Final ccdrr evalaution and learning report ( nov 30) pdf
FINAL PROJECT EVALUATION AND LEARNING Child-Centred Disaster Risk Reduction Project, Nepal Evaluated by Dhruba Raj Gautam, Ph.D. Executive DirectorNational Disaster Risk Reduction Centre (NDRC) Kathmandu, Nepal November, 2011 1 Page
Final Project Evaluation and Learning of Child Centred Disaster Risk Reduction in Sunsari (SUPPORTED BY IRISH AID)Lead Evaluator: Dhruba Raj Gautam, Ph.D.Contact Details: National Disaster Risk Reduction Centre Nepal Kathmandu-34, Sangam Chock, Nepal Phone: +977-1-4115619 / 98510-95808 Email: firstname.lastname@example.orgProject Title: Child Centred Disaster Risk Reduction in SunsariImplementing Agency: Plan NepalProject Start Date: 01 July 2010Project End Date: 31 October 2011Duration of evaluation: 15 daysField visit dates: November 15-22, 2011Goal: To protect the rights of children, young people and communities during disaster-induced emergencies and reduce negative impacts of disasters and climate change through preparedness and mitigation.Specific Objectives: To increase the capacity of Local Government and government’s District Disaster Relief Committee to prepare for and respond to disasters using a Child- Centred Disaster Risk Reduction approach To increase the capacity of children, youth and local communities to prepare for, respond to, and mitigate against emergencies This report has been produced and financed at the request of Plan Nepal. The comments contained herein reflect the opinions of the Evaluators only. 2 Page
List of abbreviationsAIN Association of International NGOs in NepalBCC Behavioural change communicationC/VDRMP Community/VDC-level disaster risk management planCBO Community-based organisationCCA Climate change adaptationCCCD Child-centred community developmentCCDRR Child-Centred Disaster Risk ReductionCPiE Child protection in emergenciesDDC District Development CommitteeDDRC District Disaster Relief CommitteeDEO District Education OfficeDLSA District lead support agencyDPRP Disaster preparedness and response planDRR Disaster risk reductionECA Extracurricular activitiesHFA Hyogo Framework of ActionHUDEP Human Development and Environment Protection ForumHVCA Hazard, vulnerability, capacity analysisI/NGO International/Non-governmental OrganizationINEE Interagency Network for Education in EmergenciesLDMC Local disaster management committeeLS&R Light search and rescueMDG Millennium Development GoalsMoHA Ministry of Home AffairsMoLD Ministry of Local DevelopmentNDRC National Disaster Risk Reduction CentreNRCS Nepal Red Cross SocietyPTA Parent-teacher associationPU Programme UnitPwD People with disabilityS&R Search and RescueSMC School management committeeToT Training for trainersVDC Village development committee 3 Page
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTSI would like to extend my sincere gratitude to all the people who contributed to thisreport in many different ways: by sharing their experiences, their thoughts and opinionsabout the DRR program, and by contributing time, advice and hospitality during theentire period of fieldwork in Sunsari District of Nepal.I want to acknowledge the hard work that is being done under the Plan Nepal Sunsariprogramme Unit by LDMCs and their respective leaders, mostly village people ofdifferent caste and ethnic backgrounds, youth and child clubs and youth-led cooperatives.Local-level stakeholders, VDC officials, and HUDEP (Plan partner) were valuableresource persons and fine company during my fieldwork. Their observations visits wereextremely valuable sources of information.I would like to express my heartfelt gratitude to Plan Nepal for entrusting me for thistask. I am particularly grateful to Mr. Subhakar Baidya, Mr. Krishna Ghimire, Mr.Shyam Jnavaly, Mr. Nabin Pradhan, and Mr. Bhagwan Shrestha for coming up with aconceptual framework and providing me with illuminating insights from the outset of mywork. I thank them all for all their support, critical observations and overall guidance.They have been instrumental in giving shape to this process and their inputs and insights,extremely valuable. At PU, I thank Ms Kalawati Changbang, Mr. Yogesh Niraula, Mr.Om Shrestha, Mr. Mitra Rai, Mr. Nabin Lamichhane, Mr. Lilam Bhandari and Mr. ShivaThapa for their valuable support and suggestions. I am indebted to Mr. Sonu Shah for hispainstaking support, particularly in ensuring that the study went smoothly andmanaging scattered data in good shape.I would like to express my sincere appreciation to HUDEP, who worked hard during thefield consultation. Their support in facilitating the consultation process and in holdinginteraction meetings was very helpful. Thank also goes to all the teachers, students,youths, community people and government staff for their invaluable suggestions andfeedback, which, in fact, constitute the foundation of this report. I am particularlygrateful to the children and teachers and youth-led cooperatives for their ideas andinformation about the change observed at local level. They all made a special effort toensure that they met me answered all my queries. Last but not least, my thanks go to thesupporting agency, the central-level management team of Plan Nepal, which entrustedme with the task of conducting this work.Thank you all.Dhruba Raj Gautam, Ph.D.Executive DirectorNational Disaster Risks Reduction Centre NepalKathmandu, Nepal 4 Page
Executive summaryBackgroundPlan Nepal launched its Child-Centred Disaster Risk Reduction (CCDRR) Project under grantsupport from Irish Aid and Plan Ireland in Mahendranagar, Harinagara and Barahachhetra villagedevelopment committees (VDCs) in Sunsari District. The objectives of the project were to increasethe capacity of local governments and Sunsari District Disaster Relief Committee (DDRC) toprepare for and respond to disasters using a CCDRR approach and to increase the capacity ofchildren, youth and local communities to prepare for, respond to, and mitigate against emergencies.The project directly benefited 30,892 people in 6121 households.Objectives, approach to and methods of evaluation, and limitationThe overall objective of the evaluation was to assess the relevance, efficiency, effectiveness, impactand sustainability of the project, analysing its achievement of its objectives and identifying itslimitations. The report is based on a field study conducted in the project communities. Project-related documents were reviewed and fieldwork was conducted to understand project’s key areas ofintervention and major achievements. Focus group discussions and key informants interviews wereconducted to find out the participants’ views about the project’s key achievements and learning andlevel of coordination, networking and resource-sharing.Fulfilment of project activitiesThe project increased knowledge and skills through capacity-building initiatives. DDRC members aremore accountable to right holders in DRR through SPHERE, the Interagency Network for Educationin Emergencies (INEE) and child protection in emergencies (CPiE). SPHERE standards are dulyconsidered during the construction. Sunsari DEO has started to prepare plan to reduce the likelyimpacts of emergencies on education. Key issues of INEE have been incorporated in school-basedcontingency plans. The project facilitated the mainstreaming a new solution-centric curriculum toreduce disaster risk. UNFCO shared the project’s major achievements at different levels.The project facilitated the formulation of seven preparedness and response plans and each plan,regardless of its scope, incorporates DRR issues and the concerns of disaster-affected people. Plansare modified as per the need. The school-based contingency plans adhered to the principle of DRRthrough schools not DRR in schools. In fact, DPRP helped the DDRC prepare for and respond toemergencies effectively and timely. Some parts of some plans were executed by the drafters, butmost will execute their plans only next year. Schools have started to implement their contingencyplans. While all the contingency plans are closely aligned with the school improvement plansdeveloped with the support of the DEO. The project formed, capacitated and strengthened 12 DRRinstitutions which were developed using an inclusive approach which supported in amplifyingchildren’s voice in DRR policy advocacy. The project’s various different capacity-building initiativesinduced children and guardians to take an active role in addressing their vulnerabilities. The HVCAapproach was very successful. People’s fatalistic ‘nothing-can-be-done’ point of view had beenreplaced by a ‘yes-we-can’ outlook.The project developed a variety of behavioural change communication material to build awarenessabout DRR. The project used local FM radios to disseminate CCDRR-based preparedness andresponse message and information. Since children respond positively to video stimuli, the CCDRR-related video was shown at schools to understand how people in similar situations manage disasterrisks by mobilising local resources and, through their example, convincing the viewers to do so too.The light search and rescue and first aid training increased the skill and knowledge of youths andcommunity members, boosting their confidence and their enthusiasm for engaging in DRM initiative. 5Locals are aware of the nature and number of materials they have and how to use them. Drills and Pagestreet drama filled the gaps in people’s DRR knowledge and translated skills and knowledge intopractice. Youths were included in trainings for trainers and later mobilised as facilitators of trainings
in climate change and its causes and effects and ways to adapt to them, thus putting to use theknowledge, skills and information they had acquired.The project provided support for constructing two safe shelters which are found SPHERE standards.The project conducted DRR-related extracurricular competitions among children. To reduce thispossibility by making livelihoods more resilient and to make youths better prepared, the projectfacilitated the formation of youth-led cooperatives. These cooperatives are DRR-friendly: their by-laws spell out that a certain amount of money must be kept aside for emergency purposes andmobilised only in such cases. All these progress showed that project’s objectives are fulfilled.Relevance/appropriateness of the project designThere is no question of the project’s relevance. First, the selection of VDCs ensured a diversity oftarget populations. Second, schools are virtually the only institution not affected by so called politicalviolence and conflict, so it makes good sense that the project chose them as its entry point. Third,children and youths are effective both as drivers of change and as identifiers of risks. Fourth, theproject’s design matched the goals and objectives of Plan Nepal’s CSP-III, and DRM Strategy and PULong-Term Plan which complements child-centred community development (CCCD) approach.Fifth, the project fell nicely within the goals of the Three-Year Interim Plan and Local Self-Governance Act (1999). The project helped Nepal meet the second millennium development goal,fifth priority area of the HFA, and government of Nepal’s fourth flagship.Project efficiencyAt the operational level, the project is designed and managed well and the resources available areused efficiently. The project was executed by a comparatively small team with minimal operationcost. The project’s internal monitoring mechanism effectively kept an eye on objectively verifiableindicators for each objective. The management style is highly democratic, and there is a sense ofteam spirit and belonging. The project was efficient in that it was able to meet all its targets withinthe stipulated timeframe despite many hindrances. Good mobilisation of and cooperation amongDRR stakeholders made it possible to establish a culture of resource-sharing.Project effectivenessThe project was designed to accommodate a wide range of stakeholders from ministries at thecentral level to the DDRC, at the district level. The project designed all the capacity-buildinginitiatives in a logical fashion that took into account the local seasonal calendar. It was also flexible inits plans and programmes. Coordination with UNFCO also helped to build a good workingrelationship among stakeholders. While making safe shelters and resource centres, local masons andmaterials were used to win the trust of the locals and to contribute in local environment. Theproject shared all its plans, programmes and mandates with project stakeholders for transparency.SustainabilityBecause of the project’s wide range of capacity-building activities, which provided both skills andequipment, locals are now able to confidently carry out search-and-rescue missions and developsmall-scale early warning systems. Youth-led cooperatives focus their programmes on disaster-affected communities, meeting a real need for extra support. The provision of an emergency fund,discounted interest rates on and extended payback periods for loans for disaster-affected peoplemeans that people will get support even though the project has finished. Youth clubs are in theprocess of registering so that they will have a legal mandate and be able to lay claim to localresources to carry out DRR initiatives. They have also started to work together to make their voiceheard. Because DPRPs are linked with government plans, they get extra support. Regularcoordination and collaboration among DRR and education agencies at all levels built projectownership and promoted sustainability. 6 Page
ImpactThe project developed youths as local DRR resource persons and, under their instigation, childrenand adults, are debating and discussing preparedness and preventive initiatives. People used to waitfor relief and rescue after a disaster, but now, because of the projects capacity-building initiatives,they are taking the initiative. Through drills and simulations, individuals are now very familiar withwhat to do (and not do) before, during and after disasters. People have started to raise plinth levelsand to build two-storey houses so they can store grain and live upstairs during floods. People havebegun to make earthen dikes around villages to hold back flood waters, constructed elevatedearthen roads and identified safe places to live during emergencies. People are now more vocal andconfident with “we-can-do-it” attitude. Because of projects rights-based approach and focus onempowerment, and inclusive HVCA helped those who have never been heard to speak up.Major learningFirst, trust is built when major roles are given to DRR-led institutions. Because most training was directedat these institutions, a positive environment was created. Second, DRR knowledge is disseminatedbroadly if schools are seen as a means not an end. Knowledge built among students at schools isdisseminated to a large numbers of families. Third, participation increased if student-led capacity-buildinginitiatives are organised on weekends. With this simple adjustment, it found that children were betterable to concentrate on both the training and their formal studies. Fourth, training is more effective if itaddresses children issues. The trainings were highly effective because the standard training curriculumwas modified to suit children’s interest in hand-on activities. Because the content of the project’strainings suits their needs, the knowledge and skills children acquired from the trainings are nowdeeply rooted in their minds. Fifth, drills, street theatre and video documentary dispelled the false beliefthat mitigation activities alone would suffice. When they discovered that preparedness activities costone-fourth of what mitigation activities cost, they were even more convinced. Sixth, learning isgreater when capacity-building initiatives are seen as a process, not an event. Training, facilitation, andorientation were effective because they were organised in a logical way. As a result, rights holdersstarted to claim their rights from duty bearers. Seventh, the provision of life-saving equipment increasesthe value of trainings. Providing essential equipment not only increased participants’ interest but alsoenhanced their confidence and self-esteem. Eighth, effective and timely emergency response was possiblewhen capacitated DDRCs and well-considered DPRPs were in place. Because DDRC members play a keyrole in DRR, they were capacitated with a series of trainings. Ninth, an inclusive approach to DRR-ledInstitutions and programmes helps address the needs of the most vulnerable. The community mobilisationand empowerment process was facilitated precisely because DDR-led institutions are gender-balanced and socially inclusive. Tenth, addressing multiple hazards captures the interest of people.Though the project’s focus was largely on flood and earthquake, it heightened the interest of theproject communities by disseminating information on other hazards.Recommendations for immediate actions to secure and reinforce good initiatives• Sunsari PU should help draft operational guidelines for DRR-led institutions, safe shelters and resource centres which emphasises interconnectivity among institutions and rules and regulations and keeps both structural and non-structural aspects in mind. PU should borrow good ideas from its core programmes too.• The modification of HVCA mappings should be taken as a continuous process rather an event. An updated HVCA map makes people feel positive as the improvements they make are clearly visible. Considering how effective the HVCA process is, Plan Nepal should use this approach for conducting baseline and end-line surveys. Its use does not have to be limited to disasters.• Nascent youth-led cooperatives need some sort of technical backstopping. The ‘micro finance plus approach’ of BRAC Bangladesh is a good one to adopt. A one-day orientation should be organised for resource persons of DEO and members of the Private and Boarding School Organisation of Nepal to share the project’s good practices including mainstreaming DRR education in the school curriculum. 7• The learning derived from the CCDRR project should be replicated in different projects and Page programmes. At the same time Plan Nepal’s crosscutting issues like birth registration, total
sanitation, and child protection should be replicated in the CCDRR project areas for mutual sharing and learning.Recommendations for actions to be considered while designing new projects in thefuture• The present structure of LDMCs, which has VDC secretaries serve as chairs, leaves a vacuum when, as happens frequently, these secretaries are transferred. It would be better if VDC secretaries were to serve as member secretaries instead and if a member of the community were elected as chairperson. Members of water and forestry-related community-based institutions should serve as ex-officio members.• The project should promote child-friendly, elevated, and arsenic-free hand pumps with platforms and good drainage systems as well as raised toilets and community/school-led total sanitation campaigns. Child-friendly recreation facilities should be included on the premises of safe shelters to help reduce fear and trauma. Basic infrastructural modifications should be made following a multiple-hazard risk assessment. To secure the long-term interest of people in DRR initiatives, climate-smart agricultural patterns should be introduced on agricultural land on river banks.• Building on the success of the facilitation trainings conducted after the training of trainers, more youths should be trained and mobilised in schools and child clubs. In the long-term, Plan Nepal should employ these youths as trainee researcher.• Since its partners can be effective vehicles of change, Plan Nepal should build their capacity in DRR. Visits between groups should be encouraged in the name of mutual sharing and learning and Plan Nepal should design and implement a right-to-safe-schools’ campaign, advocating in coordination with local health posts and PTA for first aid boxes and fire extinguishers in each school.• Building codes should be shared among DRR stakeholders and model school retrofitting work should be designed for demonstration in strategic location. Plan Nepal should provide them with training in earthquake-resistant techniques for application in new buildings.• Safe school contingency plans should include crisis response plans to save time during emergencies. To get more support from district-level government agencies including DDRCs and DEOs, Plan Nepal should sign a memorandum of understanding at the ministry level.• Plan Nepal should establish school- based meteorological stations at which students record temperature, wind speed and direction, and rainfall and develop an idea of weather patterns and, by inference, climate change. Plan Nepal can borrow some ideas from Canadian Cooperation Office-funded and NDRC-led project of Kapilvastu District.• As the DSLA of Sunsari and key member of protection, education and WASH humanitarian clusters, Plan Nepal should share the project’s good practices and key learning at cluster meetings in the regular basis. It should also share the project initiatives and preliminary reflections with other networks of which it is a member, including AIN-TGDM, DPNet and Nepal DRR Platform in order to solicit feedback that can improve future efforts.• Though Plan International’s DRM Strategy mandated that all countries work on DRR and Plan Nepal has included it in its CSP-III, DRR projects run on grant money and allocate core budget only for emergency response. There is a need for more core budget-funded CCDRR projects. Resources should be allocated equitably rather than equally across the Plan PUs so that the most most-at-risk VDCs and populations get the most help.• While many child-focused organizations across the world promote children’s involvement in CCDRR projects, Plan International uniquely advocates children’s leadership. In generating resources, it should stress this vastly different approach, one that is rooted in CCCD and which stresses the cognitive development and wellbeing of children.• Programmes are more effective if they are run in all nine wards of a VDC rather than in a few as the VDC will be more inclined to provide resources. The project should be extended to other wards within the project VDCs as well as to additional VDCs. To ensure that the child- 8 centeredness of DRR project design and subsequent implementation is not overlooked, activities Page also should be designed using the child-led indicators used by Save the Children Sweden.
Table of contentList of abbreviation and acronyms ....................................................................................... 3Acknowledgement................................................................................................................ 4Executive summary .............................................................................................................. 51. Introduction .................................................................................................................... 10 1.1 The context .....................................................................................................................................10 1.2 The CCDRR Project........................................................................................................................102. Background to the Evaluation ........................................................................................ 11 2.1 Objectives of evaluation .............................................................................................................11 2.2 Approach to and methods of evaluation .................................................................................11 2.3 Limitations .......................................................................................................................................113. Evaluation Findings and Analysis ................................................................................. 12 3.1 Key achievements .........................................................................................................................12 3.2 Deviation from plan......................................................................................................................25 3.3 Relevance/appropriateness of the project design.................................................................25 3.4 Project efficiency...........................................................................................................................27 3.5 Project effectiveness .....................................................................................................................28 3.6 Sustainability .................................................................................................................................29 3.7 Impact .............................................................................................................................................304. Major learning ................................................................................................................ 315. Recommendations .......................................................................................................... 36 5.1 Immediate actions to secure and reinforce good initiatives .................................................36 5.2 Actions to be considered while designing new projects in the future..................................36Appendix 1: Terms of Reference ........................................................................................ 39Appendix 2: Target vs. achievement, and benefited population ....................................... 41 9 Page
Final Project Evaluation and Learning: Child-Centred Disaster Risk Reduction Project, Nepal1. Introduction1.1 The contextAround the globe, predictable and extreme weather is increasingly causing upheaval in the lives ofchildren who are vulnerable to either sudden- or slow-onset climate-related disasters or both.Disasters threaten the very lives of children, violate their rights, and prevent them from meetingtheir needs. Children’s vulnerability to disasters is expected to increase as the frequency andintensity of natural hazards rises due to the effects of global warming. In light of this fact, buildingresilience in children and the communities in which they live and reducing their vulnerability todisasters has, therefore, become ever more imperative.Because Nepal falls in a monsoon climate zone, its southern Terai region, a low-lying plain,experiences annual flooding and inundation, whereas the hills and mountains in the north (theMahabharat Range and the Himalayas) are subject to annual landslides. Both phenomena exact aheavy toll in lives and property, and that impact is only slated to grow worse as global warmingcauses heavier monsoon downpours to occur more often. After the Koshi River breached itsembankment in Sunsari district in 2008, displacing 7000 families and creating a great humanitariancrisis, Plan Nepal assumed the role of one of the lead agencies in the response effort. It is committedto implementing disaster risk reduction (DRR) which keeps in mind the perspective of children anddraw upon their unique talents as agents of change in order to provide succour to this mostvulnerable of populations.1.2 The CCDRR Project Figure 1: CCDRR Project VDCsPlan Nepal launched its Child-Centred DisasterRisk Reduction (CCDRR) under grant supportfrom Irish Aid and Plan Ireland. Though projectfocused on four flood-prone wards 1 of three villagedevelopment committees 2 (VDCs)−Mahendranagar, Harinagara and Barahachhetra−inSunsari District (see Figure 1), some of its capacity-building activities and policy advocacy took place atthe district and central level. The project directlybenefited 30,892 people in 6121 households.The goal of the project was to protect the rights ofchildren, youths and local communities duringdisaster-induced emergencies and to reduce thenegative impacts of disasters and climate changethrough preparedness and mitigation. Morespecifically, its objectives were to increase thecapacity of local governments and Sunsari District Disaster Relief Committee (DDRC) to preparefor and respond to disasters using a CCDRR approach; and to increase the capacity of children,youth and local communities to prepare for, respond to, and mitigate against emergencies. 101 Ward No. 2 of Barachhetra-2 (Pulthegauda), Ward No.6 of (Terahaddi), Ward No. 4 of Mahendranagar (Tirtigachhi), and Ward No. 7 of PageHarinagara (Dastole and Netatole)2 VDCs are the lowest administrative unit units in Nepal. Each VDC has nine wards.
2. Background to the Evaluation2.1 Objectives of evaluationThe overall objective of the evaluation was to assess the relevance, efficiency, effectiveness, impactand sustainability of the project, analysing its achievement of its objectives and identifying itslimitations. The evaluation documents the key learning of the project and makes recommendationsfor Plan Nepals future support for DRR interventions.2.2 Approach to and methods of evaluationThe report is based on a field study conducted in the project communities as guided by the terms ofreference (see Annex 1). The project proposal; progress, intermediate and final reports; and otherproject-related documents were reviewed before preparing checklists and guidelines for use in thefield. The fieldwork was conducted after consulting the field staff of Plan Nepal and the HumanDevelopment and Environment Protection Forum (HUDEP), Plan Nepal’s partner, about theproject’s key areas of intervention and major achievements. Focus group discussions were carriedout with three local disaster management committees (LDMCs), three youth clubs, three child clubs,and three youth-led cooperatives and key informants interviews were conducted with VDC-levelstakeholders, including members of community-based organisations (CBOs), school managementcommittees (SMCs) and parent-teacher associations (PTA) to find out the participants’ views aboutthe project’s key achievements and learning. Transect walks were used to observe the extent andbenefits of the project’s structural mitigation work, including safe shelters and resource centres. Inaddition, meetings with school teachers and students were held to determine school-level andextent of awareness about preparing for and responding to disaster risks. All the major DRR actorsin the district, including representatives of Sunsari District Development Committee (DDC), SunsariDDRC, VDCs, and Sunsari District Education Office (DEO), were consulted in order to assess thelevel of coordination, networking and resource-sharing. Afterwards, a separate meeting wasorganised with Plan Sunsari and the HUDEP to validate the information collected from the varioussources. Towards the end of the fieldwork, a debriefing meeting was held at Plan Sunsari ProgrammeUnit (PU) to share preliminary findings and solicit feedback and suggestions. Finally, all theinformation collected from the various sources was analysed and interpreted to produce this report.2.3 LimitationsThe project faced several challenges and hindrances. First, conduction of some training was delayedbecause no local resource persons with the necessary skills could be located. Second, because thereis no elected local government, the project initially found it extremely difficult to establish functionalcoordination and linkages with the concerned VDCs and Sunsari DDC and to build rapport with theleaders of various political parties. Third, the fact that the project included more than 46 distinctactivities made for several problems: carrying out periodic review and reflection was a burden, therewere too few district-level staff to provide adequate technical backstopping and monitoring and thestaff there was under constant pressure to implement activities. The fact that festivals reduced theactual tenure of the project to nine months further complicated the difficulty in implementing such awide array of activities. Fourth, it took time to arrange for land on which to construct shelters andresource centres as reaching a consensus involved several rounds of discussions. Fifth, in the initialdays of the project, mobilising people for DRR was not greeted with enthusiasm as the majority ofpeople favoured relief and response, not DRR. “......We didn’t plan for disaster preparedness activities. To be frank, it was a new idea for us. We just concentrated on emergency response. Plan is the one that brought the idea of DRR to us when we attended a workshop they organised in Itahari, Sunsari. There we realised that even though disaster response is necessary, disaster preparedness is more crucial for saving lives.....” (From focus group discussion with children, aged 14 to 17, in Sunsari District of Nepal) 11 Page
3. Evaluation Findings and Analysis3.1 Key achievementsObjective 1: To increase the capacity of local governments and DDRCs to prepare for andrespond to disasters using a CCDRR approacha. Increased knowledge and skills through capacity-building initiativesDDRC members are now more accountable to right holders in DRR because they participated in,technical trainings inSPHERE, the Table 1: Number of participants in different trainingsInteragency Training Events Duration Male Female Total D J M PW ONetwork for SPHERE 1 3 day 28 9 37 1 12 2 1 22Education in INEE 3 3 day 79 22 101 10 24 0 3 66Emergencies (INEE) CPiE 3 2 day 31 6 37 4 8 1 0 24and child protection Source: Project records, 2011 *D = Dalit, J = Janajati, M = Minorities, PwD = People with Disability, O = Others (Madheshi, Brahmin and Chhetri)in emergencies(CPiE), acquiring essential knowledge and skills. They, as well as members of VDCs, and DDRCswere also taught about hazard, vulnerability, capacity analysis (HVCA) and climate change adaptation(CCA) issues. DDRC and LDMC members and DEO representatives were learned what theminimum standard for education in emergencies is through the INEE. Members of the HUDEP,VDCs, DDCs, and DDRCs began to understand and internalise child protection issues following theCPiE training (see Table 1 for details about the participants). Training of last year to Plan and itspartner’s staff like CCDRR, contingency planning, emergency management, and SPHERE standardssupported by National Disaster Risk Reduction Centre (NDRC) Nepal added the values.The SPHERE training taught participants minimal standards at the local level, particularly in terms ofwater sanitation and hygiene (WASH) and safe shelter construction. Today, SPHERE standards areduly considered during the construction of safe shelters, resource centres, and child-friendly toiletsand the installation of child-friendly hand pumps which supply drinking water. Such infrastructureensures that the displaced, including children will have adequate living conditions after a disaster.Questioning revealed that people were aware of educational issues during emergencies: they wereknowledgeable about and skilled in dealing with physical damage (including the collapse anddestruction of school buildings, damage to furniture, and obstructions of routes to schools) as wellas psycho-social repercussions (such a loss of books and stationery, fear, trauma, and anxiety).Sunsari DEO has started to prepare and plan to reduce the likely impacts of emergencies oneducation, and its resource centres have collected data useful for this endeavour, including thenumber and location of disaster-prone schools, the time students take to get to school, and likelyhazards between home and school. Key issues of INEE have been incorporated in school-basedcontingency plans. As an outcome of CPiE training and the CCDRR effort as a whole, Plan, theHUDEP, and DDRCs have addressed child protection issues in policy and practice, therebypromoting the principles of the Convention on the Rights of the Child.b. Facilitated the mainstreaming of DRR education in school curriculumBecause schools are a critical setting for transmitting knowledge about DRR, it is essential that DRRbecome a part of school curriculum. As a result of INEE training, a symposium, and a series ofinteractions and discussions among SMCs, PTAs, DEOs, including the HUDEP, education-relatedstakeholders are convinced of the need to incorporate DRR into curriculum and are starting towork on making a change. Under the leadership of the DEO, interactions among governmentofficials, experts in various school subjects, and disaster professionals were held to promote a newsolution-centric curriculum that will help to reduce disaster risk. Much effort is still needed. 12 Page
c. Increased visibility through disaster preparedness and response plansProject has Table 2: DRR stakeholders oriented at different workshopsinvested time and Workshop Events Duration M F T D J M PwD Oenergy in making VDC-level DPRP 3 3 day 79 22 101 10 24 0 3 67its good practices Pre-monsoon 1 2 day 53 3 56 0 13 0 0 43and learning preparednessvisible in the East. Source: Project records, 2011More particularly, *M=Male, F=Female, D= Dalit, J= Janajati, M= Minorities, PwD= People with Disability, O= Others (Madheshi, Brahmin and Chhetri)it took an activerole during a pre-monsoon preparedness workshop 3 conducted for the DDRC members of 16districts in the eastern region (see Table 2) which enabled most districts to update their disasterpreparedness and response plan (DPRPs), to address prominent hazards and to align them withother humanitarian work so that they could be translated into action. The workshop participantsreviewed the performance of each cluster and laid out further plans of action in a coordinatedfashion. Such consultation among DDRC members helped integrating DRR into development policyand planning and thereby to contribute to the achievement of the first priority of action of theHyogo Framework of Action (HFA) 4. Further publicity was achieved as UNOFCO shared theproject’s major achievements at the district, regional and national levels by sharing information,documents and uploading community-and-VDC-level DRMPs (C/VDRMPs) on its website. The factthat, the under-secretary of the MoLD, UNDP representatives, and DDRC members mademonitoring visits to the project area not only generated crucial feedback from different sources butalso raised the profile of the project among multiple stakeholders. The key issues these visitorsraised at “lessons- learned” workshops were disseminated among DRR stakeholders for furtherplanning.d. Increased visibility in the regionIn recognition of Plan Nepal’s efforts in response and preparedness in Sunsari District following theKoshi flood of 2008, the Association of International NGOs in Nepal (AIN) made it the district leadsupport agency (DLSA) for Sunsari and Makwanpur in 2010. As the DLSA, Plan contributed to thedamage-and-needs assessment conducted in the East after the earthquake of September 2011 as partof a team formed under the regional directorate of education and lead by the government. It alsosuccessfully facilitated the formulation of DPRPs in coordination with political parties, DDRCmembers, the Nepal Red Cross Society (NRCS) and I/NGOs. These DPRPs have been endorsed byDDRCs and disseminated by UNOFCO, government agencies and other DRR-related stakeholdersin the interest of providing the interested with information and advocating for their execution.e. Translated VDRMPs and CDRMPs into practiceThe project facilitated the formulation of seven preparedness and response plans: one for SunsariDistrict, three for VDCs 5 level, and three school-based contingency plans after carrying out HVCA.Each plan, regardless of its scope, incorporates DRR issues and the concerns of disaster-affectedpeople and was made with the active participation of political parties, schools, LDMCs, VDC-levelstakeholders, the NRCS, and journalists. Plans are instrumental “.........The plans have been widely shared among VDC- and district-level stakeholders to promote resource mobilisation and their execution and there are indications that resources from next year’s budget will be allocated to them. The DDC is convinced that it should invest some proportion of the budget from the upcoming DDC Council.........” (From district focus group discussion with government official, in Sunsari District of Nepal) 133 The Ministry of Home Affairs (MoHA), AIN, UNFCO, and Plan Nepal supported the workshop. Page4 Ensure that disaster risk reduction is a national and local priority with strong institutional basis for implementation.5VDRMPs and prepared following the operational guideline of the MoLD and national strategy of MoHA.
It is a DDRC that is responsible for the execution of a DPRP. Each plan includes an assessment ofthe disaster situation, an analysis of the resources and capacity available, a description of the rolesand responsibilities of DRR-related institutions, and a statement of the commitments of DRR-related stakeholders to execute the plan. Plans are always dynamic, so the Sunsari DPRP wasamended based on the project’s learning. The school-based contingency plans adhered to theprinciple of DRR through schools not DRR in schools so that they could accommodate a widevariety of issues, all of which, unlike in the past, put children at their centre. In the new scheme ofthings, however, children, youths and families are engaged and empowered through the participatoryplanning process and, thus convinced of the need for DRR, more effectively reach out to localauthorities to influence policy responses and secure long-term financing for the execution of theplans.The Sunsari DPRP helped the DDRC prepare for and respond to emergencies effectively and timelythrough the mobilisation of all 10 clusters. Plans are also instrumental in drawing the attention ofduty bearers and thus getting them to provide resources. Indeed, simply making a plan had benefits:it encouraged communities to come up with creative solutions for their own problems, tounderstand their roles and duties, and to solicit resources from VDC and district agencies. Someparts of some plans were executed by the drafters, whether the DDRC, VDCs or schools, duringthe floods of 2011, but most will execute their plans only next year using VDC and DDC budgets.However, they were still hailed as an achievement: at celebrations of the International DisasterReduction Day they were presented to their respective VDC secretaries. Children and youths alsoorganised rallies with DRR-related placards and presented each VDC secretary a request to allocatebudget for DRR. Not only did such awareness campaigns, rallies, and mass demonstrations raisedconfidence about the value of DRR and the self-esteem of participant. Because the planning processwas highly participatory, all concerned VDC secretaries are very positive about addressing parts ofthe plans in discussion with the VDC Council in the new fiscal year (April-May 2012).The MoLD, in coordination with some INGOs, is piloting a guideline on community- and VDC-levelDPRP. Plan Nepal tested it in its CCDRR project area. Though there was some controversy overthe guideline, which was developed by the MoHA and the MoLD, the issues in dispute wereresolved. The concept of a DRM Council is spelled out and, as per the new provisions, the MoLDfocuses on preparedness, the MoHA on response and the Ministry of Physical Planning and Workson recovery and reconstruction work.f. Made school contingency plans complementing school improvement plansThanks to the project, each school in the project area developed a contingency plan after conductingan HVCA which assessed potential losses in terms of school infrastructure and learning material,time lost to closure, and recreational activities due to disaster and the impact of a disaster on aschool’s examinations and educational calendar. “....We drew a map of what a safe community looks like, undertook a transect walk, prepared a risk and resource map, and drew up a timeline and seasonal calendar after interviewing adults. We then prepared a disaster matrix ranking diagram and prioritised our responses to the most likely of disaster. We are happy that our issues and concerns are incorporated in the plan…..” (From focus group discussion with student, aged 11 to 21, of Harinagara Higher Secondary School, in Sunsari District of Nepal)School contingency plans include an assessment of the risks posed by different hazards to availableinfrastructures and the improvements needed to reduce risks. The project successfully integratedand scaled up DRR into school infrastructure, teacher training and curricula. Schools have started toimplement their contingency plans, renovating and improving toilets, organising sanitation campaigns 14around the school to reduce the risk of snake bites, levelling school grounds to reduce thelikelihood of accidents, and fencing school grounds to reduce the incursions of domestic and wild Pageanimals. SMC and PTA members listened to children and provided them space to voice their
opinions while formulating DRR and contingency plans. While all the contingency plans are closelyaligned with the school improvement plans developed with the support of the DEO, not all teachersare fully familiar with their provisions. To promote awareness, the activities of the plans can bedisplayed on school walls, jogging the memories of teachers and students and prompting them toimplement them.The project took a lead role in organising training on and sensitisation to the HFA. It also organisedjoint celebrations of IDRD at the national level, an effort which saw the government commit to theHFA and to disaster reduction strategies, allocate resources for DRR, and prepare a nationaldevelopment plan. Plan Nepal extended its support toward executing the national development planto achieve the main objectives of the HFA.To sum up the project’s achievements with respect to Objective 1, the project successfully increasedknowledge and skills through capacity-building initiatives, facilitated the inclusion of DRR education inthe school curriculum, enhanced the visibility of the project through the formulation of DPRPs,increased the visibility of Plan Nepal in the East, translated VDRMPs into practice, made schoolcontingency plans congruent with school improvement plans, and disseminated the project’s majorlearning among DRR stakeholders. In short, Objective 1 was achieved.Objective 2: To increase the capacity of children, youths and local communities to preparefor, respond to, and mitigate against emergenciesa. Formed inclusive DRR institutions and encouraged participation and cooperationThe project formed, capacitated and strengthened 12 DRR institutions: three LDMCs, three youthclubs, three child clubs and three youth-led cooperatives to make them CCDRR pioneers and agentsof change (see Table 3). All 12 Table 3: DRR institutions in the project areainstitutions were developed DRR Institutions Male Female Total D J M PW Ousing a participatory, inclusiveapproach which invites LDMCs (3) 38 13 51 7 12 0 1 32genders, all ages, and all social Youth groups (3) 24 11 35 2 10 0 0 23groups to belong. For this Child clubs (3) 22 15 37 2 9 0 0 26reason, they amplify children’s Total 84 39 123 11 31 0 1 81voice in DRR policy advocacy, Source: Project’s records, 2011demonstrating that they have *D = Dalit, J = Janajati, M = Minorities, PwD = People with Disability, O = Others (Madheshi,unique perspectives on risk Brahmin and Chhetri)developed, in part, by learning by observing. The formation of LDMCs and youth groups incommunities and child clubs in schools gave support to and created momentum for the project’swork. These institutions served as platforms for capacity-building, experience-sharing, advocacy andresource mobilisation. Forming groups of children allowed the youth to take a leading role, bringingto DRR creativity, sense of ownership and enthusiasm not generally seen among adults. Theapproach also helped locals better understand the importance of social solidarity and promoted aculture of helping which has seen communities support the vulnerable. For example, the LDMC inHarinagara started to settle local-level conflicts, mediate in cases of domestic violence, and handleborder issues and Barachhetra has allocated more local resources for river bank protection andbioengineering works along the sections of the Gauri and Karam rivers which run through it.Children have been sub-divided into thematic or task-wise groups, including first aid, search andrescue, and early warning. “......Children have started be considered an essential part of communities. Once they were taught disaster preparedness, they were able to bring about a revolutionary change in the society as they are the future keepers of villages and schools. Besides, the children of today will become the parents of tomorrow, which will ensure that they pass DRR 15 knowledge on to their children, making disaster preparedness a societal practice, which will keep on passing from generation to generation.......” Page
(From focus group discussion with student, aged 12 to 16, of Basanta Ritu Secondary School in Mahendranagar School, Sunsari District of Nepal)Age is not a stand-alone category; it interacts with many other factors that affect vulnerability toDRR, including gender 6, knowledge, culture, and morality. These factors, too, were addressed by theproject’s inclusive approach. Socially inclusive institutions fostered the culture of voluntarily helpingothers during emergencies, fostered harmonious relationships between hill migrants and Madhesis,and empowered communities and networks to become more resilient. Women and girls are nowmore vocal, confident, and able to interact with outsiders. On their own, they have come up withideas about how to get extra resources from VDCs and other government offices. Transformativeaction carried out by children on their own or by adults and children working together is a naturalnext step once children have engaged in advocacy. The project’s inclusive participatory approachhelped formalise local networks, enabled children to be better monitored and protected in adisaster, and made it easier to mobilise children and their families to respond to disasters.In addition to the entire community, inclusive participation in DRR embraced local governments.LDMCs are considered the nodal DRR institution. The fact that each is chaired by the concernedVDC Secretary 7 has established a culture of resource-sharing and will secure the continuity of theDRR initiatives even after the project ends. The transfer of the VDC Secretaries of Barachhetra andMahedranagar VDCs hampered social mobilisation and mitigation works for some time, until hisauthority was transferred to the vice-chairperson, who had been nominated by the community itself.Inclusive participation saw children begin to effect change. The project’s various different capacity-building initiatives induced children and guardians to take an active role in addressing theirvulnerabilities. Children became more willing to speaking up about issues that affect their wellbeingand guardians started to see children not merely as victims of disasters but as active players inpreventing, preparing for, mitigating and responding to disasters. It was clear that children who areaware, involved and empowered are potentially effective agents of change within communities;equipped with the right information, tools, and support system, they can foster DRR and resiliencein the face of climate change. “……..The project established and strengthened institutions to carry out DRR. If visits among them were organised, opportunities to learn from each other would increase.........” (From focus group discussion with teachers, .Harinagara Higher Secondary School, Sunsari District of Nepal)b. Empowered children, youths and adults through the HVCA approachThe HVCA approach was very successful: it empowered people by seeing disaster awareness andpromoting action for DRR through the right lens—the people’s lens—and thereby gave them thevoice they needed to speak up in community, district and national forums for influencingpolicymakers. HVCA helped people identify various forms of vulnerabilities, and make plans forimmediate action in a logical, straightforward manner involving both primary and secondarystakeholders, including DEOs. Training in (see Table 4) and conduction of HVCA and CCApromotedunderstanding of Table 4: HVCA and CCA trainingsthe disaster Training Events Duration Male Female Total Ethnicitycontext and the D J M PwD O HVCA 3 2 days 66 55 121 15 14 7 3 85need to act CCA 2 3 days 31 2 33 3 9 1 0 20promptly and to Source: Project’s records, 2011mobilise external *D = Dalit, J= Janajati, M= Minorities, PwD = People with Disabilities, O = Others (Madhesi, Brahmin and Chhetri) 166 Girls are often denied the basic privileges and opportunities that would foster their resilience to disaster risks. In Madhesi and Muslimcultures, discrimination starts at birth, with a newborn son more valued than a newborn daughter. The disappointment a family feels inhaving a girl is manifested in a systematic denial or grudging fulfilment of girls’ rights to survival, development and protection. Page7 Other members of VDMCs included vulnerable communities, national-level political parties, Dalits, persons with disabilities, women,local experts in DRR, and one representative from a youth or child club.
resources. The outcome of each HVCA was analysed and displayed on notice boards erected atschools and in public places. HVCA mapping identified community hazards and vulnerable area,most-at-risk populations (PwDs, pregnant women, lactating mothers, the elderly population), andcommunity capacity (different types of capital and assets) and listed the contact numbers of DRRservice providers/organisations. Information derived from HVCAs was used to formulatecommunity- and school-based DRMPs. The level of confidence children and youths showed duringthe evaluation consultation showed that their fatalistic ‘nothing-can-be-done’ point of view had beenreplaced by a ‘yes-we-can’ outlook. HVCA helped explore the root causes and effects of vulnerabilities HVCA helped us explore the root causes and effects of vulnerabilities as well as to come up with solutions using a participatory approach which results in a plan of action with defined roles and responsibilities. For the first time, we (teachers and youth) were involved in HVCA training and follow-up activities. We realised that, without HVCA, actions are not effective. (From focus group discussion with student, aged 10 to 13, of Kausika Lower Secondary School in Barachhetra, Sunsari District of Nepal)CCA training for teachers and youths yielded pool of local resource persons who activelydisseminated key messages about CCA and DRR not just within but outside of schools. Teacherswho participated in CCA trainings were motivated to spread awareness about the concept ofclimate change and its likely impacts among schoolchildren and in their neighbourhoods. Theresultant changes seen in children demonstrated the value of making children the primary audiencefor awareness-raising and education. Youth groups trained in CCA advocacy skills went a stepfurther: they increased the demand from rights holders for funds to support small-scale CCAinitiatives at the community and school levels.c. Increased awareness using BBC materialsThe project developed a variety of Table 5: BCC materialsbehavioural change communication Types Theme Quantity Target(BCC) material to build awareness Poster Earthquakes and floods 1000 1000about DRR (see Table 5 for types and Pamphlets DRR 1000 1000quantity). BCC materials, mostly Video DRM Cycle 1 1posters and leaflets, focused largely on Source: Project’s records, 2011flood and earthquake preparednessand response; children and youths were the major audience. “........BCC materials target students attending school, out-of-school children, and community members, educating them about the risk of disaster and the ways they can prepare themselves. As far we know, each material was gender-and culture-sensitive and field- tested to ensure that no points would be misunderstood. Any misleading text or illustrations were corrected. All the BCC materials were used at the local level.........” (From focus group discussion with teachers, Kausika Lower Secondary School of Barachhetra, in Sunsari District of Nepal)Because the materials were designed in consultation with LDMCs, youths, children, and project staff,they were readily understandable. In fact, even the illiterate appreciated their message about theneed for preparedness. People said that the project’s BCC materials had definitely helped them todevelop knowledge of and experience in hazards and disasters and their relationship as well asactions required at the local level. BCC materials were used in meetings, discussions, consultations, 17drills, simulations and trainings to increase the practice of sharing knowledge about and skills inCCDRR. Page
d. Disseminated DRR information through the mass mediaThe project used local FM radios like Radio Paribartan Itahari and Popular FM Inaruwa todisseminate CCDRR-based preparedness and response message and information. A total of 18episodes, including discussions with children on DRR and child rights, a live discussion with policyactors and stakeholders, and a presentation of the project’s major achievements were broadcast.The radio programme was especially effective as it was broadcast in the local language of Maithili, notjust in Nepali, and because it reached a population far larger than that in project VDCs, includingresidents in other VDCs of Sunsari District as well in Saptari, Morang, Dhankutta and Udaypurdistricts in Nepal and even in the Saharsha, Supurl, Purniya districts of Bihar, India, where Maithili isspoken. “.........We designed all the programmes with the support of an experienced radio announcer. The experience increased our confidence and self-esteem. Though listener clubs were not formed to garner feedback and judge the effectiveness of the programmes, child and youth clubs collected valuable information on listeners’ responses. The timing of the show--7:30-8:00 pm--was set following consultations with children, youths and FM Radio. We got a very good response in the project areas and as well as in communities in India.....” (From focus group discussion with youths, aged 13 to 21, Barachhetra, Sunsari District of Nepal) Information, knowledge and skills are more important than material support In the beginning, we were quite unhappy with project authorities. They kept inviting us to trainings and orientations, but our interest lay in getting project resources to build gabion spurs to protect the riverbank from floods. However, with the project’s persistence in building our knowledge through trainings and exposure, we learned a lot about actions we can take locally to reduce the disaster risks. Because of the project’s continuous facilitation, very good practices like sharing knowledge after attending training, ensuring equity in resource sharing, and translating community-agreed rules and regulations into action have been ingrained in us. In the long run, information, knowledge and skills are more important than material support. We have planned to visit our VDC to request some resources. We don’t think we need to worry about funds for the VDC either as its plan will automatically be linked with the DDC plan. We now know that making such a request is our right. (From focus group discussion with youth aged 13-21, in Harinagara, Sunsari District of Nepal)FM radios are successful in making children’s voice heard, thereby increasing the visibility of theirneeds, increasing their analytical abilities, and prompting recognition of their potential to serve asagent of change. The radio programme provided spaces for children to live, learn and play. Children are agents of change We can prove. Children are better than the adult to respond disaster. We are agents of change. We are part of society, so we should be involved in whatever is affecting us and our communities. We must participate in assessing, apprising, designing and executing plans for risks reduction. It is because we are innocent and we have no interest in party politics that we are ignored. Individuals and agencies 18 working in DRR should know how to deal with and respond to us so that they can use our knowledge and understanding in the best way Page possible.
(From focus group discussion with children, aged 10 to 14. in Barachetra, Sunsari District of Nepal)Since children respond positively to video stimuli, the CCDRR-related video developed by PlanNepal and DIPECHO was shown at schools in order to reach a large audience. The video addressesissues like education preparedness for emergencies and preparedness before, during and afterdisasters. All the children interviewed during the evaluation said that they had enjoyed the video andthat, along with street theatre, was one of the best tools for teaching as it provides the opportunityto learn by seeing. The documentary also generated awareness among the illiterate, helping them tounderstand how people in similar situations manage disaster risks by mobilising local resources and,through their example, convincing the viewers to do so too. Before and after every showing, sharingand interaction was encouraged in order to promote review and reflection. The documentaryinspired children to improve the safety and sanitation of their school environment, in particular bytrimming old and tall trees that could pose a threat during a windstorm, and villagers to conserveriverbanks by controlling grazing and implementing agro-forestry-based income-generating activities. Street dramas were helpful to explore local resources We were impressed by the street drama. Its subject touched our heart. Our eyes were filled with tears when we saw how the irresponsibility of one character increased his/her own vulnerability and that of his/her family. For me, street drama is much more interesting than movies as it provides more information and is easier to understand. Plays depict the real situation in our communities. I, like many of my peers, wish that street drama could be a means of teaching school curriculum as messages are so easy to remember that we could get good marks on our exams. We still remember the key message about flood preparedness that the plays we watched communicated. (From focus group discussion with children, aged 10 to 14, in Barachhetra, Sunsari District of Nepal)e. Increased the confidence and leadership skills of youth and childrenThe project created an environment conducive to increasing the leadership and confidence of youthsand children in the project communities. The administration of base-line and end-line surveys to 364people in selected wards gauged the differences in knowledge, attitude and practice and communityrisk assessment between when the project started and when it finished. The results of the surveysdemonstrate that children and youths are now more familiar with different types of hazards and risksand their underlying causes. Using peer educators or getting children to interviews adults in theprocess of assessing risks reduced the workload of adults and allowed for the communication ofmessages in new ways often more powerful than traditional ones. We realized that students also contribute in reducing disaster risks We never realized that the project would consider children as a potential beneficiary to contribute in the risks reduction work. However, it was otherwise. They are able to get skills, knowledge and information through trainings, orientations and short sessions. The art, easy and speech competitions were particularly important for us for knowledge building. (From focus group discussion with children, aged 10 19 to 16, in Mahendranagar, Sunsari District of Nepal) Page
f. Increased knowledge and understanding through capacity-building initiativesChildren and youths attended CCDRR, light search and rescue (LS&R) and first aid training (seeTable 6). Following the CCDRR training, students have started to advocate for safer toilets anddrinking water facilities in their schools. The existing toilets are not child-friendly---the latches aretoo high for children to reach--and there are too few, so students are forced to defecate in theopen. When floods submerge open defecation areas and household latrines, there are no alternativetoilet facilities. We learned how to be safer both in school and at home For us, the most impressive training was first aid as the skills and knowledge we learned are of direct use at home and at school. The child clubs set up in our school have carried out visible changes, including renovating toilets, and improving sanitation around the school. Students compete to be the child club member who contributes more to DRR. For the first time, we can identify which areas of our village are most at risk. We learned a lot from the trainings and orientations on how to be safer both in school and at home. (From focus group discussion with youth, aged 16 to 22, in Harinagara, in Sunsari District of Nepal)The LS&R and first aid training increased the skill and knowledge of youths and communitymembers, boostingtheir confidence and Table 6: Various life skills training programmestheir enthusiasm for Training Events Duration Male Female Total T B C J Mengaging in DRM LSAR 1 3 day 22 11 33 1 4 2 0 26initiative. The fact that First 3 2 day 63 30 93 6 13 2 0 72material support was Aid Source: Project’s records, 2011provided will maketheir efforts sustainable. More specifically, under the direct supervision of LDMCs, search-and-rescue materials--seven life jackets, one big first aid kit, eight helmets, seven whistles, ropes, shovels,and buckets--were provided to each youth club. There is, however, still a need for additional toolsand equipment for immediate response, such as carabineers, inner tubes, hand-operated sirens, andstretchers. Each set of materials is kept securely in a resource centre which was established and ismanaged by youths and the LDMC. The project supplied each with two tables, 15 chairs and onecupboard to facilitate meetings and interactions. Locals are aware of the nature and number ofmaterials they have and how to use them. In fact, they put some to good use in rescue effortscarried out in 2011. We are equipped with skills and equipment In our opinion, the S&R training and equipment is the most essential part of the project as it will help us save the elderly and the disabled as well as our personal belongings. We discovered that previously we had not known enough to reduce the risk. Though some initially opposed the training, we are now happy that we are equipped with both skills and materials. (From focus group discussion with student, aged 10 to 14, in Barachhetra, Sunsari District of Nepal)The first aid training and provision of first aid equipment helped teach project staff and students how 20to cope during emergencies. Each participant was provided a first aid kit with some supplies 8 topromote DRR from his or her home. Page8 Kit bag-1, gauge pads-5, soap-1, small scissors-1, Dettol 50ml-1, Handiplasts-12, and Betadine-1
“…..People used to spend NRs. 150 to travel to Dharan, the nearest city, even for minor cases because health posts do not have the necessary essential drugs. Now trainees, because they have a kit at home, have the confidence to help neighbours in need. In the past, the lack of information meant that much improper assistance was provided in the name of first aid, but now student and teacher first responders can skilfully treat bleeding, fractures, and shock as well as provide artificial respiration, make stretchers, and carry patients safely…….” (From focus group discussion with LDMC members, Barachhetra, in Sunsari District of Nepal)g. Translated the skills acquired during drills and simulation into practiceThe project held six drills in earthquake, fire and flood procedures; six street drama performances;and three documentary shows to make sure that the knowledge and skills people acquired duringtrainings could be translated into action as well as to increase people’s confidence in their capacityto manage disasters. Earthquake drills saw students and teachers identifying areas with high, mediumand low risk; estimating the number of persons that could occupy each safe space within a schoolcompound; and drawing arrows to indicate the escape route and assembly area. They also discussedhow to exit a classroom after the shaking had subsided. “........The projects decision to make schools safe first makes good sense as if a house collapses then one family will be affected but if a school collapses then many families are affected once.....” (From focus group discussion with student, aged 11 to 16, Basanta Ritu Secondary School of Mahendranagar School, in Sunsari District of Nepal) The simulation increased our confidence Now that people have tested the early warning in real life, they understand its benefit and that of a proper response to warnings. Learning is a continuous process and we learn more by doing. The simulation was very effective as it increased our knowledge of disaster management and provided us with the chance to test our plans. We are now quite capable of warning about flooding using drums and announcements on local radio. (From focus group discussion with youth, aged 15-23, in Harinagara, Sunsari District of Nepal)These drills and simulation filled the gaps in people’s DRR knowledge and translated skills andknowledge into practice at the individual, family and community levels and, in doing so, enhanced theself-confidence and self-reliance of the participating communities. They have increased the resilienceof communities to disaster risks and boosted their conceptual and practical knowledge. “……We conducted a classroom observation activity, drew a floor plan of the classroom (showing student’ desks, the teacher’s table, cabinets, etc.), explored the safe spots in the classroom (under tables and desks and in doorframes), and identified danger zones (windows and other glass objects, furniture that may topple or slide, and all hanging and heavy objects like fans) to reduce the risk of injury or death. These activities are new for us but very important for saving lives. The plight of children in the aftermath of the September 2011 earthquake in Eastern Nepal showed that children’s voices need to be heard……..” (From focus group discussion with student, aged 11 to 16, of Basanta Ritu Secondary School in Mahendranagar School, in Sunsari District of Nepal)In the project region, however, the community said that both students and parents reacted to thatearthquake calmly, without panicking, in marked contrast to their reaction to the August 1988, 21which resulted in chaos and terror. The school-level awareness campaigns and safety drills and theintegration of DRR in life skills education programmes have clearly taught students, school officials Pageand communities how to reduce risks. In particular, they said that during the earthquake they had
executed the same ‘duck, cover and hold’ technique that they had learned and practiced a monthearlier.Drills were organised in schools and communities with the full involvement of children and youthsafter they had participated in a simple orientation on the activities to carry out before, during andafter drills and planned their roles. They learned how to react in various disaster situations andwhich evacuation routes to use. Drills were initiated with the ringing of a special bell and responseswere carried out according to preparedness plans.The project trained a street theatre team from Itahari, Sunsari to incorporate pressing DRR issuesexplored during HVCA exercises. People liked the dramas very much and were inspired by them todevelop rules and regulations to protect riverbanks and control grazing, plan for communitysanitation to reduce the risk of epidemics, work on safe drainage to reduce water-logging, andlaunch other similar initiatives. Informants said that it was easy to evacuate and rescue people duringthe flooding of 2011 (though it was very small-scale) because of what they had learned from thedramas. Dramas were particularly popular and successful in getting people to think differentlybecause they were performed in Maithali, the local dialect; because their content was based on localrealities; and because the actors were trained and qualified local people. Life skills education alsohelped develop a culture of peace and respect for human rights among students.h. Developed youths as DRR ambassadorsPast experience demonstrates that (i) learning in peer groups can be more effective than formal, orclassroom, learning because there are no social boundaries to cross or formal protocol to adhereto, (ii) once children are knowledgeable about DRR, they readily disseminate that knowledge to theirparents, thereby reinforcing their own understanding and increasing their parents’, (iii) extra-curricular activities and BCC materials further cement DRR knowledge, especially if they areentertaining, and (iv) the child-to-parent approach is effective in change the accepted practice of notexchanging DRR knowledge between parents and children. With these experiences in mind, youthswere included in trainings for trainers and later mobilised as facilitators of trainings in climate changeand its causes and effects and ways to adapt to them, thus putting to use the knowledge, skills andinformation they had acquired. Such school-level initiatives are instrumental in seeing thatinformation about underlying risk factors and preparedness initiatives are shared at the local level.When trained youths were used as facilitators, their confidence grew and they were keen tocontinue sharing similar messages in the future. “……We are very happy that we were given the responsibility to disseminate the information, skills and knowledge what we learnt at the training for trainers. Our confidence level is high now and we have learned so much that we are no more expert in the local context and issues than outsiders are. Some children in the local haat bazaar now call us by the honorific ‘Sir’. We are very proud that we did something for our peers…….” (From focus group discussion with youths, aged 15 to 23, Harinagara, in Sunsari District of Nepal)i. Increased knowledge about and understanding of child protectionNatural disasters exposes children to risks like sexual abuse and exploitation, trafficking intoprostitution or hazardous labour, injury due to accidents, abduction for ransom, and increase indomestic violence due to family tensions that threaten their right to protection. In the experience ofthe children of Harinagara VDC, psycho-social distress, including trauma, anxiety, and fear; theinterruption of schooling due to displacement and school closures; and insecurity are common.Child protection trainings also saw parents resolve to address these issues and SMCs and PTAscommit to taking a more active role. 22j. Constructed safe shelters and resource centres PageDrawing upon the results of the HVCA, the project provided support for constructing two safeshelters in the upstream VDCs of Barachhetra and Mahendranagar and one resource centre in
Harinagara VDC. The shelters were built with steel trusses and CGI sheeting whereas the resourcecentre is made from wooden trusses with CGI sheeting (see Table 7). The safe shelters meetSPHERE standards: they are linked to a safe evacuation route and have direct access to two toiletsand a hand pump supplying adequate drinking water at the same elevation they are at. While theshelters are outfitted with ramps for the physically disabled, there are no handrails in the toilet fortheir convenience and the fact that the verandas have no railings means that children and elderlymight fall. Rainwater can be harvested in a large tank for non-drinking purposes. People have totravel around one to one-and-a-half hours to reach the safe shelters, each of which canaccommodate 60-72 people (i.e. 10-12 families). An emergency evacuation plan is essential We heard that there is a lot to do to make our school safe. We should have disaster task groups for search and rescue, first aid, early warning and evacuation. In addition, an emergency evacuation plan is essential. We are surprised that such initiatives have not been adequately implemented at our school. The fact that we are surrounded by rivers means that we are surrounded by risks. A big river flows right side of the school grounds. Given that this is the case, how can we be safe from flood disaster? In our opinion, the project, school, VDC and government should allocate some resources to build the capacity of students as well as to improve the physical condition and thereby the safety of the school. (From focus group discussion with children, aged 11 to 16, in Basanta Ritu Secondary School Mahendranagar, in Sunsari District of Nepal)The people of the VDCs where the two safe shelters and the resource centre were constructedwere motivated to establish and disseminate a code of conduct for their operation and maintenance.LDMCs are responsible for them. Since one is in the premise of a school and the other of a VDCoffice, their security is assured. The buildings are multi-purpose rarely left standing idle: when theyare not needed as safe havens during an emergency, they are used to conduct health check-ups, hostcommunity feasts and festivals, conduct training and orientation sessions, and run extra classes forstudents. In the past, due to a lack of foresight among policy planners and decision-makers, schoolswere oftenused as Table 7: Shelters and resource centresshelters for Shelter/Resource centre Area Capacity Contribution (In NRs.) (m2) (families) Project Community Totalthecommunity Shelter (Barachhetra) 75 10 1,213,144 160,500 (12%) 1,373,644, thereby Shelter (Mahendranagar) 75 10 1,213,144 160,500 (12%) 1,373,644violating Resource centre (Harinagara) 20 NA 99,954 24,981 (20%) 124,935childrens Source: Project’s records, 2011right touninterrupted education. To address these problems, shelters which served as relief centres fordisplaced families were built.The construction of the safe shelters and resource centre was not free from problems and theircompletion was, as a result, delayed. First, it took a great deal of time to find plots of land free ofdispute and for the VDCs to supply the timber that constituted their contribution. The fact thatVDC secretaries were transferred in the midst of the process meant that the project had to be re-explained to newcomers from scratch, further slowing progress. Local politics also saw the VDCoffices closed for several days and administrative processes coming to a standstill. The building of 23the resource centre at Haringara VDC faced an additional problem: grievances over resourceallocation. This was resolved after explaining that a resource centre serves a different purpose than Page
a shelter. Now, however, because of the project’s continuous efforts, all three buildings are almostcomplete.k. Allowed children to express thoughts and emotion about DRR in extra-curricularactivitiesThe project conducted DRR-related extracurricular activities, including art, song, debate and quizcompetitions among children and youths (see Table 8). Such activities were instrumental inincreasing children’s understanding of disasters and providing them an opportunity to share theirknowledge with their peers, families and communities. Debate helped children to develop theirincreasing oratory skills and promoted cognitive and emotional development. Murals in locallanguages were painted on the walls of schools and of communities to make people aware of theCCDRR approach and process. After the project held extracurricular activities, SMCs and PTAswere more convinced about the role that children can play in DRR. DRR information could bedisseminated more frequentlythrough other means, such as Table 8: Extracurricular activitiesassemblies, prayers, parades, sports- Activities Events Beneficiaries Totalrelated activities, and scouting. Boys/Men Girls/Women Art 3 212 107 319Because all the competitions were Folk song 3 172 134 306organised at big gatherings of parents, Quiz 3 240 133 373teachers and community members, Debate 3 180 128 308 Source: Project’s records, 2011the messages were readilydisseminated. Inspired by the extracurricular activities, the child clubs of the project schools havecontinued to hold drills and talk programmes on the last Friday of every month. We are acting to reduce the risk at school In the beginning, to be frank, we were a bit apprehensive when the project introduced discussions about disaster issues. We didn’t know much so I wasn’t very confident. But when we actually formed the child club and got the opportunity to be trained and to participate in extracurricular activities, we learned a lot of interesting information about disasters. We also prepared a school contingency plan. We have changed some of our practices. For example, the bushes around the school were cleared and the compound is cleaner. More work has to be done, but we will do it. (From focus group discussion with student, 10 to 14, in Kausika Lower Secondary School, Barachhetra, in Sunsari District of Nepal)l. Increased resilience by establishing youth-led cooperativesDisasters can devastate livelihoods and reduce people’s ability to cope with further stresses. Impactssuch as the loss of assets can increase the vulnerability of poor people and lead to a downward spiralof deepeningpoverty and Table 9: Details about youth cooperatives in project VDCsincreasing Cooperatives Rate of Totalrisk. To interest savingreduce this Bipad Saving and Credit Cooperative Ltd, Harinagara 20% 273,000.00 Samabesi Saving and Credit Cooperative Ltd, Mahendranagar 20% 40,000.00possibility by Toribari Saving and Credit Cooperative Ltd, Barachhetra 18% 25000.00making Source: Project’s records, 2011livelihoodsmore resilient and to make youths better prepared for the disasters of tomorrow, the projectfacilitated the formation of youth-led cooperatives. The project gave each cooperative NRs.15,000 as 24seed money to use during emergency. Page