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g]kfnh:tf ljZjsf w]/} d'n'sdf hnjfo' kl/jt...
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      hnjfo'                                             ...
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kl/jt{g xf] . v08ljz]ifsf] ¿kdf x]bf{ dxfb]zLo hnjfo'nfO{ If]qLo
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g} k[YjLdf af]6la¿jf x'sG5g, hLjhGt'sf nflu vfBfGgsf] pTkfbg x'G5
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g} a9L lhDd]jf/ /x]sf] / o; k|lqmofnfO{ lgoGq0f ug{ g;lsP hLjd08nn]
lgs6 eljiod} 7"nf] ;ªs6sf] ;fdgf ug'kg]{ j}1flgsx¿n] r...
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k|fs[lts ¿kn] kl/jt{g cfpg] u5{ . o; cj:yfdf k[YjLsf sltko
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tfkqmd j[l4 x'b} hfG5, kl/0ffd:j¿k hnjfo'df ljrng pTkGg eP...
hnjfo' kl/jt{gsf] k|efj
jftfj/0f ljgfz tyf cksif{0fsf sf/0fdWo] ;jf{lws rf;f]sf] ¿kdf
/x]sf] jfo'kbif0fsf] j[l4df cx+ e"ld...
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cGt/f{li6«o PsLs[t kj{tLo ljsf; s]Gb|n] xfn} ;fj{hlgs u/]sf] Ps
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kl/jt{gsf sf/0f ;g @)^) ;Ddf ljsl;t d'nsx¿df ux',F wfg /...
w/f]x/sf ¿kdf lrlgPsf j;Gtk'/, kf6g / eQmk'/ b/af/ If]qsf ;of}F
jif{ k'/fgf 3/ hf]lvddf k/]sf 5g . jfo' / jiff{sf] u'0f:t/...
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            "               ÷34
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5. climate change and disaster dks 5

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5. climate change and disaster dks 5

  1. 1. jftfj/0f k|bif0f / k|sf]k " ÷1
  2. 2. k|sf]k–1fgdfnf–% hnjfo' kl/jt{g / k|sf]k /fdrGb| Gof}kfg] jftfj/0f k|bif0f / k|sf]k " ÷2
  3. 3. s[lt M hnjfo' kl/jt{g / k|sf]k n]vs M /fdrGb| Gof}kfg] k|sfzs M jftfj/0f tyf afn ;/f]sf/ ;+:yf–g]kfn (ECO- Nepal) ;jf{lwsf/ M k|sfzsdf ;'/lIft ;+:s/0f M k|yd, c;f/ @)^$ ;ªVof M @,))) k|lt cfj/0f ;Hhf M /d]z bfxfn d'b|s M lszf]/ ckm;]6 k|; -k|f=_ ln=, kmf]g M $#%!)$$ ] d"No M ?= %)÷– ISBN : 978-99946-927-5-0 k|sf]ksf] hf]lvd Go"gLs/0f tyf k|sf]ksf] ;fdgf ug]{ ;fd'bflos Ifdtf clej[l4sf nflu ;r]tg cleofgcGtu{t k|sf]k–1fgdfnf k|sfzgdf cf+lzs ¿kdf cfly{s ;xof]u ug]{ lgDg ;fem]bf/ ;+:yfx¿k|lt Osf]–g]kfn xflb{s cfef/ JoQm ub{5 M PS;gP8 g]kfn cS;kmfd hLaL g]kfn kf]= a= g+= ^@%&, sf7df8f}+, g]kfn kf]= a= g+= @%)), sf7df8f}+, g]kfn kmf]gM $$#^$&& kmf]gM %%@)%*^ kmofS;M (&&–!–$$!(&!* kmofS;M (&&–!–%%@#!(& j]e;fO6M www.actionaid.org/nepal j]e;fO6M www.oxfam.org.uk jftfj/0f k|bif0f / k|sf]k " ÷3
  4. 4. n]vssf] egfO hnjfo' kl/jt{g ljZjJofkL rf;f] / lrGtfsf] ljifo xf] . oBlk g]kfn / g]kfnh:tf ljZjsf w]/} d'n'sdf hnjfo' kl/jt{g, o;sf] sf/0f / k|efjaf/] Hofb} yf]/} dfq hfgsf/L /x]sf] 5 . jftfj/0f cksif{0fsf ljleGg ljifodf ljZjfJokL rf;f], ax; / 5nkmn w]/} klxn]b]lv rn]sf] eP klg hnjfo' kl/jt{gsf af/]df 5nkmn ePsf] w]/} ePsf] 5}g . t/ klg hnjfo' kl/jt{gsf] k|efj ljgfzsf/L / z[ªvnfa4 x'g] ePsfn] of] ljifo Hofb} ;+j]bgzLn / uDeL/ /x]sf] 5 . sfa{g 8fOcS;fO8, ldy]g, gfO6«fhg cS;fO8, hnjfik, Xofnf] sfa{g;h:tf ] xl/tu[x Uof; / cf]hf]g tx ljgfzs Snf]/f]kmn'/f] sfa{gh:tf cGo ljiffQm Uof;sf] pT;h{g lg/Gt/ a9]sf sf/0f ;"o{af6 k|fKt x'g] tfksf] 7"nf] c+z jfo'd08n / e";txd} /f]lsg] sf/0fn] k[YjLsf] tfkqmd j[l4 x'Fb} uPsf] 5 . tfkqmd j[l4af6 pTkGg eO/x]sf k|sf]khGo 36gfsf] cfj[lQ, k|j[lQ / Ifdtfdf lg/Gt/ j[l4 eO/x]sf] 5 . ljZjsf caf}{+ dflg;nfO{ :jR5 kfgL k|jfx ug]{ lxdIf]q cTolws dfqfdf klUnP/ s]xL bzsd} ljZjn] :jR5 kfgLsf nflu t8lkg' kg]{ cj:yf ;d]t pTkGg x'g] ;Defjgf a9]sf] 5 . hnjfo' kl/jt{g;DaGwL cGt;{/sf/L ;d"xn] hnjfo' kl/jt{gsf] qmd clxn]s} :t/df sfod /x]df cfufdL ;g @)%) ;Dd ljZsf Ps ca{ dflg; z/0ffyL{ aGg] r]tfjgL lbO;s]sf] 5 . hnjfo' kl/jt{gsf sf/0f s'g} If]qdf cltj[li6 eP/ hnpTkGg k|sf]ksf] j[l4 x'g], sltko If]qdf cgfj[li6 eP/ v8]/Lsf] ;fdgf ug'{ kg]{, jg:klt / k|f0fLsf] k'g?Tkfbg Ifdtfdf x|f; cfP/ k|fs[lts ;|f]t ;fwgsf] sdL x'g], d?e"dLs/0f tLj| x'g] / s[lif pTkfbg x|f; eP/ ef]sd/L a9g]nufotsf k|efjn] ljZj ;d'bfonfO{ cfqmfGt kfg]{ ;Defjgf b]lvPsf] 5 . hnjfo' kl/jt{gaf6 pTkGg x'g] k|efjn] k|sf]ksf 36gfdf j[l4 ub}{ To;n] d'n'ssf] cfly{s, k|fljlws, ;fdflhs, ;f+:s[lts ;+/rgfdf g} ljrng k}bf ug]{ ePsfn] To:tf k|lts"n k|efjsf] ;fdgf ug{ ;}4flGts ?kd} eP klg ;xof]u ldNg] ck]Iff ub}{ k|sf]k 1ffgdfnfsf] of] z[ªvnf tof/ ul/Psf] 5 . jftfj/0f cksif{0fs} Ps kf6f]sf] ?kdf /x]sf] hnjfo' kl/jt{g;DaGwL ;fdu|L ;dfj]z ul/Psf] o; k'l:tsfn] hnjfo' kl/jt{gsf ljifodf ;fdfGo hfgsf/L lbg] ck]Iff u/]sf] 5' . k|sf]k 1fgdfnf k|sflzt ug{ k|]/0ff k|bfg ug]{ PS;gP8 g]kfnsf l;lgo/ lydln8/ Zofd;'Gb/ 1fjfnL / cS;kmfd hLaL g]kfnsf sfo{qmd ;+of]hs lji0f'k|;fb v/]n tyf o;sf] z'4fz'l4 / ;fh;Hhfdf ;xof]u ug]{ Osf]–g]kfndf sfo{/t d]/f ;xsdL{ ldqx?k|lt wGojfb JoQm ub{5' . – /fdrGb| Gof}kfg] jftfj/0f k|bif0f / k|sf]k " ÷4
  5. 5. ljifo;"rL ljifok|j]z %–!) hnjfo' ^ df};d * hnjfo' / df};daLr leGgtf !) hnfjo' kl/jt{g !! jfo'd08nsf] ;+/rgf !#–!% jfo'd08nsf] juL{s/0f !$ jfo'sf] ;+/rgf !% hnjfo' kl/jt{gsf] sf/0f !&–!* ljZjJofkL tfkqmddf j[l4 !& xl/tu[x Uof;– tfkqmd j[l4sf] sf/s !& xl/tu[x Uof; pT;h{gsf] sf/0f !* hnjfo' kl/jt{gsf] k|efj !(–@# :yfgLo df};ddf c;Gt'ng @) kj{tLo kl/l:yltsLo k|0ffnLdf cksif{0f @) ;d'b| ;txdf j[l4 @! s[lifk|0ffnLdf k|efj @@ jg tyf jGohGt'df k|efj @# k'/ftflTjs ;Dkbfsf] ljgfz @# xfdLn] cfh}blv ;ts{tf ckgfpg' k5{ ] @$ hnjfo' kl/jt{gsf] k|efj Go"gLs/0fsf pkfo @%–#! cf}Bf]lus d'nsnfO{ bafa ' @% ;fd'bflos tyf JolQmut sfo{ @^ pk;+xf/ #! jftfj/0f k|bif0f / k|sf]k " ÷5
  6. 6. hnjfo' kl/jt{g / k|sf]k ljifok|jz ] k[YjL ;f}od08nsf u|xx¿dWo] Ps dfq hLjgof]Uo u|x xf] . pTklQsfnb]lv { g} o;sf] ef}ule{s, ef}uf]lns tyf cfGtl/s / afXo jftfj/0fdf lgoldt kl/jt{g cfO/x]sf] 5 . k[YjLnfO{ hLjgof]Uo u|xdf ¿kfGt/0f ug{ o; kl/jt{gn] lgs} 7"nf] of]ubfg lbPsf] 5 . kl/jt{gsf] o; k|lqmofdf jftfj/0fsf cGtlg{lxt tŒj jf 36saLr x'g] cGtlqm{ofåf/f jftfj/0fLo ;Gt'ng sfod /x]sf] x'G5 . k|fs[lts jftfj/0fdf x'g] o; k|sf/sf] kl/jt{g lgoldt t/ Hofb} ;':t ultdf x'G5 . o:tf] kl/jt{gsf] cg'ej dflg;n] g tTsfn} ug{ ;S5 g t b;f}F xhf/ jf nfvf}F jif{kl5 g} ug{ ;S5 . kl/jt{gsf] of] k|lqmof k':tf}k:tf ;b}{ hfg] ePsfn] cl3Nnf] lkF9Ln] cg'ej u/]sf] jftfj/0fLo F ' cj:yf kl5Nnf] lkF9Ln] cg'ej ug{ ;s]sf] x'bg . F} jt{dfg ;dodf k|fs[lts jftfj/0fdf tTsfn} k|efj kfg]{ k|ltlqmofTds 36sx¿ dfgjLo lqmofsnfksf sf/0f tLj| ¿kdf a9b} uPsf]n] jftfj/0fsf cjojx¿df cgk]lIft kl/jt{g b]lvg yfn]sf] 5 . kl/0ffd:j¿k P]ltxfl;s sfnsf] k':tf}k:tf;Dd klg ug{ g;lsPsf] jftfj/0fLo kl/jt{gsf] s'g} F ' klg cg'ej clxn] Ps} k':tfn] k|ToIf cg'ej ug{ ;Sg] cj:yf pTkGg eO;s]sf] 5 . hg;ªVof j[l4 / ljsf;df eO/x]sf] tLj| ultn] k|fs[lts ;|f]t / jftfj/0f k|bif0f / k|sf]k " ÷6
  7. 7. kl/l:yltsLo k|0ffnLdf rfk a9b} uPsf] 5 . ;g !*)) otf ljZjdf cfly{s ljsf;sf] k|lqmof tLj| ag]kl5 :jR5 jftfj/0fdf qmdzM x|f; cfPsf] 5 . @) cf}F ztfAbLkl5 cem lj:tfl/t ag]sf] cf}Bf]lus/0fn] k|fs[lts ;|ftsf] ljgfz ug{ / jfo'kbif0f a9fpg cu|ufdL e"ldsf v]nsf] ] |" ] 5 . snsf/vfgfdf k|oQm OGwgsf] hngaf6 pT;lh{t xflgsf/s Uof;, ' /;fogo'Qm kmf]xf]/d}nf / dfgjrfksf sf/0f ePsf] jgljgfz tyf ;|ftsf] ] clt pkof]un] jfo' k|bif0fsf] cj:yf lrGtfhgs aGb} uPsf] 5 . o; " jfo'kbif0fsf] tLj|t/ j[l4 g} hnjfo' kl/jt{gsf] k|dv sf/s b]lvPsf] 5 . |" ' kmn:j¿k hnjfo'df cgfof; cfO/x]sf] kl/jt{gn] df6f], xfjf, kfgLnufotsf jftfj/0fsf ;d:t tŒj;lxt dfgjLo ultljlwnfO{ g} ;ªs6fkGg agfpg yfn]sf] 5 . ljz]ifu/L sfa{g 8fOcS;fO8, sfa{g df]gf]cS;fO8, Snf]/f]kmn/f] sfa{g, ' ldy]gh:tf Uof;sf] clgolGqt pT;h{gn] jfo'd08nsf] k|fs[lts ;+/rgfdf kl/jt{g cfPsf] 5 . jfo'd08nsf] ;+/rgfdf cfPsf] cgk]lIft kl/jt{gn] jfo'sf] u'0f:t/df x|f; NofPsf] t 5 g}, o;n] ug]{ k|fs[lts sfo{ jf cGtlqm{ofdf klg c;Gt'lnt kl/jt{g cfpg yfn]sf] 5 . hnjfo'sf] oxL] c;Gt'lnt kl/jt{g jt{dfg ljZjsf nflu lgs} uDeL/ / r'gf}tLk"0f{ ;jfn ag]/ v8f ePsf] 5 . hnjfo' (Climate) jftfj/0fdf ljleGg tŒjx¿sf] ld>0f /x]sf] 5 . tL tŒjx¿sf] agf]6 ljleGg If]qdf km/s–km/s kfOG5 . lxdfn, kxf8, eL/kfvf, r§fg, pkTosf, efj/ tyf t/fO{ e"agf]6sf ljljwtfsf pbfx/0f x'g . oL ef}uf]lns ljljwtf;Fu} xfjf, kfgL, jg:klt, k|f0fLsf] cfsf/–k|sf/df klg leGgtf /x]sf] x'G5 . pRr lxdfnL If]q w]/} rL;f] x'G5 eg] xf]rf] pkTosf, a];L jf t/fO{df udL{ x'G5 . st} w]/} kfgL k5{, st} lxpF k5{ t st} F v8]/L . jftfj/0fdf /x]sf] xfjfkfgLsf] o;} ljljwtfo'Qm cj:yfnfO{ hnfjfo' elgG5 . k[YjLsf] ;du| hnjfo'nfO{ ljZjJofkL hnjfo' elgG5 . t;y{ k[YjLsf ljleGg If]qdf x'g] hnjfo'sf] ;du| cf};t kl/jt{g g} ljZj hnjfo' jftfj/0f k|bif0f / k|sf]k " ÷7
  8. 8. kl/jt{g xf] . v08ljz]ifsf] ¿kdf x]bf{ dxfb]zLo hnjfo'nfO{ If]qLo hnjfo' eg]/ lrlgG5 eg] / s'g} d'ns jf To;sf] lglZrt If]qsf] ' hnjfo'nfO{ :yfgLo hnjfo' elgG5 . dfgj a;f]af;sf If]qdf s'g jif{ slt jiff{ eof] < pRr tyf dWo lxdfnL If]qdf slt lxpF k¥of] < x'/Latf;sf] cj:yf s:tf] /Xof] < s'g jif{ slt tftf] a9of] jf 36of] < h:tf ljifo g} :yfgLo hnjfo'df cfpg] kl/jt{gsf ;"rs x'g . hnjfo'lj1x¿n] oLg} ;"rsx¿sf] ljZn]if0f u/L ;du| hnjfo'sf] cj:yf atfpg] u/]sf 5g . hnjfo'sf] ljt/0f k[YjLsf] ef}uf]lns ljt/0fcg';f/ leGg x'G5 . e"dWo/]vfdf cTolws udL{ x'G5 eg] To;sf] pQ/ / blIf0fL w|jtkm{ rL;f] a9b} hfG5 . ' hlt xf]rf] If]qdf uof] ;"osf] tfk TolQ g} a9L x'G5 / udL{ x'G5 . of] { xfdLn] cg'ej ul//x]sf] jf:tljstf klg xf] . hldgsf] prfO ;d'b;txb]lv | hlt a9b} hfG5 tfkqmd klg To;} cg'kftdf Go"g x'b} hfG5 . o; F k|lqmofdf e"ldsf] agf]6n] klg sfd ul//x]sf] x'G5 . ;"osf] k|sfz ;f]em} { kg]{ kxf8sf] Ps kf6f]df hlt tftf] jf udL{ x'G5, csf]{ kf6f]df To;sf] t'ngfdf sd tftf] cyf{t rL;f] x'G5 . k[YjLsf] ef}uf]lns agf]6 / tfkqmdsf] ljt/0fdf b]lvPsf] oxL ljljwtfn] jiff{sf] ljt/0fdf klg k|efj kf/]sf] x'G5 . o;af6 k[YjLsf ;a} If]qdf hnjfo'sf] ljt/0f c;dfg /x]sf] tYo :ki6 x'G5 . ;"oaf6 k[YjLdf cfPsf] tfkqmdsf] 7"nf] c+z k/fjt{g eP/ k[YjLsf] { jfo'd08naf6 aflxl/P/ cGt/LIfdf hfG5 . ;"oaf6 k[YjLdf cfPsf] tfk { ;f]l;g] / k/fjt{g eP/ jfo'd08naf6 aflxl/g] dfqfn] klg ljZjJofkL hnjfo'sf] cj:yfsf] klxrfg ;xh x'G5 . ;"oaf6 k[YjLdf cfpg] tfk { tyf k|sfzsf] k/fjt{gsf] kl/0ffd ef}uf]lns agf]6 / jfo'd08nsf] u'0f:t/ cg';f/ km/s–km/s x'G5 . k|sfzsf] k/fjt{g sd ePsf e"v08df tfkqmd a95 eg] k/fjt{g w]/} x'g] e"v08df tfkqmd sd x'G5 . sf7df8f}+ pkTosfdf tLg bzs otf udL{ lgs} a9gdf ;"oaf6 cfPsf] tfksf] ' { k/fjt{g Go"g x'b} hfg' g} xf] . o;sf] k|dv sf/0f jfo'kbif0fsf] j[l4nfO{ F ' |" dflgPsf] 5 . pkTosfsf] jfo'd08ndf xl/tu[x Uof;sf] dfqf a9b} uPsf sf/0f k/fjt{g x'g] k|sfz tyf tfk jfo'd08ndf ;f]l;t eP/ ;~ro x'gfn] udL{ a9]sf] lj1x¿sf] egfO /x]sf] 5 . sf7df8f}sf] jfo'kbif0fsf] F |" jftfj/0f k|bif0f / k|sf]k " ÷8
  9. 9. o; cj:yfdf ;'wf/ cfPg eg] oxfFsf] tfkqmd cem a9b} hfg]5 . ljZjsf cGo If]qdf klg oxL l:ylt b]lvPsfn] k[YjLsf] tfkqmd lg/Gt/ a9]/ hnjfo' kl/jt{gn] ljs/fn ¿k wf/0f ug]{ ;Defjgf b]lvPsf] 5 . xfd|f] ;dfhdf df};dnfO{ g} hnjfo' klg eGg] ul/Psf] 5 . To;}n] clwsf+z If]qdf df};d kl/jt{g eg]s} hnjfo' kl/jt{g xf] eg]/ a'‰g] ul/Psf] 5 . t/ df};d / hnjfo' Ps}h:tf] nfu] klg oL b'Odf lgs} { leGgtf /x]sf] 5 . k[YjLsf] tfkqmd j[l4sf] k|lqmof / hnjfo' kl/jt{gnfO{ /fd|/L a'‰g df};d / hnjfo'aLrsf] leGgtfnfO{ a'‰g' cfjZos x'G5 . df};d (Weather) xfdL v'nf cfsfzd'lg hGdG5f},F x'sG5f}F / hLjg latfpF5f}F . xfd|f] hLjg { lbg / /ftsf] ¿kdf rNg] ;dosf] rqm;Fu} rln/x]sf] x'G5 . lbg / /ft;Fu} hf8f], udL{, ;'Vvf jf v8]/L / jiff{sf] qmd rln/x]sf] 5 . slxn] afSnf] x':;' nfU5, slxn] cfsfz ;kmf eP/ 3fd nfUb5 . jfl/sf] ufpFdf 3g3f]/ jiff{ x'bubf{ kfl/k6Lsf] ufpFdf 606nfk'/ 3fd nfu]sf] x'g ;S5 . o;k|sf/ F} s'g} lglZrt 7fpFdf lglZrt ;dodf x'g] o:tf] ultljlwnfO{ g} df};d elgG5 eg] To;df b]lvg] lgoldt kl/jt{gnfO{ df};d kl/jt{g elgG5 . o;/L df};dL ultljlwn] 5f]6f] ;dodf lglZrt If]qdf dfq cfˆgf] k|efj b]vfPsf] x'G5 . df};dL ultljlwdf k|efj kfg]{ ljleGg tŒjx¿ 5g . tL tŒjdf cfpg] kl/jt{gnfO{ g} df};d kl/jt{gsf] ;"rs dfGg ;lsG5 . oL ljleGg tŒjx¿nfO{ tn ;+lIfKt¿kdf k|:t't ul/Psf] 5 M ;"o{ M ;"o{ k[YjLaf6 sl/a ( ca{ #) s/f]8 dfOn 6f9f cfsfzdf aln/x]sf] Uof;Lo lk08 xf] . ;"oaf6 k[YjLn] k|z:t k|sfz / tfk kfO/x]sf] { x'G5 . ;"osf] tfks} sf/0f k[YjLsf] df};ddf lg/Gt/ kl/jt{g cfO/x]sf] { 5 . ;"oaf6 k|fKt tftf]n] kfgLnfO{ jfikLs/0f u/fpF5 / Tof] cfsfzdf { k'u/ afbndf ¿kfGt/0f x'G5 . afbn rL;f] ePkl5 jiff{sf ¿kdf k'gM ] k[YjLdf emb{5 . k[YjL ;"osf] sIfdf 3'Dg] cfwf/df slxn] o;sf] blIf0fL { efudf udL{ x'G5 eg] slxn] pQ/L efudf udL{ x'G5 . To;}u/L ;"osf] { k|sfz k/]sf] If]qdf lbg / 5fofF k/]sf] If]qdf /ft x'G5 . o; k|lqmofaf6 jftfj/0f k|bif0f / k|sf]k " ÷9
  10. 10. g} k[YjLdf af]6la¿jf x'sG5g, hLjhGt'sf nflu vfBfGgsf] pTkfbg x'G5 { / hLjd08nsf ofjt lqmofsnfk ;~rfng x'G5g . To;}n] ;"onfO{ { df};dsf] dxŒjk"0f{ cªusf ¿kdf lnOPsf] 5 . jiff{ M ;"osf] tfksf sf/0f ;d'b,| gbL, tfntn}ofsf] kfgL tyf dfgjLo { pkof]udf cfPsf] kfgL afkm ag]/ cfsfzdf k'U5 / afbndf kl/0ft x'G5 . afbn lgs} dfly k'ukl5 lrl;g yfN5 / kfgLsf s0fdf kl/0ft x'G5 . oL ] kfgLsf s0fx¿ PsLs[t eP/ 3gTj a9]kl5 jiff{sf ¿kdf k'gM k[YjLdf emb{5 . o;/L k[YjLaf6 afikLs/0fsf dfWodåf/f cfsfzdf k'u/ ag]sf] ] afbn kfgLsf] s0fx¿df kl/0ft eP/ k'gM k[YjLdf emg'{ g} jiff{ xf] . of] hnrqmsf] lgoldt k|lqmof klg xf] . afbn M afbn jfo'd08ndf /x]sf] jiff{sf] k|dv ;|ft xf] . of] c;ªVo ' ] kfgLsf s0fx¿n] ag]sf] x'G5 . hnjfiksf] ¿kdf /x]sf oL s0fx¿ lr;f] x'b} hfFbf kfgLsf yf]kfdf ¿kfGt/0f x'G5 . c/af}F yf]kfsf ¿kdf of] kfgL F k[YjLdf embf{ 3g3f]/ jiff{ x'G5 . o:tf] jiff{ s]xL ldg]6b]lv s]xL lbg;Dd lg/Gt/ x'g ;S5 . ljB'tLo cf“wL M cfsfzdf nfu]sf] sfnf] afbnleq ljB'tLo ultdf u8ofªu'8ª ub}{ rNg] cfFwL klg df};dsf tŒjdWo] Ps xf] . o:tf] cfFwLn] ' xhf/f}F d]ufjf6 zlQm a/fa/sf] ljB'tLo pmhf{ pTkGg ub}{ 3g3f]/ jiff{ u/fpF5 . x'/Latf; M k[YjLsf s'g} 7fpFdf udL{ / s'g} 7fpFdf rL;f] x'G5 . tftf] If]qsf] jfo' xn'sf eP/ dfly p7g] / rL;f] jfo' To;tkm{ hfg] k|lqmof lgoldt ¿kdf rln/xG5 . of] g} xfjf rNg] k|dv sf/0f xf] . w]/} udL{ ' ePsf] If]qsf] jfo' tft]/ PsfPs dfly p7bf csf]{ If]qsf] xfjf 7"nf] j]usf ;fy To;tkm{ x'lQG5 / ljzfn x'/Latf;sf] ¿k wf/0f u5{ . To;}u/L ;fd'lb|s If]qdf x'g] lqmofk|ltlqmofsf sf/0f ljleGg k|sf/sf cfFwLt'kmfg pTkGg x'G5 . lxdkft M pRr lxdfnL If]qdf tfkqmd Go"g x'g] x'bf cfsfzaf6 /x]sf] F kfgLsf] s0f hd]/ a/km aG5 / k[YjLdf v:5 . o:tf] a/kmsf] jiff{nfO{ g} lxdkft elgG5 . :yfgLo df};ddf lxpFsf] lgs} 7"nf] dxŒj /x]sf] x'G5 . lxpFn] :yfgLo df};dsf] cNksfnLg kl/jt{gsf] :j¿knfO{ lgwf{l/t u/]sf] x'G5 . jftfj/0f k|bif0f / k|sf]k " ÷10
  11. 11. zLtnx/ / tftf] nx/ M lglZrt ef}uf]lns If]qdf lr;f] / tftf] xfjfsf] nx/ rNb5 . g]kfnsf] r'/] z[ªvnfeGbf blIf0ftkm{sf] t/fO{df dªl;/sf] clGtdb]lv df3sf] klxnf] ;ftf;Dd zLtnx/ rNb5 eg] j}zfv, h]7sf] udL{ dlxgfdf tftf] nx/ -n"_ rN5 . df};ddf b]lvg] o;k|sf/sf] rqmLo k|0ffnL Ps jif{sf] x'G5 . hf8f], udL{, jiff{ cflb Ct'cg';f/ rNg] x'bf o;nfO{ df};dL ultljlw elgG5 . t;y{ F s'g} lglZrt :yfgdf jiff{, afbn, x'/Latf;, lxdkfth:tf lgoldt ¿kdf x'g] k|fs[lts ultljlw df};dsf pbfx/0f x'g . hnjfo' / df};daLr leGgtf ;fdfGo a'emfODff hnjfo' / df};dnfO{ Ps} ¿kdf lng] ul/G5 . xfjf, kfgL, rL;f], tftf] cflb cj:yfnfO{ df};d / hnjfo'sf ¿kdf lng] ul/P klg oL b'O{ cj:yfaLr lgs} leGgtf kfOG5 . hnjfo' / df};daLrsf] leGgtf nfO{ lgDgcg';f/ lng ;lsG5 M df};d hnjfo' s]xL 306f jf lbgdf kl/jt{g Ps bzseGbf nfdf] ;dodf x'G5 . dfq kl/jt{gsf] cg'ej x'G5 . jfo'd08nLo ultljlwdf s]xL hnjfo'sf] ultdf tTsfn} ;dod} kl/jt{g x'G5 . kl/jt{g x'bg . F} %) jif{cl3, clxn] / %) clxn] s] x'b5 / ef]nL s] F} jif{kl5 b]vf kg]{ df};dL x'G5 eGg' df};d xf] . kl/jt{gsf] ;du| cj:yfn] df};d kl/jt{gn] hnjfo' hnjfo'nfO{ hgfpF5 . kl/jt{gdf k|efj kfb}g . { hnjfo' kl/jt{gn] ljZjsf] ;du| df};dL cj:yfdf kl/jt{g NofpF5 . o;k|sf/ :ki6 x'G5, df};d s'g} :yfg ljz]ifdf t'¿Gt} kl/jt{g x'g] jfo'd08nLo cj:yf xf] eg] df};ddf c;/ kfg]{ nfdf] ;do;Dd rNg] k|lqmof hnjfo' xf] . jftfj/0f k|bif0f / k|sf]k " ÷11
  12. 12. hnjfo' kl/jt{g hnjfo' nfdf] ;dosf] cGt/fndf kl/jt{g x'g] df};dsf] cf};t cj:yf xf] . s'g} :yfgsf] hnjfo' kl/jt{gn] ToxfFsf] k|fs[lts tyf dfgjLo ultljlwaf6 pTkGg x'g] k|efjsf] k|ltlglwTj u/]sf] x'G5 . jfo'd08n, hLjd08n, hnd08nh:tf k|fs[lts tŒjaf6 ag]sf e"ld, hn, jg:klt jf cGo h}ljs j:t' jf pmhf{h:tf k|fs[lts ;|ft / ;fwgsf] pkof]u ug]{ ] k|lqmofaf6 k|sl[ tsf] s'g} tŒjdf k|lts"n k|efj k5{ / kl/0ffd:j¿k hnjfo'sf] :yfgLo, If]qLo / ljZjJofkL cj:yfdf kl/jt{g cfpF5 . k[YjLsf] pTklQ sfnb]lv g} hnjfo'df lg/Gt/ kl/jt{g cfO/x]sf] 5 . s'g} :yfgsf] nfdf] ;dokl5 cf};t df};dL cj:yfdf ePsf] kl/jt{gsf] cg'el" t jf cg'ejn] g} hnjfo' kl/jt{gsf] ;ªst u5{ . kfgL kg]{ ] ;dodf kl/jt{g x'g,' lg/Gt/ cltj[li6 x'g' jf v08j[li6 x'g,' nfdf] ;do;Dd v8]/L kg',{ jfo'sf] cfb{tfdf Go"gtf cfpg' jf j[l4 x'g,' lg/Gt/ | tfkqmd a9b} hfg' / df};ddf cgk]lIft ljrng b]lvg'nfO{ g} j}1flgsx¿n] hnjfo' kl/jt{g dfg]sf 5g . hnjfo' kl/jt{gsf] P]ltxfl;s / jt{dfg cj:yfaLr ePsf cWoog– cg';Gwfg / ljZn]if0fn] w]/} klxn]bl] v g} hnjfo' kl/jt{g eO/x]sf] k|dfl0ft u/]sf] 5 . o;}sf] kl/0ffd:j¿k k[YjLn] s}of}F k6s lxd o'u / udL{] o'usf] cg'ej ul/;s]sf] 5 . k[YjLdf kl5Nnf] lxdo'u sl/a !* xhf/ jif{ klxn] ;dfKt ePsf] dflgG5 . k[YjLdf ePsf k|frLg hnjfo' kl/jt{g k|fs[lts ¿kd} ePsf] tyf of] kl/jt{g ;':t ePsf] x'bf hLjn] F To;nfO{ ;xg u/]/ cfk"mnfO{ kl/jlt{t hnjfo'df ;dfof]hg u/]sf] tYo j}1flgsx¿n] cWoog cg';Gwfgaf6 k|fKt u/]sf 5g . ljut !%) b]lv @)) jif{ klxn]sf] t'ngfdf clxn] hnjfo'df tLj| kl/jt{g cfPsf] 5 . k[YjLsf] jfo'd08nsf] tfkqmddf cgk]lIft ¿kn] j[l4 ePsf] x'bf k|f0fL tyf jg:kltsf s]xL k|hflt ablnFbf] jftfj/0f ;xg F ug{ g;Sg] cj:yfdf k'usf 5g . sltko hLj t k[YjLaf6 ;bfsf nflu ] nf]k klg eO;s]sf 5g . k[YjLsf] pi0fLs/0fsf sf/0f hnjfo'df ck|Tofl;t kl/jt{gsf ;ªst b]vf kl/;s]sf 5g . o;sf nflu dfgjLo lqmofsnfk ] jftfj/0f k|bif0f / k|sf]k " ÷12
  13. 13. g} a9L lhDd]jf/ /x]sf] / o; k|lqmofnfO{ lgoGq0f ug{ g;lsP hLjd08nn] lgs6 eljiod} 7"nf] ;ªs6sf] ;fdgf ug'kg]{ j}1flgsx¿n] r]tfjgL { lbO;s]sf 5g . hnjfo' kl/jt{g;DaGwL ;+oQm /fi6«ª3Lo sfo{bnsf cg';f/ ædflg;sf ' k|ToIf jf ck|ToIf lqmofsnfksf sf/0f ljZj–jfo'd08nsf] ;+/rgfdf cfO/x]sf] kl/jt{gnfO{ s'g} Ps ;dofjlwdf ePsf] k|fs[lts hnjfo' kl/jt{g;Fu t'ngf ubf{ b]lvg] leGgtf g} ljZj hnjfo' kl/jt{g xf] .Æ o;af6 :ki6 x'G5 dflg;sf lqmofsnfksf sf/0f pT;lh{t k|bifsåf/f " jfo'd08ndf kg]{ k|efjaf6 x'g] hnjfo' kl/jt{gnfO{ g} sfo{bnn] hnjfo' kl/jt{g dfg]sf] 5 . cyf{t kl/jt{gsf] dfgjLo sf/0f – k|fs[lts kl/jt{g = hnjfo' kl/jt{g ljZjJofkL hnjfo' kl/jt{gsf sf/0f w]/} /x]sf] x'G5 . o;df k|fs[lts / dfgjLo b'j} kIf lhDd]jf/ /x]sf x'G5g . e"d08n, hnd08n / jfo'd08ndf km}lnP/ /x]sf hLj / ltgLx¿sf] Jojxf/df cfO/x]sf] kl/jt{gn] hnjfo' kl/jt{gsf] oyfy{nfO{ k'li6 u5{ . oL ljleGg hLjnufot jfo'd08nsf] k|fs[lts ;+/rgfdf cfPsf] kl/jt{g g} hnjfo' kl/jt{gsf] k|dv ;"rs ' xf] . To;}n] jfo'd08nsf] ;+/rgf / To;df cfpg] kl/jt{g tyf k|efj kfg]{ tŒjsf af/]df hfGg' cfjZos x'G5 . Œ jftfj/0f k|bif0f / k|sf]k " ÷13
  14. 14. jfo'd08nsf] ;+/rgf k[YjLsf] afXo ;txdf jfo' cyf{t xfjf /x]sf] x'G5 . of] cb[io, uGw/lxt x'G5 . dflg; nufot ;Dk"0f{ hLjd08nsf] hLjg /Iffsf] of] cfjZos tŒj xf] . ;du| jfo'åf/f 3]l/Psf] cfsfznfO{ g} jfo'd08n elgG5 . oxL Œ jfo'd08ndf dflg;sf] hLjg /Ifs clS;hg klg /x]sf] x'G5 . jfo'd08n k[YjLsf] ;txaf6 ^)) b]lv ! xhf/ lsnf]ld6/;Dd km}lnPsf] 5 . jfo'd08n ljleGg k|sf/sf Uof; / tŒjx¿ ldn]/ ag]sf] 5 . jfo'd08nsf] sfo{k0ffnL ;f}ozlQmdf lge{/ /x]sf] x'G5 . ;"oaf6 k|fKt x'g] | { { zlQm–;~ro, cGtlqm{of tyf /f;folgs–of}lus k|ltlqmofåf/f jfo'd08nsf] ;Gt'ng sfod /x]sf] x'G5 . xfjf, x'/Latf;, cfFwLa]x/L, rqmjft, v8]/L, jiff{, cltj[li6 tyf cgfj[li6 x'g' jfo'd08nleq x'g] cGtlqm{ofs} kl/0ffd xf] . o; lqmofdf hnd08n, hLjd08n / :ynd08nsf] klg e"ldsf /x]sf] x'G5 . jfo'd08ndf x'g] o:tf ultljlwsf] k|efjaf6 g} df};dL cj:yf lgwf{/0f x'G5 . df};dL cj:yfsf] lgdf{0fdf hnjfo'sf] ;du| ult / kl/jt{gzLntfn]] dxTjk"0f{ e"ldsf lgjf{x u/]sf] x'G5 . jfo'd08nnfO{ ;Gt'lnt tyf lgoldt ug]{ sfo{df jftfj/0fsf ;Dk"0f{ tŒj plQs} lqmofzLn /x]sf x'G5g . dflg; tyf cGo k|f0fLn] Zjf;k|Zjf; Œ lqmofåf/f sfa{g 8fOcS;fO8sf] lj;h{g ug]{ tyf jg:kltn] k|sfz;+Zn]if0f k|lqmofåf/f sfa{g 8fOcS;fO8sf] pkef]u u/L clS;hg 5f]8g] k|fs[lts lgod jfo'd08nsf] ;Gt'ng k|lqmofsf] cleGg efu xf] . k[YjLdf ePsf h}ljs ;|f]t, kfgL, df6f], kxf8kj{t, jghªun, hgfj/ cflbaLrsf] cGt;{DaGw / cfk;L ;xcl:tTjn] jfo'd08nsf] cl:tTj rln/x]sf] 5 . o; sfo{df ;"osf] klg 7"nf] e"ldsf /x]sf] 5 . ;"oaf6 k[YjLtkm{ cfpg] { { k|sfz / ljleGg tŒjx¿ ldl>t ljls/0faf6 jfo'd08ndf k|fs[lts k|ltlqmof pTkGg x'G5 / To;sf] k|efj ;f]em} k[YjLsf k|f0fL, jg:klt tyf cGo ch}ljs j:t'df k5{ . o;qmddf jfo'd08nn] ;"oaf6 cfpg] clt { zlQmzfnL k/fj}hgL ljls/0fnfO{ lgoGq0f u/L To;n] k'¥ofpg] xflgaf6 jftfj/0fsf hLjsf] ;'/Iff k|bfg ul//x]sf] x'G5 . jfo'd08nsf] cl:tTj g} hLjd08nsf] cl:tTj xf] . slxn]sfxLF jfo'd08ndf jftfj/0f k|bif0f / k|sf]k " ÷14
  15. 15. k|fs[lts ¿kn] kl/jt{g cfpg] u5{ . o; cj:yfdf k[YjLsf sltko k|f0fLsf] cl:tTj ;ªs6df klg kg]{ u5{ . obfsbf ;f}o{ kl/jf/sf] u'¿Tjfsif{0fdf cfpg] kl/jt{g tyf ;f}o{ Hjf/ef6fh:tf lqmofsnfkn] jfo'd08ndf ;fdfGo / c;fdfGo b'a} ¿kdf kl/jt{g cfpg ;S5 . k|fs[lts sf/0f h] eP klg jfo'd08nsf] tLj| cksif{0f tyf k|bif0f " a9fpg] sfo{df dflg;sf] g} cxd e"ldsf /x]sf] 5 . of] cj:yfsf] l;h{gf uPsf] ztfAbLaf6 k|f/De ePsf] xf] . dflg;n] k|of]u ug]{ ljleGg h}ljs j:t' tyf cjz]ifLo OGwgsf] hngaf6 an]/ lg:sg] w"jfF, w"nf] / Uof;n] jfo'sf] u'0f:t/df x|f; cfO/x]sf] 5 . o;n] :jod dflg;n] ljleGg /f]usf] lzsf/ aGg'k/]sf] t 5Fb5, cGo hLj tyf jg:kltsf] cl:tTjdfly klg } cf3ft k'¥ofPsf] 5 . o;}sf] kl/0ffd:j¿k cgfj[li6, cltj[li6, v8]/L, x'/Latf;h:tf ljleGg k|fs[lts k|sf]ksf 36gfdf j[l4 eO/x]sf] 5 . aL;f}F ztfAbLdf jfo'kbif0fsf sf/0f jfo'd08nsf] tfk ;f]:g] zlQm a9b} | " uPsf]n] k[YjLsf] tfkqmd )=^ l8u|L ;]lG6u|8sf b/n] a9b} uPsf] 5 . ] o;n] w|jLo If]qsf] lxpF klUng] qmddf tLj|tf NofPsf] 5 . k|To]s jif{h;f] ' jfo'd08ndf t'jfFnf] nfu]h:tf] wldnf] eP/ ;"of]bo / ;"of{:tsf] ;'Gb/ { b[iodf klg kl/jt{g cfO/x]sf] 5 . o;sf cltl/Qm dflg;sf] 6f9f;Dd b]Vg;Sg] Ifdtfdf klg x|f; cfO/x]sf] kfOPsf] 5 . jfo'd08nsf] km}nfj6 slt 5 eg]/ 7ofSs} ls6fg ug{ ;lsFbg . tyflk } jfo'd08nsf] prfO hlt a9b} hfG5 jfo'sf] 3gTj klg TolQ g} sd x'b} F hfG5 . t/ Ps lglZrt prfOkl5 jfo'sf] 3gTj km]l/ a9g yfNb5 / cuf8L uPkl5 k'gM x|f; x'g yfNb5 . jfo'd08nsf] ljt/0fsf] o; ljljwtf ;Fu} jfo'd08nsf] prfO a9b} hfFbf tfkqmddf Go"gtf cfpFb} hfG5 . jfo'd08nsf] ;+/rgf / 3gTjsf] ljljwtf;Fu} To;sf] sfo{znLdf ;d]t } leGgtf /x]sf] x'G5 . sfo{ / o;sf] ljljwtfsf cfwf/df jfo'd08nnfO{ ljleGg txdf juL{s/0f ul/Psf] 5 . jfo'd08nsf] juL{s/0f jfo'd08nnfO{ lgDg kfFr efudf juL{s/0f ul/Psf] 5 M != cwf]d08n (Troposphere) : e";txaf6 sl/a * b]lv !% lsnf]ld6/ dfly;Dd km}lnPsf] jfo'd08nsf] 3gf txnfO{ cwf]d08n jf jftfj/0f k|bif0f / k|sf]k " ÷15
  16. 16. Iff]ed08n elgG5 . jfo'd08ndf x'g] *) k|ltzteGbf w]/} lqmofsnfk o;} txaf6 ;DkGg x'G5g . df};d aGg], kl/jt{g x'g,] cfFwL, t'kmfg rNg], afbn uh{gh:tf lqmofsnfksf ;fy} jiff{sf] jftfj/0f o;} txdf tof/ ] x'G5g . o; efudf prfO a9b} hfFbf tfkqmd klg 36b} hfG5 . To;sf/0f jfo'08nsf] of] tx k[YjLsf nflu ;jf{lws dxŒjk"0f{ dflgG5 . Œ @= ;dtfkd08n (Stratosphere) : cwf]d08nb]lv #% lsnf]ld6/ aflx/;Dd km}lnPsf] t'ngfTds ¿kdf jfo'sf] 3gTj sd ePsf] jfo'd08nsf] v08nfO{ ;dtfkd08n elgG5 . oxfFsf] tfkqmd ;fdfGotof dfOg; # l8u|L ;]lG6u|8eGbf sd x'G5 tfklg prfOsf] j[l4;Fu} tfkqmd klg a9b} ] hfg] s'/f atfOPsf] 5 . jfo'd08nsf] o; efudf k[YjLsf] vf; ;'/Iff sjr dflgg] cf]hf]g (O3) /x]sf] 5 . o;n] ;"oaf6 cfpg] xflgsf/s { k/fa}hgL ljls/0fnfO{ /f]Sg] sfd u5{ . #= dWod08n (Meshophere) : ;dtfkd08nb]lv aflx/ *% lsnf]ld6/;Dd k}mlnPsf] jfo'd08nnfO{ dWod08n elgG5 . oxfFsf] tfkqmd dfOg; (# l8u|L ;]lG6u|8eGbf sd x'G5 . oxfF ;"oaf6 cfpg] pmhf{ / ] { cf]hf]g txaLr åGåfTds k|ltlqmof x'G5 . $= cfogd08n (Thermosphere) : dWod08naf6 k|f/De ePsf] cfogd08nn] k[YjLaf6 sl/a ^ ;o lsnf]ld6/;Ddsf] If]qnfO{ 9fs]sf] 5 . ;f}o{ zlQmsf] k|ToIf k|efj kg]{ / jfo'sf] 3gTj Hofb} Go"g x'g] sf/0fn] o; txsf] tfkqmd a9]/ ! xhf/ & ;o @& l8u|L ;]lG6u|8;Dd k'U5 . o; ] If]qn] cGt/LIf If]qdf ljls/0fsf] lgoGq0f tyf /]l8of]t/ªusf] k/fjt{g u/]/ hLjd08nsf] /Iff u5{ . o;sf cltl/Qm oxfFsf] jfo'df /f;folgs k|ltlqmof ug]{ Ifdtf / ult Hofb} pRr x'G5 . $= afXod08n (Exosphere) : of] If]q jfo'd08nsf] ;a}eGbf dflyNnf] jf jfo'd08nsf] aflx/L v08 xf] . jfo'd08n;Fu ;DalGwt ;a} Uof; tyf tŒjsf] clGtd v08 / cGt/LIfsf] tNnf]] efunfO{ afXod08n elgG5 . Œ jfo'sf] ;+/rgf clS;hg, gfO6«fhg, xfO8«fhg, cfu{g, sfa{g8fOcS;fO8, lgcf]g, lxlnod, ] ] jftfj/0f k|bif0f / k|sf]k " ÷16
  17. 17. lqmK6f]g, cf]hf]g, h]gf]g / kfgLsf] afkm;d]tsf] ;lDd>0faf6 jfo'd08nsf] ag]sf] 5 . jfo'd08nsf] sl/a #)) lsnf]ld6/sf] prfO;Dd clS;hgsf c0f' kfOPtfklg %)) b]lv ^)) lsnf]ld6/eGbf dfly lxlnod / xfO8«fhgsf] ] dfqf w]/} x'G5 . To;sf/0f jfo'd08nsf] sl/a %) lsnf]ld6/;Ddsf] efu dfq hLjd08nsf nflu hLjgf]kof]uL x'G5 . k[YjLsf] ;'/Iff sjr dflgPsf] cf]hf]g txb]lv tNnf] efudf k[YjLsf] kl/l:yltsLo k|0ffnLsf nflu cfjZos kg]{ lqmof–k|ltlqmof x'g] x'Fbf oxfFsf] gfO6«f]hg, clS;hg, sfa{g 8fOcS;fO8h:tf Uof;Lo tŒjsf] e"ldsf dxŒjk"0f{ /x]sf] x'G5 . To;f] eP klg jfo'd08nsf] afXo txsf] dxŒjnfO{ xfdLn] la;{g x'bg . jfo'd08nsf] F} dflyNnf] txb]lv tNnf txx¿n] ug]{ sfo{ k|fs[lts ¿kd} lglZrt ePsf] x'G5 . j}1flgs cWoogcg';f/ jfo'd08nsf] ;Gt'lnt cj:yfdf tnsf lgDg Uof;Lo tŒjx¿sf] ld>0f /x]sf] x'G5 M gfO6«fhg ] &*=)) k|ltzt clS;hg @)=(% k|ltzt cfu{g )=(# k|ltzt sfa{g 8fOcS;fO8 )=)$ k|ltzt ljljw -lgcf]g, lxlnod, xfO8«fhg, cf]hf]g, cflb_ )=)* k|ltzt ] cfw'lgs ljsf;sf] o'u k|f/De ePsf] !* cf}F ztfAbLb]lv tLj| ult lnPsf] cf}Bf]lus ljsf;n] jfo'kbifs Uof;df j[l4 u/fPsf] 5 . vf;u/L sfa{g |" 8fOcS;fO8, gfO6«; cS;fO8, ldy]g, Xofnf]sfa{G;, ldy]gnufotsf Uof;sf] pTkfbg a9]/ oL Uof;n] ;"osf] bL3{t/ªuL tfksf] 7"nf] dfqf { ;f];/ cGt/LIfdf hfgaf6 /f]S5 / kl/0ffd:j¿k k[YjLsf] tfkqmddf j[l4 ] x'G5 . jftfj/0f k|bif0f / k|sf]k " ÷17
  18. 18. hnjfo' kl/jt{gsf] sf/0f ljZjJofkL tfkqmd j[l4 k[YjLsf] tfkqmd lg/Gt/ a9g' g} hnjfo'' kl/jt{gsf] k|dv sf/0f xf] . ' ljZjJofkL tfkqmd j[l4sf sf/0f jfo'd08ndf c:jefljs kl/jt{g ePsf] dflgPsf] 5 . jfo'd08ndf b]lvPsf] ToxL kl/jt{gn] ljZjJofkL ¿kdf hnjfo' kl/jt{g eO/x]sf] j}1flgsx¿n] lgrf]8 lgsfn]sf 5g . xl/tu[x Uof;sf] jfo'd08nLo txn] ;"oaf6 k[YjLtkm{ cfpg] k|sfz / { tfknfO{ e";tx;Dd cfpg lbG5 t/ k[YjLaf6 k/fjt{g eP/ aflxl/g] qmddf /x]sf] tfknfO{ /f]s/ cfkm"df ;~ro u5{ eg] tfksf] s]xL c+znfO{ ] k'gM k[YjLlt/} kmsf{OlbG5 . o;/L kmls{Psf] tfkn] k[YjLsf] ;fdfGo tfkdfgdf j[l4 u5{, h;nfO{ ljZjJofkL pi0fLs/0f elgG5 . tfkqmd j[l4sf] lgDg dfGotfn] ljZjJofkL pi0fLs/0fnfO{ ;xh ¿kdf a'‰g ;lsG5 M ljZjJofkL tfkqmd j[l4sf] cy{ k[YjLsf] ;txsf] tfkqmd a9g' xf] . ljZjJofkL tfkqmd j[l4 eg]sf] ;d'b;txsf] tfkqmd klg a9g' xf] . | ;d'bsf] t'ngfdf e"ldsf] tfkqmd a9g' ljZjJofkL tfkqmd j[l4sf] xf] . | ljZjJofkL tfkqmd j[l4sf] ;"rsfªssf ¿kdf pQ/L / blIf0fL uf]nf4{, lxd–;d'b| / lxdfnL v08sf] lxpF klUng] qmddf ePsf] j[l4 xf] . ;d'b;txsf] j[l4 / ;d'bsf] kfgL cgk]lIft ¿kdf jfikLs/0f x'g' | | klg ljZjJofkL tfkqmd j[l4sf] ;"rs xf] . c;fdfGo ¿kdf kfgL kg',{ af9L cfpg' jf v8]/L kg'{ klg ljZjJofkL tfkqmd j[l4sf] ;"rs xf] . xl/t u[x Uof;– tfkqmd j[l4sf] sf/s dfgjLo ultljlwsf sf/0f pT;h{g ePsf xl/tu[x Uof;sf] ;~ro jfo'd08ndf lg/Gt/ j[l4 eO/x]sf] sf/0f ljZjJofkL tfkqmddf j[l4 ePsf] tYo j}1flgsx¿n] ;fj{hlgs u/]sf 5g . xl/tu[x Uof;n] ;"osf] { tfk / k|sfznfO{ k[YjLdf cfpg lbG5 t/ k[YjLaf6 k/fjt{g eP/ hfg] tfk / k|sfznfO{ jfo'd08naf6 aflxl/gaf6 /f]sL cfkm}n] ;f];/ ;~ro F ] jftfj/0f k|bif0f / k|sf]k " ÷18
  19. 19. u5{ / s]xL tfknfO{ k'gM e";txtkm{ kmsf{OlbG5 . o;k|sf/ k[YjLsf] tfkqmd j[l4 x'b} hfG5, kl/0ffd:j¿k hnjfo'df ljrng pTkGg eP/ F k|lts"n kl/jt{gsf t/ªu km}lng yfN5g . xl/tu[x Uof; pT;h{gsf] sf/0f jfo'd0n ljleGg Uof;sf] ;+of]hgaf6 ag]sf] 5 h;df sfa{g 8fOcS;fO8, ldy]g, Xofnf] sfa{g, gfO6«; cS;fO8, hnjfik cflb xl/tu[x Uof; x'g . oL Uof;sf] dfqf a9g' eg]sf] e";txaf6 k/fjt{g x'g] tfk jfo'd08ndf ;~ro x'g] cj:yf pTkGg x'g' xf] . cfly{s ljsf;sf qmddf :yflkt pBf]u / oftfoftsf ;fwg rnfpg k|of]u x'g] vlgh t]n / sf]Onf, bfp/f, uf]a/sf u'O7fh:tf h}ljslk08sf] hngaf6 pTkGg x'g] sfa{g 8fOcS;fO8, F gfO6«fhg cS;fO8, kz'sf] dnd"q / wfgv]taf6 pT;h{g x'g] ldy]g, ] kfgLsf] cTolws pkof]usf sf/0f a9]sf] jfikLs/0f cflb xl/t u[x Uof; pT;h{gsf ;|ft x'g . xl/tu[x Uof; pT;h{gsf sf/0f o:tf 5gM ] k|dv sf/0f M sf]Onf, k]6f« n, l8h]n, d§Lt]nh:tf vlgh t]n / ' ] k|fs[lts Uof;sf] hng, cf}Bf]lus tyf k|fljlws ljsf; / k|ljlwsf] k|of]uaf6 xl/tu[x Uof; pT;h{g x'g' . o;/L pT;h{g x'g] k|dv Uof; ' sfa{g 8fOcS;fO8 xf], h;nfO{ k|dv xl/tu[x Uof; dflgPsf] 5, hnjfo' ' kl/jt{gdf sfa{g 8fOcS;fO8sf] ^) k|ltzt e"ldsf /x]sf] tYo j}1flgsn] lgsfn]sf 5g . dfWolds sf/0f M jgkmF8fgL u/]/ bfp/f afNgfn] sfa{g 8fOcS;fO8 pT;h{g x'G5 . To;}u/L bnbn] e"lddf x'sg] ¿vsf h/fn] ldy]g pT;h{g { u5{ . wfgv]tL, kz'kfng, sf]Onf vfgL, Uof; ljt/0f kfOk / kmf]xf]/ yGSofpg] sfo{n] ldy]gsf] pT;h{g x'G5 . ldy]gsf] sfa{g 8fOcS;fO8sf] t'ngfdf tfkqmd j[l4df #) k|ltzt sd of]ubfg /x]sf] atfOPsf] 5 . ;fdfGo sf/0f M /f;folgs dn / cGo /;fogsf] pkof]u, kfgLsf] cTolws k|of]u xl/tu[x Uof; pT;hg{sf ;fdfGo sf/0f x'g . o:tf ultljlwaf6 gfO6«; cS;fO8sf] pTkfbg a95 . kfgLsf] cTolws k|of]usf sf/0f jfikLs/0f a9]/ jfo'd08ndf hnjfiksf] dfqf j[l4 x'G5 . k[YjLsf] pi0fLs/0fdf hnjfik / cGo Uof;sf] of]ubfg !) k|ltzt /x]sf] j}1flgsx¿sf] syg 5 . jftfj/0f k|bif0f / k|sf]k " ÷19
  20. 20. hnjfo' kl/jt{gsf] k|efj jftfj/0f ljgfz tyf cksif{0fsf sf/0fdWo] ;jf{lws rf;f]sf] ¿kdf /x]sf] jfo'kbif0fsf] j[l4df cx+ e"ldsf lgjf{x ug]{ xl/tu[x Uof;sf] pT;h{g |" g} hnjfo' kl/jt{gsf] k|dv sf/s /x]sf] 5 . jfo'kbif0fsf] k|efj l;w} ' |" hg:jf:Yo;Fu ;DalGwt /x]sf] x'G5 . t/ oxfF jfo'kbif0fsf sf/sdWo]sf |" xl/tu[x Uof;sf] cTolws pT;h{gaf6 x'g] ljZjJofkL hnjfo' kl/jt{g / To;sf k|efjdf dfq ;Lldt /x]/ ljZn]if0f ug]{ k|of; ul/Psf] 5 . g]kfndf hnjfo' kl/jt{gaf6 kg]{ k|efjsf af/]df cflwsfl/s cWoog / cg';Gwfg x'g ;s]sf] kfOFbg . clxn];Dd o; ljifodf s]xL k|fljlws } ljZn]if0f eP klg o;n] g]kfnL ;dfh, ef}uf]lns s] eO/x]sf] 5 < j:t'l:yltcg'¿k g]kfnL uPsf] Ps ;o jif{df ;d'bx¿sf] | ;d' b fo, hLljsf] k fh{ g , ;tx !@=% ;]lG6ld6/ a9]sf] 5 . k| f s[ l ts ;| f ] t , h} l js ljljwtfh:tf ljifodf kg]{ ;g @!)) ;Dddf k[YjLsf] tfkqmd k|efjsf af/]df cWoog !=* b]lv ^ l8u|L ;]lG6u|8 a9g] ] tyf cg';Gwfg x'g ;s]sf] / ;d'b;tx %) ;]lG6ld6/b]lv | 5}g . ljZjJofkL ¿kdf ! ld6/;Dd a9g] j}1fflgsx?sf] cWoog / cg' ; Gwfg cg'dfg 5 . eO/x]sf] eP klg o;n] cf}Bf]lus qmflGtkl5 dflg;n] pkof]u ;a} If] q nfO{ ;d] 6 g ub}{ cfPsf h}ljs OGwgsf] hngaf6 g;s]sf] egfO klg ljleGg xl/tu[x Uof;sf] pT;h{g pRrultdf If] q af6 cfO/x] s f] 5 . a9]sf] 5 . sfa{g 8fOcS;fO8n] g] k fnsf] ;Gbe{ d f xl/tu[x Uof;sf] g]tTj u/]sf] 5 . [ cGt/f{ l i6« o PsLs[ t xl/tu[x Uof;sf] j[l4sf] k|dv ' kj{tLo ljsf; s]Gb| - sf/0f pBf]uaf6 pT;h{g x'g] O;Ldf]8_ n] lxdtfn / xflgsf/s Uof; jfo'd08ndf ldl;g' lxdgbLsf ;DaGwdf s]xL / sfa{g 8fOcS;fO8sf] dfqf Hofb} cWoog u/]sf] eP klg a9g' b]lvPsf] 5 . hnjfo' kl/jt{gn] kfg]{ jftfj/0f k|bif0f / k|sf]k " ÷20
  21. 21. ;du| k|efj, t6Lo If]qsf] hghLjgdf kg]{ k|efj / k|efj Go"gLs/0faf/] lj:t[t cWoog x'g ;s]sf] 5}g . To;}n] g]kfnsf] ;Gbe{df hnjfo' kl/jt{gsf] jf:tljs k|efj / To;sf] Go"gLs/0faf/] ul/g] cWoog k|fljlws ¿kdf k|dfl0ft ul/Psf] geP/ o;sf] ljZjJofkL k|efjsf] ljZn]if0fsf cfwf/df ;}4flGts 1fg k|fKt ug]{ k|of;df ;Lldt /x]sf] 5 . xfn;Dd b]lvPsf ljZjJofkL k|efj, j}1flgsx¿sf] cWoogsf] lgrf]8sf] ljZn]if0f cg';f/ g]kfndf hnjfo' kl/jt{gsf] k|efj lgDg cg';f/ kg]{ b]lvPsf] 5 . :yfgLo df};ddf c;Gt'ng ljZjJofkL tfkqmd j[l4n] :yfgLo jiff{sf] k|jl[ Qdf kl/jt{g NofpF5 . ck|Tofl;t ¿kdf 3gf jiff{ x'g,] v08j[li6 x'g,] Ps}l5gdf cl;gf kg],{ x'/L rNg]h:tf c:jfefljs df};dL ultljlw b]vf k5{ . udL{df tftf] xfjf -n"_ / hf8f]df zLtnx/ rNg] ;dofjlw nlDag]h:tf 36gfdf klg j[l4 x'G5 . tfkqmd j[l4sf sf/0f jg:kltsf] k|sfz ;+Zn]if0f k|lqmofdf kl/jt{g cfpg], kfgLsf] pkof]u a9gfn] kfgLsf] jfikLs/0f tLj| x'G5 . kl/0ffd:j¿k e"ldut kfgLsf] tx tn em5{ / hldgsf] kfgL ;f]:g] Ifdtfdf j[l4 x'G5 . o:tf] cj:yfn] kfgLsf ;|ftdf k|lts"n k|efj k5{ / kl/l:yltsLo k|0ffnL, ] hg:jf:Yo, vfBfGg pTkfbgnufotsf ;du| kIfdf z[ªvnfa4 k|efj k5{ . o;n] :yfgLo df};ddf ljgfzsf/L kl/jt{g Nofpg ;Sg] ePsfn] hghLjg kL8fbfoL x'g] oyfy{nfO{ c:jLsf/ ug{ ;lsFbg . } kj{tLo kl/l:yltsLo k|0ffnLdf cksif{0f g]kfnsf] ef}uf]lns agf]6 / hnjfo'sf] ljt/0f lgs} ;+jbgzLn /x]sf] ] dflgG5 . yf]/} If]qkmndf ljljwtfo'Qm e"agf]6 / xfjfkfgL ePsfn] o; If]qnfO{ pi0f / w|jLo hnjfo'sf] ;ªud:yn klg dflgG5 . pQ/ blIf0fsf] ' sl/a !%) lsnf]ld6/sf] b"/Ldf ;d'b| ;txaf6 %) ld6/b]lv ljZjs} ;jf]Rr lzv/ ;u/dfyf /xg'n] klg o; tYonfO{ k'li6 u5{ . { k[YjLsf] tfkqmd j[l4 x'bf t/fO{ / lxdfnL If]qdf t k|lts"n k|efj k5{ g}, F pRr lxdfnL If]qdf cem a9L k|lts"n k|efj kg]{ lj1x¿n] atfPsf 5g . lxdfnL If]qsf] tfkqmd a9g] qmd tNnf] If]qsf] t'ngfdf a9L ePsf sf/0f lxpF, lxdgbL klUng] qmd tLj| aGb} uPsf] 5 . kl/0ffd:j¿k pRr lxdfnL If]qdf lxdtfnsf] ;ªVof a9]/ ljikmf]6 x'g] vt/fdf /x]sf 5g . jftfj/0f k|bif0f / k|sf]k " ÷21
  22. 22. cGt/f{li6«o PsLs[t kj{tLo ljsf; s]Gb|n] xfn} ;fj{hlgs u/]sf] Ps k|ltj]bg cg';f/ g]kfnsf] % xhf/ # ;o @$ ju{lsnf]ld6 If]qkmndf km}lnPsf % xhf/ @ ;o %@ lxdIf]q /x]sf 5g . o; lxdIf]qsf] lxpF k|lt jif{ )=@ k|ltztsf b/n] 36b} uPsf] 5 . To;}u/L lxdfnL If]qdf xfn;Dd &%=& ju{lsnf]ld6/ If]qkmn cf]u6]sf @ xhf/ # ;o @# j6f lxdtfn e]l6Psf 5g, h;dWo] @) j6f tfn ljikmf]6 x'g] vt/fdf /x]sf] 5 . lxdfnL If]qdf lxpF kg]{ / klUnP/ gbLsf ¿kdf tNnf] t6Lo If]qdf kfgLsf] k|jfx x'g' k|fs[lts lgod xf] . g]kfnsf] lxdfnL If]qsf lxdgbLn] kxf8 / t/fO{ x'b} ef/t / aªunfb]z ;Dd :jR5 kfgLsf] k|jfx ul//x]sf] F 5 . ljZjJofkL pi0fLs/0fn] lxdIf]q l56f] l56f] 36g,] lxdtfn a9g] / ljikmf]6 x'g] cj:yf pTkGg x'bf tNnf] t6Lo If]qdf crfgs af9L cfpg], F gbLsf] hnk|jfxdf PsfPs kl/jt{g cfpg], hnpkof]usf] lg/Gt/tfdf ljrng cfpg] h:tf ljgfzsf/L hf]lvd pTkGg x'g5g . lxdIf]q lg/Gt/ ] 36b} uPdf lxdfnL kl/l:yltsLo k|0ffnLdf cksif{0f cfpF5 / ToxfFsf hLj nf]k x'g] vt/fdf k5{g . ;d'b| ;txdf j[l4 ;fdfGotof ;d'bsf] ;tx a9]/ s] g} x'G5 / eGg] k|Zg xfdLdf p7g | ;S5 . t/ To;f] geP/ ;d'b| / e"ldaLrsf] ;DaGw cGof]Gofl>t /x]sf] x'G5 . To;sf cltl/Qm ;d'bL| lsgf/ g} ljZjsf] ;a}eGbf a9L a;f]af; ePsf] If]q klg xf] . k[YjLsf] tfkqmd j[l4sf sf/0f cG6f6L{sf, cfs{6Ls, w|jLo If]q / lxdfnL ' If]qsf] lxpF klUng] qmd tLj| ePsf] 5 . o;/L klUnPsf] lxpF kfgLsf] ¿kdf aUb} ;d'bdf ldl;G5 / ;d'bdf kfgLsf] ;tx a95 . | | ;d'bt6Lo If]q cf}Bf]lus / Jofkfl/s gu/sf ¿kdf ljsl;t ePsf 5g . | To;}u/L ;d'bdf xhf/f}F 6fk' d'ns /x]sf 5g . ;d'bsf] ;tx cfwf ld6/ | ' | dfq a9] klg ;of}F 6fk'sf] cl:tTj ;dfKt x'G5 eg] Ps ca{eGbf a9L dflg; lj:yflkt / k|efljt x'g] lj1x¿n] cg'dfg u/]sf 5g . ;d'bsf] | ;tx j[l4 x'bf t6Lo If]qsf] xhf/f}F ju{lsnf]ld6/ e"ld ;d'bdf ljlng x'g] F | x'bf af9L, klx/f], e"Ifoh:tf ;d:of pTkGg x'g5g . ljZjdf nf]slk|o F ] /x]sf] ;d'bL| vfBfGg df5f / g"gsf] pTkfbg klg k|efljt x'g5 .] jftfj/0f k|bif0f / k|sf]k " ÷22
  23. 23. ;d'bsf] ;tx %) ;]lG6ld6/ dfq a9]df ld>, aªunfb]z, rLg, gfOh]l/of, | ef/t, xNof08h:tf d'nssf s/f]8f}F dflg; hf]lvddf kg]{ atfOPsf] 5 . ' Ps cWoog cg';f/ ;d'bsf] kfgL ! ld6/ a9]df dflNbE; k"0f{ ¿kdf | 8'Ag'sf ;fy} aªunfb]zsf] !* k|ltzt e"ld ;lxt ljZj k|lz4 ;'Gb/ jg ;bfsf nflu ;d'bdf ljno x'g5 . | ] ;d'bsf] ;txdf j[l4 x'bf xhf/f}F hnLo hLj nf]k x'g] / ;ªs6fkGg x'g] | F klg atfOPsf] 5 . o;sf] k|efj :ynLo kl/l:yltsLo k|0ffnLdf klg :ki6 ¿kdf kg]5 .{ s[lifk|0ffnLdf k|efj al9/x]sf] hg;ªVofsf nflu cfjZos kg]{ vfBfGg cfk"lt{sf nflu vfBfGgsf] pTkfbg a9fpg' kg]{ x'G5 . To;f] x'bf jg, r/g / k|fs[lts ¿kdf /x]sf] F clwsf+z jg v]tLof]Uo e"lddf ¿kfGt/0f x'G5 / k|fs[lts ;|ftdfly yk ] bafa a95 . o;n] hnjfo' kl/jt{gsf sf/snfO{ cem zlQm k|bfg u5{ eg] hnjfo' kl/jt{gn] v]tLof]Uo e"ldsf] pa{/sTjdf x|f; NofpF5 . jiff{sf] k|jl[ Q / cfj[lQ ;dodf cfpg] kl/jt{g tyf k|bl" ift jiff{sf sf/0f df6f]sf] pa{/sTj / vfBfGg pTkfbgdf x|f; cfpF5 . tfkqmd j[l4sf sf/0f xflgsf/s sL/fkm6ofªuf| sf] k|hflt / ;ªVofdf klg j[l4 x'g] j}1flgsx¿n] atfPsf 5g . o:tf sL/f / km6ofªuf| n] clk|msf, ef/t, dWok"jL{ d'nsdf Iflt k'¥ofpg yfn]sf] / vfBfGg afnLsf] ' k'g¿Tkfbg Ifdtf g} gi6 ug{ yfn]sf] cWoogn] b]vfPsf] 5 . tfkqmd j[l4n] vfBfGg pTkfbgdf ;sf/fTds e"ldsf v]Ng] eP klg jf:tjdf tfkqmdsf] a9bf] k|lqmofn] k|fs[lts kl/l:yltsLo k|0ffnL g} ljvl08t x'g] ;Defjgf a9]sf] 5 . pRr If]qsf] tfkqmd a9]kl5 tNnf] If]qsf hLj klg dflyNnf] If]qdf :yfgfGt/0f x'g] ePsfn] klg jftfj/0fLo ;Gt'ngdf vnn pTkGg eP/ ljZjdf vfBfGgsf] ;ªs6 kg]{ ;Defjgf b]lvPsf] 5 . o;sf cltl/Qm cTolws jiff{ eP/ af9L cfpg], lxdtfndf kfgLsf] dfqf a9]/ ljikmf]6 x'g] / cfsl:ds af9L cfpg], klx/f] uP/ v]tLof]Uo e"ld d¿e"dLs/0f x'g] tyf sltko If]qdf v8]/L k/]/ vfBfGg pTkfbg Go"g x'g] eP/ hf]lvd pTkGg x'g;Sg] ;Defjgf /x]sf] j}1flgs cWoogn] k'li6 u/]sf] 5 . jftfj/0f k|bif0f / k|sf]k " ÷23
  24. 24. cd]l/sfsf] kof{j/0f ;'/Iff Ph]G;Låf/f ul/Psf] cWoog cg';f/ hnjfo' kl/jt{gsf sf/0f ;g @)^) ;Ddf ljsl;t d'nsx¿df ux',F wfg / cGo ' vfBfGgsf] pTkfbgdf !=@ b]lv &=^ k|ltzt;Dd x|f; cfpg]5 eg] ljsf;zLn d'nssf] pTkfbgdf ( b]lv !! k|ltzt;Dd x|f; cfpg] cg'dfg 5 . o;/L ' vfBfGg pTkfbg 36]df ljZjsf sl/a ^) s/f]8 dflg; ef]sd/Lsf] yk ;ªs6df kg]5g . { jg tyf jGohGt'df k|efj hnjfo' kl/jt{gsf ljleGg k|efjdWo] jGo kl/l:yltsLo k|0ffnL / jGohGt'df kg]{ k|lts"n k|efj klg Ps xf] . jgljgfz eP/ jf k|lts"n hnjfo'sf sf/0f jg:kltsf] k'g¿Tkfbg Ifdtfdf x|f; cfpFbf d¿e"dLs/0f k|f/De x'G5 . cTolws jiff{ eP/ cfpg] klx/f] / af9Lsf sf/0f dfq jgljgfz x'bg, v8]/L kbf{ klg jg:kltsf] j[l4b/ k|efljt x'G5 . jftfj/0fLo F } ;d:of lbgfg'lbg a9b} cfpFbf jg:klt / jGohGt'sf xhf/f}F k|hflt nf]k x'b} uPsf 5g / sltko k|hflt nf]k x'g] vt/fsf] ;"rLdf /x]sf 5g . F g]kfndf ;fd'bflos jgsf] ljsf;n] :yfgLo ¿kdf xl/tu[x Uof;sf] pT;h{gnfO{ ;f];g u/]/ w]/} xb;Dd k|efj Go"gLs/0f ug]{ sfo{ u/]sf] 5 . t/ klg hnjfo' kl/jt{g ljZjJofkL ;d:of ePsfn] o;sf] k|efjaf6 xfdL 6f9f /xg ;Sg] cj:yf /xFbg . ljZjJofkL k|efjs} sf/0f k|fs[lts } jftfj/0fdf c:jfefljs kl/jt{g cfpgfn] jfg:klts / k|f0fLhGo h}ljs ljljwtf x|f;f]Gd'v x'G5 . udL{ If]qdf cem udL{ a9g] / ;dzLtf]i0f / zLtf]i0f If]qsf] tfkqmd a9g] x'bf jg:kltsf] k|sfz;+Zn]if0f k|lqmofdf F klg kl/jt{g x'g hfG5 . o;af6 k|f0fLsf] vfBrqm k|efljt eP/ jg, jGohGt';u} dfgjLo ultljlwdf ;d]t c;Gt'ng k}bf x'G5 . F k'/ftflTjs ;Dkbfsf] ljgfz k[YjLsf] tfkqmd a9g] k|lqmofn] k'/ftflTjs ;Dkbfsf] jf:tljs :j¿kdf kl/jt{g cfpg] / lj:tf/} ;Dk"0f{ ;Dkbf gi6 x'g] qmd rNg] j}1flgs cWoogn] pNn]v u/]sf] 5 . hnjfo' kl/jt{gsf] k|lts"n k|efjaf6 ljZjsf] ;jf]Rr lzv/ ;u/dfyf { klg c5'tf] /xg ;Sb}g . g]kfnsf] P]ltxfl;s / k'/ftflTjs ;Dkbfsf jftfj/0f k|bif0f / k|sf]k " ÷24
  25. 25. w/f]x/sf ¿kdf lrlgPsf j;Gtk'/, kf6g / eQmk'/ b/af/ If]qsf ;of}F jif{ k'/fgf 3/ hf]lvddf k/]sf 5g . jfo' / jiff{sf] u'0f:t/df x|f; cfpg] cj:yfsf] k|bif0fn] oL k'/ftflŒjs ;Dkbfdf k|ToIf k|efj kg]5 . " Œ { xfdLn] cfh}blv ;ts{tf ckgfpg' k5{ ] ljZjJofkL ¿kdf al9/x]sf] tfkqmd lgoGq0f ug{ g;s]df @! cf}F ztfAbLsf] clGtd;Dddf ljZjsf ;a} d'nssn] lgs} 7"nf] jftfj/0fLo ;d:ofsf] ' ;fdgf ug'{ kg]5 . j}1flgs cWoogaf6 k|fKt kl/0ffd cg';f/ k[YjLaf;Ln] { lgDg ;d:ofaf6 u'hg' kg]5 M | { cf}Bf]lus ljsf; / k|bif0f j[l4sf cfwf/df k[YjLsf] tfkqmd !=* " b]lv % l8u|L ;]lN;o;;Dd j[l4 x'g5 .] lxdIf]qsf] lxpF klUng] qmd tLj| x'g5 . ] ;d'b| ;txdf !% b]lv () ;]lG6ld6/ j[l4 eP/ ;d'bt6Lo If]q / | 6fk' d'ns 8'Ag]5g . ' sl/a ( s/f]8 @) nfveGbf a9L dflg; af9Lsf] ;ªqmd0faf6 kLl8t x'g5g . ] jiff{df sdL, cltj[li6, cgfj[li6, v08j[li6h:tf ;d:ofn] vfBfGg pTkfbgdf ef/L x|f; cfpg]5 . To;}n] xfdL;Fu ljZjJofkL ¿kdf r]tgf clej[l4 ug]{ ;do Hofb} yf]/} 5 . cfh}bl] v xfdLn] ;d:of ;dfwfgtkm{ nfUg' kg]{ ePsf] 5 . @) cf}F ztfAbLsf] k|f/Deb]lv g} xl/tu[x Uof; pT;h{gdf dflg;sf] 7"nf] e"ldsf /x]sf] 5 . cf}Bf]lus ljsf;, pmhf{pTkfbg s]Gb| / ;jf/L;fwgaf6 xl/tu[x Uof;sf] pT;h{g a9fpg] sfo{df dflg;s} xft /x]sf] 5 . xl/tu[x Uof;sf] pT;h{gsf sf/0f jfo'd08n k|bl" ift ePsf] 5 . o;n] ;"oaf6 { k[YjLtkm{ cfpg] tfknfO{ lgoGq0f gug]{ t/ k[YjLaf6 k/fjt{g x'g] tfknfO{ cfk"mn] ;f];/ ;~ro ug]{ xFbf k[YjLsf] tfkqmd a9g yfn]sf] 5 . jg ] ' dflysf] cltqmd0f / jgkmF8fgLn] ubf{ sfa{g 8fOcS;fO8 u|x0f u/]/ k|bif0f lgoGq0f ug]{ k|fs[lts Ifdtfdf ;d]t x|f; cfPsf] 5 . kl/0ffd:j¿k " k|fs[lts ;|ft tyf ;Dkbfsf] k'g¿Tkfbg Ifdtfdf x|f; cfPsf] 5 t/ ] Go"gLs/0fdf dfgjLo kx'r lgs} ;Lldt ePsf] 5 . F jftfj/0f k|bif0f / k|sf]k " ÷25
  26. 26. hnjfo' kl/jt{gsf] k|efj Go"gLs/0fsf pkfo hnjfo' kl/jt{g s;/L x'G5 < To;sf sf/0f s] x'g / ;Dk"0f{ hLjd08ndf s:tf] k|efj k5{ eGg] ljifodf xfdLn] hfgsf/L k|fKt u¥of}F . o;sf k|efjsf] lj:t[t cWoog ug]{ qmddf xfdLdf of] lgs} 7"nf] ;d:of xf] eGg] nfUg' c:jefljs xf]Og . cf}Bf]lus / wgL d'nsn] u/]sf] ck/fwsf] ' efuLbf/ ljZjsf ljsf;zLn d'nssf gful/sn] aGg' k/]sf] oyfy{ klg ' ljZj ;dIf phfu/ eO;s]sf] 5 . To;}n] o; ;d:ofsf] ;fdgf ug{ cyf{t hnjfo' kl/jt{gsf] k|efjnfO{ Go"g ug{ ljZjsf ;a} dflg;n] rgfvf] x'g' h¿/L 5 / o;sf nflu ljleGg k|sf/sf ;sf/fTds sfo{qmdnfO{ k|fyldstfdf /fVg' kg]{ x'G5 . hnjfo' kl/jt{gsf] k|efjsf] ;fdgf ug{ tyf o;af6 kg]{ k|efjnfO{ Go"g ug{ b'O{ k|sf/n] kxn ug'{ kg]{ x'G5 . cf}Bf]lus d'n'snfO{ bafa xl/tu[x Uof;sf] pT;h{gdf cd]l/sf ;a}eGbf cufl8 /x]sf] 5 . p;n] pT;h{g ug]{ sfa{g 8fOcS;fO8sf] jflif{s dfqf k|lt JolQm !^@ d]l6«s 6g /x]sf] 5 eg] g]kfnsf] pT;h{g b/ )=)! d]l6«s 6g /x]sf] 5 . sfa{g 8fOcS;fO8sf] pT;h{gsf] o; leGgtfaf6 :ki6 x'G5 cd]l/sf / cGo cf}Bf]lus d'ns g} xl/tu[x Uof; pT;h{g ug]{ cu|kªltdf /x]sf /fi6« ' x'g . hnjfo' kl/jt{g lgoGq0fsf nflu cufl8 ;fl/Psf] Sof]6f] cle;lGwdf cd]l/sfn] x:tfIf/ gug]{ lg0f{o u/]/ ljZjsf dflg;sf] ;'/Iffk|ltsf] ljZjJofkL dfGotfnfO{ cf3ft k'¥ofPsf] 5 . xl/tu[x Uof; s6f}tL ubf{ p;sf] cy{tGqdf k|lts"n k|efj kg]{ t/ c/af}F dflg;;lxt k[YjLsf] ef}lts tyf cef}lts jftfj/0f ckslif{t eP/ hLjd08n ;ªs6fkGg x'g] ljifo p;sf nflu ;fdfGo aGg' cfZro{hgs b]lvPsf] 5 . Sof]6f] cle;lGwn] lgwf{/0f u/]sf] xl/tu[x Uof;sf] s6f}tL ug]{ k|fjwfgnfO{ jftfj/0f k|bif0f / k|sf]k " ÷26
  27. 27. c:jLsf/ ug]{ cd]l/sf / p;sf ;xof]uL d'nsnfO{ cle;lGwdf tTsfn ' x:tfIf/ ug{ / sfof{Gjog ug{ ljZj ;d'bfon] bafa lbg' cfjZos b]lvPsf] 5 . olb ljsf;zLn d'n's / Sof]6f] cle;lGwk|lt k|lta4 d'nsx¿aLr Pstf, ;dGjo / ;befj a9fP/ bafa l;h{gf ug]{ xf] eg] ' s]xL ;do ;d:of ef]Ug' k/] klg l:yltdf lj:tf/} ;'wf/ x'b} hfg] ;Defjgf F /xG5 . o;sf nflu bafasf lgDg cj:yf l;h{gf ug{ ;lsG5 M Sof]6f] cle;lGwsf] kIf /fi6« gaGg] d'nsdf pTkflbt b}lgs pkef]Uo ' j:t'sf] pkef]u gug],{ Sof]6f] cle;lGw c:jLsf/ ug]{ d'n'ssf ;/sf/åf/f ;~rflnt jftfj/0f;DaGwL sfo{qmd jf cg'bfg c:jLsf/ ug],{ ljsf;zLn d'nssf ;a} gful/s ;dfhn] pgLx¿af6 k|fKt x'g] ' ;/sf/L ;xof]u c:jLsf/ ug],{ ljsf;zLn d'nssf] Pstf alnof] agfP/ cf}Bf]lus d'nsdf pTkflbt ' j:t'sf] cfoft /f]Sg], cfcfˆgf d'n'ssf s'6gLlts lgof]u / ;+o'Qm /fi6«;ª3Lo lgsfox¿dfkm{t Sof]6f] cle;lGw :jLsf/ ug{ bafa lbg] . o;/L lbOg] bafanfO{ k|efjsf/L agfpg ;lsPdf cf}Bf]lus d'nsx¿n] ' Sof]6f] cle;lGwcg'¿k xl/tu[x Uof;sf] s6f}tLdf cfk"mnfO{ cu|;/ u/fpg] 5g . To;f] ePdf ;fd'bfosf tkm{af6 ljZje/sf dflg;n] k|efj Go"gLs/0fsf nflu ug]{ sfo{n] klg hnjfo' kl/jt{gsf] hf]lvdaf6 ljZjnfO{ arfpg ;xof]u ldNg]5 . ;fd'bflos tyf JolQmut sfo{ hnjfo' kl/jt{gsf] k|efjaf6 cfˆgf] hLjgk4ltnfO{ ;/n, ;'/lIft / ;'vdo agfpg tyf efjL ;Gtltsf nflu ;'/lIft / :jR5 jftfj/0f x:tfGt/0f ug{ x/]s JolQmn] k|of; ug'{ cfhsf] cfjZostf b]lvPsf] 5 . hnjfo' kl/jt{gaf6 jftfj/0fLo ljgfz x'g] / k|sf]khGo 36gfdf j[l4 jftfj/0f k|bif0f / k|sf]k " ÷27
  28. 28. eP/ ;Dk"0f{ dfgj;dfh ;ªs6fkGg aGg] j}1flgsx¿sf] r]tfjgLk|lt ;+jbgzLn eP/ x/]s JolQmn] sfd ug'{ h¿/L b]lvPsf] 5 . ] gjLs/0fLo pmhf{sf] k|of]u ljsf;zLn d'nsdf vfgf agfpg], tfk k|fKt ug],{ pHofnf] k|fKt ug]{ ' sfo{df bfp/f, uf]a/sf u'O7f / cGo h}ljslk08sf] k|of]u x'g] u/]sf] 5, F h;sf] hngaf6 k|dv xl/tu[x Uof; sfa{g 8fOcS;fO8sf] pT;h{g ' x'G5 . o;/L pT;h{g x'g] sfa{g 8fOcS;fO8 sd ug{ n3'hnljB't, ;f}opmhf{, jfo'pmhf{, uf]a/Uof; cflbsf] k|of]unfO{ k|fyldstf lbg' k5{ . { To;f] ePdf sfa{g 8fOcS;fO8sf] pT;h{g s6f}tLdf of]ubfg ldNg]5 . j:t'sf] k'gMk|of]u Ps k6s pkof]u jf pkef]u u/]sf] j:t'sf] k'gM pkof]u x'g] cj:yf;Dd To;nfO{ lg/Gt/tf lbg' k5{ . sk8f k'gMdd{t u/]/ nufpg ;lsG5, sfuh k'gM k|of]u ug{ ;lsG5 jf cGo s'g} klg j:t'sf] pkof]u bf]xf]¥ofP/ ug{ ;lsG5 eg] To;nfO{ k|fyldstf lbg] . To;f] ePdf cf}Bf]lus pTkfbgdf s6f}tL eP/ OGwg / cGo k|bif0f pT;h{s j:t'sf] vkt sd eP/ " xl/tu[x Uof;sf] pT;h{gdf s6f}tL x'g5 . ] lbuf] e"pkof]u / e";/If0f + g]kfndf] lbuf] e"pkof]usf] cjwf/0ff cem} klg ljsl;t x'g ;s]sf] 5}g . e"ldsf] k|of]u dfgjLo rfknfO{ cfwf/ dfg]/ ug]{ ul/Psf] 5 . ;x/L If]qsf cfjf;Lo tyf Joj;flos ejg, ;8s, c:ktfn, ljBfnoh:tf ;fj{hlgs ;+/rgfsf] lgdf{0fdf dfq xf]Og, gofF ;x/Ls/0f / s[lif If]qdf ;d]t lbuf] e"pkof]usf] cjwf/0ffnfO{ cjnDag ul/Psf] kfOFbg . kl/0ffd:j¿k hnjfo' } kl/jt{gsf sf/s tŒj ;lqmo x'G5g . To;}n] e"ldsf] pkof]u ubf{ ToxfF /x]sf cGo k|fs[lts ;Dkbfsf] ;+/If0fnfO{ k|fyldstf lbg' kg]{ x'G5 . v]taf/Lsf] ljsf; / lj:tf/ ubf{ jg, h8La'6L / kfgLsf] ;|ftsf] ;+/If0fnfO{ ] ljz]if k|fyldstf lbFb} e"Ifo lgoGq0f ug]{ :yfgLo 1fg, ;Lk / k|ljlwsf] pkof]u ug'{ x'G5 . jftfj/0f k|bif0f / k|sf]k " ÷28
  29. 29. k|sf]k Joj:yfkg tyf hf]lvd Go"gLs/0f k|sf]k 1fgdfnfsf ljleGg z[ªvnfdf k|sf]k Joj:yfkgsf ljifodf ;+lIfKt ljj]rgf ul/Psf] 5 . k|sf]k Joj:yfkgsf k|dv ljifoj:t'nfO{ sfof{Gjog ' ug{ ;s]sf] v08df hnjfo' kl/jt{gsf sf/0f pTkGg x'g,] lj:tf/ x'g] k|sf]ksf 36gfaf6 hgwgsf] Iflt Go"g ug{ ;xof]u ldN5 . To;}n] k"jtof/L, { p4f/ tyf /fxt, k'gM:yfkg / k'glg{df0fh:tf k|sf]k Joj:yfkgsf sfo{nfO{ ;ts{tfk"js sfof{Gjog ug'{ hnjfo' kl/jt{gsf] hf]lvd Go"g ug]{ pQd { pkfo xf] . jgsf] lj:tf/ / ;+/If0f hnjfo' kl/jt{gsf] k|dv sf/ssf] ¿kdf /x]sf] sfa{g 8fOcS;fO8sf] ' pT;h{g / jfo'd08ndf ldl;g] dfqfdf lgoGq0f ug'{ kg]df j}1flgsx¿n] { hf]8 lbPsf 5g . sfa{g 8fOcS;fO8nfO{ jfo'd08naf6 ;f];/ o;sf] ] k|efj sdug{ jgn] 7"nf] e"ldsf v]Ng] x'bf j[Iff/f]k0f ug]{ / jgljgfznfO{ F lgoGq0f ug'{ kg]{ x'G5 . g]kfndf ljgfz x'b} uPsf] jg ;fd'bflos jg F Joj:yfkg k|f/De ePkl5 ljZjd} gd'gf ag]sf] 5 . o; ;Gbe{df jgdfly al9/x]sf] cltqmd0f / rfknfO{ sd ug{ yk sfd ug'{ cfjZos b]lvG5 . o;sf ;fy} ljZjsf cGo d'nsdf klg ;fd'bflos jgsf] cjwf/0ff ' ljsf; ug]{ / Sof]6f] cle;lGwn] Joj:yf u/]sf] sfa{g Jofkf/df ;fd'bflos jgnfO{ ;dfj]z ug{ ;Da4 lgsfoaf6 kxn ug'{ kg]{ b]lvG5 . o;sf nflu ;fd'bflos txaf6 bafa l;h{gf ug'{ cfjZos 5 . kfgLsf d'xfgsf] ;+/If0f hnjfo' kl/jt{gaf6 cltj[li6, v08j[li6, cgfj[li6 jf v8]/Lh:tf ;d:of k|dv¿kdf b]vf k5{g . To;f] ePdf kfgLsf ;|ftdf k|lts"n c;/ k5{ / ' ] :jR5 kfgLsf nflu dfgj ;d'bfon] cem t8lkg' kg]{ x'G5 . o;sf nflu kfgLsf] d"xfg ;kmf /fVg], d"xfgsf] j/k/ af]6la¿jf x'sf{pg] jf jg nufpg] sfo{ u/]df kfgLsf ;|ftsf] ;+/If0f x'G5 . kfgLsf] ;|ftsf] ;+/If0f ] ] ug{ ;lsPdf dflg;n] :jR5 vfg] kfgL / cGo cfjZos sfo{sf nflu cfjZos kfgLsf] cefjaf6 kLl8t x'g' kg]{ 5}g . jftfj/0f k|bif0f / k|sf]k " ÷29
  30. 30. kfgLsf] pkof]udf s6f}tL kfgLsf] pkof]u hg;ªVof j[l4;Fu} cem a9b} hfG5 . cfw'lgs k|ljlwaf6 v]tL ubf{, xftd'v w'bf, vfgf ksfpFbf / ;/;kmfOsf qmddf kfgLsf] F pkof]u a9b} hfG5 . hnjfo' kl/jt{gsf sf/0f Pstkm{ kfgLsf ;|ft ;'Sb} ] hfg] / csf]tkm{ a9]sf] hg;ªVofsf sf/0f kfgLsf] k|ltJolQm pkef]usf] { dfqf klg ylkFb} hfg] x'G5 . o;af6 kfgLsf] jfikLs/0f k|lqmof tLj| x'g] / cefj a9b} hfg] x'bf kfgLsf] pkef]udf s6f}tL ug'{ a'l4dfgL x'G5 . F cfjZos dfqfdf kfgLsf] pkef]u ug],{ 3/sf] lghL wf/f, ;fj{hlgs wf/f, Ogf/ jf s'jf / gbLsf] kfgLsf] pkef]udf ;s];Dd s6f}tL ug{ ;lsof] eg] k|ltJolQm kfgLsf] pkef]u b/ Go"g x'G5 / kfgLsf] ;|ftsf] ;+/If0fdf ] ;xof]u k'U5 . o;f] ePdf kl/jlt{t cj:yfdf pTkGg x'g] hf]lvdaf6 dflg;n] /fxt kfpg]5 . s[lif tyf hLljsf]kfh{gsf] If]qdf ljljlws/0f hnjfo' kl/jt{gsf] k|efj z[ªvnfa4 ¿kdf x/]s If]qdf kg]{ oyfy{ o; k'l:tsfsf] w]/} :yfgdf ljj]rgf ul/Psf] 5 . To;}n] hnjfo' kl/jt{gaf6 dflg;sf] cfocfh{gsf ljljw If]qdf k|lts"n c;/ kg]{ tYonfO{ c:jLsf/ ug{ ;lsFbg . } a9bf] hg;ªVofsf nflu cfjZos kg]{ vfBfGgsf] cefj x'g glbg s[lif h}ljs ljljwtfsf] ;+/If0f ub}{ a9L pTkfbg lbg] vfBfGg afnLsf] v]tLdf hf]8 lbg' k5{ . 5f]6f] ;dodf pTkfbg lbg] t/sf/L, tf]/L, ux',F ds}h:tf afnL nufpg] / sfa{g 8fOcS;fO8 ;f];g ug]{ 7"nf ¿v x'g] kmnkm"n v]tL ug'{ nfebfoL x'G5 . kmnkm"nsf] v]tL ubf{ Ps k6s /f]kkl5 nfdf] ] ;do;Dd pTkfbg lbg] k|hfltsf] 5gf]6 klg hnjfo' kl/jt{gsf] k|efjaf6 aRg] cfwf/ aGg ;S5 . o;sf ;fy} s[lifdf /f;folgs dn, sL6gfzs cf}iflwsf] ;§f h}ljs dn / h}ljs cf}iflw jf zq'hLjsf] lgoGq0fsf nflu ldqhLjsf] ;+/If0fsf :yfgLo ljljwnfO{ k|fT;fxg ug'{ cfjZos 5 . ] jftfj/0f k|bif0f / k|sf]k " ÷30
  31. 31. /f]u / sL/fsf] lgoGq0f k[YjLsf] tfkqmd a9g] qmd;Fu} /f]usf hLjf0f' / sL/fsf gofF k|hfltsf] pTklQ / ljsf; x'g] ;Defjgf /x]sf] 5 . o;n] dflg;sf] hLjgk4ltdf lgs} k|lts"n c;/ kg]{ ePsfn] /f]u / sL/fsf] /f]syfdsf nflu dflg;n] ljz]if ;ts{tf ckgfpg' kg]{ x'G5 . o;sf nflu /f;folgs cf}iflwsf] pkof]unfO{ 36fP/ h}ljs ljlw jf h8La'6Lsf] k|of]u u/]/ /f]u / sL/fsf] /f]syfd ug]{ :yfgLo 1fg / ;Lksf] pkof]u ub}{ To:tf 1fg, ljlw / ;LknfO{ cGo ;d'bfo;Dd lj:tf/ ug'{ k5{ . jftfj/0fd}qL k|ljlwsf] pkof]u hnjfo' kl/jt{gsf] k|efjnfO{ lgoGq0f ug{ o;sf sf/sdfly g} nufd nufpg' h¿/L ePsfn] ;fgf tyf n3'hnljB'tsf] ljsf;, jfo'pmhf{sf] ljsf;, ;f}opmhf{ / afof]Uof;h:tf k|ljlwsf] k|of]udf ljsf; u/L xl/tu[x { Uof;sf] :yfgLo pT;h{gnfO{ Go"g ug{' k5{ . o;sf cltl/Qm pmhf{sf j}slNks ;|ftsf] klxrfg u/L ltgLx¿sf] ljsf; ug'{ k5{ . oltv]/ ] h]6f« kmf hftsf] jg:kltaf6 l8h]nh:t} k|efjsf/L OGwgsf] pTkfbg ug{ ] ;lsg] ;Defjgf b]lvPsf] 5 . To:tf ljlw / k|ljlwnfO{ k|fT;flxt ug{ ] JolQmut tj/af6 g} kxn ug'{ ;fGble{s x'G5 . ;|ftsf] a'l4dQfk"0f{ pkof]u ] k|fs[lts ;|ftdfly lg/Gt/ a9]sf] bafasf sf/0f tL ;|ftsf] k'g¿Tkfbg ] ] Ifdtfdf klg lg/Gt/ x|f; cfO/x]sf] 5 . g]kfnsf] t/fO{ / r'/] z[ªvnfdf kfOg] ;v'jf cyf{t ;fn hftsf] jg:kltsf k|hfltsf] k'g¿Tkfbg Ifdtfdf x|f; cfPsf sf/0f jgsf] leqL efudf ;fnsf la¿jf Hofb} yf]/} dfq b]lvg' o;sf] pbfx/0f xf] . g]kfnL sfuh agfpg k|of]u x'g] nf]Stfsf] k'g¿Tkfbg Go"g ePsf sf/0f clxn] k/fn, 5jfnL, s]/fsf kftaf6 3/]n' sfuh agfpg' k/]sf] 5 . To;}u/L lr/fOFtf], kfvgj]t, kfFrcf}n,] ofzf{uDafh:tf F ' h8La'6Lsf] pTkfbg x/]s jif{ Go"g x'b} uPsf] 5 . vf]nf jf gbL / kf]v/Ldf F ljB't s/]G6 nufP/ / ljif xfn]/ df5f dfg]{ k|rng a9]sf sf/0f df5fsf k|hfltdfq ;lsFb} uPsf 5}gg, hnk|bif0f klg a9b} uPsf] 5 . " jftfj/0f k|bif0f / k|sf]k " ÷31
  32. 32. o;/L ;|ftsf] k'g¿Tkfbg Ifdtfdf x|f; x'b} hfg] k|lqmofnfO{ hnjfo' ] F kl/jt{gn] cem tLj| kfg]{ x'bf dfgjLo lqmofsnfknfO{ lgoGq0f u/L F ;|f]tsf] a'l4dQfk"0f{ pkof]udf Wofg lbg' k5{ . o;sf nflu jgaf6 sRrfkbfy{, h8La'6L / cGo j:t' k'gM pTkfbg x'g lbg] lsl;dn] lgsfNg' k5{ . jo:s eO;s]sf] ¿vaf6 dfq nf]Stf lgsfn]/ ;fgf la¿jfnfO{ x'sg lbg], h8La'6Lsf ;fgf la¿jf gpv]nL a9g lbg], gbL tyf kf]v/Ldf { ljif / ljB'tLo k|jfx gu/L k/Dk/fut ljlwaf6 df5f dfg]{ xf] eg] tL j:t'sf] k'g¿Tkfbg Ifdtfdf x|f; cfpFbg . xfdLn] :yfgLo 1fg, ;Lk / } ljlwsf] k|of]u u/]/ ;|ftsf] k'g¿Tkfbg Ifdtfdf cf3ft gk'¥ofO{ pkof]u ] ug{ ;SofFF} eg] To;nfO{ g} a'l4dQfk"0f{ pkof]u elgG5 . o:tf ljlwn] g} efjL hf]lvdaf6 dfgj ;d'bfonfO{ ;'/lIft /fVg ;xof]u ldN5 . pk;+xf/ hnjfo' kl/jt{gsf] k|efj ;du| k[YjLaf;L k|f0fL / jg:kltdf ;dfg ¿kdf kg]{ b]lvG5 . o;sf] hf]lvd s:tf] ¿kdf cufl8 cfO/x]sf] 5 / o;n] eljiodf slt ljs/fn ¿k wf/0f ug{ ;S5 eGg] 1fg o; ;fdfGo ljj]rgfn] g} k|i6 kf5{ . oBlk o;sf k|efjnfO{ Go"g ug{ ef}uflns l:ylt, ;fdflhs, ;f+:s[lts / :yfgLo 1fgsf cfwf/df pko'Qm ljlwsf] 5gf]6 / pkof]u ug{ ;lsG5 . ljZjJofkL lrGtfsf] ljifo ag]sf] hnjfo' kl/jt{gsf af/]df g]kfndf vf;} cWoog ePsf] kfOFbg . o; ljifodf cWoog ug]{ cflwsfl/s lgsfosf] } ¿kdf /x]sf] hnjfo' tyf df};d lj1fg ljefun] ;d]t hnjfo' kl/jt{gsf] k|jl[ Q / o;n] g]kfndf kfl//x]sf] k|efjaf/] s'g} cWoog tyf cg';Gwfg ug{ ;s]sf] 5}g . cGt/f{li6«o PsLs[t kj{tLo ljsf; s]Gb| -O;Ldf]8_, ljZjGohGt' sf]if g]kfn sfo{qmd, PS;g P8 g]kfn, cS;kmfd hLaL g]kfn / k|flS6sn PS;gh:tf s]xL ;+:yfn] sfd k|f/De u/]sf eP klg o;af/] ;d'bfo;Dd k|efjsf/L ¿kdf 1fgsf] k|jfx x'g ;s]sf] 5}g . ;d'bfon] hnjfo' kl/jt{g / o;af6 kg]{ k|efjnfO{ cf}krfl/s ¿kdf jftfj/0f k|bif0f / k|sf]k " ÷32
  33. 33. hfGg / a'‰g g;s]sf] eP klg o;sf] k|efjsf] ;fdgf eg] ul//x]sf] 5 . ljZjJofkL hnjfo' kl/jt{gsf] kl/0ffd:j¿k :yfgLo df};ddf kl//x]sf] k|ToIf k|efjn] :yfgLo ;d'bfosf cfly{s, ;fdflhs, k|fljlws If]qdf k|lts"n k|efj dfq k/]sf] 5}g, sltko If]qsf :yfgLo 1fg, ;Lk / k|ljlw ;d]t pkof]uljxLg aGb} uPsf 5g . ljz]ifu/L af9L, klx/f], x'/Latf;, cgfj[li6, v08j[li6, cltj[li6, dxfdf/L, lxdkft, cl;gf, r6ofªh:tf k|sf]khGo 36gfdf eO/x]sf] j[l4n] :yfgLo ;d'bfonfO{ kLl8t agfPsf] 5 . o;sf cltl/Qm vfBfGg afnL nufpg] ;dodf kl/jt{g cfpFb} u/]sf] / pTkfbg klg 36b} uPsf] cg'ej ls;fgx¿n] ul/;s]sf 5g . oBlk o;tkm{ cflwsfl/s cWoog x'g g;s]sfn] kl/jt{gsf] k|jl[ Q;Fu} dfgj lqmofsnfkdf ug'{ kg]{ ;'wf/sf] ljZn]if0f x'g g;]sf] x'bf o;tkm{ xfdLn] F ;dod} ;r]ttf ckgfpg' cfjZos eO;s]sf] 5 . ;Gbe{ ;fdu|L ;ljGb| l;+x, kof{j/0f e"uf]n, k|ofu k':ts ejg, Onfxafb, @))! . a6'si0f pk|tL, jftfj/0f ;+/If0f tyf lbuf] ljsf;, jftfj/0f Joj:yfkg tyf lbuf] [ ] ljsf; dxfljBfno, @)%* . Dipak gyawali, Water in Nepal, Himal Books and Panos south Asia with Nepal Water conservation foundation S N Chary and Vinod Vyasulu (Editors), Environmental Management An Indian Perspective, Published by Rajiv Beri for Macmillan India Limited, 2000. UNEP, Report of Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, 2001 William Chandler, Climate Change Mitigation in Developing countries, BATTELLE MEMORIAL INSTITUTE Wikipedia Encyclopedia, Global Warming and Greenhouse gas, Wikimedia Foundation, Inc www.gcrio.org/gwcc/booklet1.html jftfj/0f k|bif0f / k|sf]k " ÷33
  34. 34. jftfj/0f k|bif0f / k|sf]k " ÷34

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