Drr and cca learnings from banganga river basin kapilvastu ndrc nepal
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LEARNING TO LEAD:

LEARNING TO LEAD:
Building Resilience to Disaster and
Climate Change Impacts on Women and Children Project - An Experience from Banganga River Basin, Kapilvastu, Nepal

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Drr and cca learnings from banganga river basin kapilvastu ndrc nepal Drr and cca learnings from banganga river basin kapilvastu ndrc nepal Document Transcript

  • LEARNING TO LEAD Building Resilience to Disaster and Climate Change Impacts on Women and Children Project Experience from Banganga River Basin, Kapilvastu, Nepal1|Page
  • Report prepared byDhruba Raj Gautam, Ph.D.Executive DirectorNational Disaster Risk-reduction Centre Nepal (NDRC Nepal)Sangam Chowk, Baneshwor, KathmanduTel/Fax: +977-01-4115619, 98510-95808Email: mail@ndrc.org.np, drrgautam@gmail.comURL: www.ndrc.org.npSpecial contributorsShyam Sundar JnavalySunil Sun ShakyaRam Prasad BhattaraiSpecial acknowledgement (NDRC KapilvastuTeam)Krishna Sharma, Project CoordinatorRaju Shah, Project AccountantShiva Poudel, Social MobilizerSharada Pariyar, Social MobilizerThe findings, interpretations, and conclusions expressed herein are those of the NDRCNepal and do not necessarily reflect the views of Canadian Cooperation Office Nepal.Canadian Cooperation Office Nepal does not guarantee the accuracy of the data included in this report. For moreinformation, please contact the NDRC Nepal in the above address.2|Page
  • List of acronymsCCA Climate change adaptationCBDP Community based disaster preparednessDDC District Development committeeDMC Disaster management committeeDRM Disaster risk managementDRR Disaster risk reductionHFA Hyogo Framework of ActionIRDC Indreni Rural Development CentreKAP Knowledge, attitudes, and practicesNDRC Nepal National Disaster Risk Reduction Centre NepalNSDRM National Strategy for Disaster Risk ManagementNSET National Society for Earthquake TechnologiesPVA Participatory vulnerability analysisVDC Village development committee3|Page
  • AcknowledgementsWe would like to acknowledge the support of the Canadian Cooperation Office Nepal,which both helped produce this publication and funded the Building Resilience to Disasterand Climate Change Impacts on Women and Children Project in Banganga River Basin ofKapilvastu, Nepal.We are grateful to the communities of Dhaneshpur, Bagaha tole, Khuteni and Kushma ofKapilvastu District and four schools viz. Jana Jyoti Higher Secondary School of Motipur, BalSecondary School of Banganga, Shree Higher Secondary School of Kopuwa, and ShreeSecondary School of Niglihawa for their patience in providing us with a wealth ofinformation and for being so cooperative during the implementation of the project. Webenefited greatly from disaster management committees, community members andstakeholders, teachers and students, village development committees and district stakeholdersin increasing our understanding on disaster risk reduction and climate change adaptation.We would further like to extend our sincere gratitude to all who helped make this project asuccess by contributing their time, feedback and suggestions. We would also like toacknowledge the SAGUN, for their professional support during implementation of theproject.We are indeed grateful that Canadian Cooperation Office Nepal entrusted us to implementthis innovative project.Thank you all!Dhruba Raj Gautam, Ph.D.Executive DirectorNDRC NepalKathmandu4|Page
  • Table of contentsList of acronyms .................................................................................................................. 3Acknowledgements ............................................................................................................. 41. The context ............................................................................................................... 62. Projects key results.................................................................................................. 72.1 Achievement of projects key results ................................................................... 72.2 Unintended results ............................................................................................... 272.3 Deviation in plan and its rationale ...................................................................... 273. Gender equality and social inclusion .................................................................... 274. Sustainability ........................................................................................................... 295. Partnership .............................................................................................................. 296. Recommendations .................................................................................................. 307. Major learning ......................................................................................................... 308. Security update ....................................................................................................... 315|Page
  • LEARNING TO LEAD Building Resilience to Disaster and Climate Change Impacts on Women and Children Project Experience from Banganga River Basin, Kapilvastu, Nepal1. The contextRight across the world, natural disasters and climate change are concerns which alarmgovernments and threaten populations. These phenomena pose a dire threat to thesustainability of local and regional ecologies and have a devastating impact on the existingsocio-economic patterns of Table 1: Socio-economic profile of the project areahuman existence. Recurrent Banganga River 28 VDCs of Arghakhanchi, Kapilvastu andnatural disasters already have a Basin Palpa districtslarge hand in undermining the Project VDCs Motipur, Banganga, Kopuwa and Niglihawaability of communities, regions, Total 67,927 people in 10,956 households populationnations, and the global Major target 4500 people in 800 households in the Tharu,community itself to meet basic groups Madhesi and hill migrant communitiesdevelopment goals and their Major Agriculture (70.6%), seasonal labour (15.3%),intensity, and possibly frequency, livelihood services (7.3%), business (6.6%)are likely to be exacerbated by Land tenure 73% cultivate their own land, 18% families cultivate their own land and sharecrop, andclimate change. In light of these 8% rent landthreats, disaster risk reduction Months of food 23% year-round, 52% 6-9 months, 25%(DRR) efforts are central to sufficiency families 2-4 monthsmeeting local and global Source: CBS (2001) and NDRC (2009)development objectives and topromoting adaptation to climatechange. Table 2: Ethnic composition of project communities Community VDC Total % of CasteAreas within the Banganga River HHs BC D J OBasin experience floods on an Dhaneshpur Motipur 85 65 15 14 6annual basis; in fact, for many Khuteni Kopuwa 43 70 18 9 3reasons, the impacts of such Jeetpur Banganga 26 5 4 87 4 Kushma Niglihawa 350 76 15 7 2floods have grown in severity and Source: PVA Report 2011; BC-Brahmin Chhetri, D-Dalit, J-Janajati, O-Othersregularity in recent years. Climatechange, however, is the most oft-cited reason for the growing vulnerability of the plains.Although disaster and climate change are boundto affect all Nepalis in one way or another, noteveryone is equally vulnerable to itsconsequences. Poverty, caste, origin, education,age, and gender are among the factors that maydecrease people‟s resilience to disaster andclimate change. To build the resilience of themost vulnerable, who include women, children,the disabled, Dalits, indigenous ethnics groups,and migrants, DRR and climate change adaptation6|Page
  • (CCA) initiatives must be included in development plans and programmes.A study carried out in Banganga River Basin by National Disaster Risk Reduction Centre(NDRC Nepal) in 2007-8 with grant support from ActionAid Nepal demonstrated that thisbasin is highly impacted by climatic variability and frequent disasters and that the impacts ofthese two phenomena on peoples livelihoods and the environment have grown increasinglysubstantial. To address the DRR and CCA issues the basin faces, a six-month project calledBuilding Resilience to Disaster and Climate Change Impact on Women and Children[38/10/N/419 (2011-12)] was launched in July 2011 with grant support from CanadianCooperation Office Nepal. Its objective was to build the resilience of women and children,helping them to understand the adverse impact of climate change and protecting them fromfuture disasters. The project‟s key interventions were based on the research findings of the2007-08 NDRC Nepal study and the major learning of the river basin and DIPECHOprojects which Oxfam GB Nepal had conducted during the fiscal year 2005-07 inneighbouring communities adjacent. The Building Resilience Project contributed towardachieving the five key priorities of the Hyogo Framework of Action1 (HFA) and the fiveflagship areas of the National Strategy for Disaster Risk Management (NSDRM)2. Thisreport summarises the key results of and learning from this project and suggests the pathahead.The specific objectives of the project are follows.  Empower local communities, including women and children, to develop community- based DRR plans and programmes  Reduce disaster risks by demonstrating the retrofitting of school buildings and bio- engineering works  Build the capacity of women and children to employ climate-adaptive agricultural practices  Strengthen the ability of existing groups and disaster management committees (DMCs) to support livelihoods and reduce financial risks during disaster  Link grassroots organisations with each other so they can carry out advocacy initiatives for polices that are sensitive to CCA and particularly support women and children2. Projects key results2.1 Achievement of projects key results Result 1: Increase the capacity of at least 120 local communities, including children and women, to develop DRR plans which address upcoming disasters a. Enhanced awareness about disaster risk management (DRM) through capacity-building1 The five priority actions of the HFA are to (i) ensure that DRR is a national and local priority with a strong institutional basis forimplementation, (ii) identify, assess and monitor disaster risks and enhance early warning, (iii) use knowledge, innovation, and education tobuild a culture of safety and resilience at all levels, (iv) reduce underlying risk factors, and (v) strengthen disaster preparedness for effectiveresponse.2 The five flagships area are (i) school and hospital safety, (ii) emergency preparedness and response capacity; (iii) flood management in theKoshi River Basin; (iv) integrated community-based disaster risk reduction and management; (v) policy and institutional support fordisaster risk management.7|Page
  • Knowledge about DRM has increased after the project conducted training sessions in topics community- based disaster Ethnic composition in the capacity building initiatives preparedness, DRR and CCA, for more than 240 members of DMCs as well as financial institutions, including cooperatives, savings and credit groups, financial institutions, and banks (see figure). These trainings were seen as instrumental in changing beliefs about internal resource mobilisation. Locals are now less likely to wait for external assistance to reduce disaster risk; their knowledge, attitudes and practices have changed. For instance, those who believed that God was responsible for floods now understand that floods are the outcome of natural and man-made phenomenon. People still celebrate Dorbandi, Hereri and Lawangi worships3 to please village and river gods, but they also understand that flood risks can be reduced using local resources and community knowledge-based preventive activities. Such trainings helped children and women take an active role in addressing their vulnerabilities. In addition, children became more willing to speaking up about issues that affect their wellbeing and adults started to see children not merely as victims of disasters but as active players in preventing, preparing for, mitigating and responding to disasters. Consultation for banning We are successful in banning riverbed materials riverbed materials "In the last 40 years, we have seen many floods, from moderate to large; in front of our eyes, thousands of bigha (1 bigha equals 0.67 ha) of land have been swept away and hundreds of families displaced. In the past, we were only witnesses because we had neither the information and knowledge nor the techniques we needed to respond to disasters. However, things are changing now. We are united through the DMC and have participated in several life skills trainings. We have succeeded in banning the extraction of riverbed materials, promoting zero grazing and planting fast-growing trees along riverbanks. We hope that we will reduce the impacts of floods with these initiatives." from3 These are traditional ceremonies held to protect villagers from natural calamities, diseases and ghosts.8|Page
  • focus group discussion (FGD) with DMC members at Khuteni, Kapilvastu District, NepalChildren who are aware, involved and empowered can serve as effective agents of changeand are excellent communicators about DRM-related issues within their communities.b. Translated acquired skills into practiceThanks to the projects innovative approach, DRR-based extracurricular activities, drills,and simulations filled the Ethnic composition of students participated in EQ drillsgaps in people‟s DRRknowledge; translatedskills and knowledge intopractice at the individual,family and communitylevels; and boosted theself-confidence andresilience of theparticipating communities.Project beneficiaries nowknow that it is notearthquakes but man-made structures that killpeople, and over 8000school students and localpeople participated in community- and school- level drills to learn how to stay safe fromearthquakes (see figure). Other earthquake safety measures, including equippingclassrooms with two outward-opening doors and separate desks and chairs, anddesignating a safe exit and assembly area were also instituted. Drills and simulation exercises are Orientation before drill exercise instrumental "We learned many things from the drills and simulation exercises. We duck under a desk, hold it tight until the quake stops and leave the classroom and school building safely. We have identified safe areas to assemble in after the quake stops. Not only we students but also our guardian used the earthquake preparedness tips that we had learned a month ago during the September 2011 quake." from FGD with students, aged 11-16, at Shree Bal Secondary School, Banganga, Kapilvastu District, NepalWhile it is true that children are very vulnerable to disasters, they can also effectivelyspread information about DRR to their parents, and, through their parents, to thecommunity. Disaster awareness and education increase the knowledge of students andparents about their immediate environment and, as a result, reduce the risk a communityfaces. DRR-based extracurricular activities like art, debate, and quiz competitions boostedthe understanding of more than 2500 students and teachers about DRR and climate changeas the project facilitated DRR awareness sessions before such competitions were held.9|Page
  • Teachers and school-based DMC members helped to mobilise other students, organising peer education sessions, developing and implementing evacuation plans, and organising simulations. As students are keen to share whatever they learn with their peers and their seniors, investing in building Percentage of students participated in the capacity of students had extracurricular activities by school good returns. As the knowledge and skills of students increased, parents automatically benefited as they, too, learned and put into practice new knowledge and skills. Orientations and campaigns in schools help fill gaps in knowledge about DRR. A two- hour session on disasters and their types, causes (primary and secondary) and effects, and possible ways of managing them at the local level was organised in four schools. The session was designed after evaluating the existing curriculum on disaster with schoolteachers and identifying the gaps. The focus agreed upon was the disaster management cycle. Since the sessions used techniques such as art, essays, speeches, games, charts, and pictures, children enjoyed themselves and learned a lot. A series of orientations enabled students to identify areas of high, medium and low risk and to designate evacuation routes and safe shelters. Simulations taught them how to react to a tremor, how to exit the classroom after the shaking subsides, and where to gather afterwards. Some school held drills and simulation on the last Friday of every month as a sort of extracurricular activity. The school-level awareness campaigns and safety drills and the integration of DRR into life skills education programmes have clearly taught students, school officials, and communities how to reduce risks. For example, people said that both students and parents reacted to the earthquake of September 2011 calmly, without panicking, in marked contrast to the panic and terror which followed the August 1988 quake. The reason for their composure was that just a month earlier students had learned and practiced the „duck, cover and hold‟ technique. Other precautions students have begun to take care that they no longer leave the classroom during a heavy thunderstorm and that they do not cross torrential rivers without careful consideration.10 | P a g e
  • c. Formulated disaster preparedness and contingency plans After the students and teachers had been sensitised, each school drafted a contingency plan focusing on the major hazards in the area, including earthquakes. Schools have started to implement those plans, renovating and improving toilets, organising sanitation campaigns around the school to reduce the risk of snake bites, levelling school grounds to reduce the likelihood of accidents, and fencing school grounds to reduce the incursions of domestic and wild animals. All contingency plans are closely aligned with the school improvement plans developed with the support of the district education office, teachers are fully familiar with DRR issue and both they and school management committees have started to listen to students ideas and respond to their pleas. For instance, they have separated desks and benches, fixed doors so they swing outwards, and installed railings to prevent falls. Meteorological station helped to understand how Metrological equipments for temperature, wind and rain pattern are changing student "In Shree Secondary School, Kushma, Niglihawa village development committee (VDC), student pressured the school management committee to trim the tall trees in the school compound and have requested that the compound be fenced to prevent cattle from wandering in. Student-led sanitation campaigns were initiated around the school after a participatory vulnerability analysis (PVA) exercise was conducted. The meteorological station established at the school had helped them to understand how temperature, wind and rain pattern are changing." from FGD with DMC members at Shree Secondary School, Kushma, Kapilvastu District, Nepal Community-based disaster preparedness (CBDP) plans were prepared after analysing the qualitative data generated during PVA exercises. The DMCs have formulated and enforced rules and regulations governing DRR activities. Rules include restrictions on grazing near protected Banganga riverbanks, safeguarding newly planted areas, and allocating roles and responsibilities among the DMC members Each DMC has prepared a CBDP Plan which incorporates a variety of activities like orientations, evacuation, rescue and relief work, community nursery management, riverbank protection, construction of evacuation routes, allocation of roles and responsibilities for river monitoring during monsoon. This was the first time such Plans had been prepared and locals are very enthusiastic about implementing them by mobilising local resources. The response of local governments and VDC-level stakeholders to the plans shared with them is very positive. Besides yielding plans, PVA exercises promoted a deeper understanding of different forms of vulnerabilities and their root causes and were instrumental in capacitating DMC in mitigating hazards and risks by addressing those root causes. They also hope to get additional support from the VDC and district levels stakeholders. CBDP Plans will eventually be incorporated into VDC11 | P a g e
  • development plans. This step has opened the way to mobilising VDC-level resources in the execution of CBDP Plans. Once CBDP Plans are linked with VDC plans, they will automatically be linked to the plans of Kapilvastu District and DRR will be mainstreamed in district policies, planning and implementation. The project introduced PVA exercises in each community to identify physical, attitudinal, and social risks and vulnerabilities. It also facilitated the assessment of natural and human- made hazards in line with communities‟ perceptions of the associated risks. Local people have identified and ranked flooding as the main hazard in their area. The factors that increase their vulnerability include ignorance, social disunity, the location of settlements on low land near Banganga riverbanks and the lack of preparedness. These PVA exercises are beneficial in that they increase awareness and preparedness and change the attitudes and behaviours of locals with respect to risks and how they cope with them. Following these exercises, project communities are well aware of which areas are vulnerable to flooding and inundation and were able to develop risk maps based on the level of risk identified. PVA exercises helped identifying risks and Communities are in the PVA process reducing vulnerability "The PVA process opened the eyes of disaster- vulnerable communities to the root causes of their condition. It motivated people to think in terms of reducing their vulnerabilities and to make appropriate plans to do so. The PVA process was instrumental in identifying low-, moderate- and high-risk areas and hazard profiles and to prioritise these risks so they could be addressed by severity." from FGD with DMC members at Dhaneshpur, Kapilvastu District, Nepal CBDP Plans were used as advocacy tools to convince VDC- and district development committee (DDC)-level stakeholders to provide resources and, for this reason, are instrumental in addressing upcoming disasters in a meaningful way. VDCs and political parties have been familiarised with the DRR and climate change context and have started to address these issues in their plans and programmes. In communities that have been living with disasters for a long period of time, local people now have a clear understanding of the preparedness measures they can implement to protect themselves. To translate CBDP Plans into practice, Indreni Rural Development Centre (IRDC)/DanChurch Aid supported the development of community-based early warning systems in coordination with this project by coordinating upstream and downstream DMCs through the exchange of telephone.12 | P a g e
  • To facilitate the dissemination of early warning messages, communication channels and contact telephone Box 1: Key areas that CBDP plans address numbers were disseminated to Motipur-5, Dhaneshpur communities through  Construct bio-engineering spur and carry out river training fliers. Because of these  Increase DRR and CCA awareness simple mechanisms, locals  Implement community plantation along the riverbank were able to evacuate the  Carry out internal collections of resources, including a-fistful- elderly, pregnant and of-rice‟ campaigns  Cultivate suitable cash crops along the riverbank lactating mothers, children  Design awareness-raising campaigns against different hazards, and livestock before flood including fires, snake bites, pests/insects, and epidemics levels approached the level of risk. Although Banganga-7, Jeetpur Bagaha Tole their response and  Plant grass, broom grass, lemon grass, bojo (Acorus clamus), evacuation times differed bamboo, and hay along the riverbank according to the distance  Plant banana trees as an agro-forestry initiative to safe shelter and  Dig wells for the micro irrigation needed to promote agro- community size, all four forestry initiatives communities were able to  Collect and store grain storage through ‟a-fistful-of-rice‟ evacuate all their campaigns  Initiative large-scale turmeric and ginger plantation members safely. Buddha  Promote especial hay for basket-making, a popular craft among Awaz FM radio has been Tharus very effective in disseminating early Niglihawa-2, Kushma warning information  Carry out river training work including emergency news  Establish community plantations on community-managed land and weather-related  Test water quality for contaminants like arsenic bulletins.  Increase awareness about DRR and climate change  Take steps to minimise the impacts of pests and insects and VDC Secretaries have epidemics started to incorporate disaster and climate Kopuwa-7, Khuteni, Loharibagiya  Increase awareness about flood hazards change issues into the  Construct gabion wire and stone check dams planning process.  Demarcate the river to reclaim land for cultivation Managers of financial  Carry out community plantation work to safeguard the area institutions are more from floods and further erosion aware about disaster and climate and have extended loans for the cultivation of climate-smart crops, and a delegation of local-level stakeholders persuaded the DDC to ban the extraction of soil, boulders and stones from the riverbed. Some farmer-managed irrigation systems that had become defunct because of the lowering of the riverbed have been restored, riverbanks conserved and crops like turmeric and sugarcane planted on them, and the bridge over the Mahendra Highway safeguarded. All of these activities have indirectly contributed to the supplying of clean water to the Jagadishpur wetlands, an important habitat for birds and aquatic animals. IEC materials are the key to raising awareness. The project distributed DRR and CCA knowledge based posters, two fliers, and charts as IEC materials. The project‟s approach to13 | P a g e
  • information dissemination is innovative and interesting. Social Mobilizers disseminated the message of each IEC item using door-to-door campaigns based on the adult learning approach. The Social Mobilizers provided enough room for locals to express their understanding of and feelings about key themes and messages and to fill in any gaps if necessary. This flexible, interactive approach increased people‟s understanding of the main message of each IEC item. Social Mobilizers met once a month to report on their achievements and share their experience. They concluded that their efforts had helped to build knowledge about hazards and disasters and their relationship as well to urge people to take the needed action at the local level. Most people confirmed this assessment: they had no trouble deciphering the messages, appreciated the incorporation of local culture, and felt encouraged and enabled to take action to reduce risks and build resilience. IEC materials at school FM radio is more powerful than other tools "DRR-based awareness has been increased through the distribution of information education and communication (IEC) materials like disaster--related posters, brochures, leaflets, and calendars. Basic information about the project was also broadcast by FM Radio Buddha Awaz. In our experience, FM radio is more powerful than other tools in sensitising people." from FGD with DMC members at Kushma, Kapilvastu District, Nepal d. Created a safety-oriented culture Communities are better prepared for future disasters. Local-level DRR initiatives led by DMCs with the active involvement of local people have substantially reduced the level of risk. Communities have developed and adopted a safety-oriented culture at the household level. For example, people keep their important documents and assets, including their citizenship and land ownership certificates and their cash and jewellery placed in a safe place. Local volunteers are skilled in first aid and light search and rescue skills (which they acquired during community-based disaster prevention training) and put these skills into practice regularly to make communities safe. e. Assessment of Knowledge, Attitudes, and Practices Two assessments of the knowledge, attitudes, and practices (KAP) of the same 240 respondents were carried out—one before the project and one afterwards—in order to establish both a baseline and endline with which to gauge the changes resulting from the project‟s interventions. The KAP survey asked questions to measure understanding of disaster management (knowledge), feelings toward it (attitude), and responses to and coping behaviours with respect to disasters (practices). It identified existing knowledge, gaps in that knowledge, cultural beliefs, and behavioural patterns that may facilitate understanding of and action with respect to disaster reduction initiatives or that, in contrast, might pose problems for or create barriers to implementing such initiatives. i. Sample design and selection of households Respondents were selected using random sampling techniques. The sample size—240 individuals from four VDCs and schools—was determined using a formula devised by Arkin and Colten (1963) whose confidence and error levels are 95% and p% respectively.14 | P a g e
  • NZ 2 P(1  P) n Nd 2  Z 2 P(1  P) Where, n = sample size N = total number of households in 58 municipalities Z = level of confidence (95%) P = estimated proportion of beneficiary population d = level of error (5%) Each respondent answered a structured questionnaire prepared through discussion and modified after field testing. Of the total respondents, 54% were female and 46% male. They were chosen to represent all the different ethnic groups in the study area, including Tharus, hill migrants, Madhesis, and other minorities. As figure shows, agriculture is the dominant occupation of the respondents, with 45% reporting that Percentage of respondents by occupation they were farmers, 16% daily wage labourers, and 14% school teachers. Analysis of the responses demonstrated that project created a supportive environment for increasing the leadership and confidence of the children and women it reached. People in general are more familiar with different types of hazards and risks and their underlying causes and, in particular, awareness among women and children has been significantly increased. ii. Knowledge about disasters and hazards Before the project, just 13% of the total respondents had a basic knowledge about disaster; that rate had more than quadrupled, to 62%, by the end of the project. During Growth Attributable to Project Interventions the baseline survey 23% of respondents % of Respondents 100 felt that orientation, training, FM radio 80 62 67 82 and TV, and extracurricular activities 60 Before the project were the main sources of information; 40 13 23 28 After the project 20 when the endline survey was 0 administered, that proportion had Knows about Informed by Differentiates tripled, reaching 67%. Students said that disasters varius sources between disasters and they acquired information largely from hazards extracurricular activities. Although 72% Indicator of respondents had misidentified hazards as disasters like floods, landslides, windstorms, fires, and earthquakes, in the endline survey, the situation was reversed and 82% correctly differentiated between disasters and hazards.15 | P a g e
  • iii. Causes of disaster Whereas initially only 15% of respondents said that disaster was the effect of hazards and that it included loss of life and property, four times that number (62%) were able to see that connection after the project, pointing to the fact that its capacity-building component was highly effective and result- oriented. Just 3% attributed disaster to divine punishment for wrongdoing after the project but over one-fifth (22%) had done so beforehand. Clearly, the projects facilitations, consultations, and interactions were effective. Asked to identify major hazards, 16% were able to name floods, landslides, earthquakes, windstorms, and fires initially and 57% afterwards, but while the proportion who identified climate change quintupled, from 8% to 43%, still less than half are informed. The percentage of respondents that believe that the impacts of disasters cannot be minimised because they are created by gods or demons declined substantially from 52%, but 12% are still unconvinced. More awareness-building is required to overcome such misconceptions and to boost knowledge, especially about climate change. iv. Knowledge, attitude and practice regarding floods Appreciation of the major causes of floods increased dramatically, sometimes as much as ten-fold, with 78% (versus 34%) naming erratic rainfall, 89% (versus 24%) naming forest depletion in upstream areas, 63% (versus 2%) naming ill-advised farming techniques in the upper watershed, 41% (versus 4%) naming slash-and- burn cultivation, and 65% (versus 7%) naming the unscientific extraction of riverbed materials like sand, stone, boulders. Appreciation of the major consequences of floods also increased by a factor of three or more: now 92%, 76%, 52%, and 87% name riverbank cutting and the sweeping of agricultural land, displacement of villagers, psycho-social stress, and loss of lives and livelihoods respectively, whereas just 34%, 18%, 14%, and 23% did so16 | P a g e
  • before. The data demonstrates that the project‟s capacity-building initiatives have increased knowledge about both the causes and the consequences of floods. Awareness about the possibilities for flood prevention techniques soared from 33% to 87%; just 13% today (versus 67% before the project) think that action can be taken only after a flood takes lives and property and destroys livelihoods. Fewer are actually involved in flood prevention by mobilising local resources (65%) but this is still a huge increase over the 13% who used to act. The proportions who named various flood protection activities changed dramatically, from favouring capital-intensive large-scale infrastructural interventions to low-cost, do-it-yourself actions, thereby revealing the marked impact that project awareness-building exercises had. For example, the proportions who mentioned the construction of stone machinery spur protection and river training declined from 56% and 67% to 15% and 11% respectively, while the proportion who mentioned plantation along riverbanks and bio-engineered bamboo dykes went from 23% and 13% to 78% and 92% respectively. The proportion that mentioned raising the plinth level of houses almost quadrupled, from 6% to 23%, but is still low. No significant variations between males and females were detected in any of the flood-related questions. v. Knowledge, attitude and practice relating to earthquakes More people were able to correctly identify the causes of earthquakes as the sudden movement of the earth (23% versus 63%) or the movement of tectonic plates (6% versus 46%) and far fewer gave erroneous answers like the angry movements of the supernatural snake which balances earth on its head in retaliation for human sins (43% versus 13%); volcanic eruption (7% versus Understanding about disaster preparedness and early 28%); and landslides and warning system increasing population (67% versus 13%). However, there is a need for still more awareness-building in order to disabuse the 23% who still cling to misconceptions. When asked about what they do when an earthquake strikes, far more people reported sensible actions like taking cover under a table (83% versus 9% during the baseline survey) and moving to a safe place after the shaking has subsided (78% versus 14%) and far fewer reported less appropriate actions like running for home (67% during the baseline and 12% now) and praying to god (89% during baseline and 12% now). vi. Knowledge, attitude and practice related to the outbreak of fire Knowledge about the causes of fire increased dramatically due to the project‟s orientations and discussions. While just a third are aware of the impact of poor wiring (34% versus 9% earlier) and only about half are aware of the impact of careless handling of the inflammable objects (54% versus 12%) and gas leakage and explosion (47% versus 6%), these rates have17 | P a g e
  • nonetheless increased approximately four-fold or more over the course of the project. People‟s knowledge about other causes is much higher, though the rate of increase is only about double. More particularly, 92% (versus 45%), said that they knew that throwing away lighted cigarettes causes fires, 88% (versus 34%) mentioned forest fires, and 78% (versus 34%) cited burning straw . vii. Knowledge, attitude and practice related to disaster preparedness During the baseline survey, only 12% of respondents said that they had even heard of disaster preparedness and added that they were not confident enough to say exactly what it is. In marked contrast, the proportion of respondents expressing awareness of disaster preparedness in the endline survey had soared to 78%. After the project‟s interventions, people were much more able to define what disaster preparedness entailed. About 83% (versus 15%) said that it involved arranging food, medicine, and clothing before a disaster and 72% (versus 12%) that it is being ready to face a disaster. Far fewer cited the arrangement of safe shelters and saving money (just 48% and 41% respectively), but these rates had about quadrupled (up from 13% baseline and 12% respectively). Seven times more people said that communities themselves should themselves be responsible for disaster preparedness and early warning systems to reduce the impacts of disasters, but still only two-thirds gave this response (64% versus 9%). Result 2: To demonstrate a disaster-resistant approach to construction and development, one school building was retrofitted and two bio-engineering works were carried out a. Identified risky areas within schools A comprehensive education system consists of structural, functional and pedagogical components, each of which has a vital role to Box 2: The school-retrofitting process play in DRR and climate  All schools in four VDC were listed and visited. change. While the  Schools were short-listed based on indicators, including age of structural component can buildings, structural feasibility, and willingness of school management committee for retrofitting. protect student from  In a second visit detailed structural and non-structural harm during earthquakes, assessments were carried out. unfortunately, most of  Based on these indicators, Shree Secondary School in Nepal‟s old schools are Niglihawa-2, Kushma, was selected for retrofitting. dilapidated and new  Using a template and formats available from the National schools are not built Society for Earthquake Technologies (NSET), the needs of using earthquake- Shree Secondary School were evaluated. resistant designs. In  Shree Secondary School formally requested the Kapilvastu order to explore the district education office and DDC for technical and financial level of risk at each of support. the project-selected  NDRC Nepal requested NSET to provide a detailed design and schools, a one-day estimates for the retrofitting. assessment of non-  A retrofitting committee was formed, roles and responsibilities structural and structural defined, and local construction materials provided. features was carried out  The retrofitting was carried out according to the design and and, after identifying risky estimate and the new building formally handed over to the school management committee. areas, mitigation18 | P a g e
  • measures to reduce the risks prescribed through school retrofitting technology (see Box 2 for school retrofitting process). b. Trained local masons in retrofitting technology With the intention of enabling local people to carry out school retrofitting work, the project made a list of masons and organised on-the-job training under the supervision of qualified masons and resource persons from NDRC Nepal. Process of school retrofitting in chorological order 1 2 3 4 5 6 To increase safety and to demonstrate earthquake-resistant construction techniques, two rooms in one block of Shree Secondary School (870 sq. ft.) were retrofitted in a first-of- its-kind effort in Kapilvastu. Though this particular initiative will currently secure more than 900 students who attend this school, thousands of students in schools across Kapilvastu will benefit from replicating the learning it generated. Many organisations have already visited the school to learn about the retrofitting technology and the use of environmentally-appropriate construction materials. The contribution of the NSET in making design and estimating building costs was commendable. Consultation for school retrofitting School retrofitting work is highly popular "For us, the school retrofitting work is a matter of pride. Not only did we at Shree Secondary School learn about retrofitting but also many students and teachers from nearby schools visited our school to see and learn. We are very happy that the project selected our school. The district education office is interested in replicating the school retrofitting initiative in other schools." from FGD with students aged 9-16 at Shree Secondary School, Kushma, Kapilvastu District, Nepal19 | P a g e
  • c. Introduced low-cost bio-engineering technologies Before the project was launched, sediment deposition and riverbank erosion turned thousands of hectares of cultivated land into desert, rendered hundreds of families landless, and forced many to migrate to Box 3: Process of Bio-engineering Bamboo Spur other villages. To mitigate this  Four-meter-long bamboo pieces are driven up to devastating problem, the three meters into the bottom of the river bed in two project constructed two bio- rows parallel to the bank to form round boxes two engineering spurs, each 35 feet meter in all dimensions. long and 15 feet wide, at  Bags filled with sand collected from the unprotected Motipur-5, Dhaneshpur VDC, side of the river are packed into the boxes, creating drawing upon indigenous „toe protection‟ at the bottom of the slope. knowledge. The spurs used a  The vertical banks behind the toe protection are cut low-cost technology which and levelled to create slopes of less than 30 degrees. drew upon the traditional skill  Sand bags are placed on the slopes up to the mean of weaving bhakari/tati (bamboo river level and jute bags are laid above the mean river large basket) and comprised level. bamboo, jute sacks, sand,  Plants with long roots, like muj (used for basket- boulders and the plantation of making), kans (grass), amriso (broom-grass), bakaino, fast-growing fodder and grass. masala (eucalyptus), epil epil (used for fodder), khair, and sisau are planted around the jute and sand bags in To reinforce bio-engineering order to stabilize the slopes and form a green belt. efforts and save productive  Grass grown on the land adjacent to the slopes. land along riverbanks, 2600  Fences are used to restrict movement and the grazing plants have been planted (see of domestic animals within the green belt. Box 3 for the process of bioengineering spur). The project promotes the adoption of local resource and skill-based technologies and practices as part of DRR efforts. The priority of the project has been to introduce low- cost, easily-maintained and replicable mitigation techniques which are accepted by the communities. The river mitigation work has prevented the loss of cultivable lands, housing and local infrastructures. Because of bio-engineering activities, local communities are more confident about saving productive farmland and ensuring their own safety. Initially, local people were sceptical about the use of bamboo to protect riversides With project support, district forest officers and local police officers jointly initiated plantation work around the spur constructed, planting more than 2600 seeding provided by the district forest office. Inspired by success stories from the Ratuwa River Basin in Jhapa District, DMCs set rules for riverbank protection, including a zero grazing policy. To combat soil erosion, the project planted fast-growing species which have the capacity to hold soil, including bamboo, gulmohar (Delonix regia), jamuna (Syzygium jambolanum), broom grass (Thysanchaena maxima) and camphor. However, because the plants are still small, erosion has not been eliminated. The fact that Kapilvastu District‟s forest and soil conservation offices have offered their support in scaling-up bio-engineering technologies is encouraging.20 | P a g e
  • Process of bio bioengineering spur (bamboo) in chronological order 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 Together, the spurs will conserve about 610 hectares of cultivated land of 213 families. Bamboo spur technology has already replicated in three places by three different organisations: in Sauraha VDC by IRDC, in Tilaurkot VDC by SAGUN, and in Saljhandi VDC of Rupandehi by FEALPEC. Spur will divert floods and prevent Preparation meeting for spur construction encroachment on the river bank "We never realised that bamboo, jute sacks and soil can withstand flooding in the Banganga River. In the beginning, we were not happy with the project’s proposal to construct a bio-engineering spur, but after it was built, our previous perceptions were completely changed. We are confident that this low- cost bio-engineering structure will divert floods and prevent further encroachment on the river bank. The idea of planting various species in and around the spur is praiseworthy." from FGD with DMC members at Dhaneshpur, Kapilvastu District, Nepal21 | P a g e
  • Result 3: Increased agricultural production by 30% by cultivating climate-adaptive seeds a. Introduced climate smart cropping pattern The project invested time and energy in introducing climate-smart cropping practices. People learned why crops had failed in recent years and, after consulting agriculture technicians and agro-vets, adopted more suitable seed varieties and new practices in order to increase productivity. In coordination with the District Agriculture Development Office, the project promoted agroforestry-based horticulture and demonstrated drought- friendly technology, including a system of wheat intensification. With project support, people started to cultivate peanuts, watermelon, and vegetables on the degraded land along the banks of the Banganga River. Also along the riverbank, they planted fodder and forage species that have excellent soil- holding capacities and extended the practice of green fencing with Jatropha species plants. Farmers planted Indian ginseng (aswagandha), snakeroot (sarpagandha), and asparagus (kurilo) for the first time and increased the area of ginger, turmeric, onion, and garlic under cultivation. Though the project ran just six months, each of the participating families was able to generate NRs. 18,000 to NRs. 32,000 by selling farm products, and farm productivity increased 40-55%. After participating in trainings and seeing various techniques demonstrated, many began organic farming, applying green manure and bio-pesticides, planting local seeds, and adopting eco-friendly preservation practices and proper seed storage techniques. Demonstration plots of mustard and vegetables were planted in Kushma and Khuteni village respectively to ensure a practical way of disseminating knowledge about seasonal crop calendars, techniques of land and seed bed preparation, nursery management, transplantation, weeding and harvesting.22 | P a g e
  • b. Established meteorological station for knowledge building on climatic data A meteorological station the project established in Shree Secondary School in Niglihawa VDC recorded maximum and minimum temperatures, wind pressure, and rainfall using project-supplied apparatuses—a thermometer, a barometer, and a rain gauge. The station targeted students, with the objective of making them aware of changing climatic pattern, but farmers, too, benefited from increase information. Farmers at the demo plot Knowledge about climate-smart crops has been increased "We used to be really frustrated by farming because it was often hard to recover the amount we invested. Crop failure was an annual affair. Then the project provided us with knowledge about climate-smart crops and with good seeds. With this change, we are confident to achieve the levels of farm productivity we used to see two decades ago. This year, some farmers dropped the idea of making their ordinary seasonal migration to India to work as wage labourers because they have started to grow multiple crops on their land. The demonstration plots established in Kushma and Khuteni VDCs gave us new ideas about how to nurture crops as if they were babies." from FGD with DMC members at Khuteni, Kapilvastu District, Nepal Result 4: Established and empowered eight active and well-coordinated DMCs to address future disasters in the area a. Formed inclusive DMCs The inclusiveness of the eight DMCs (see figures) formed under the programme and, indeed, of the project‟s approach as a whole has reduced discrimination and increased harmony among people. This inclusive approach has also helped formalise local networks, enabled children to be better monitored and protected in a disaster, and made it easier to mobilise children and their families to respond23 | P a g e
  • to disasters. School based DMCs successfully addressed psycho-social distress, including the trauma, anxiety, and fear induced by disasters. b. Increased unity and solidarity through inclusive DMCs Following the formation of inclusive DMCs, people have become more unified in their efforts to address common problems. Socially-inclusive DMCs fostered the culture of voluntarily providing help during emergencies; fostered harmonious relationships among hill migrants, Tharus, Madhesis, and Muslims; and empowered communities and networks to become more resilient. Because of the increase in social unity, DMCs were able to engage in advocacy and campaigns related to DRR-related issues and concerns. However, DMCs have not yet enacted operational guidelines for the use of emergency funds. Inspired by the establishment of emergency funds for use in disaster preparedness and risk reduction initiatives, VDCs are very positive about contributing to the execution of the ongoing efforts of DMCs. For example, Niglihawa VDC has provided funds to the Niglihawa DMC‟s ongoing initiatives in carrying out community plantation and green fencing schemes along the riverbank. Things are changing now Consultation in progress.. "The project has successfully initiated many small innovations to reduce the impacts of floods. Included among them are attempts to build awareness among local fishermen to adopt safer practices and to restore the riverbed so that there is sufficient water in irrigation canals. At the onset of the monsoon, local fishermen, mostly Tharus, used to catch fish by blocking one part of the river and diverting its flow in another direction. However, if in these conditions an elevated river flow arrived from upstream, flooding would occur where the water had been diverted. To avoid this problem, local DMCs, at the projects initiation, encouraged local fishermen to dismantle their earthen dikes and restore previous conditions after they had fished. Because of the unscientific harvesting of riverbed materials like soil, sand, boulders and stone, riverbed levels decline and had a negative impact on farmer-managed irrigation systems because water could no longer reach them. DMCs set rules and regulations banning the extraction of materials so that there would be sufficient water in irrigation canals. These two actions are very impressive and beneficial." from FGD with DMC members at Khuteni, Kapilvastu District, Nepal24 | P a g e
  • c. Established emergency fund Each DMC at project communities established an emergency fund through small initiatives like encouraging nominal monthly savings and running a “fistful-of-rice” campaign. They also raised money by collecting levies from sand and boulders extractors, charging fees to watch street dramas, and encouraging donations to cultural programmes. Street drama is an important way of Table 3: Status of emergency fund communicating key DMC VDC Total Sources of emergency fund fund Own NDRC VDC* Others messages to illiterate Dhaneshpur Motipur 32000 12000 10000 NA 10000 communities. Locals said Khuteni Kopuwa 21000 9000 10000 NA 2000 they found street drama Jeetpur Banganga 17000 7000 10000 NA 0 effective in Kushma Niglihawa 16000 6000 10000 NA 0 communicating useful Source: Project records, 2011, *VDC-Committed after VDC Council meeting in April 2012 information about DRR initiatives. Since dramas were presented in the local language by trained local people, they were lively and their messages accessible. Street drama has not only increased awareness among audiences but has also provided performers with the skills they need to implement DRR. They now feel that they are well prepared for floods. In fact, during a recent flood, performers were able to help evacuate and provide other assistance to their communities just as they had demonstrated on stage. Spectators also feel well-informed. They thought the plays were memorable and that their messages were clear. In particular, they appreciated the fact that dialogues were delivered in local dialects. DMCs are becoming increasingly DMCs are awarded institutionalised "DMCs are becoming increasingly institutionalised. They have received the office stationery they need as well as a tin trunk to keep it safe from pests and moisture. For formal correspondence with the local and district levels, they have stamps and letter pads. All DMCs have installed sign boards to enhance their visibility. They also have search and rescue materials and a first aid kit. They were provided with NRs. 10,000 in seed money by NDRC Nepal and with it have opened a bank account, into which they regularly deposit some amount to serve as an emergency fund. Because of local- and district-level advocacy, we (DMC members of Bagaha Tole) have built rapport with district line agencies which will serve to foster new avenues in building reciprocal relationships." from FGD with DMC members at Bagaha Tole, Kapilvastu District, Nepal Video documentaries can sometimes galvanise viewers into reducing disaster risks. Using their emergency funds, each DMC organized to show documentary films about the various coping mechanisms people in highrisk situations adopt. Like street drama, videos successfully generated awareness among illiterate people. Some of the particular risk reduction activities the videos communicated well and that have been emulated on the ground include the enforcement of rules like zero grazing and the practice of agro forestry-based income-generating activities.25 | P a g e
  • The establishment of emergency funds has promoted greater social integration, not just in terms of individual communities being able to cope with their own problems, but also in that they are committed to providing support to other vulnerable communities. The communities are so convinced of the benefits of the emergency funds that they have developed other fundraising techniques, including using cultural events and planning to sell plants from community nurseries. Neighboring communities have also been inspired to collect funds to repair and maintain water supply systems and to carry out mitigation work. Result 5: Government allocates money for and supports disaster response activities in at least four VDCs a. Enhanced coordination and linkages The activities of DMCs are not limited within their communities; they have started to form and strengthen DMC networks for advocacy, lobbying and campaigning. DMC members visited VDCs and the Kapilvastu DDC to mobilise external resource and got a green signal from them. DMCs are increasingly able to mobilise internal resources as well. For example, they approached community forest users groups and the Kapilvastu district forest and district soil conservation offices to get the seedlings and technical advice they needed to bioengineer a spur; Kapilvastu District Agriculture Office to select climate-resilient crops; the media to disseminate information; and local cooperatives to investing more money in climate-smart cropping patterns. Projects results being shared with LDO Kapilvastu is in the process of CDO of Kapilvastu interested to district agencies delivering closing remarks learn more after the workshop The impacts of DMCs are no longer limited within their communities as they have started to form and strengthen DMC networks and to carry out advocacy, lobbying and campaigning. The culture of organising people‟s delegations to demand action for the good causes is increasing. The DMC of Niglihawa, for example, formed a national delegation to demand that the government address riverbank protection works, and progress in that area has been very positive. The project collaborated with the Kapilvastu Agro-Forestry and Environment Committee in Niglihawa VDC to carry out is school retrofitting and community plantation initiatives.26 | P a g e
  • DMC member are busy in DMCs have good working relationship with VDC preparing Plan to submit VDC "One of the most important supports that the project provided was that it linked us with VDC secretaries. Since it invited all the VDC secretaries to the closing session of the community- based disaster preparedness trainings, we have been able to build rapport with them and to table our plans and programmes for internal resource mobilisation. In their closing remarks, VDC secretaries requested that we follow a systematic process (including application letters, plans and programmes, copies of meeting minutes, etc.) to claim resources. We think that the increased harmony among us will foster new avenues for building relationships." from FGD with DMC members at Kushma, Kapilvastu District, Nepal All the results discussed above contribute to flagship areas 1, 2, 4 and 5 of the NSDRM as well as to priorities 1, 3, 4 and 5 of the HFA. 2.2 Unintended results Persuaded by the recommendations of the Kapilvastu District Disaster Relief Commitee, a USAID high-level mission visited the projects sites to gather ideas and exchange learning regarding community-based DRR and CCA initiatives. Inspired by the functional coordination and linkages, DMCs are planning to carry out advocacy and campaigns for making villages free of the burning of cow dung and free of open defecation. They promoted jatropha cultivation and green fencing along the riverbank in order to reduce the high rate of soil erosion. 2.3 Actual or potential deviation from the original plans and schedules, the reasons for it, and the action taken or proposed to be taken to correct it There is one minor deviation from the original plan: when NRs. 19,701 remained unspent towards the end of project period, that amount was used to purchase search and rescue materials and first aid kits for school-based DMCs based on the decisions of DMCs. 3. Gender equality and social inclusion The project adopted a gender equality and social inclusion approach in order to accommodate the concerns and interests of people from different walks of lives. People27 | P a g e
  • from different castes, classes, and genders participated in the decision-making processes which saw various project activities selected. As discussed in Section 2.4, inclusive DMCs accommodated the needs of the most vulnerable populations, especially women and children. As a result, women are now more vocal and childrens ideas are starting to be heard by adults. For the first time, children asked school management committees to address their rights and demanded a safer school environment. The project believes fostering gender and social inclusion is a community empowerment process that can change the mindset of communities as well as of important stakeholders. Women, who were once largely neglected in all development endeavors, are now in the front, well represented in decision-making committees. Their participation, as well as that of previously marginalized Dalits and Tharus, was a priority in all interventions, from trainings and meetings to study tours and inter-community visits. IEC materials were also designed with inclusiveness in mind to increase participation of women, build knowledge and promote confidence. People with disabilities (PwDs) are among the most vulnerable groups in society: disaster responses frequently do not meet their needs or rights and often exclude them altogether. There is much more need to raise awareness among DRR stakeholders about PwDs, especially given that some were refused assistance for evacuation and relief during the flood. Ramp has been constructed in Shree Secondary School to access PwD. Women are now participated in decision Women are at the making process "Because of the project’s various capacity-building initiatives, women are more vocal, unlike earlier, when they did not speak their minds with their male partners. Their ideas have started to be acknowledged. Male partners have also been more supportive towards women. Now men allow women to join community meetings and interactions. In addition, DMCs mobilised the disabled, the elderly, and lactating mothers as special needs groups in any emergency." from FGD with DMC members at Khuteni, Kapilvastu District, Nepal Women, Dalits and ethnic minorities were selected to participate in local orientations, trainings, workshops, PVA exercises and discussion forums. In each event, women‟s participation ranged from 37% to 61% and the participation of Dalits and janajatis ranges from 35% to 76%. The rights of all people are duly acknowledged and protected through appropriate plans and programmes. Project activities are designed and materials are chosen in such a way that they will not have negative impacts on local environments. The two sites in which bio-engineering spurs were created were selected at a joint meeting of DMCs so that they would not affect the other side of the river. The bio-engineering technology and materials used, including bamboo, plants, seedlings, saplings, sand, jute, and sand bags, have been used safely without hampering the local system and environment. Bamboo was collected from different sites with a view toward minimising any possible negative impacts. The plantation of greenery in and around the bamboo spurs created positive impacts on the local environment. Environmental aspects are considered while choosing climate-smart crops and cropping28 | P a g e
  • patterns. Farmers have adopted an organic farming system and integrated pest management to ensure farm productivity. The demonstration plots established also duly considered environmental aspects. Construction materials for school retrofitting were collected from safe areas designated by Kushma DMC. 4. Sustainability The following evidences suggest that the project can be sustained in the long term.  Socially-inclusive DMCs are in place to oversee day-to-day DRR and climate change adaptation initiatives. Local-level stakeholders are very positive about the plans and programmes each DMC has developed and have started to provide co-financing. The Kapilvastu DDC has asked each DMC to come up with innovative plans and programmes to scale up good practices generated from the project.  NDRC Nepal coordinates closely with SAGUN and IRDC, local NGOs well connected with irrigation and forestry federations and networks. Because of these links, there is ample opportunity to link DMCs directly to these networks in order to scale up their current initiatives. As SAGUN works on livelihood issues associated with DRR and climate change adaptation, it can provide DMCs with the technical support they need to upscale their activities even after the project comes to an end.  DMCs are in the process of being institutionalised. Each DMC has an account in a local bank where it deposits some amount every month to constitute an emergency fund. Each has administrative support (a letter pad, stamp, files, and stationery) so that it can claim its rights in a formal and systematic manner. Meetings have been regularised, participatory discussions operationalised, and plans made action-oriented. As the majority of the project‟s activities are low-cost, it is hoped that, in varying degree, DMCs will be able to continue implementing them.  The project is designed to fulfil people‟s needs and demands. Because most of the activities are local resource-based, people feel a strong sense of ownership of them and will likely continue to support the project‟s initiatives even after the project is phased out. 5. Partnership The project is not being managed as a stand-alone effort. On the contrary, attempts have been made to integrate it within an overall partnership programme framework in order to promote the sustainability of its good initiatives. The project has linked its activities with various stakeholders to secure local contributions and commitments towards achieving the expected results. The project has coordinates well with local NGOs like SAGUN and IRDC for advocacy and campaigning with respect to DRR and climate change adaptation issues. Through their formal coordination with community forest and irrigation user groups, DMCs have been able to leverage additional resources for their ongoing plans and programmes. In particular, the project collaborated with the Kapilvastu Agro-Forestry and Environment Committee in Niglihawa VDC to carry out the Shree Secondary School retrofitting and community plantation initiatives. Good partnership and collaboration with VDCs and the Kapilvastu DDC created and have sustained a positive environment throughout the life of the project.29 | P a g e
  • 6. Recommendations The overall context and key achievements made so far suggest some recommendations for capitalising on the projects good results and scaling-up its good practices.  The inclusive DMCs formed do, in fact, execute DRR and climate change activities, but they are still nascent and need more capacity-building and backstopping in order to be able to address the most contemporary of DRR and CCA issues. There also needs to be support for the institutionalisation of their emergency funds.  Though the DMCs are linked with local government agencies and other DRR networks, additional support is still required for the DMCs to establish, promote and strengthen their relations with other agencies, including corporate sectors. There is a need to develop an institutionalised mechanism which ensures that DMCs are accepted as an integral part of permanent district-level networks and feel that they will belong to those networks after the project phases out.  Communities have collected and deposited emergency funds in banks and agree that these funds will be used to support the survivors of future disasters. However, there is a need to develop common understandings and clarity about how these funds will be channelled, who will get how much, and how expenditures will be replaced. Since no fund has yet been used, the probable complications regarding their utilisation have not yet been felt though it is sure that there will indeed be problems. In order to avoid them, clear guidelines on the use of such funds should be developed and operationalised.  More emphasis needs to be placed on programmes rather than projects, and DRR and CCA initiatives should be linked with integrated watershed management plans in upstream areas, particularly the President of Nepals Churia Programme.  As this relatively small initiative had a great impact, some funding should be channelled into piloting the local adaptation plan of action (LAPA) process at the local level. The project‟s good practices need to be replicated in other VDCs of Banganga River Basin and its learning disseminated, and follow-up activities must be conducted in the project communities. DRR and CCA based rights-based advocacy and campaigning should be designed and executed to make Banganga River Basin a learning centre for DRR and CCA. 7. Major learning In the course of its implementation, the project derived the following lessons.  Efforts in social mobilisation and community empowerment are excellent because NDRC Nepal coordinated with local NGOs like SAGUN and IRDC, which coordinate well with irrigation and forestry federations. As a result, a strong synergy was created and the project was able to leverage additional resources.  The project succeeded in empowering communities because it used effective means of disseminating DRR messages, including street dramas, drills and DRR-based extra- curricular activities. Plays are especially good at teaching: because of their emotional appeal, they are very popular and their messages are remembered for long periods.  Grievances were few and apprehension minimal because the project adopted an appreciative inquiry approach. PVA exercises helped people realise the nature of and reasons for their vulnerability and sustainable livelihood and small-scale mitigation initiatives helped build trust.30 | P a g e
  •  The project is designed to suit people‟s needs and demands. Addressing multiple hazards in an integrated fashion captures the interest of people. Because most activities use local resources, are low cost, and have no adverse environmental implications, people feel a strong sense of ownership towards them. By honouring the social norms and cultural practices of locals, the project has been able to win their trust.  Sharing plans, programmes and mandates with project stakeholders and beneficiaries in the initial stages of the project heightens trust among project stakeholders. Displaying key project-related decisions and transactions in public places ensured that locals had adequate access to programmatic and financial information and by holding social audits at the end of each project activity programmatic and financial transparency was maintained. The level of co-funding required can be generated if interactions and dialogues are started with local-level stakeholders from day one and if transparency is maintained. 8. Security update Across the Terai and in Kapilvastu District in particular, the residual effects of Nepal‟s decade-long armed conflict, which began when the Maoist party rose against the government in 1996 can be seen. Following the signing of a peace accord in 2006, the general insecurity and lack of rule of law which pervaded saw the mushrooming of myriad small criminal and antagonistic politically-affiliated gangs. In Kapilvastu District, it is the Terai Jantantric Morcha party which has great influence, an influence which has only grown with the recent arrest of its chair, Mr. Chedi Sah, in August 2011. In addition, Tharuhat bandhs (closures of all public and private services, including roads and schools, called by politically active Tharus) regularly disturb locals. Ethnic, regional and religious prejudice is high and tolerance limited. Kidnapping and demands for ransom by unnamed gangs is commonplace. Despite the climate of mistrust between those who were born in the Terai and those who have migrated from the hills, all political groups wholeheartedly support the project because it maintains transparency and is accountable. The projects principles of „do-no- harm and „political neutrality‟ have also created a positive environment.31 | P a g e
  • National Disaster Risk Reduction Centre (NDRC Nepal) was established in 2003 and registered in 2007 by a group people who recognised that there was a need for contributing disaster risk reduction (DRR) and climate change adaptation (CCA) by knowledge management. It is registered with Kathmandu District Administration Office and affiliated with Social Welfare Council Nepal. NDRC Nepal has a pool of experienced human resources with expertise in the fields of good governance, DRR, CCA, the right-based approach, advocacy and campaigning, gender, and equity. It has reached DRR and CCA initiatives in 68 districts of Nepal. NDRC Nepal has been involved in following key actions and interventions with different national and international actors (Government of Nepal, NGO/INGO, UN and Bilateral Agencies in Nepal, and Academic Institution like Institute of Development Studies (IDS), and various institutions in South Asian Countries).  Need Assessment for DRR and Humanitarian Response  DRR Capacity Building Training  Specialized Study and Trainings on WASH, HIV and AIDS, SPHERE  Baseline; Knowledge, Attitude and Practice; Gap and Phasing Out Study  Manual for DRR, Participatory Vulnerability Analysis, CCA, Protection  Monitoring and Evaluation  Documentation of Good Practices and Lesson Learn Studies  Socio-Anthropological Studies and Action  Research on Climate Change and DRR32 | P a g e