5"6 u'7L jf lghL u'7Lsf bftf, u'l7of/ jf u'7L rnfOcfPsf JolQmn] ;+:yfgn] ;"rgf k|sflzt u/]sf] 5 dxLgfleq ;+:yfgn] tf]s]adf]lhd To:tf] u'7Lsf] rn crn, hfoh]yfsf] ljj/0f / :ofxf >]:tf nufot ;a} lnvt ;+:yfgnfO{ a'´fpg' k5{ . kl/R5]b – $ u'7 L lhdLbf/L pGd"ng 10
  • 11. @@= u'7 L lhdLbf/L pGd"n g u'7L lhdLbf/L pGd"ng ul/Psf]5 . To:tf] pGd"ngsf] gM kl/0ffd:j?k ;DalGwt u'7L df}hfsf] lhdLbf/Ll;t ;DalGwt lhdLbf/ k6jf/Lsf] ;a} xs clwsf/ :jtM ;dfKt ePsf] dflgg]5 . t/ lhdLbf/L ;fysf] hUufsf xsdf lhdLbf/L pGd"ng ePsf] lhdLbf/sf] gfpFdf u'7L /}tfg gDa/Ldf btf{ x'g]5 . @#= lhdLbf/L ;DaGwL sf uhkq u'7L lhdLbf/Lsf] sfuhkq lhDdf ePsf] JolQmn] ;f] sfuhkq uhkqM sfuhkq ;+:yfgn] cfb]z lbPsf avt ;+:yfgnfO{ a'´fpg' k5{ . @$= dfnkf]t c;"n tx;Ln ug]{ cGtl/d Joj:yf pGd"ng ePsf] u'7L lhdLbf/Lsf] Joj:yfM dfnkf]t c;"n tx;Ln ug]{ ;DaGwdf ;+:yfgn] Joj:yf ldnfO{ ;"rgf glbP;Dd ;DalGwt lhldbf/ k6jf/Ln] ;fljs adf]lhd dfnkf]t c;"/ tx;Ln u/L ;+:yfgdf a'´fpg' kg]{5 . kl/R5]b – % /fhu'7 L hUuf @%= u'7 L t}g fyL hUufsf] aGbf]a:t M -!_ u'7L t}gfyL hUuf ;+:yfgn] cfkm} v]tL ug{ jf lnnfd a9fa9 u/fO{ btf{ ul/lbg ;Sg]5 . -@_ u'7L t}gfyL hUuf dWo] P]nfgL afF´f] hUufsf] xsdf ;+:yfgn] cj:yf cg';f/ b]xfo adf]lhd s'g} klg Joj:yf ug{ ;Sg]5 M– -s_ ;+:yfg cfkm}n] cfjfb ug]{, -v_ tf]lsPadf]lhd s]xL jif{sf] s"t;Dd dfkmL u/L vf; ls;fgnfO{ ======== cfjfbL ug{ lbg], / -u_ tf]lsPadf]lhd zt{ /fvL ================== u'7L /}tfg gDa/L hUufdf kl/0ft u/L btf{ u/L lbg] . -#_ pkbkmf -!_ / -@_ df h'g;'s} s'/f n]lvPsf] eP tfklg s'g} u'7L t}gfyL hUuf 3/ 38]/L jf pBf]u Jofkf/sf] nflu pko'Qm b]lvPdf To:tf u'7L hUuf / ¥ klxnf] ;+zf]wgåf/f ;+zf]lwt . 4 bf];|f] ;+zfwgåf/f ;+zf]lwt .  bf];|f] ;+zfw]gåf/f l´lsPsf] . r bf];|f] ;+zf]wgåf/f yk . 11
  • 12. ;+:yfg cfkm}n] v]tL u/] u/fPsf] u'7L t}gfyL hUuf cfjfbL jf P]nfgL h] ePklg pkof]u / 7fpFsf] dxTj x]/L ;+:yfgn] tf]lsPadf]lhd ============== a9fa9 u/fO{ u'7L /}tfg gDa/L hUufdf kl/0ft u/L btf{ u/L lbg ;Sg]5 / @)$^ r}q @^ ut] eGbf klxn] g} u'7L t}gfyL hUufdf cfkmg}} k"FhL nufO{ 3/ agfO{ a;f]jf; ul/;s]sfsf] xsdf To:tf] 3/ 38]/L o;} P]gdf cGoq Joj:yf ul/P cg';f/ d"Nofªsg ;ldltn] tf]s]sf] d"Nosf] cfwf/df lghs} gfddf /}tfg gDa/Ldf kl/0ft u/L btf{ ug{ ;lsg]5 . -$_ pkbkmf -!_, -@_ / -#_ df h'g;'s} s'/f n]lvPsf] eP tfklg b]j:yn /x]sf jf b]jL b]jtf b]j:yn kj{ k"hf hfqf;+u ;DalGwt wfld{s Pj+ ;fj{hlgs klt{ hUuf s'g} JolQmsf] gfddf btf{ ul/g] 5}g . To:tf] hUuf btf{ ul/Psf] /x]5 eg] klg ;+:yfgn] To:tf] hUufsf] btf{ ab/ ug{ ;Sg]5 . @^= u'7 L cwLg:y hUufsf] aGbf]a:t -!_ of] P]g k|f/De ePkl5 sf7df8f}+ pkTosf / :tM kxf8 Onfsfdf hf]tfxfn] btf{jfnfnfO{ s"t a'´fO{ btf{jfnf df]xLn] /fhu'7LnfO{ k"/} lhG;L jf cfFlzs lhG;L / cfFlzs u'7Lsf] efpn] gubLdf a'´fpg' kg]{ u'7L cwLg:y hUufdf btf{jfnfsf] ;a} xs clwsf/ ;dfKt eO{ To:tf] hUufdf ;+:yfgsf] k"0f{ :jfldTj sfod x'g]5 / To:tf] hUufdf vf; hf]tfxf ls;fgn] k|rlnt sfg"g adf]lhd df]lxofgL xs kfpg]5 . -@_ pkbkmf -!_ adf]lhd xs ;dfKt x'g] btf{jfnf df]xLn] lghsf] ;flas hUufdf k|rlnt sfg"g adf]lhd nfUg] dfnkf]tsf] bz u'0ffn] x'g] /sd Ifltk"lt{jfkt tf]lsPadf]lhd kfpg]5 . To;/L Ifltk"lt{ kfpg] btf{jfnfn] u'7LnfO{ ltg'{kg]{ aSof}tf /sd eP ;f] s§f u/L Iflt{k"lt{sf] /sd kfpg]5 . -#_ pkbkmf -@_ adf]lhd btf{jfnf df]xLnfO{ lbOg] Ifltk"lt{sf] /sd btf{jfnfsf] xs ;dfKt eO{ cfˆgf] xs x'g cfpg] vf; hf]tfxf ls;fgn] ;+:yfgdf tf]lsPadf]lhd a'´fpg' kg]{5 . ¥ klxnf] ;+zf]wgåf/f ;+zf]lwt .  klxnf] ;+zf]wgåf/f yk . ¡ klxnf] ;+zf]wgåf/f l´lsPsf] . 12
  • 13. -#s_ btf{jfnf df]xLn] ;+:yfgdf a'´fpg' kg]{ s"t ga'´fO{ aSof}tf /xg uPsf] b]lvPdf hf]tfxf ls;fgn] To:tf] aSof}tf /x]sf] cjlwsf] s"t btf{jfnf df]xLnfO{ a'´fPsf] lg:;f ;+:yfgdf k]z ug'{ kg]{5 . -#v_ pkbkmf -#s_ adf]lhd s"t a'´fPsf] lg:;f k]z ug{ g;s]df lg:;f k]z ug{ g;s] hltsf] s"t ;+:yfgdf a'´fpg' kg]{5 . -$_ btf{jfnf df]xLsf] xs ;dfKt eO{ cfˆgf] xs x'g cfpg] vf; hf]tfxf ls;fgn] pkbkmf -#_ df tf]lsP adf]lhdsf] Ifltk"lt{sf] /sd bflvn gu/]df jf pkbkmf -#v_ adf]lhd aSof}tf s"t tf]lsPadf]lhd glt/]df ;f] hUufsf] s"t glt/] ;/x sf/jfO{ u/L ;f] hUufdf tf]lsPsf] b:t"/ lnO{ csf]{ df]xL sfod ug{ ;lsg]5 . -%_ pkbkmf -$_ adf]lhd sf/jfO{ u/L csf]{ df]xL sfod x'g cfPdf To:tf] df]xLn] pkbkmf -#_ adf]lhd xs ;dfKt ePsf] btf{jfnf df]xLnfO{ ltg'{kg]{ Ifltk"lt{sf] afFsL /sd / pkbkmf -#v_ adf]lhdsf] s"t ;d]t ;+:yfgdf tf]lsPadf]lhd a'´fpg' kg]{5 . -^_ ================ -&_ o; bkmfdf h'g;'s} s'/f n]lvPsf] eP tfklg s'g} u'7L cwLg:y hUufdf s;}n] sfg"g adf]lhd clwsf/ kfO{ 3/–af/L agfO{ a;f]af; u/L cfPsf] eP k|rlnt g]kfn sfg"g adf]lhd 3/–af/L jfkt /fVg kfpg] hUufsf] xb;Dd hUuf ;f]xL JolQmsf] gfddf df]lxofgLdf btf{ x'g]5 . kl/R5]b – ^ df]xLsf] Joj:yf @&= df]l xofgL xs nfUg]M u'7L hUufdf vf; hf]tfxf ls;fgn] k|rlnt sfg"g adf]lhd df]lxofgL xs kfpg]5 . t/, 4 bf];|f] ;+zfwgåf/f ;+zf]lwt . 13
  • 14. -s_ u'7Lsf] s'g} lglZrt sfd u/] afkt hf]tL ef]u ug{ kfpg] /sdLn] To:tf] hUufdf df]lxofgL xs kfpg] 5}g . -v_ ;fljsb]lv v]tL u/L gcfPsf] afu au}rf ePsf] jf tf]lsPsf] zx/ ahf/sf] klt{ u'7L hUufdf df]lxofgL xs kfpg] 5}g . @*= u'7 L hUufdf nfUg] s"t lt/f M -!_ ;+:yfgnfO{ s"t ltg'{ kg]{ u'7L hUufdf ;/sf/L lt/f] /}s/ hUufjfnfn] df]xLaf6 hUufsf] 7fpF / lsl;d cg';f/ kfpg] ;/x s"t nfUg]5 . t/ of] P]g k|f/De x'Fbfsf jvt lsl;d cg';f/sf] s"teGbf sd a'´fO{ cfPsf] /x]5 eg] ;f]xL adf]lhd g} s"t lnOg]5 . -@_ of] P]g k|f/De x'Fbfsf] cj:yfdf df]xLn] wfg, rfdn, ds}, sf]bf], ux'F cflb cgfh afx]s c? k|sf/sf] lhG;L a'´fO{ cfPsf]df df]xLn] ;flas adf]lhds} lhG;L a'´fpg' kg]{5 . t/ o; pkbkmf adf]lhd lhG;L ;fdfgsf] d"No k|lt /f]kgL jf laufxfdf pkbkmf -!_ adf]lhd df]xLn] a'´fpg] s"tsf] d"No eGbf a9L kg]{ u/L c;"n ul/g] 5}g . -#_ pkbkmf -@_ adf]lhd df]xLn] a'´fpg] lhG;Lsf] d"No lglZrt ug]{ clwsf/ ;+:yfgnfO{ x'g]5 . -$_ u'7L hUufdf nfu]sf] s"t df]xLn] :yfgLo ahf/ efpn] gubLdf klg a'´fpg ;Sg]5 . -%_ bkmf @( sf] pkbkmf -!_ df tf]lsPsf] s"t ltg]{ ;dodf s"t a'´fpg]nfO{ ;+:yfgn] s"tsf] kGw| k|ltzt;Dd 5"6 lbg]5 . @(= s"t ltg]{ ;DaGwL Joj:yf -!_ ;+:yfgnfO{ s"t ltg'{ kg]{ u'7L hUufsf] df]xLn] Joj:yfM ;/sf/L /}s/ hUufsf] df]xLn] s"t ltg]{ ofd ;do;Dddf ;+:yfgnfO{ u'7L hUufsf] df]xLn] s"t a'´fpg' kg]{5 . ;f] Dofbleq s"t ga'´fPdf To:tf] df]xLsf] df]lxofgL xs ;+:yfgn] ;dfKt ug{ ;Sg]5 .  klxnf] ;+zf]wgåf/f yk . ¥ klxnf] ;+zf]wgåf/f ;+zf]lwt .  klxnf] ;+zf]wgåf/f yk . 14
  • 15. t/ ;+:yfgn] cfjZos b]v]df b'O{ dxLgf;Dd s"t a'´fpg Dofb yk ug{ ;Sg]5 . -@_ pkbkmf -!_ adf]lhd df]lxofgL xs ;dfKt ePsf]df lrQ ga'‰g] df]xLn] k}tL; lbgleq g]kfn ;/sf/;dIf ph"/ ug{ ;Sg]5 . -#_ pkbkmf -@_ adf]lhd kg{ cfPsf] ph"/Ldf g]kfn ;/sf/ n] u/]sf] lg0f{o clGtd x'g]5 . -$_ pkbkmf -!_ adf]lhd df]lxofgL xs ;dfKt ePsf] hUufsf] afFsL s"t ;fljs df]xLaf6 ;/sf/L afFsL ;/x ;+:yfgn] c;"n–pk/ ug{ ;Sg]5 . -%_ ;+:yfgnfO{ a'´fpg' kg]{ s"t ldGxf ug]{ ;DaGwdf k|rlnt g]kfn sfg"g adf]lhd x'g]5 . #)= df]l xofgL xs v/Lb – laqmL ug{ ;lsg] ljz]i f Joj:y e"ld;'wf/ P]g, @)@! tyf v/Lb– Joj:yfM cGo k|rlnt g]kfn sfg"gdf h'g;'s} s'/f n]lvPsf] eP tfklg o; P]g adf]lhd df]lxofgLdf sdfO{ cfPsf] hUufsf] df]lxofgL xs v/Lb–laqmL x'g ;Sg]5 . #)s= vfGuLsf] hUuf a]r lavg ug{ g kfpg M u'7Lsf] vfGuL hUuf vfGuLjfnfn] gkfpg kfpg] lwtf] aGws /fVg] jf cGo s'g} k|sf/n] xs 5f8L lbg kfpg] 5}g / To;/L xs 5f8L lbPdf xs 5f8L lbPsf] lnvt :jtM ab/ ePsf] dflgg]5 . #!= psf; x'g cfPsf] hUufsf] ;DaGwdf ;+:yfgnfO{ a'´fpg' kg]{ s"t jf cGo /sd ;DaGwdfM ga'´fO{ 5f8L psf; x'g cfPsf] hUuf ;+:yfgn] cfkm} v]tL ug{ jf cGo s'g} sfddf nufpg ;Sg]5 . #@= u'7 L /}t fg gDa/L hUufdf dfnkf]t nfUg M-!_;/sf/L /}s/ hUufsf] hUufjfnfn] nfUg] hUufsf] lsl;d cg';f/ g]kfn ;/sf/df dfnkf]t a'´fP ;/x u'7L /}tfg gDa/L hUufsf] hUufjfnfn] ;+:yfgdf dfnkf]t a'´fpg]5 . -@_ u'7L /}tfg gDa/L hUufdf hUufjfnfsf] xs / x}l;ot k|rlnt sfg"g adf]lhd ;/sf/L /}s/ hUufsf] hUufjfnfsf] ;/x g} x'g]5 . -#_ o; bkmfsf] k|of]hgsf] nflu hUufjfnf eGgfn] o; P]g adf]lhd ;+:yfgnfO{ dfnkf]t ltg'{ kg]{ u/L u'7L hUuf cfˆgf] gfddf btf{ eO{ ;f] btf{sf]  klxnf] ;+zf]wgåf/f yk . 4 bf];|f] ;+zfwgåf/f ;+zf]lwt . 15
  • 16. gftfn] pQm hUufdf xs x'g] JolQm / To:tf] JolQmsf] xsjfnf jf c+lzof/ ePsf] gftfn] jf To:tf] JolQmn] k|rlnt g]kfn sfg"g adf]lhd cfˆgf] xs 5f]8L lbPsf]n] ;f] hUuf cfˆgf] gfddf btf{ u/fpg] xs k'u]sf] JolQm ;D´g' k5{ . ##= dfnkf]t c;"n ug]{ Jo j:yf M-!_ ;+:yfgn] dfnkf]t c;"n ug]{ Joj:yf ug]{5 . Joj:yf -@_ dfnkf]t c;"n ug]{ Dofb k|rlnt g]kfn sfg"gdf tf]lsP adf]lhd x'g]5 . dfnkf]t c;"n ug{ Dofb gf3]df hl/jfgf ug]{, dfnkf]t afFsLdf hUuf lnnfd ug]{ / ldGxf lbg] ;d]tdf k|rlnt g]kfn sfg"gdf ePsf] Joj:yf ;+:yfgn] c;"n ug]{ dfnkf]tsf xsdf klg nfu" x'g]5 . u'7Lsf] dfnkf]t c;"n tx;Ln ug{ tf]lsPsf] sfof{nox?n] ;d]t k|rlnt g]kfn sfg"g adf]lhd dfnkf]t c;"n ug]{ ;DaGwL clwsf/sf] k|of]u ug{ kfpg]5 . #$= axfn / e"axfn c;"n – pk/ ug]{ Joj:yf -!_ u'7L hUufdf 3/ k;n agfpg lbO{ Joj:yfM e"axfn lnO{ cfPsf] jf u''7Ln] g} 3/ k;n agfO{ jf kf6L kf}jfx? axfndf lbO{ axfn lnO{ cfPsf]df of] bkmf k|f/De ePkl5 ;+:yfgn] To:tf] e"axfn jf axfnsf] ;DaGwdf gofF sa'lnot u/fpg ;Sg]5 . o;/L gofF sa'lnot u/fpFbf e"axfn jf axfnsf] c° ;+:yfgn] tf]s]adf]lhd x'g]5 . -@_ axfn jf e"axfndf a:g] JolQmn] ;+:yfgn] tf]lslbPsf] Dofbleq gofF sa'lnot ug'{ kg]{5 . ;f] Dofbleq sa'lnot gu/]df ;f] axfnjfnf jf e"axfnjfnf JolQmsf 3/ jf k;ndf ef]urng ug]{ xs :jtM ;dfKt x'g]5 / ;+:yfgn] ;f] 3/ k;n cGo JolQmnfO{ axfndf lbg jf cfkm}n] ef]u rng ug{ ;Sg]5 . #%= b:t"/ lnO{ df]l xofgLdf btf{ ug {M -!_ of] P]g k|f/De x'g'eGbf cl3 u'7L hUufdf ug] e"afxn nufO{ cfPsf]df e"axfnjfnfn] df]lxofgLdf btf{ u/fpg rfx]df ;+:yfgn] tf]s]adf]lhd b:t"/ lnO{ df]lxofgLdf btf{ ul/lbg ;Sg]5 . -@_ of] P]g k|f/De x'Fbfsf] avt ;+:yfgsf] :jLs[lt glnO{ s;}n] u'7L hUufdf 3/ agfO;s]sf] /x]5 eg] To:tf] hUuf ;+:yfgn] tf]s] adf]lhd b:t"/ lnO{ df]lxofgLdf btf{ ul/lbg ;Sg]5 . -#_ of] P]g k|f/De ePkl5 s;}sf] gfddf df]lxofgLdf btf{ ePsf] u'7L hUuf jf s;}sf] gfddf btf{ gePsf] P]nfgL jf afF´f] u'7L hUuf jf u'7Lsf] afu au}rfdf s;}n] 3/ agfpg ;+:yfgsf] :jLs[lt dfu]df ;+:yfgn] tf]s] adf]lhd b:t'/ lnO{ 16
  • 17. :jLs[lt lbg ;Sg]5 . o;/L ;+:yfgsf] :jLs[lt glnO{ To:tf] hUufdf s;}n] 3/ agfPdf ;f] hUuf / ;f] hUufdf agfPsf] 3/df To:tf] JolQmsf] xs ;dfKt eO{ ;+:yfgsf] xs sfod x'g]5 . t/ of] k|ltaGwfTds jfSof+z k|f/De x'g'eGbf cl3 3/ agfPsf]df To:tf] 3/ agfpg] JolQmsf] s'g} ablgot lyPg eGg] ;+:yfgnfO{ nfu]df ;+:yfgn] g]kfn ;/sf/sf] :jLs[lt lnO{ tf]lsPsf] cltl/Qm b:t'/ lnO{ df]lxofgLdf btf{ u/L lbg ;Sg]5 . -$_ pkbkmf -!_, -@_ / -#_ df h'g;'s} s'/f n]lvPsf] eP tfklg u'7L /}tfg gDa/L hUufdf 3/ agfpg ;+:yfgsf] :jLs[lt lng kg]{ 5}g . #^= u'7 L /}t fg gDa/Ldf btf{ ug{ kfpg M u'7L hUuf sdfpg] btf{jfnf df]xLn] ;f] hUuf kfpg] cfˆgf] gfpFdf u'7L /}tfg gDa/L hUufdf kl/0ft u/L btf{ u/fpg rfx]df lghn] tf]lsPsf] /sd tf]lsPadf]lhd ;+:yfgdf a'´fPdf ;f] hUuf ;+:yfgn] lghsf] gfddf u'7L /}tfg gDa/L hUufdf btf{ u/L lbg]5 . kl/R5]b – & ljljw #&= xbaGbL ;DaGwL Joj:yf u'7L /}tfg gDa/L hUufsf] hUufjfnf / u'7L hUufsf Joj:yfM df]xLsf ;DaGwdf xbaGbL;DaGwL k|rlnt g]kfn sfg"gsf] ;a} Joj:yf nfu" x'g]5 / ;f] k|of]hgsf nflu u'7L hUuf / ;/sf/L /}s/ hUuf b'a}sf] lx;fa u/L xbaGbL sfod ug'{ k5{ . #*= u'7 L t}g fyL hUufsf ;DaGwdf ljz]i f Joj:yf o; P]g adf]lhd u'7L t}gfyL x'g] Joj:yfM hUuf /fhu'7L / ;+:yfgsf] lxt ljkl/t s'g} JolQmn] s'g} lsl;dn] aGbf]a:tLdf lnPsf] eP klg u'7L ;+:yfg P]g, @)@! nfu" ePkl5 aGbf]a:tL kfPsf] To:tf] xs clwsf/ :jtM ;dfKt eO{ To:tf]df ;+:yfg / /fhu'7Lsf] xs / :jfldTj k'gM sfod x'g]5 . t/–  klxnf] ;+zf]wgåf/f yk . ¥ klxnf] ;+zf]wgåf/f ;+zf]lwt . 17
  • 18. -!_ aGbf]a:tLdf kfPsf] hUuf 3/af/Lsf] nflu k|of]u ePsf]df cGo k|rlnt sfg"gn] kfPsf] xb;Dd To:tf] JolQmsf] gfpFdf u'7L /}tfg gDa/Ldf btf{ x'g]5 afFsL hUufdf ;+:yfgnfO{ o; P]g adf]lhd s"t lt/f] a'´fpg kg]{5 . -@_ g]kfn ;/sf/sf] :jLs[lt lnO{ u'7L ;+:yfgn] bz laufxf;Dd s;}sf] gfddf u'7L /}tfg gDa/Ldf btf{ u/]sf] hUufsf] xsdf of] bkmf nfu" x'g] 5}g . #(= u'7 L 3/ jf hUuf ;fljs adf]l hd btf{ x'g M] -!_ u'7L t}gfyL hUuf u'7L cwLg:y hUufdf, u'7L cwLg:y hUuf u'7L /}tfg gDa/L hUufdf jf u'7Lsf] 3/ jf hUuf /}s/df btf{ ePsf] k|dfl0ft x'g cfPdf k|zf;sn] jf k|zf;ssf] sfd ug]{ k|zf;sLo k|d'vn] To:tf] u'7Lsf] 3/ jf hUuf ;fljssf] u'7L t}gfyL hUuf, u'7L clwg:y hUuf jf u'7L /}tfg gDa/Ldf g} btf{ ug{ ;Sg]5 . To;/L btf{ eO;s]kl5 ;f] 3/ jf hUufsf] klxn] btf{ ePsf] nut s§f x'g]5 . -@_ pkbkmf -!_ adf]lhd k|zf;sn] jf k|zf;ssf] sfd ug]{ k|zf;sLo k|d'vn] u/]sf] lg0f{odf lrQ ga'‰g] JolQmn] ;f] lg0f{o pk/ k}tL; lbg leq k'g/fj]bg cbfntdf k'g/fj]bg lbg ;Sg]5 . $)= hfoh]y f /f]S sf /fVg kg]M{ ;+:yfgdf lwtf] /fv]sf] crn ;DklQ /f]Ssf ug{ ;+:yfgaf6 n]lvcfPdf ;DalGwt sfof{non] To:tf] crn ;DklQsf] ;'qmL–laqmL, ef]uaGwsL, b[li6aGwsL jf cGo s'g} k|sf/n] s;}nfO{ xs 5f]8L lbg gkfpg] u/L /f]Ssf ug'{ kg]{5 . $!= afFs L aSof}t f c;"n ug]M{ -!_ ;+:yfgn] c;'n pk/ ug'{ kg]{ dfnkf]t, s"t, axfn, e"axfn, k]ZsL, 7]s, hl/jfgf, lauf], z'Ns, cltl/Qm z'Ns, b:t'/ cflb afFsL– aSof}tf ;+:yfgn] ;/sf/L afFsL ;/x ;DalGwt JolQmsf] lwtf] jf cGo hfoh]yf lnnfd laqmL u/L c;"n–pk/ ug{ ;Sg]5 . -@_ pkbkmf -!_ adf]lhdsf] afFsL–aSof}tf c;"n ubf{ ;+:yfgn] dgfl;a b]v]df bz k|ltzt;Dd Aofh ;d]t nufO{ ls:tfaGbLdf c;"n pk/ ug{ ;Sg]5 . 4 bf];|f] ;+zfwgåf/f ;+zf]lwt .  klxnf] ;+zf]wgåf/f yk . 18
  • 19. -#_ pkbkmf -!_, -@_ / bkmf @* df h'g;'s} s'/f n]lvPsf] eP tfklg tf]lsPsf] cjlw;Ddsf] aSof}tf /sd ;+:yfgn] tf]lslbP adf]lhdsf] b/df ls:tfaGbLdf gubLdf c;"n ug{ ;Sg]5 . $@= g]k fn ;/sf/n] hUuf clwu|x 0f u/] jfkt ;f]w egf{ ug]M{ g]kfn ;/sf/n] u'7L hUuf clwu|x0f u/]df ;f] hUufsf] d'cfJhf /sdsf] ;§f hUuf g} ;f]wegf{ ug{ ;Sg]5 . t/ u'7L /}tfg gDa/L hUuf clwu|x0f u/]df g]kfn ;/sf/n] ;+:yfgnfO{ ;f] hUufsf] nfUg] dfnkf]t jfkt Ifltk"lt{ lbg' kg]{5 . $@s= g]k fn ;/sf/n] u'7 L hUuf lng ;Sg M g]kfn ;/sf/n] ;+:yfgsf] :jfldTjdf /x]sf] u'7L hUuf ;fdflhs sNof0f jf ;fd'bflos lxtsf] nflu pknAw ug{ jf u/fpg cfjZos b]v]df Jojxfl/stf x]/L ;x'lnot d"Nodf lng ;Sg]5 . $#= lthf{ Joj:yf x6fpg ;lsg]M u'7Lsf dxGt, k"hf/L, u'l7of/ / cGo /sdLx?n] vfGuL jf lthf{ Joj:yfaf6 lhG;L vfO{ cfPsf]df To;sf] ;§f ;+:yfgn] lghx?nfO{ kfl/>ldssf] Joj:yf ug{ ;Sg]5 . $$= k|f rLg d"l t{ tyf u/uxgfsf] ;DaGwdf -!_/fhu'7Lsf dxGt, k"hf/L, u'l7of/ tyf ;DaGwdfM cGo /sdLx?n] cfˆgf] lhDdfsf] b]jL–b]jtfsf] k|flrg d"lt{ u/uxgf, efF8f–jt{g cflb ;'/lIft x'g] u/L To;sf] cBfjlws nut agfO{ ;+:yfgaf6 hFrfO{ /fVg' kg]{5 . -@_ To:tf] dxGt, k"hf/L, u'l7of/, tyf cGo /sdLx?sf] cbnLabnL x'Fbf cfˆgf] lhDdfsf] nut adf]lhdsf] dfn;fdfg a/a'´f/y ug'{ kg]{5 . -#_ /fhu'7Lsf b]jL–b]jtfsf] a]rNtLsf u/uxgf, efF8f–jt{g cflb ;fdfgx? lhDdf lng] JolQmn] ;f] ;fdfgx? ;+:yfgdf ;'/lIft;fy /fVg rfx]df lghn] ;f] ;fdfgx? ;+:yfgdf a'´fpg ;Sg]5 . ;+:yfgn] rfx]df To:tf] u/uxgf efF8f– jt{gx? ;+:yfgdf a'´fpg nufpg ;Sg]5 . $%= uxgf / cGo ;DklQsf] Joj:yf ug{ M -!_ /fhu'7Lsf b]jL–b]jtfnfO{ r9fPsf] uxgf, efF8fs'F8f / cGo lhG;L ;DklQsf] ;'/Iffsf] nflu ;+:yfgn] cfjZos Joj:yf ug]{5 . r bf];|f] ;+zf]wgåf/f yk . 19
  • 20. -@_ b]jL–b]jtfnfO{ r9fPsf] uxgf / cGo ;DklQ hfFRbf dgfl;a sf/0fn] afx]s gk'u ePsf] b]lvPdf ;+:yfgn] ;f] lhDdf lng] JolQmaf6 egf{ xfNg nufpg ;Sg]5 / To;/L ;§f egf{ gxfn]df ;+:yfgn] lauf] adf]lhdsf] /sd To:tf] JolQmaf6 ;/sf/L afFsL ;/x c;"n pk/ ug]{5 . $^= u'7 L hUufsf] xf6 – ahf/ ;DaGwdf -!_ k|rlnt g]kfn sfg"gdf h'g;'s} s'/f xf6– ;DaGwdfM n]lvPsf] eP tfklg u'7Lsf] hUufdf nfUg] xf6, d]nf jf ahf/af6 ufpF ljsf; ;ldlt jf gu/kflnsfn] p7fPsf] /sd jf b:t'/sf] krf; k|ltzt /sd ;+:yfgdf a'´fpg' kg]{5 . -@_ pkbkmf -!_ df h'g;'s} s'/f n]lvPsf] eP tfklg ;+:yfgn] rfx]df To:tf] xf6, d]nf jf ahf/ nfUg] u'7L hUuf ;+:yfgn] cfkm}+ Joj:yf ug{ jf pkof]u ug{ ;Sg]5 . $&= u'7 L hUufsf] gfk – hfFr ;DaGwdf -!_ u'7L hUufsf] gfk–hfFr ubf{ ;DalGwt gfk– ;DaGwdfM clwsf/Ln] ;f] ug{ cufj} ;f] s'/fsf] ;"rgf ;+:yfgsf] sfof{nodf lbg' kg]{5 . -@_ pkbkmf -!_ adf]lhd ;+:yfgnfO{ ;"rgf glbPdf To:tf] clwsf/LnfO{ lghsf] ;]jf–zt{;DaGwL k|rlnt sfg"gadf]lhd ljefuLo sf/jfO{ ul/g]5 . $*= c:yfoL lg:;f lbg M u'7L hUufsf] hf]tfxf c:yfoL lg:;f / hUuf wgLsf] :yfoL lbg] k|df0f–k"hf{ /}s/ hUufsf] lg:;f lbg] sfof{non] lbg]5 . $(= lsQf sf6 g]M] u'7L hUufsf] lsQf sf6g' kbf{ ;f] lsQf sf6g] sfo{ /lhi6«]zg ug]{ sf6g sfof{non] ug]{5 . %)= u'7 L hUufdf btf{ u/fpg' kg {M of] P]g k|f/De x'g'eGbf cl3 s'g} JolQmn] u'7L hUuf kg] hfgL hfgL /}s/df btf{ u/fPsf] eP To:tf] JolQmn] of] P]g k|f/De ePsf] ldltn] ^ dxLgfleq ;f] hUuf k'gM u'7L hUufdf btf{ u/fpg' kg]{5 . %!= u'7 L t}g fyL hUufsf] rSnfaGbL ldnfpg]M ;+:yfgn] u'7L t}gfyL hUufsf] rSnfaGbL ldnfpg cfjZos b]v]df hUuf ;§fk§f u/L rSnfaGbL ldnfpg ;Sg]5 . %@= ;+:yfgnfO{ lgb]{z g lbg] clwsf/ g]kfn ;/sf/n] cfjZos b]v]df ;+:yfgnfO{ clwsf/M cfjZos lgb]{zgx? lbg ;Sg]5 . To;/L lgb]{zg ePdf ;+:yfgn] To:tf] lgb]{zgx? kfngf ug'{ kg]{5 . 4 bf];|f] ;+zfwgåf/f ;+zf]lwt . 20
  • 21. %#= ;+:yfgnfO{ ;xof]u ug'{ kg]M{ u'7Lsf] k/Dk/fadf]lhd rnfpg' kg]{ sfd u'7Lsf] rn crn ;DklQsf] ;+/If0f ug]{ sfd / ;+:yfgsf] 3/ hUuf b]j:yn kf6L kf}jfdf ;+:yfgsf] :jLs[lt a]u/ ha/h:tL ef]urng ug]{nfO{ x6fpg] h:tf sfddf :yfgLo k|zf;g, k|x/L / ufpF ljsf; ;ldlt jf gu/kflnsfn] ;xof]u ug'{ kg]{5 . %$= ljj/0f jf dfnkf]t ga'´fpg]n fO{ ;hfo bkmf @!, @# jf @$ adf]lhd ;+:yfgnfO{ ;hfoM a'´fpg' kg]{ ljj/0f, lnvt jf dfnkf]t bflvn gu/]df To:tf] JolQmnfO{ kRrL; ;o ?k}ofF;Dd hl/jfgf x'g]5 . %%= u'7 L hUuf /}s/df btf{ u/fpg]n fO{ ;hfo of] P]g k|f/De ePkl5 hfgL hfgL u'7L ;hfoM hUuf /}s/df btf{ u/fpg] JolQmnfO{ jf bkmf %) adf]lhd u'7L hUufdf btf{ gu/fpg] JolQmnfO{ /}s/df btf{ ePsf] hUufsf] k|rlnt b/efpn] x'g cfpg] df]n a/fa/;Dd hl/jfgf x'g]5 . To;/L /}s/df btf{ ul/Psf] hUuf u'7Ldf k'gM btf{ ul/g]5 / To:tf] hUufdf 3/ k;n agfO;s]sf] /x]5 eg] ;f] hUufdf e"axfn nfUg]5 . %^= u/uxgf cflb lxgfldgf ug]{n fO{ ;hfo /fhu'7Lsf b]jL–b]jtfnfO{ r9fPsf] u/uxgf ;hfoM tyf cGo ;DklQ s;}n] lxgfldgf u/]df lghaf6 lauf] c;"n u/L lghnfO{ lauf] adf]lhd hl/jfgf x'g]5 . %&= wd{n f]k ug]{n fO{ ;hfo u'7Lsf] lnvt, lznfkq, bfgkq cflb adf]lhd ug'{ kg]{ sfd ;hfoM gu/L wd{nf]k u/]df To:tf] JolQmnfO{ kfFr;o ?k}ofF;Dd hl/jfgf x'g]5 / To:tf] JolQmnfO{ u'7Lsf] lnvt, lznf–kq, bfgkq, cflb adf]lhd sfd ug]{ u/fpg ;lsg]5 . ;f] adf]lhd gug]{ dxGt, k"hf/L, u'l7of/ / cGo /sdLx?nfO{ vf/]h u/L csf]{ JolQm lgo'lQm ug]{ ;lsg]5 . %*= cGo ;hfo bkmf %$, %%, %^, / %& df n]lvPb]lv afx]s s;}n] o; P]gsf] ;hfoM alv{nfk cGo s'g} sfd u/]df lghnfO{ Ps xhf/ ?k}ofF;Dd hl/jfgf x'g]5 . %(= ;hfo ug]{ clwsf/L -!_ bkmf %$, %%, %^, %& / %* adf]lhd ;hfo ug]{ clwsf/ clwsf/LM k|zf;snfO{ x'g]5 . ¥ klxnf] ;+zf]wgåf/f ;+zf]lwt . 4 bf];|f] ;+zfwgåf/f ;+zf]lwt . ¥ klxnf] ;+zf]wgåf/f ;+zf]lwt . 21
  • 22. -@_ pkbkmf -!_ cGtu{t k|zf;sn] u/]sf] ;hfosf] cfb]z pk/ g]kfn ;/sf/df k'g/fj]bg nfUg]5 . ^)= cbfntnfO{ eP;/xsf] clwsf/ x'g ]M bkmf %$, %%, %^, %& / %* adf]lhd sf/jfO{ ubf{ k|zf;snfO{ aofg lng], ;fIfL k|df0f a'‰g] / sfuhkqx? bflvn u/fpg] ;DaGwdf cbfntnfO{ eP ;/xsf] clwsf/ x'g]5 . ^!= cGo g]k fn P]g adf]l hd sf/jfO{ ug{ ;lsg]M o; P]gdf n]lvPsf] s'g} s'/fn] b]jL– b]jtfsf d"lt{, u/xugf tyf ;+:yfgsf cGo ;DklQ lxgfldgf ug]{ JolQmnfO{ e|i6frf/ lgjf/0f ;DaGwL k|rlnt sfg"gadf]lhd sf/jfO{ rnfpg afwf kg]{ 5}g . ^@= =========================== ^@s= ============================= ^#= ljz]i f 5"6 M -!_ k|rlnt g]kfn sfg"gdf h'g;'s} s'/f n]lvPsf] eP tfklg ;+:yfg jfbL ePsf] d'2fdf sf]6{ kmL nfUg] 5}g / ;+:yfg jfbL jf k|ltjfbL ePsf] d'2f dfldnfdf ;+:yfgsf] jfl/;nfO{ xflh/ gu/fO{ gx'g] cj:yf k/L ;DalGwt c88f cbfntn] cfb]z lbPdf afx]s ;+:yfgsf] jfl/; tf/]vdf xflh/ e}/xg' kg]{ 5}g . -@_ ;+:yfgn] cfˆgf] hfoh]yfsf] xs sfod u/fpg, nufgL c;"n ug{, sd{rf/L, dxGt, k"hf/L, /sdL, u'l7of/, 7]sbf/ cflb;+u afFsL /x]sf] gubL lhG;L bflvnf u/fpg] s"t, 7]s, dfnkf]t, e"axfn ;d]tsf] h'g;'s} /sd c;"n ug]{ ;DaGwdf s'g} xbDofb nfUg] 5}g . ^#s= clwsf/ k|T ofof]h g ug{ ;Sg]M ;+:yfgn] cfjZostfg';f/ cfˆgf] clwsf/ cWoIf, ;b:ox?sf] pk;ldlt, k|zf;s jf ;+:yfgsf] s'g} sd{rf/LnfO{ ;'DkGg ;Sg]5 .  bf];|f] ;+zf]wgåf/f vf/]h ¥ klxnf] ;+zf]wgåf/f ;+zf]lwt .  klxnf] ;+zf]wgåf/f yk . r bf];|f] ;+zf]wgåf/f yk . 22
  • 23. ^#v= lhNnf sfof{n on] u'7 L / b]j:ynsf] /]v b]v ug'{ kg]M{ k|To]s lhNnf sfof{non] cfˆgf] lhNnfdf /x]sf] u'7Lx?sf] sfd sf/jfO{sf] cfjZos /]vb]v / lg/LIf0f ug'{sf ;fy} b]j:ynx?df /x]sf k|frLg d"lt{, u/uxgf cflb ;DklQsf] /]vb]v ug'{ kg]{5 . ^#u= lhNnf u'7 L ;~rfng ; xof]u ;ldlt -!_ u'7L hUufsf] ;'Joj:yf ug{sf] nflu g]kfn ;xof] ;ldltM ;/sf/n] cfjZostfg';f/ lhNnf u'7L ;~rfng ;xof]u ;ldlt u7g ug{ ;Sg]5 . -@_ pkbkmf -!_ adf]lhdsf] ;ldltsf] u7g, sfd, st{Jo / clwsf/ tyf cGo sfo{ljlw tf]lsP adf]lhd x'g]5 . ^$= lj36g / To;sf] kl/0ffd -!_ s'g} sf/0fjz ;+:yfgnfO{ lj36g ug{' k5{ eGg] kl/0ffdM g]kfn ;/sf/nfO{ nfu]df ;+:yfgnfO{ lj36g ug{ ;Sg]5 . -@_ pkbkmf -!_ adf]lhd ;+:yfg lj36g ePdf ;+:yfgsf] ;a} bfloTj / clwsf/x? g]kfn ;/sf/df ;/]sf] dflgg]5 . ^%= ljlgod agfpg] clwsf/ o; P]gsf] p2]Zo sfof{lGjt ug{ ;+:yfgn] g]kfn clwsf/M ;/sf/af6 :jLs[lt k|fKt u/L ljlgdox? agfpg ;Sg]5 . ^^= vf/]h L / arfp -!_ u'7L ;+:yfg P]g, @)@( vf/]h ul/Psf]5 . arfpM -@_ u'7L ;+:yfg P]g, @)@( cGtu{t eP u/]sf sfd sf/jfO{ o;} P]g cGtu{t eP u/]sf] dflgg]5 . b|i 6Jo M s]xL g]kfn sfg'g ;+zf]wg ug]{ P]g, @)^# n] b]xfosf] zAbsf] ;§f b]xfosf] zAb /fvL ?kfGt/0f u/]sf] 5 M Æ>L % sf] ;/sf/Æ eGg] zAbsf] ;§f æg]kfn ;/sf/Æ . 23