Dwidp inovation 1

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Presentation during National Workshop on DRR Innovation and Excellence in Nepal, 6/29/2010

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Dwidp inovation 1

  1. 1. Disaster Risk Reduction Innovation and Excellence. R.P Adhikary, SDE, Department of Water Induced Disaster Prevention
  2. 2. Outline of Presentation <ul><li>Background of Country </li></ul><ul><li>Types of Water Induced Disaster in Nepal </li></ul><ul><li>Average annual losses by Water Induced Disaster </li></ul><ul><li>Innovation </li></ul>
  3. 3. Background <ul><li>Geological Formation of Nepal </li></ul><ul><li>The plate Tectonic theory </li></ul><ul><li>Nepal posses more than 6,000 rivers draining about 225 BMC of water annually </li></ul><ul><li>High temporal and spatial variation in runoff and rainfall </li></ul><ul><li>High instantaneous flood due to high intensity rainfall up to 350 mm/day </li></ul>
  4. 4. Formation of Himalayas <ul><li>50 million years ago </li></ul><ul><li>Plate movement </li></ul>
  5. 5. Formation of Himalayas <ul><li>Indian plate collided with Tibetan plate </li></ul><ul><li>Formation of Mt. Everest </li></ul>
  6. 6. Variation of altitude with respect to distance
  7. 8. Types of Water Induced Disaster in Nepal <ul><li>GLOF, Monsoon Flood, Flash Flood </li></ul><ul><li>Landslide and Debris flow- Fall, Slides, Topples, debris flow </li></ul><ul><li>Shifting, meandering, widening and braiding, scour bank erosion and under cutting and inundation of lower Terai during monsoon, and siltation along the farm land . </li></ul>
  8. 9. List of GLOF events in Nepal Source-ICIMOD Date River Basin Lake Cause of GLOF Losses 450 yrs ago Seti khola Machhaphure Moraine Collapse Pokhara valley covered By 50-60m debris. 23 June1980 Tamor Nagma pokhari Moraine collapse Village destroyed 3 Sept 1988 Dudha koshi Tampokhari Ice avalanche Human lives &Properties.
  9. 10. Glacial lake identified as potentially dangerous ICIMOD River basin Glacier number Lake Area-Sq m Potentially dangerous-No Koshi River 1062 25.09 16 Gandaki River 338 12.05 4 Karnali River 907 37.67 0 Mahakali River 16 0.38 0
  10. 11. Debris flow 1993 e.g. Debris flow at Phedigaon, Palung
  11. 12. Koshi Flood 2008 80 % Flood Flow 20 % Flood Flow
  12. 13. Annual Average Flood and Landslide Disaster S.N People Death (no) 300 1 People Injured (no) 67 2 Livestock Loss (no) 2,365 3 Houses Destroyed (no) 6,445 4 Affected Family (no) 21,377 5 Land Affected (ha) 4,148 6 Estimate Loss (Mill. NRs) 626
  13. 14. Major Activities of DWIDP <ul><li>Settlement and agricultural land protection </li></ul><ul><li>Infrastructure Protection </li></ul><ul><li>Provision of emergency relief materials </li></ul><ul><li>Trainings </li></ul><ul><li>Public awareness </li></ul><ul><li>Information Dissemination </li></ul><ul><li>Hazard map preparation </li></ul><ul><li>Research and study </li></ul>
  14. 15. Physical Activities of DWIDP
  15. 16. DRR Innovation and Excellence
  16. 17. DRR Innovation and Excellence
  17. 18. NON-STRUCTURAL MITIGATION MEASURES <ul><li>Disaster Preparedness Map (DPM): </li></ul><ul><li>Basically a Map indicating : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Disaster Prone Area </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Shelter Houses </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Public Facilities </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Warning System </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Evacuation Plan etc. </li></ul></ul>
  18. 19. NON-STRUCTURAL MITIGATION MEASURES <ul><li>Disaster Preparedness Map (DPM): </li></ul><ul><li>One Important Non-structural Mitigation Measure </li></ul><ul><li>Advantages: </li></ul><ul><li>Cheap & Simple for Application </li></ul><ul><li>DPM Workshop provides opportunity to identify Weaknesses and Strengths for Warning System and Evacuation Plan </li></ul><ul><li>No any Environmental Impact </li></ul>
  19. 20. NON-STRUCTURAL MITIGATION MEASURES <ul><li>Preparation of DPM of </li></ul><ul><li>Dahachowk Sabo Model Site – A Need </li></ul><ul><li>Heavy Settlement of Ward No. 3,7 and 8 lies – </li></ul><ul><li>1) 1.7 km away and 385 m below the Landslide Prone Area </li></ul><ul><li>2) Almost vertically below an Active Stone Quarry </li></ul>
  20. 21. DAHACHOWK SABO MODEL SITE <ul><li>Some Features of Model Site : </li></ul><ul><li>About 10 km West of Kathmandu </li></ul><ul><li>Watershed – 1.5 km2 </li></ul><ul><li>Average Annual Rainfall – 2010 mm </li></ul><ul><li>(with max. of 300 mm in 24 hours) </li></ul><ul><li>Southern Steep Slope Aspects </li></ul>
  21. 22. Dahachowk Sabo Model Site Way to KTM about 10 km. Thankot
  22. 23. DAHACHOWK SABO MODEL SITE <ul><li>Major Problems: </li></ul><ul><li>Landslides in U/S or Head Scar </li></ul><ul><li>Soil Erosion all over the Catchments </li></ul><ul><li>Debris Flow in D/S or Foot Hill </li></ul><ul><li>Rampant Stone Quarrying </li></ul><ul><li>Low Level of Awareness </li></ul><ul><li>Lack of Alternatives for Grazing, Fire wood etc. </li></ul>
  23. 24. NON-STRUCTURAL MITIGATION MEASURES <ul><li>Preparation of DPM: </li></ul><ul><li>For the People by the People </li></ul><ul><li>DPM Workshop – Detail Discussions </li></ul><ul><li>Walk Through the Debris Flow Route </li></ul><ul><li>Steps for Preparation of DPM </li></ul><ul><li>Highlights of Important steps </li></ul>
  24. 25. NON-STRUCTURAL MITIGATION MEASURES <ul><li>Result of DPM Workshop & Walkthrough: </li></ul><ul><li>Identification of </li></ul><ul><li>- Disaster Prone Area </li></ul><ul><li>- Shelter House </li></ul><ul><li>- Public Facilities </li></ul><ul><li>- Mechanism of Warning System </li></ul><ul><li>- Announcement House for Evacuation </li></ul>
  25. 26. NON-STRUCTURAL MITIGATION MEASURES <ul><li>Warning System: </li></ul><ul><li>Installment of Extension Meter devised with Sensor – Alarms Siren !!! </li></ul><ul><li>Siren connected to Indra Jyoti School and/or Head Teacher (Messenger) with Telephone </li></ul><ul><li>Messenger pass on Message to Announcer </li></ul>
  26. 27. NON-STRUCTURAL MITIGATION MEASURES <ul><li>Evacuation Plan: </li></ul><ul><li>Evacuation Announcement is followed by Commencement of Evacuation </li></ul><ul><li>House to House Evacuation is Devised in absence of any Public Shelter House </li></ul><ul><li>A Detailed Evacuation Plan prepared for ‘WHO’ should move ‘WHERE’ is probably the most scientific and Best Way to Save Life from Disaster !!! </li></ul>
  27. 29. Factors Contributing to Floods in Terai region UNSAFE CONDITIONS ROOT CAUSES DYNAMIC PRESSURES F L O O D <ul><li>Poverty </li></ul><ul><li>Pop. Growth </li></ul><ul><li>Slow Economic Development </li></ul><ul><li>Migration </li></ul><ul><li>Land Scarcity </li></ul><ul><li>Inadequate Amenities </li></ul><ul><li>Settlement in flood prone area </li></ul><ul><li>Low preparedness / awareness </li></ul><ul><li>Inadequate flood protection </li></ul>
  28. 30. Poverty cycle
  29. 31. River bank erosion in West Rapti
  30. 32. Innovation and Excellence
  31. 33. Bamboo porcupine <ul><li>Sprit and soul of eco hydraulic </li></ul><ul><li>Use of low cost natural material </li></ul><ul><li>Labor intensive and lessening unemployment </li></ul><ul><li>Can provide habitat for water animal and crop </li></ul>
  32. 34. Bamboo porcupine <ul><li>River bank erosion is a single problem in Rivers of alluvial plain </li></ul><ul><li>River bank protection is avoid bank erosion by current attack </li></ul><ul><li>Structures are expensive, massive non compatible with environment and eco hydraulic </li></ul>
  33. 35. Bamboo porcupine
  34. 36. Bamboo porcupine <ul><li>According to FAO 75 bamboo genus and 250 species and known as villager wood </li></ul><ul><li>Bamboo can used more under water </li></ul><ul><li>Protects river bank from current attack </li></ul><ul><li>Most suitable condition are Suspended sediments and velocity of current<1.5 m/se </li></ul>
  35. 37. Bamboo porcupine Structure Material Economy Durability Cost of construction, Per m run Additional benefit Cement concrete, Gabion Imported Factor for trade deficit Gabion up to 5 yrs chances of rusting 2x Not appreciable Bamboo piles or Porcupine Locally produced Internal resource generation 3 Yrs when exposed to weather change. More than 3 yrs when kept under earth or water x Eco-Hydraulic Environment friendly for aquatic animal and crops, protein food stuff production
  36. 38. Bamboo Porcupine
  37. 39. Bamboo porcupine
  38. 40. Bamboo porcupine Rapti river
  39. 41. DWIDP would like to network from all concerned. Thank You

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