Disaster Management  A Field Experience Ratna K. Bajracharya
Background <ul><li>Geophysical setting of Nepal - from 100 meter to 8,848 meter high Himalaya between 90-100 k.m. of north...
b}jL k|sf]k p4f/ P]g, @)#( cg';f/ ljleGg :t/df b}jL k|sf]k p4f/ ;ldltx?sf] u7g s]Gb If]q lhNnf :yfgLo
s]Gb|Lo b}jL k|sf]k p4f/ ;ldlt <ul><li>b}jL k|sf]k p4f/ sfo{ ;DaGwL gLltsf] th'{df ug{,  </li></ul><ul><li>sfo{qmd agfpg /...
s]Gb|Lo b}jL k|sf]k p4f/ ;ldltdf /xg] kbflwsf/Lx?   <ul><li>cWoIf u[x dGqL </li></ul><ul><li>;b:ox? cfjf; tyf ef}lts of]hg...
s]Gb|Lo b}jL k|sf]k p4f/ ;ldltsf] sfd st{Ao / clwsf/   <ul><li>-s_ b}jL k|sf]kaf6 c;/ k/]sf] OnfsfnfO{ ;+s6u|:t If]q 3f]if...
s]Gb|Lo b}jL k|sf]k p4f/ ;ldltsf] sfd st{Ao / clwsf/ <ul><li>-ª_ b}jL k|sf]k p4f/ sfo{ ug{ ;fdflhs ;+3 ;+:yfx?nfO{ ;lDdlnt...
If]qLo b}jL k|sf]k p4f/ ;ldlt   <ul><li>kbflwsf/Lx? M </li></ul><ul><li>cWoIf </li></ul><ul><li>If]qLo k|zf;s, If]qLo k|zf...
If]qLo b}jL k|sf]k p4f/ ;ldltsf] sfd st{Ao / clwsf/   <ul><li>-s_ b}jL k|sf]k p4f/ sfo{ ;DaGwL If]qLo :t/sf] gLlt th'{df  ...
lhNnf b}jL k|sf]k p4f/ ;ldlt   <ul><li>lhNnf b}jL k|sf]k p4f/ ;ldltdf b]xfo cg';f/sf ;b:o /xg] M </li></ul><ul><li>cWoIf <...
lhNnf b}jL k|sf]k p4f/ ;ldltsf] sfd, st{Ao / clwsf/ <ul><li>-s_ b}jL k|sf]k p4f/ sfo{x?sf ;DaGwdf :yfgLo ;ldltx? jLr  ;dGj...
lhNnf b}jL k|sf]k p4f/ ;ldltsf tLg r/0fsf sfo{x? @ b}jL k|sf]ksf] ;fdgf ! b}jL k|sf]ksf]   nflu k&quot;j{ tof/L # b}jL k|s...
b}jL k|sf]ksf nflu k&quot;j{ tof/L <ul><li>lhNnf b}jL k|sf]k ;DaGwL gLlt agfpg], </li></ul><ul><li>lhNnfdf b}jL k|sf]ksf 3...
b}jL k|sf]ksf] ;fdgf <ul><li>b}jL k|sf]ksf] a]nf c:yfoL a;f]af; u/fpg ;lsg]  :yfgsf] klxrfg u/L k|sf]k lkl8tx?nfO{  /fVg] ...
b}jL k|sf]ksf] k|efj Go&quot;gLs/0f <ul><li>ljsf; cfof]hgfx?df hf]lvdsf] d&quot;Nof+sg u/L k|sf]k Go&quot;gLs/0fsf pkfox? ...
District Level <ul><li>Most important for immediate response </li></ul><ul><li>Direction/order from Centre and Region </li...
The Fire Disaster of Pasupatinagar   <ul><li>A fierce fire broke on Phalgun 2058 </li></ul><ul><li>Cause (Short Circuit), ...
Flood Disaster of Janakpur <ul><li>A huge flood disaster occurred in Dhanusha on  Bhadra 2059 following a draught </li></u...
Flood Disaster in Chitwan <ul><li>10 VDCs of east and west Chitawan were badly affected by flood in Bhadra 2059 </li></ul>...
The Problems <ul><li>Legal: no regulation and working manuals  </li></ul><ul><li>Organizational: no/little early warning s...
Conclusion <ul><li>Clear cut legal provision should be made </li></ul><ul><li>Sectoral manuals should be prepared </li></u...
Thank You Very Much
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Disaster management

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Disaster management

  1. 1. Disaster Management A Field Experience Ratna K. Bajracharya
  2. 2. Background <ul><li>Geophysical setting of Nepal - from 100 meter to 8,848 meter high Himalaya between 90-100 k.m. of north to south </li></ul><ul><li>Common causes of disaster - Disproportionate rainfall distribution, pressure of increased population reflecting on unplanned and uncontrolled land settlement and improper land use, environmental degradation and rapid deforestation, mass poverty and unawareness </li></ul><ul><li>In Nepal disaster has become a regular casualty - flood, fire, landslides, earthquake, windstorm, hailstorm, lightening, draught and epidemics are the most recurrent disasters in Nepal </li></ul><ul><li>Every year the loss is enormous </li></ul><ul><li>Response system is unplanned </li></ul><ul><li>There are many gray areas in the legal system </li></ul><ul><li>Disaster management should be prioritized </li></ul>
  3. 3. b}jL k|sf]k p4f/ P]g, @)#( cg';f/ ljleGg :t/df b}jL k|sf]k p4f/ ;ldltx?sf] u7g s]Gb If]q lhNnf :yfgLo
  4. 4. s]Gb|Lo b}jL k|sf]k p4f/ ;ldlt <ul><li>b}jL k|sf]k p4f/ sfo{ ;DaGwL gLltsf] th'{df ug{, </li></ul><ul><li>sfo{qmd agfpg / sfof{Gjog ug{, tyf </li></ul><ul><li>cGo cfjZos sfd sf/jfxL ug{ u/fpg </li></ul>
  5. 5. s]Gb|Lo b}jL k|sf]k p4f/ ;ldltdf /xg] kbflwsf/Lx? <ul><li>cWoIf u[x dGqL </li></ul><ul><li>;b:ox? cfjf; tyf ef}lts of]hgf dGqL, :jf:Yo dGqL </li></ul><ul><li>;lrjx?, cy{ dGqfno, /Iff dGqfno, u[x dGqfno, k//fi6« dGqfno, >d tyf oftfoft dGqfno, hn>f]t dGqfno, ;~rf/ dGqfno, jg tyf e&quot;;+/If0f dGqfno, dlxnf, jfnjflnsf tyf ;dfh sNof0f dGqfno, pBf]u, jfl0fHo tyf cfk&quot;lt{ dGqfno / /fli6«o of]hgf cfof]usf] ;lrjfno </li></ul><ul><li>pk/yL, zfxL g]kfnL h+uL c88f </li></ul><ul><li>k|x/L dxflg/LIfsx?, </li></ul><ul><li>k|ltlglw, ;dfh sNof0f kl/ifb, g]kfn /]8qm; ;f];fO6L / g]kfn :sfp6 </li></ul><ul><li>dxflgb]{zsx?, vfgL tyf e&quot;ue{ ljefu / hn jfo' lj1fg ljefu </li></ul><ul><li>>L % sf] ;/sf/af6 dgf]lgt nAw k|ltli7t b'O{ AolQmx? </li></ul><ul><li>;b:o ;lrj </li></ul><ul><li>;x;lrj, -b}=k|=p=_ ;DaGwL sfd x]g]{, u[x dGqfno </li></ul><ul><li>s]Gb|Lo ;ldltn] b}jL k|sf]kaf6 k|efljt lhNnfaf6 k|ltlglwTj ug]{ ;DalGwt ;f+;bnfO{ ;ldltsf] j}7sdf cfdGq0f ug]{ . </li></ul>
  6. 6. s]Gb|Lo b}jL k|sf]k p4f/ ;ldltsf] sfd st{Ao / clwsf/ <ul><li>-s_ b}jL k|sf]kaf6 c;/ k/]sf] OnfsfnfO{ ;+s6u|:t If]q 3f]if0ff ug{ >L % sf] ;/sf/nfO{ l;kmfl/; ug]{, </li></ul><ul><li>-v_ b}jL k|sf]ksf] lgoGq0f, /f]syfd / tT;DaGwL k&quot;j{ tof/L / b}jL k|sf]kaf6 kLl8t hgtfsf] k'/:yf{kgf tyf b}jL k|sf]kaf6 c;/ k/]sf] If]qsf] k'glgdf{0f cflb p4f/ sfo{ ;DaGwL /fli6«o gLltsf] th&quot;{df ug{ tyf ;f] gLlt cg';f/sf] sfo{qmd jgfO{ >L % sf] ;/sf/ ;dIf k]z ug]{, </li></ul><ul><li>-u_ v08 -v_ adf]lhdsf gLlt tyf sfo{qmd >L % sf] ;/sf/af6 :jLs[t ePkl5 sfof{Gjog ug]{ u/fpg], </li></ul><ul><li>-3_ s]Gb|Lo b}jL k|sf]k ;xfotf sf]ifaf6 g]kfn clw/fHoleq tyf aflx/af6 k|fKt ;xfotf /sd, vfBfGg, nQf sk8f, cf}ifwL, lgdf{0f ;fdu|L tyf cGo j:t'x? ;'/lIft;fy /fVg] / ;f] sf]ifaf6 To:tf] j:t'x? cfjZostfg';f/ ;+s6u|:t If]qdf b}jL k|sf]k p4f/ sfo{sf] nflu k7fpg], </li></ul>
  7. 7. s]Gb|Lo b}jL k|sf]k p4f/ ;ldltsf] sfd st{Ao / clwsf/ <ul><li>-ª_ b}jL k|sf]k p4f/ sfo{ ug{ ;fdflhs ;+3 ;+:yfx?nfO{ ;lDdlnt u/fpg] / tL ;+3 ;+:yfx?sf] sfd sf/jfO{df ;dGjo sfod ug]{, </li></ul><ul><li>-r_ b}jL k|sf]k p4f/ sfo{df ;xof]usf] nflu 6f]nLx? u7g u/L ;+s6u|:t If]qdf k7fpg], </li></ul><ul><li>-5_ lhNnf ;ldlt tyf :yfgLo ;ldltnfO{ p4f/ sfo{ ug{] u/fpg] ;DaGwdf lgb]{zg lbg], </li></ul><ul><li>-h_ b}jL k|sf]k p4f/ sfo{x?sf] sfof{Gjog ;DaGwdf >L % sf] ;/sf/n] tf]s]sf] cGo sfdx? ug]{, </li></ul><ul><li>-em_ >L % sf] ;/sf/nfO{ ;do ;dodf sfo{ k|ultsf] ljj/0f lbg] . </li></ul>
  8. 8. If]qLo b}jL k|sf]k p4f/ ;ldlt <ul><li>kbflwsf/Lx? M </li></ul><ul><li>cWoIf </li></ul><ul><li>If]qLo k|zf;s, If]qLo k|zf;g sfof{no </li></ul><ul><li>;b:ox? </li></ul><ul><li>zfxL g]kfnL ;]gfsf :yfgLo aflxgLklt, If]qLo k|x/L sfof{nosf k|d'v, If]qLo :jf:Yo lgb]{zgfnosf k|d'v, If]qLo ;8s lgb]{zgfnosf k|d'v, If]qLo l;+rfO{ lgb]{zgfnosf k|d'v, vfg]kfgL / ;/;kmfO{ l8lehgsf k|d'v, If]qLo jg lgb]{zgfno k|d'v, ;dfh;]jL dWo]af6 cWoIfn] tf]s]sf] @ hgf, g]kfn /]8qm; ;f];fO6Lsf] If]qLo :t/sf k|ltlglw / g]kfn :sfp6sf] If]qLo :t/sf k|ltlglw </li></ul><ul><li>;b:o ;lrj </li></ul><ul><li>pk If]qLo k|zf;s, If]qLo k|zf;g sfof{no </li></ul>
  9. 9. If]qLo b}jL k|sf]k p4f/ ;ldltsf] sfd st{Ao / clwsf/ <ul><li>-s_ b}jL k|sf]k p4f/ sfo{ ;DaGwL If]qLo :t/sf] gLlt th'{df ug]{ tyf tT;DaGwL sfo{qmd agfpg], </li></ul><ul><li>-v_ b}jL k|sf]k p4f/ sfo{x?sf ;DaGwdf lhNnf ;ldltx? jLr ;dGjo ug]{ u/fpg], </li></ul><ul><li>-u_ b}jL k|sf]k p4f/ sfo{x?sf] ;DaGwdf s]Gb|Lo ;ldltnfO{ ;do ;dodf hfgsf/L lbg], </li></ul><ul><li>-3_ s]Gb|Lo ;ldltsf] lgb]{zg cg';f/ sfo{x? ug]{ . </li></ul>
  10. 10. lhNnf b}jL k|sf]k p4f/ ;ldlt <ul><li>lhNnf b}jL k|sf]k p4f/ ;ldltdf b]xfo cg';f/sf ;b:o /xg] M </li></ul><ul><li>cWoIf </li></ul><ul><li>k|d'v lhNnf clwsf/L </li></ul><ul><li>;b:ox? </li></ul><ul><li>/fli6«o :t/sf /fhg}lts bnsf lhNnf :t/Lo k|ltlglwx?, zfxL g]kfnL ;]gf :yfgLo OsfO{sf k|d'v, lhNnf k|x/L sfof{nosf k|d'v, hg:jf:Yo sfof{no–c:ktfnsf k|d'v, g]kfn /]8qm; ;f];fO6L lhNnf sfo{ ;ldltsf k|ltlglw, cfjf; tyf zx/L ljsf; sfof{no / vfg]kfgL sfof{nosf Ol~hlgo/x?, l;+rfO{ sfof{no / lhNnf jg sfof{nosf k|d'vx?, s[lif ljsf; a}+s / g]kfn vfB ;+:yfg lhNnf zfvfsf k|d'vx?, lhNnfsf k|ltli7t ;dfh ;]jL </li></ul><ul><li>;b:o ;lrj </li></ul><ul><li>:yfgLo ljsf; clwsf/L </li></ul><ul><li>k|d'v lhNnf clwsf/Ln] cfjZos 7fg]df lhNnfsf cGo s'g} sfof{no k|d'vnfO{ a}7sdf cfdGq0f ug{ ;Sg] . </li></ul>
  11. 11. lhNnf b}jL k|sf]k p4f/ ;ldltsf] sfd, st{Ao / clwsf/ <ul><li>-s_ b}jL k|sf]k p4f/ sfo{x?sf ;DaGwdf :yfgLo ;ldltx? jLr ;dGjo ug]{ u/fpg], </li></ul><ul><li>-v_ b}jL k|sf]k p4f/ sfo{ ;DaGwL lhNnf :t/Lo of]hgf th'{df u/L To:tf] of]hgf If]qLo ;ldltdf k]z ug]{, </li></ul><ul><li>-u_ :yfgLo ;ldltx?af6 eP u/]sf] b}jL k|sf]k p4f/ sfo{x?sf] /]vb]v ug]{ / eO{ /x]sf] b}jL k|sf]k p4f/ sfo{df 6]jf k'¥ofpg], </li></ul><ul><li>-3_ b}jL k|sf]k p4f/ sfo{sf] ;DaGwdf If]qLo ;ldltnfO{ ;do ;dodf hfgsf/L lbg], </li></ul><ul><li>-ª_ s]Gb|Lo ;ldlt / If]qLo ;ldltsf] lgb]{zfg';f/ sfo{x? ug]{ . </li></ul>
  12. 12. lhNnf b}jL k|sf]k p4f/ ;ldltsf tLg r/0fsf sfo{x? @ b}jL k|sf]ksf] ;fdgf ! b}jL k|sf]ksf] nflu k&quot;j{ tof/L # b}jL k|sf]ksf] k|efj Go&quot;gLs//0f
  13. 13. b}jL k|sf]ksf nflu k&quot;j{ tof/L <ul><li>lhNnf b}jL k|sf]k ;DaGwL gLlt agfpg], </li></ul><ul><li>lhNnfdf b}jL k|sf]ksf 36gf x'g ;Sg] :yfgsf] klxrfg ug]{, </li></ul><ul><li>b}jL k|sf]k Aoj:yfkg ;DaGwL tflnd sfo{qmd ;~rfng ug]{ </li></ul><ul><li>-vf; u/L hgr]tgf clea[l4 ug]{ vfnsf sfo{qmdx? </li></ul><ul><li>;~rfng ug]{_, </li></ul><ul><li>;&quot;rgf ;+sngnfO{ e/kbf]{ t'Nofpg], </li></ul><ul><li>p4f/ tyf /fxt ;fdu|Lsf] Aoj:yf u/L /fVg], </li></ul><ul><li>p4f/ tyf /fxt ;fdu|Lsf] ;+u|x ug{ e08f/ u[x lgdf{0f ug]{ . </li></ul>
  14. 14. b}jL k|sf]ksf] ;fdgf <ul><li>b}jL k|sf]ksf] a]nf c:yfoL a;f]af; u/fpg ;lsg] :yfgsf] klxrfg u/L k|sf]k lkl8tx?nfO{ /fVg] Aoj:yf ldnfpg], </li></ul><ul><li>;f] :yfgdf ;+rf/sf] l:ylt, :jf:Yo, vfg]kfgL / kf]if0f h:tf s'/fx?sf] n]vfhf]vf Pj+ th'{df ug]{, </li></ul><ul><li>u}/ ;/sf/L ;+3, ;+:yfx?, ;dfh ;]jL, ;fdflhs tyf /fhg}lts sfo{stf{x?, :s&quot;nsf ljBfyL{x? / hg ;fwf/0f ;d]t Ps h'6 eO{ ;xof]u ug]{ . </li></ul>
  15. 15. b}jL k|sf]ksf] k|efj Go&quot;gLs/0f <ul><li>ljsf; cfof]hgfx?df hf]lvdsf] d&quot;Nof+sg u/L k|sf]k Go&quot;gLs/0fsf pkfox? cjnDjg ug{ nufpg], </li></ul><ul><li>u}/ ;/sf/L ;+:yfx?sf] e&quot;ldsf, :yfgLo ;d'bfon] k'¥ofpg ;Sg] of]ubfgsf] af/] cu|Ld hfgsf/L /fVg], </li></ul><ul><li>b}jL k|sf]k ;DaGwL ;&quot;rgf ;+sng u/L cBfjlws l:yltdf /fVg], </li></ul><ul><li>gbL sLgf/f, le/fnf] tyf To:t} k|sf/sf k|fs[lts k|sf]kn] k|efljt kfg{ ;Sg] :yfgx?df j;f]jf; ug{ glbg] . </li></ul>
  16. 16. District Level <ul><li>Most important for immediate response </li></ul><ul><li>Direction/order from Centre and Region </li></ul><ul><li>Expectation from local level </li></ul>
  17. 17. The Fire Disaster of Pasupatinagar <ul><li>A fierce fire broke on Phalgun 2058 </li></ul><ul><li>Cause (Short Circuit), vulnerability - wooden houses, plastic and polyaster goods and paints </li></ul><ul><li>32 Houses totally turned into ash </li></ul><ul><li>6 Houses were partially damaged </li></ul><ul><li>More than 100 family directly affected </li></ul><ul><li>A total loss of 500 Million Rupees </li></ul><ul><li>Good news (nobody killed/injured) </li></ul><ul><li>It took 3 hours to send fire brigade from Ilam. </li></ul><ul><li>Fire Brigades from Ilam, Bhadrapur, Damak and Dharan </li></ul><ul><li>Help from Darjeeling Magistrate - fire brigade and water from Sukhiya Pokhari of India. </li></ul>
  18. 18. Flood Disaster of Janakpur <ul><li>A huge flood disaster occurred in Dhanusha on Bhadra 2059 following a draught </li></ul><ul><li>3 People killed several other injured </li></ul><ul><li>Hundreds of houses and hundreds of hectors of crops submerged into water </li></ul><ul><li>A number of families were affected </li></ul><ul><li>Good coordination with security forces in rescue of flood victims </li></ul><ul><li>Relief package from various NGOs </li></ul>
  19. 19. Flood Disaster in Chitwan <ul><li>10 VDCs of east and west Chitawan were badly affected by flood in Bhadra 2059 </li></ul><ul><li>53 people killed / several others injured </li></ul><ul><li>Hundreds of families displaced </li></ul><ul><li>Hundreds of houses and hundreds of hectors of crops submerged into water </li></ul>
  20. 20. The Problems <ul><li>Legal: no regulation and working manuals </li></ul><ul><li>Organizational: no/little early warning system, zero preparedness, ad hock planning, management by crisis vs. crisis management and lack of coordination </li></ul><ul><li>Practical: political pressure, favoritism, manipulation and injudicious relief </li></ul><ul><li>Financial: little program budget </li></ul><ul><li>Local: non-participation </li></ul><ul><li>People's perception </li></ul><ul><li>Relief not compensation </li></ul><ul><li>Rehabilitation : land is not easily available </li></ul>
  21. 21. Conclusion <ul><li>Clear cut legal provision should be made </li></ul><ul><li>Sectoral manuals should be prepared </li></ul><ul><li>Preventive and mitigative measures should be adopted </li></ul><ul><li>Code of conduct for the stakeholders should be made </li></ul><ul><li>Coordination should be enhanced </li></ul>
  22. 22. Thank You Very Much
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