Landslide and Debris flow- Fall, Slides, Topples, debris flow
Shifting, meandering, widening and braiding, scour bank erosion and under cutting and inundation of lower Terai during monsoon, and siltation along the farm land .
List of GLOF events in Nepal Source-ICIMOD Date River Basin Lake Cause of GLOF Losses 450 yrs ago Seti khola Machhaphure Moraine Collapse Pokhara valley covered By 50-60m debris. 23 June1980 Tamor Nagma pokhari Moraine collapse Village destroyed 3 Sept 1988 Dudha koshi Tampokhari Ice avalanche Human lives &Properties.
Glacial lake identified as potentially dangerous ICIMOD River basin Glacier number Lake Area-Sq m Potentially dangerous-No Koshi River 1062 25.09 16 Gandaki River 338 12.05 4 Karnali River 907 37.67 0 Mahakali River 16 0.38 0
Debris flow 1993 e.g. Debris flow at Phedigaon, Palung
Annual Average Flood and Landslide Disaster S.N People Death (no) 300 1 People Injured (no) 67 2 Livestock Loss (no) 2,365 3 Houses Destroyed (no) 6,445 4 Affected Family (no) 21,377 5 Land Affected (ha) 4,148 6 Estimate Loss (Mill. NRs) 626
According to FAO 75 bamboo genus and 250 species and known as villager wood
Bamboo can used more under water
Protects river bank from current attack
Most suitable condition are Suspended sediments and velocity of current<1.5 m/se
Bamboo porcupine Structure Material Economy Durability Cost of construction, Per m run Additional benefit Cement concrete, Gabion Imported Factor for trade deficit Gabion up to 5 yrs chances of rusting 2x Not appreciable Bamboo piles or Porcupine Locally produced Internal resource generation 3 Yrs when exposed to weather change. More than 3 yrs when kept under earth or water x Eco-Hydraulic Environment friendly for aquatic animal and crops, protein food stuff production