40 issue of paryawaran
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40 issue of paryawaran

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  • 1. jftfj/0fLo ;r]ttf Û xfd|f] k|lta4tf ÛÛ /)f÷ kof{ j /)f ÷ 1
  • 2. kof{ j /)f ÷ 2 /)f÷ ÛÛ k|lta4tf xfd|f] Û ;r]ttf jftfj/0fLo 654321 654321 654321 654321 654321 N5 654321 d}ltb]jLsf] d"n;8s 654321 654321 654321 654321 654321 654321 af] 654321 654321 654321 654321 654321 654321 654321 654321 654321 654321 654321 654321 654321 654321 654321 654321 654321 654321 654321 654321 654321 654321 654321 654321 654321 654321 654321 654321 654321 654321 654321 654321 654321 654321 654321 654321 654321 654321 654321 654321 654321 654321 654321 / 654321 654321 654321 654321 654321 654321 654321 l:j 654321 654321 654321 654321 654321 654321 654321 t 654321 654321 of] s:tf] ofqf xf]nf < tLtf] –;To
  • 3. kf7ssf] cf“vfdf pTs[i6 k|ltlqmof k7fpgf];, Ps jif{sf] ;b:otf lgMz'Ns kfpgf]; ;DkfbsHo", Osf]–g]kfnåf/f k|sflzt kof{j/0f kof{j/0fsf] df3 cªs ;fyLaf6 d}n] kof{j/0fsf s]xL cªs k9g] df}sf kfPsf] 5' . k';sf] k|fKt u/]/ klxnf]k6s k9g] df}sf kfPF, cToGt pkof]uL nfUof] . cªs ;fx|} /fd|f] nfUof] / kf]:6/ Hofb} pkof]uL 5 . klqsfsf] kf]:6/ klg /fd|} 5, kf]:6/sf yk k|lt ufpFdf k7fOlbP k|sf]k sfuh / 5kfOsf] u'0f:t/df eg] ;'wf/ ug'kg]{ b]vsf] 5' . d jg { ] Go"gLs/0fsf nflu yk ;xof]u ldNg]5 . lj1fg cWoog ;+:yfgsf] ljBfyL{ x'F . kof{j/0f lgoldt k9g] d u|fdL0f ;'wf/ ;fd'bflos jgpkef]Qmf ;ldltsf] ;lrj klg OR5f 5, lgMz'Ns k|fKt x'g;Snf < –/d]z 9sfn ePsf] gftfn] kof{j/0f lgoldt u|fxs ag]/ k9g / s]xL kf]v/f pkdxfgu/kflnsf–!&, kfbL{ . ;'emfj lbg rfxG5' M dnfO{ d] / f] cWoog÷cWofkg sfo{ s f nflu kof{ j /0f jg / jftfj/0f;DaGwL vf]hd"ns / lzIffk|b ;fdu|L pkof]uLl;4 ePsf] 5 . klqsfdf k|sflzt x'g]u/]sf k|sf]k ;dfj]z ug'kg]{ . { / jftfj/0fsf ljljw kIfsf] Joj:yfkgsf If]qdf vf]hd"ns ;fd'bflos jgsf ljifosf ;fdu|L cem} yk ug'{ /fd|f] x'g5 . ] Pjd lzIffk|b ;fdu|Ln] lzIf0f k];fdf /x]sf xfdLnfO{ lgs} kof{j/0f ufpF ljsf; ;ldltsf ;fy} ;fd'bflos jg ;xof]u k'¥ofPsf] 5 . of] klqsf lgoldt¿kdf pknAw u/fO{ pkef]Qmf ;d"xx¿nfO{ klg k7fPdf o;sf] dxŒj a9g]5 / ;xof]u ul/lbg'xf]nf . –1fg]Gb|w/ k|wfgfªu ;d"xx? jflif{s u|fxs aGg]5g . ;xk|fWofks -cy{zf:q_ lqlj . klqsfsf] cfsf/, cIf/ / ;fdu|L 7Ls eP klg 5kfOsf] :t/ ;'wf/ ug'{kg]{ b]lvG5 . –uf]kfn sf]O/fnf kof{j/0fsf] k"0ff{ªs #* k9g] df}sf ldNof] . xfdLh:tf b'u{d ao/jg– *, /dfOnf], df] / ª . If]qdf a:g] dflg;n] klg o:tf] 1fgu'gsf s'/f k9g kfpFbf v';L nfUof] . lzIffaf6 cf]em]ndf k/]sf] o; If]qdf kof{j/0fdf kof{j/0f ljut ^ dlxgfb]lv lgoldt k9b} cfPsf] 5' . ePsf] k|sf]kaf6 aRg / jftfj/0f ;+/If0f ug{ ;ts{ tyf jftfj/0f lzIffsf nflu klqsf Hofb} pkof]uL nfu]sf] 5 / pTk|]/ssf] e"ldsf lgjf{x u/]sf] 5 . t;y{ kof{j/0fnfO{ x/]s o;sf] aLrdf /flvg] kf]:6/ ufpFn] ;d'bfosf nflu lgs} lhNnfsf ufpF;Dd k'¥ofpg;s] o;n] hgr]tgf a9fpg] s'/fdf lzIffk|b b]lvPsf] 5 . kof{j/0fdfkm{t hgr]tgf clej[l4 ug]{ xfdLn] ljZjf; u/]sf 5f}F . PS;gP8sf] k|of;n] clt /fd|f] e"ldsf v]n]sf] 5 . lbgk|ltlbg –6ªss'df/L bfxfn, /f]zgL If]qL, lau|Fb} uPsf] jftfj/0f, k|fs[lts ;|f]t, hLjhGt', h8La'6L / eLd:yfg uflj;–@, l;Gw'nL . l;d;f/sf] ;+/If0f ug{ o;n] pTk|/ssf] e"ldsf v]nsf] 5 . 5kfOsf] ] ] k|fljlws u9a8Ln] xf]nf, k'; / df3 cªs lgs} g/fd|f] klg 5, kof{j/0f cToGt pkof]uL nfUof] . ljBfno tyf SofDk;sf o;df ;'wf/ x'g] cfzf ub{5' . –;lbIff wf}uf]8f ljBfyL{nfO{ kf7o;fdu|Lsf ¿kdf ;d]t pkof]uL x'g]u/L ;f“uf uflj; –!, sfe|] . k|sfzg ug{;s] emg} ;'gdf ;'uGw x'g]lyof] . jftfj/0f;DaGwL kof{j/0f lgoldt k9b} cfPsf] 5' . o;df k|sflzt ;fdu|L / hgr]tgf hufpg] kf]:6/ emg} /fd|f] 5 . t/ ;a} kf7sn] kf]:6/n] ufpFn] hgtfnfO{ Hofb} pTs[i6 lzIff k|bfg u/]sf] 5 . ;'ne tl/sfn] k|fKt ug{ ;Sg]u/L ahf/df pknAw eP xfdLn] t/ k'; / df3 cªssf] 5kfO lgs} vl:sPsf] kfOof], o;df lgoldt k9g kfpg] lyof}F . –bLks a/fn ;'wf/ xf]; . –dgf]x/ zdf{ bds gu/kflnsf–!*, emfkf . jL/]Gb|gu/ gu/kflnsf–!, g]kfnuGh . ;DkfbsHo", o; cª s sf] pTs[ i 6 k| l tlqmof o;sf] k' l i6 x' g ] ck] I ff ub{ 5 ' . kof{j/0fsf] #( cf}F cªs k9g] df}sf kfPF . o; c+sdf kof{j/0fn] o; cªsb]lv /f]rs 1fg lj1fg :tDe yk]/ k| s flzt /fli6« o l;d;f/ gLltsf] sfof{ G jog;DaGwdf kf7snfO{ lgs} u'g nufPsf] 5 . x/]s cªsdf ;DalGwt 8f= tLy{axfb'/ >]i7 / 8f= lbg]z/fh e'h"sf] ljrf/ lgs} k| s f] k sf] ;fdu| L ;lxt kf] : 6/ k| s flzt u/] / Pstkm{ pTs[i6 nfUof] . g]kfnsf] ;Gbe{df ;f] gLlt slt Odfgbf/Lsf ;j{;fw/0fnfO{ k|sf]k Go"gLs/0fsf If]qdf r]tgzLn agfpg] ;fy sfof{Gjog xf]nf eGg] k|Zg p7g' c:jfefljs xf]Og . cleofg yfngL u/]sf] 5 eg] csf]{lt/ ;/sf/nfO{ ;d]t l;d;f/ ;+/If0f k|fs[lts ;|f]t Joj:yfkgsf] dxŒjk"0f{ kIf emsemSofpg] sfo{ u/]sf] 5 eGg ;lsG5 . o;df k|sflzt eP klg g]kfndf slt l;d;f/ 5g eGg] cflwsfl/s tYofªs ;a} ;fdu|Lsf] :t/ pTs[i6 5 . klqsfn] jftfj/0fLo lzIffsf cem} kfpg ;lsPsf] 5}g . kof{j/0fdf pNn]v ePe}mF g]kfndf kIfdf lgjf{x u/]sf] e"ldsf k|z+;gLo dfGg'kb{5 . l;d;f/sf] ;ªVof @$) g} xf] jf xf]Og cflwsfl/s lgsfoaf6 –afns[i0f l3ld/] a'waf/]–$, hok'/, emfkf . kof{j/0f dfl;s ahf/df lgoldt¿kdf k7fpg'sf ;fy} clw/fHosf k|foh;f] ufpF ljsf; ;ldlt / ljBfnox¿df x'nfsdfkm{t k|]l;t ug]{ ul/Psf] 5 . ;j{;fwf/0f / ljBfyL{nfO{ ;/n d"Nodf pknAw u/fpg jflif{s u|fxs z'Nsdf ;x'lnot k|bfg ul/Psf] 5 . kof{j/0fsf] jflif{s u|fxs ag]/ lgoldt kf7s aGgsf nflu klqsfsf] clGtd k[i7df lbOPsf] kmf/fd e/L tf]lsPsf] z'Ns ;+nUg /fvL k7fpg] kf7snfO{ x'nfsdfkm{t lgoldt¿kdf klqsf k7fOg]5 . –;Dkfbs jftfj/0fLo ;r]ttf Û xfd|f] k|lta4tf ÛÛ kof{ j /)f ÷ 3
  • 4. sxf“, s] < sf=lh=sf= b=g+= @).)$(.)%) jGohGt'sf] a9bf] cftªs Û k[i7 M % dfl;s Paryawaran Monthly Vol. 11, No.11, Feb/ Mar 2004 jif{ !!, cªs !@, r}q @)^) k"0ff{ªs $) ;Nnfxsf/ 8f= ljgfos eb|f 8f= sdn l/hfn 8f= hgsnfn sdf{rfo{ k|f= 8f= /fdk|;fb rf}w/L >L x]d/fh kf}8n ] sf], slt lhDd]jf/ k|wfg ;Dkfbs ■ cf;]lgso'Qm kfgL lkpg ljj; t/fO{af;L { !$ /fdrGb| Gof}kfg] ■ ;f}opmhf{sf ;/n k|ljlw { !% ;Dkfbs ■ lrl8ofvfgf aGb}5 hosf]6 jg @) uf]kfnk|;fb b'nfn ■ xl/tu[x k|efj, tfTbf] k[YjL @! sfg'gL ;Nnfxsf/ ■ yf]/} kfgL, w]/} pkof]u @# rGb| a:g]t ■ cfof] x'/Latf;sf] df};d #! ljz]if ;xof]uL ■ kz'kG5LnfO{ /f]uaf6 arfpg] k|efjsf/L pkfo #& ofbj yklnof ahf/ tyf ljt/0f ■ ufp“–ufp“af6 M b'D;L b]Vg klg /x/} eof] ÷ ef/tLo t:s/n] ;vfk kf/] ÷ /fdxl/ bfxfn s~rghª3fdf b'ne hLj ÷ xfa|] klg ;lsg]ef] ÷ ;jf{lws hnjfo' kl/jt{gsf] { sf6'g÷kf]:6/ lrq { ztfAbL ÷ SofG;/sf] cr's cf}iflw kfOg] tfn ÷ j/e08f/f – tfn}tfn aGb}5 ÷ /d]z bfxfn ljho;fn nf]k x'b5 ÷ tfKn]hªdf jgt:s/ df}nfP ÷ jgt:s/nfO{ sd{rf/Lsf] “} ' k|sfzs ;fy, hgtf tft] ÷ jg k:g h'Qf k'msfNg] Û jftfj/0f tyf afn ;/f]sf/ ;+:yf–g]kfn sf7df8f}“ dxfgu/kflnsf– #!, wf]lawf/f ■ ;fydf M kf]= a= g+= !(&@), sf7df8f}+ ● tLtf] ;To x'/Latf; / cfunfuLaf/] kmf]g M $$$%#@) ● kf7ssf] cf“vfdf kmofS; M (&&–!–$@^%$%% ● cfkmgf] snd rgfvf] agf}“ -leQ]kf]:6/_ E-mail: eco_nepal@hotmail.com ● /f]rs 1fglj1fg http://www.econepal.org d'bs| /fli6«o l;d;f/ gLlt sfof{Gjog M lsg / s;/L < ;"of]bo 5fkfvfgf, wf]lawf/f, sf7df8f}+ { kf]= a= g+= @)&$%, kmf]gM $#$(&! ■ o; k|sfzgdf k|sflzt n]v/rgfdf JoQm ljrf/ n]vssf lghL x'g . ltgdf k|o'Qm ljrf/n] o; ;+:yfsf] Joj:yfksLo ;d:ofleq cflwsfl/s b[li6sf]0fsf] k|ltlglwTj ub} { g . ■ kof{j/0fdf k|sflzt ;fdu|L ;|f]t pNn]v u/L z}lIfs tyf hgr]tgf clej[l4sf nflu k'gk|{sfzg ug{ ;lsg]5 . l;d;f/ jftfj/0fLo ;r]ttf Û xfd|f] k|lta4tf ÛÛ /)f÷ kof{ j /)f ÷ 4
  • 5. cfkmgf] snd 321 sd{rf/L bf; dfq} xf]Ogg 321 321 321 321 321 321 321 321 321 321 321 321 d'nssf] ljsf;nfO{ cu|tf lbg sfg'g / gLltlgdf{0f ug'{ /fHosf] bfloTj x'G5 . /fHon] nfu" u/]sf lgod / ' sfg'gsf] af]w hgtfdf x'g' ckl/xfo{ x'G5 . /fHoJoj:yfnfO{ lgoldt¿kdf ;sf/fTds 9ªun] ;~rfng ug{ 321 321 321 321 321 321 321 321 321 ;/sf/åf/f nfu" ul/Psf gLltlgodsf kl/lwdf /x]/ k|zf;goGqn] sfo{ ug{kb{5 eg] hgtfn] klg To;}nfO{ ' cfTd;ft ub}{ cfˆgf lbgrof{ ;~rfng ug'{ st{Jo x'g cfpF5 . 321 321 321 321 321 321 321 321 321 321 k|hftflGqs zf;gJoj:yfdf ;+ljwfgn] hgtfnfO{ ;fj{ef}d dfg]sf] x'G5 . /fHon] cfˆgf sfo{;~rfngsf nflu ;+ljwfgn] lglb{i6 u/]cg'¿k gLltlgod agfP/ nfu" ub{5 . sfg'gL /fHosf nflu cfjZos ;t{sf ¿kdf /x]sf] 321 321 321 321 321 321 321 321 321 of] k|lqmofdf ;/sf/n] s'g} q'l6 u¥of] eg] To;nfO{ ;RofP/ hgrfxgf tyf /fi6«lxtcg'sn agfpg' h?/L x'G5 . " 321 321 321 321 t/, g]kfnsf] ;Gbe{df k|hftGqsf] dd{nfO{ a'‰g] / cFufNg] /fhgLlts kl/kf6L cem} al;;s]sf] 5}g . /fHosf 321 gLltlgod nfu" u/]/ d'nssf] ;fdflhs tyf cfly{s ljsf;nfO{ xfFSg] sfo{df ;+nUg lghfdtL jf cGo ;]jfsf ' 321 321 321 321 321 321 321 321 sd{rf/Ln] gLltlgoddf ePsf Jofjxfl/s jf ;}4flGts sdLsdhf]/LnfO{ cf}NofP/ ;'wf/sf] k|of; ug'{ lsdfy{ F 321 321 321 321 ck/fw xf]Og . k|zf;lgs If]qsf JolQmn] ;/sf/åf/f NofOPsf sfg'g / gLltut ljifodf /x]sf sdhf]/Ldfly s'g} k|sf/sf] l6Kk0fL ug'{ jf cleJolQm lbg'nfO{ c3f]lift k|ltaGw 7fGb5g . df}hbf Joj:yfdf sd{rf/L ;+oGq ' 321 321 321 321 321 321 321 321 321 hgtfsf nflu sfo{ ug]{ lgsfosf ¿kdf eGbf a9L lgod nfbg] k|ltlglwsf] ¿kdf b]vfkg'{ :jod /fHosf lglDt 321 321 321 321 kmnbfoL aGg ;Sb}g . df}hbf gLltlgodsf ;Gbe{df pgLx¿n] s'g} ;sf/fTds 6Lsfl6Kk0fL g} u/] klg ltgsf]] ' kbLo x}l;ot g} u'Dg;Sg] ;Defjgf /xG5 eg] sd{rf/LtGq cfkm}F bf; dgf]jl[ Qaf6 u|l;t /x]sf] k|tLt x'G5 . xfd|f] 321 321 321 321 321 321 321 321 321 k|hftflGqs zf;gk|0ffnLdf o:tf k|Zgn] gLltlgoddf /x]sf sdLsdhf]/L ;Rofpg] sfo{df k|zf;lgs cg'ejsf] 321 321 321 321 pkof]unfO{ g} lg:t]h agfPsf] 5 . 321 321 321 321 321 321 :yfgLo, /fli6«o / cGt/f{li6«o dxŒjsf l;d;f/sf] ;+/If0f / Joj:yfkgsf nflu g]kfnn] nfu" u/]sf] /fli6«o l;d;f/ gLlt, @)%( sf ;Gbe{df klg o:t} cj:yf l;h{gf ePsf] 5 . k|:t't l;d;f/ gLltsf w]/} ljifoj:t' 321 321 321 321 321 321 321 321 321 pko'Qm jf k|efjsf/L 5}gg eGg] x}g, l;d;f/sf] ;+/If0f / Joj:yfkgsf nflu 5'§} sfg'g gePsf] jt{dfg 321 321 321 cj:yfdf of] gLltn] l;d;f/ ;+/If0fsf If]qdf dxŒjk"0f{ e"ldsf lgjf{x ug{;Sg] s'/f ljjfb/lxt geP klg o;sf] 321 321 321 321 321 321 k|efjsfl/tfnfO{ clxNo} gsfl/xfNg'kg]{ klg 5}g . o; If]qd} sfd ul//x]sf a'l4hLjL, ljz]if1 / k|ToIf jf k/f]If 321 321 321 321 ;/f]sf/ /fVg] :yfgLo ;d'bfosf] ;xeflutflagf nfu" ul/Psf] l;d;f/ gLltleq lgs} sdhf]/L /x]sf] s'/f 321 321 321 321 l;d;f/s} If]qdf sfd ul//x]sf lj1x¿n] cf}NofPsf 5g . t/, cflwsfl/s¿kdf tL sdhf]/L s] x'g / s;/L F ;'wf/ ug{ ;lsG5 eGg] s'/fdf pgLx¿ cleJoQm x'g ;ls/x]sf 5}gg . s'g cb[Zo zlQmn] pgLx¿nfO{ To;f] ug{ 321 321 321 321 321 321 321 321 321 /f]ls/x]sf] 5 < 321 321 321 321 321 321 ;/sf/af6 ePsf ;a} sfo{ ;sf/fTds g} x'G5g eGg] 5}g . sltko ;sf/fTds ;f]r /fv]/ ul/Psf sfo{ klg 321 321 321 321 ef}uf]lns, ;fdflhs, ;f+:s[lts, cfly{s cflb sf/0fn] k|To'Tkfbs x'g;Sb5g . o; cj:yfdf ;/sf/n] rgfvf] x'gkg]{ cfjZostf Pstkm{ 5 eg] csf]tkm{ hgtf;Fu k|ToIf¿kdf ;/f]sf/ /fv]/ sfd ug]{ sd{rf/Lsf cg'ejnfO{ ' { 321 321 321 321 321 ;d]t cfwf/ agfP/ gLltlgdf{0fsf sfo{ ug'{ cfjZos 5 . l;d;f/ gLltdf /fHosf] hlQs} ;/f]sf/ :yfgLo hgtf 321 321 321 321 321 321 321 321 / Joj:yfkg lgsfosf sd{rf/Lsf nflu klg x'G5 eGg] sd{rf/LtGqsf tNnf]–dflyNnf] cf]xf]bfsfx¿n] a'emg] xf] 321 321 321 321 eg] sd{rf/LtGqsf] d'v y'Gg] k|jl[ Q / sd{rf/Ln] :jodnfO{ bf;7fGg] dgf]jl[ Q;d]t ;dfKt x'g] tyf o:tf gLltsf] 321 321 321 321 ;kmn sfof{Gjogdf lgxLt cK7]/f] klg lg/fs/0f x'g5 . ] 321 k|hftflGqs /fHoJoj:yfdf cleJolQm :jtGqtf cfwf/e"t ;t{ xf] . o; ;Gbe{df jftfj/0f ;+/If0f / k|fs[lts 321 321 321 321 321 321 321 321 321;|ft Joj:yfkgh:tf ljifodf lghLIf]qdf sfd ug]x¿n] h]–h;/L ;sf/fTds 6Lsfl6Kk0fL ub{5g, ;/sf/L ] { 321 321 321 321 lgsfodf sfo{/t cg'ejL JolQmsf ljrf/nfO{ klg :jtGqtfk"js aflx/ cfpg lbg] kl/kf6Lsf] ljsf; x'g' { 321 321 321 321 cfjZos b]lvG5 . o;af6 x/]s If]qdf sfo{;Dkfbg k|lqmof Jofjxfl/s x'g] dfq xf]Og, gLltut q'l6sf] ;'wf/ 321 321 321ug{ klg ;lhnf] x'g5 . ] jftfj/0fLo ;r]ttf Û xfd|f] k|lta4tf ÛÛ /)f÷ kof{ j /)f ÷ 5
  • 6. jGohGt'sf] /fh wf gsf] v] t df s' n f] kmsf{ p g ebf} $ ut] ] ;D;fF e m} lxF 8 ] s f ;' g ;/L, k| s fzk' / sf wgaxfb'/ >]i7 slxNo} 3/ kms]{gg . l5d]sL hfg'sf bfxfnsf] v]tdf k'Ugf;fy pgL s/]G6 5fl8Psf] ;'F8df s/]G6 ePsf] tf/ a]l/Pkl5 7"nf] cfjfh lgsfNb} dQfxfQL] n8of] / Ps}l5gdf k|f0fTofu u¥of] . pgL klg clxn] cbfntL sf/afxL v]Kb}l5g . o;} jif{ bfªdf klg Pp6f xfQL ljB'tLo w/fkd} k/]/ d/]sf] 5 . ljB'tLo tf/df clNemP / OxnLnf Tofu u/] . xfQLnfO{ k"jL{ g]kfnsf] emfkf ch'{gwf/fl:yt bxLemf]8f ;fd'bflos yfk]sf] ;f] ljB'tLo w/fkdf k/]/ cfˆg} l5d]sL d/]sf]df jgdf bfp/f vf]Hg uPsf rf/hgf :yfgLoaf;L klg hfg' s fnfO{ k5' t f] t ePs} xf] n f, d[ t ssf efOsf] slxNo} 3/ kms]{gg . kmfu'g * ut] hªunL xfQLn] ph'/Lsf cfwf/df k'; ( ut] kqmfp k/L !) lbg ltgLx¿nfO{ df¥of] / nf; ?F3]/} a:of] . xfQLn] 5f]8]/ jGohGt'sf] a9bf] cftªs Û sf] slt lhDd]jf/ < lx/f;tdf a;]/ w/f}6Ldf 5'6] klg cbfntdf /x]sf] – uf]kfnk|;fb b'nfn uPkl5 aNn tLg lbgdf kl/jf/hgn] s'lxPsf] cj:yfsf] ;/sf/jfbL d'2fsf] km};nf s] x'g] xf] eg]/ cem} ql;t nf; NofP/ clGtd ;+:sf/ ug{ kfP . l5g, pgL . k|sfzk'/d} xfQLn] cfkmgf] pv' vfP/ gf; lrtjg /fli6«o lgs'~hsf] dWojtL{ If]qsf] a3f]8fdf u/]kl5 /fdaxfb'/ bfxfnn] yfk]sf] ljB'tLo w/fkdf k/]/ ljut b'O{ dlxgf cjlwdf !@ hgf dflg;nfO{ af3n] Pp6f xfQL d¥of] . cbfntn] tf]s]sf] %) xhf/ gub vfO;s] s f] 5 . To; If] q sf afl;Gbfdf af3sf] hl/jfgf a'emfpg g;s]kl5 3/hUuf w/f}6L /fv]/ t cfqmd0faf6 slxn] dl/g] xf] eg]/ ;w}F q:t /xg'kg]{ pgL 5'6], t/ h]yfsf] sfuh psf:g] kL/nf]n] eg] cj:yf 5 . ut df3 dlxgfdf sf7df8f} F g lhssf] pgnfO{ cem} 5f8]sf] 5}g . ;'g;/Ls} asnf}/L, k~rsGof, blIf0fsfnLdf Pp6f lrt'jf lx+;|s eP/ dflg;dfly l;/fg6f]nsL dLgf e'h]nn] To; If]qdf xfQLsf] x'n cfqmd0f u/L 3fOt] agfpg yfn]kl5 /fli6«o lgs'~h b]lvg yfn]kl5 cfˆgf] wfgsf] esf/L hf]ufpg lah'nLsf] ljefudfkm{t b/af/af6 l;sf/L lemsfP/} dfg'{k¥of] . kftnf] tf/n] a]l/g . geGb}, k'; @# ut] /flt Pp6f :yfgLo afl;Gbfn] dfl/Psf] lrt'jfnfO{ 6f]n6f]ndf 5fjf;lxt Pshf]8L xfQLn] pgsf] esf/L kmf]g{ yfn] . 3'dfP/ pT;jsf] h:t} /ldtf b]vfP . pQm lrt'jfsf] jftfj/0fLo ;r]ttf Û xfd|f] k|lta4tf ÛÛ /)f÷ kof{ j /)f ÷ 6
  • 7. jGohGt'sf] /fh cfqmd0fdf k/]sf Pshgfsf] pkrf/ x'g]qmddf ev{/} kf] y | f kf] y | L dfq afF s L ePsf jgIf] q ;d' b fonfO{ lgwg ePsf] 5 . b]zsf ljleGg If]qdf af3 / lrt'jfsf] ;'lDkPkl5 jg xl/of] b]lvP/ s]xL ;sf/fTds c;/x¿ cfqmd0f lg/Gt/ a9b} uPsf] 5 . o;}qmddf tgx'Fsf] b]vfkg{ yfn]sf 5g . t/, nf]k eO;s]sf jGohGt' km]l/ dgkfª Onfsfdf af3sf] laulauL a9]sf] 5 eg] s}of}F k}bf x'g] s'/} ePg . ar]v'r]sf jGohGt'nfO{ klg k|fs[lts v;Lafv|f l;l4O;s]sf 5g . af;:yfg / ef]hgsf] cefj 5 . emfkfsf] a'waf/], afx'g8fFuL If]qsf afl;Gbf /fte/ l6g /fli6«o lgs'~h tyf jGohGt' cf/Ifsf ¿kdf ;+/lIft 7f]s/ xfQLsf] uf]7fnf] a:5g . xfQLsf] cftªs emfkf, ] jgIf] q df jGohGt' s f] 3gTj a9L x' g ' c:jfefljs df]/ª, ;'g;/L / pbok'/sf xf] O g . ;+ / lIft If] q df hª u n 5] p 5fp;Dd ePsf jGohGt' cfjZos km}lnPsf] 5 . otf, zfxL cfxf/sf] cefjdf lrtjg /fli6«o lgs'~hIf]qdf ef} + t fl/P/ ufpF k:g] af3, u}8f / xfQLn] t ;w}F F ub{ 5 g . ;+ / lIft If] q df cftªlst kf5{ g}, h/fof], vf;k| s f/sf jGohGt' s f] aFbnh:tf cGo jGohGt'n] ] dfq j[ l 4 x' g ' ltgsf klg afnLgfnL vfP/ b'Mv nflu cfxf/ x' g ] cGo lbg] ub{5g . lgs'~hIf]q hLjhGt' tyf jg:kltsf] cf;kf;df u}8fn] x/]s jif{ + j[ l 4 gx' g ' jf af;:yfg @–$ hgf dfG5] dfg' { km/flsnf] gx' g ' h :tf ;fdfGoh:t} eO;s]sf] 5 . sf/0fn] jGohGt' of] b' O { dlxgf cljwdf ufpF I f] q df k| j ] z ug] { / x' n d' n b] V bf xs{ g ] cftª l st agfpg] , :jfefjsf] u} + 8 fsf] afnLgfnL gf; ug] { , cfqmd0fdf k/]/ b'O{hgfsf] dflg;nfO{ 3fOt] agfpg] Hofg uO;s]sf] 5 . zfxL / Hofg};d]t lng] 36gf lrtjg /fli6«o lgs'~h / a9]sf] 5 . k;f{ jGohGt' cf/Ifsf xfQLcftªssf] sf/0f jGohGt' af/f x'b} ;nf{xLsf ufpF;Dd k:5g . klZrd F t/fO{sf ljleGg lhNnfdf xfQLcftªsn] x/]s ;fn t/fO{sf u}8f, xfQL kfOg] lgs'~hIf]qsf] cj:yf klg Tolt + lk/f]Ng] u/]sf] 5 . k"jL{ t/fO{sf emfkf, df]/ª, ;'g;/L km/s 5}g . xfQLn] v]tLkftL gi6 ug]{, 3/ eTsfpg], x'Fb} pbok'/ lhNnf;Dd Psy/L xfQLn] ufpF k;]/ nufPsf 9's6L kmf]8/ cGg :jfxf kfg]{ dfq xf]Og, dflg;nfO{ g} ' ] afnLgfnL laufg]{, 3/6x/f eTsfpg]] / dflg;dfly g} cfqmd0f u/]/ dfg]{ x'Fbf o:tf jGohGt' kfOg] If]qsf cfqmd0f u/L dfg]{;Ddsf 36gf x/]s ;fn a9b} uPsf afl;Gbfn] ;wF} cftªlst x'gkl//x]sf] 5 . ufpF–ufpFdf ' 5g . o; If]qdf latG8f dRrfpg] hªunL xfQLx¿ yflkPsf lah'nLsf w/fkdf k/]/ jGohGt' dfl/Fb}5g . g] k fnsf hª u ndf :yfoL¿kdf eg] a:b} g g . jGohGt'sf] lx+;fsf] l;sf/ dflg; klg x'b5g . of] bf]xf]/f] F } k/fk" j { s fnb] l v g} DofGdf/ x' F b } ef/tsf] cf;fd, cftªssf] qmd a9bf] 5 . klZrdaª u fnsf] af6f] eP/ g] k fn cfpg] xfQLsf] lsg lx+;|s aGb}5g jGohGt' < ljr/0f:yn k"jL{v08 r'/]If]q x'g] u/]sf] 5 . To;a]nf s]xL bzscl3;Dd g]kfnsf] b'OltxfOeGbf a9L If]qkmn clxn]h:tf] hªun ljgf; gePsf]n] xfQLnfO{ dg kg]{ hª u nn] 9flsPsf] lyof] . b| " t ultdf ePsf] jg hªunL afF;sf tfdf tyf 3fF;kft o; If]qdf k|z:t kmF8fgLsf sf/0f …g]kfnsf] wg, xl/of] jgÚ phf8 aGg kfOGYof] . To;tfsf xfQLsf w]/} e'm08 otf cfpg] ub{y] . k'Uof] . To;tfsf oqtq b]Vg kfOg] jGohGt' clwsfªz clxn] xfQLsf] ;ªVof klg 36b} uPsf] 5 eg] eLdsfo :yfgaf6 nf]k g} eP, st} nf]k x'g] cj:yfdf k'u] . z/L/sf xfQLnfO{ k' U g] cfxf/sf] cefj a9 b f] 5 . jftfj/0fLo ;r]ttf Û xfd|f] k|lta4tf ÛÛ kof{ j /)f ÷ 7
  • 8. jGohGt'sf] /fh g]kfnsf] k"jL{ t/fO{sf] h+unIf]qdf jif]{gL ^)–&) j6f ePsf] ;'OFsf] kfof] eg] To;}sf nflu 3/ eTsfpF5 . xfQLsf] x'n b]vfkg]{ eP klg o; If]qdf %–^ j6f xfQL cfˆgf] nfdf] ;' F 8 3/leq l5/fP/ xfQLn] dlb/f - dfq jif}{el/ /xg] u/]sf] kfOG5 . hfF8/S;L_ eP–gePsf] ;d]t a'‰b5 . jf:tjdf xfQLn] hªunL jGohGt'nfO{ b]zsf] ;Ldf / gbLgfnfn] klg dlb/f cf}lw dgk/fpF5 . t;y{, dlb/f ePsf] yfxf 5]Sb}g, g cf]]xf]/bf]xf]/ ug{ glbg] s'g} k|sf/sf] s[lqd kfPkl5 xfQLn] latG8f dRrfP/} eP klg lkpg] ub{5 . cj/f] w g} v8f ul/Psf] 5 . pko' Q m af;:yfg / dlb/fn] n6 7 ePsf] xfQL af} n fxfh:t} x' G 5 / cfxf/sf] cefjn] 3' d Gt] xfQL s;/L klqmOG5 < v] t af/Ldf nufOPsf] afnL aGg afWo oxfF cfpg] hªunL xfQLnfO{ ;bfOPsf !%–@) xfQLsf] ;xfotfn] tyf 3/uf]7 eTsfP/ ljWj+; hª u nL xfQL df} ; dsf 5]s/ w]/} 7"nf] 3]/faGb kfl/G5 . glhs–glhs ub}{ 5]pdf ug] { dfq xf] O g, dflg;nfO{ ] cfwf/df a;fOF ;g]{ ub{5g . k'ukl5 a]xf]; kfg]{ cf}iflwsf] l;l/Gh aGb'ssf] ;xfotfn] ;d] t cfqmd0fsf] l;sf/ ] k|foh;f] kfgL kg{ yfn]kl5 xflgG5 . a]xf]; ePsf] xfQLnfO{ kmnfdsf ;fªnf jf agfpg] ub{5 . ef/tsf] cf;fddf xfQLnfO{ n67fn] afFlwG5 / vfgkfg sd lbP/ sdhf]/ kf/]kl5 k|foh;f] cfˆgf] e'm08sf] g]t[Tj cfxf/sf] cefj x' G 5 / cGo xfQLsf] ;xfotfn] ;bfpg] sfd ul/G5 . efn] xfQLn] g} ub{ 5 . ebf}–c;f]hlt/ k"jL{ g]kfnsf] ;Ldfleq k:b5g . t/, of}gcfsfªIffn] pGdQ ePsf efn] xfQLdf a9L ;'/f] / oxfFsf] hªundf klg pko'Qm af;:yfg / cfxf/sf] sdL emu8fn' k|j[lQ b]vfkb{5 . t;y{, ufpF k;]/ ljWj+; ubf{ kfPkl5 ufpF k;]/ latG8f dRrfpF5g . qmf]]wL :jefjsf klg efn] xfQL g} cu'jf aGb5 . hªunL xfQLn] hªundf dfG5]nfO{ b]v]kl5 cfqmd0f ufpF k;]sf] xfQL v]bg cfuf]sf] k'N7f]n] nv]6g], l6g ug]{ u/]sf] ;d]t kfOG5 . 76fpg], zªv k'mSg], 3G6L ahfpg], xNnf ug]{h:tf sfo{ u}“8f, xfQLcftªssf cGo If]q ug]{ u/]sf] kfOG5 . t/, o:tf lqmofsnfkx¿ slxn]sfxLF lrtjg /fli6«o lgs'~hjl/kl/ x'b} af/f, k;f{ / ;nf{xL;Ddsf …gfªnf] 76fP/ xfQL t;f{pg'Ú dfq x'g] ub{5g . o;f] F ufpFx¿df k;]/ zfxL lrtjg /fli6«o lgs'~h tyf k;f{ ubf{ xfQL emg pQ]lht eP/ yk ljWj+; ug{ pBt x'G5 . jGohGt' cf/Ifsf u}8f / xfQLn] cftªlst kfg]{ u/]sf 5g . xfQLsf] cfqmd0f / Iflt F t/, xsf{pbf efUg] :jefjsf] u}8fsf] ljr/0fIf]q xfQLsf] F F g]kfn clw/fHod} ;a}eGbf a9L xfQL cftªlst ufpF h:tf] w]/} km/flsnf] x'bg . u}8f g]kfndf zfxL lrtjg F} F ljsf; ;ldlt emfkfsf] afx'g8fFuL /x]sf] 5 . To;f] t /fli6«o lgs'~h / zfxL alb{of /fli6«o lgs'~hIf]qdf dfq emfkfs} a' w af/] , zlgZr/] , ch' { g wf/f, zflGtgu/, kfOg] x'bf o; hGt'n] o;} If]qj/k/ dfq ljWj+; jf hgwgsf] F v'b'gfaf/L, xf]S;], rf/cfnL, bds, w'nfaf/Lnufot xflg ug{] u/]sf] kfOG5 . To;}u/L, zfxL alb{of /fli6«o df]/ªsf hªun5]p5fpsf ;'Gb/k'/, OGb|k'/, a]naf/L, lgs'~h / ;'SnfkmfF6f jGohGt' cf/Ifdf kfOg] xfQLn] klg pnf{af/L x'Fb} ;'g;/Lsf dw'jg, k|sfzk'/, a/fxIf]q, :jefj}n] To; If]qsf ufpFx¿df a9L b'Mv lbg] ub{5g . dx]Gb|gu/, l;+l3of, 8'd|fxf, ef]qmfxf, klZrd s'zfxf, xfQLsf] :jefj xfQLn] dfG5] s;/L df5{ < nf} s L, O6x/L, k~rsGof, xfQLsf] :d/0fzlQm lji0f'kfb'sf / pbok'/ lhNnfsf t;f{pg vf]Hbf xfQL t;{Fb}g . qmf]wL xfQLn] t] l hnf] x' G 5 . PskN6 dfG5]nfO{ b]Vof] eg] nv]65 . e]6of] eg] ;'F8n] xl8of, ufO{3f6, kmQ]k'/ / lqo'uf lxF 8 ] s f] af6f] slxNo} RofKk ;dfpF5 / v'§fn] 6]s]/ r'F8fP/ b'O{ 6'qmf gu/kflnsf;Ddsf a[xt If]qsf gla;{g] x'Fbf xfQL k|foh;f] kf5{ . cg'xf/df s'Nr]/ lxF85 . slxn]sfxLF xfQL dflg; xfQLcftª s sf] kL8f k'/fg} af6f]af6 dfq lxF8g] cfk"mn] df/]sf] nf;nfO{ @–# lbg ?F3]/ klg a:5 . ef]Ug ljjz x'Fb} cfPsf 5g . ub{ 5 . t;y{ , w] / } h ;f] sf] ; L6Kk' jGohGt' cf/If cj:yfdf cfkmgf] lxF8g] af6f]df agfOPsf 3/6x/f / cf;kf;sf] If]qdf af;:yfg / cfxf/sf] vf]hLdf cfOk'usf ] nufOPsf afnLgfnL g} xfQLsf] ljWj+;sf] l;sf/ aGg] xfQLn] sf];L gbLdf cfxfn v]Ng dg k/fpF5g . t/, ToxfF ] ub{5g . klg pko'Qm cfxf/sf] cefj xFbf 5]p5fpsf v]taf/L / ' xfQLn] g'gsf] vf]hL ub{5 . ufpF k;]sf] xfQLn] g'g u|fdL0fIf]qdf k:5g / ls;fgsf pv', s]/f, wfg, ux'F cflb jftfj/0fLo ;r]ttf Û xfd|f] k|lta4tf ÛÛ /)f÷ kof{ j /)f ÷ 8
  • 9. jGohGt'sf] /fh afnL dfq xf]Og, esf/L kmf]// e08f/0f ul/Psf cGg;d]t ] xfQL v]bg l6g 76fOG5 vfg] / gi6 ug]{ ub{5g . emfkfsf] k"jf]{Q/If]qsf ufpF ljsf; ;ldltdf hªunL cflwsfl/s tYofªs geP klg lj;+ @)#$ ;fnb]lv xfQLn] ufpF k;]/ a9L b'Mv lbg] ub{5g . oL If]qdf xfQLsf] xfn;Dd xfQLsf] cfjthfjt a9]kl5 /fte/ k6sf k8sfpg], l6g 76fpg], zªv ahfpg] ul/G5 . o; cfqmd0faf6 @) hgfeGbf k| r ngn] aflx/af6 uPsf] a9L dflg;sf] Hofg gf} n f] dfG5] n fO{ oxfF s f] uO;s]sf] 5 eg] ;of}F 3fOt] /flqhLjg cgf} 7 f] nfUg' ePsf 5g . o; cjlwsf] c:jfefljs xf]Og . o;nfO{ ef}lts Iflt klg lgs} 7"nf] xfQLcftªsaf6 aRg] :yfgLo 5 . t/, ljut jif{ s f ;ts{tfsf] ¿kdf lng] ul/Psf] t' n gfdf o; jif{ 5 . o; If]qdf s]/f, ;'kf/L, xfQLcftª s af6 a9L Iflt gl/jnsf au} F r f k| z :t ePsf] kfOG5 . xfQLn] o; ePsfn] ;fd" l xs¿kdf kfn}kfn]f /flt kfn] a;]/ xfQL jif{ dfq rf/hgfsf] Hofg xsf{pg] ul/G5 . t/, xfQLsf] lnPsf] 5 eg] xfQLnfO{ yflkPsf] ljB'tLo w/fkdf k/]/ 7"nf] x'n ufpF k:of] eg] o;/L xf]xNnf ubf{ emg ljWj+; yk Pshgfsf] Hofg uPsf] 5 . o;} jif{ ljB'tLo w/fkdf ub{5g . To:tf] cj:yfdf dflg;n] Hofg hf]ufpgs} lgldQ k/]/ tLgj6f xfQL klg d/]sf 5g . o; jif{ ;nf{xLsf] klg efUg'kg]{ x'G5 . w'sf]{nL, sd}{of / 9]ªu|]vf]nf ufpF ljsf; ;ldltdf $) xfQLcftªs / lah'nLsf] w/fk j6f hªunL xfQLsf] ayfg k;]/ sl/a $) j6f 3/ xfQLn] ufpFdf cftªs dRrfpg yfn]kl5 xfQL dfg{ eTsfPsf] 5 eg] nfvf}Fsf] wgdfn / v]tLafnL gi6 ljB'tLo w/fk yfKg] qmd o; jif{ lgs} a9]sf] 5 . o;af6 u/]sf] 5 . g]kfnsf] klZrdIf]q tyf emfkf, ;'g;/L / t/fO{sf clwsfªz u|fdL0fIf]qdf ljB'tLs/0f eO;s]sfn] pbok' / df hª u nL xfQLaf6 ePsf] Iflt klg oxL xfQL tyf jGohGt' emg c;'/lIft ag]sf] cg'ej ug{ cg'kftsf] 5 . yflnPsf] 5 . xfQLaf6 ;w}F cftªlst x'g] emfkfsf] s]xL jif{cl3;Dd t/fO{sf hªundf k|z:t b]Vg kfOg] b'D;L a9bf] jgkmF8fgL tyf cGwljZjf;sf sf/0f clxn] b]Vg} d'lZsn 5 . o;sf] cl:tTj klg vt/fdf kl/;s]sf] 5 . b'D;L b]Vg klg /x/} eof] ljz]ifu/L, wfdLemfFqmLn] emf/km'sdf b'D;Lsf] sfF8f k|of]u ug]{ / o;sf cGo cªu ljleGg sfo{df k|of]u x'g] x'Fbf b'D;Lsf] cj}w l;sf/ x'g] u/]sf] 5 . o;sf cltl/Qm hg;ªVof j[l4;Fu} jgcltqmd0f a9]kl5 af;:yfgsf] cefjn] ubf{ b'D;L x/fpFb} uPsf] 5 . :d/0f /xf];, b'D;Lsf] sfF8f 3/df /fv] dfq klg e"tk|]t efUg] cGwljZjf; / To;af6 ljleGg /f]usf] pkrf/sf nflu 3/]n' cf}iflw agfP/ k|of]u ug{ ;lsg] ljZjf; ePsf sf/0f b'D;Lsf] sfF8fsf] lgs} 7"nf] dxŒj /x]sf] kfOG5 . klxn]–klxn] v]taf/Ldf nufOPsf] afnL vfP/ b'D;Ln] x}/fg} kfg]{ ugf{n] uf]7fn} nfUg'kg]{ b'D;L clxn] kmf§k'm§ dfq b]vfkg]{ ub{5 . k"jL{ g]kfnb]lv klZrd;Dd kfOg] b'D;L nf]k x'Fb} uPkl5 ;f] If]qsf k|foh;f] w]/}nfO{ b'D;L x]g]{ /x/ nfUg yfn]sf] 5 . ufpF3/df wfdLemfFqmLx¿n] b'D;Lsf] sfF8fsf] 6f]kL tyf dfnf agfP/ nufpg] tyf /f]uLx¿sf] emf/k'ms ubf{;d]t To;sf] k|of]u ug]{ x'Fbf o;sf] sfF8f lgs} dxFuf] d"Nodf lsga]r;d]t x'g] ub{5 . Pslt/ jgljgf; / csf]l{ t/ o:t} ljleGg k|of]hgsf nflu b'D;Lsf] l;sf/ o;sf] nf]k x'gsf] k|dv sf/0f ' ' dflgPsf] 5 . v'nf l;sf/ / ;/sf/L :jfldTjsf] jgkmF8fgL lgoGq0f x'g] xf] eg] ;/sf/L jgIf]qsf cnfjf t/fO{df ljsl;t x'Fb} u/]sf ;fd'bflos jgn] klg b'D;Lsf] ;+/If0fdf ;xof]u k'Ug] cfzf ug{ ;lsG5 . jftfj/0fLo ;r]ttf Û xfd|f] k|lta4tf ÛÛ /)f÷ kof{ j /)f ÷ 9
  • 10. jGohGt'sf] /fh afx'g8fFuL / cf;kf;sf ufpFdf xfn;Dd lah'nL gk'usf]] af3sf] a9bf] cftªs x'bf ToxfFsf hgtf klg lah'nLsf] dfu ul//x]sf 5g . F af3 ePsf lgs'~h5]p5fp dfq xf]Og, cGo hªunIf]q t/, ToxfFsf hgtfsf o; rfxgfsf] d"ndd{ xfQLnfO{ cf;kf;df obfsbf af3 b]vfkg]{ ub{5 . clw/fHosf w/fk yfKg' g} /x] s f] ljleGg dfWoddf k| s flzt s]xL :yfgdf ;fd'bflos jg x's{g yfn]kl5 af3nufot ;dfrf/af6 k|:6 x'G5 . u|fdL0f ljB'tLs/0f ev{/ ePsf] jGohGt'sf] rnv]n klg a9g yfn]sf] kfOG5 . af3 ;'g;/Ldf @–@ j6f xfQL w/fkdf kl/;s]sf 5g . pbok'/ df+;fxf/L jGohGt' ePsf] x'Fbf cfˆgf] cfxf/sf lgldQ / ;nf{xLsf xfQLkLl8t ufpFdf klg xfQLnfO{ ljB'tLo o;n] d[u, h/fof], v/fof] tyf cGo ;–;fgf jGohGt' w/fk yfKg ;'? ul/Psf] kfOG5 . ptf, bfªdf o:t} cfkmgf] ljr/0fIf]qdf gkfpFbf v;Lafv|f, ;'Fu'/, ufO{e}F;L ljB'tLo w/fkdf k/]/ Pp6f xfQLn] Hofg u'dfPsf] 5 . tyf cGo 3/kfn'jf hgfj/nfO{ ;d]t cfˆgf] l;sf/ u|fdL0f ljB'tLs/0fsf] nIo agfpF5 . obfsbf hªundf hghLjg ;xh agfpF b } PSn}b'Sn} 3fF;bfp/fsf nflu ljsf;kydf u|fdL0fIf]qnfO{ uPsf dflg;nfO{ ;d] t cu|tf lbg' xf] . t/, o;sf] af3n] cfˆgf] l;sf/ agfpg] pkof] u lbglbg} nf] k x' g ub{5 . o; cj:yfdf af3 nfu]sf jGohGt'nfO{ w/fkdf g/eIfL klg aGb5 . Psk6s kf/]/ dfg{sf nflu x'g' lgs} dfG5] df/]/ vfPsf] af3n] b'vb kIf xf] . jif{el/ vfg] w]/}h;f] dflg;nfO{ g} cfˆgf] afnLgfnL vfOlbg], gi6 ug]{, l;sf/ agfpg kNsg] ub{5 . 3/ / uf] 7 eTsfOlbg] lrt' j fsf] :jefj klg ePkl5 cfˆgf] ;DklQ arfpg w/fk yfKg'k/]sf] u|fdL0f af3;Fu ldNbf]h'Nbf] lsl;ds} x'G5 . hgtfsf] u'gf;f] /x]sf] kfOG5 . o; cj:yfdf ;/sf/L o; jif{ lrtjg /fli6«o lgs'~hsf] ;fd'bflos jgIf]qdf kIfaf6 s'g} k|sf/sf] kxn gx'g] xf] eg] jGohGt' dfl/g] v/v8fO vf]lnPkl5sf] b'O{ dlxgfleq !@ hgfnfO{ af3n] qmdn] a9fjf kfpg] cj:yf j[l4 x'Fb} hfG5 . xfQLnfO{ vfO;s]sf] 5 . jGohGt'ljbx¿sf cg';f/ Ps}k6s w/fkdf kf/]/ dfbf{ jf xfQLnfO{ yfk]sf] w/fkdf k/]/ xhf/f}sf] ;ªVofdf :yfgLo afl;Gbf hªundf k:bf cfˆgf] F dfG5] g} dbf{;d]t o;tkm{ ;/sf/L rf;f] ga9g' / ;fdfGo ultljlwdf cˆ6] / f] ePsfn] ToxfF s f af3 bf]ifLnfO{ ;fdfGo hl/jfgf u/]/ 5f8g'n] jGohGt' emg cfqmfds ePsf x'g;S5g . v/v8fO vf]Nbf afSnf] s'lx/f] vt/fdf kb{}5g . nfUg] ;do k/]sfn] dfG5]n] af3 gb]Vbf w]/h;f] dflg; } af3ljz]if1sf] cg'ej 8f= sLlt{dfg tfdfª– g]kfnsf klxnf] af3ljz]if1sf] gfd xf] . af3;DaGwL zf]w ubf{sf] pgsf] /dfOnf] cg'ej 5 . pgL lrtjgdf Pp6L al3gLsf] cWoogsf] qmddf lyP . rf/ lbg;Dd tLgj6f xfQLsf] n:s/n] vf]Hbf klg al3gL km]nf kl/g . kfFrf}F lbg emf8Ldf 8d? b]vkl5 pgL ¿vdf r9]/ al3gLsf] cjnf]sg ug]{ k|of;df nfu] . xfQL / ] dfG5]sf] xnrnn] qmf]lwt al3gLn] uh]/ cfqmd0f u/]kl5 xfQL efu] . pgL ¿vd} cnkq k/] . al3gLn] tfdfªnfO{ { b]lvg5 / 8d?;Fu uP/ a;L . To;kl5, xfQLx¿ 8/fpFb} pgL r9]sf] ¿vd'lg cfP . pgL xfQLdfly kmfnxfNg] sf]lz; ubf{ub}{ al3gL km]l/ xfQLdly hfOnfuL / xfQL ;'OsRrf 7f]s] . o;kN6 eg] al3gLn] pgnfO{ b]vL / !^ F ' lkm6dfly pk|m/ cfqmd0f u/L . ;ftf]kTnf] uPsf tfdfªsf] PG6]gf klxnf] cfqmd0fd} em¥of] . bf];f] cfqmd0fdf ] ' | al3gLsf gªuf /]l8of] l/l;e/dfly k/]sfn] vf;} s]xL ePg . t];fkN6sf] pk|mfOdf al3gLsf] cfqmd0fn] tfdfªsf] | |] lkmn};Dd e]6of] / pgL cfFlQP/ ;dfPsf] xfFuf 5f]8g k'u,] al3gL;Fu} e'Odf k5fl/P . t/, v} lsg xf], al3gLn] F tfdfªnfO{ s]xL ul/g, ;'?Ss cfˆgf aRrfx¿ ePlt/ uO{ . tfdfª efUg ;s]gg, ¿vaf6 v:bf pgsf] 9f8 g} efFlRrPsf] /x]5 . la:tf/}, 3;|b} clnk/ k'ukl5 Ps ;xfos, xfQL lnP/ tfdfªnfO{ lng cfP / 8/n] sfFKb} pgnfO{ F ] lnP/ uP . To;kl5 tLg dlxgf c:ktfnd} ynfk/] . clxn] 8f= tfdfª cd]l/sfdf knfog ePsf 5g . jftfj/0fLo ;r]ttf Û xfd|f] k|lta4tf ÛÛ /)f÷ kof{ j /)f ÷ 10
  • 11. jGohGt'sf] /fh o;sf] cfqmd0fdf k/]sf x'g . dWojtL{If]q glhssf] jGohGt' ;+/If0f M b]znfO{ nfe, hgtfnfO{ kL8f ;fd' b flos jg emfF l ub} uPsf] n ] of] If] q af3sf] /fli6«o lgs'~h jf cf/IfIf]qdf /x]sf nf]kf]Gd'v hLjhGt' af;:yfgsf nflu pko'Qm ePsf] lj1x¿sf] 7DofO 5 . x] g { jif] { g L 7" n f] ;ª V ofdf ko{ 6 s cfpg] ub{ 5 g . Pp6} If]qdf af3sf] 3gTj a9bf b'Anf] af3 alnof] dgf]/~hg jf cWoogsf nflu cyjf sxfnLnfUbf] ;x/L af3af6 nv]l6Fb} ;'/lIft :yfgsf] vf]hLdf ufpFglhs jftfj/0faf6 k|s[ltdf pGd'lQmsf] ;f; km]g{sf nflu k'ukl5 cfxf/s} nflu dflg;nfO{ ;d]t l;sf/ agfpg] ] cfpg] ljb]zL ko{6saf6 b]zn] ljb]zL d'b|f cfh{g ub{5 . ub{5 . af3sf] ;+Vofdf j[l4 x'Fbf logLx¿sf] ultljlw o:tf ;+l/Ift If]qdf ;~rfng x'g] ko{6sLo xf]6n–nh a9]sf] sf/0faf6 klg dflg; af3sf] l;sf/ aGb5g . o; Joj;fo, dgf]/~hg tyf v]ns'b ;~rfng ug]{ sfo{ jif{ af3sf] cfqmd0faf6 dfl/g] afx|hgf df8L pkTosf / } k|foh;f] aflx/af6 cfPsfx¿n] ug]{ u/]sf] kfOG5 . lrtjg lgs'~hIf]q klZrdkl§sf ufpFn] dfq k/]sfn] To; /fli6«o lgs'~h tyf jGohGt' cf/Ifdf ePsf jGohGt'n] If]qsf] af3 g/eIfL ePsf] x'g;Sg] cg'dfg ul/Psf] 5 . :yfgLo hgtfsf] afnLgfnL ;vfk kfg]{, pgLx¿ g} af3sf] :jefj / cfqmfds x'g] sf/0f cfqmd0faf6 3fOt] x'g] jf dfl/g] t/ o;sf] nfeaf6 af3n] jgsf] lglZrt 3]/ fleq cfˆgf] af;:yfg / eg] pgLx¿ ljd'v eO/x]sf] cj:yfdf jGohGt'nfO{ ljr/0fIf]q agfPsf] x'G5 . ;ªVof cfkmgf] a}/L dfq ;lDemg] cj:yf a9 b } hfF b f cfxf/sf] sdL x' F b } g]kfnsf ;+/lIft jGohGt' l;h{gf x'G5 . lgs'~hIf]qs} hgtfn] uPkl5 af3n] gofF af;:yfgsf] :tgwf/L M hªunaf6 3fF;, bfp/f n}hfFbf jf vf] h L ug{ yfNb5 . o;} qmddf cf;fdL afFb/ hªunL xfQL ltgsf 3/kfn' j f hgfj/ hª u n lgs' ~ h;F u } hf] l 8Psf ;fd' b flos ;fns u}F8f k:bf t' ? Gt} sf/afxL u/L gub jglt/ af3sf] ljr/0f a9b} uPsf] lxl:k8 v/fof] k'8s] aFb]n hl/jfgf lt/fOg] lgod ePsfn] 5 . gf} n f] tyf b' A nf] af3nfO{ ;fF; ;/sf/n] cfk" m nfO{ zq' 7fg] / s:t'/L d[u jGohGt'nfO{ cfkmGt ;Dem]sf] u'gf;f] cfˆgf] If] q df k| j ] z ug{ glbg] AjfF;f] afx|l;ªu] ug'{ :jfefljs} xf] . …tx nfP/ /fVg af3sf] k|j[lQ x'g] x'Fbf cGoqsf af3 nv] l 6F b } oxfF cfOk' u ] s f klg lxdfnL efn' uf}/L ufO{ g;Sg] oL jGohGt' lsg kfNg'k¥of] < x'g;S5g . To; If]qdf ut jif{sf] xfa|] hªunL ofs cfk" m n] kfn] s f jGohGt' n ] u/] s f] af9Ln] cfxf/ x'g] ;–;fgf hªunL ;nª;fªu÷l;n' cgf{ gf]S;fgLsf] Ifltk"lt{ lgs'~hn] lbg'kg]{ jGohGt' aufPsf] x' F b f vfgfsf] r/Laf3 gfog xf] ls xf]Og < xfd|f] 3/ eTsfPkl5 cefjn] dfG5] n fO{ cfqmd0f ug{ lnªS; lr¿ xfdL sxfF a:g] < ;a} cGg vfOxfn] yfn]sf]] klg x'g;S5 . WjfF;] lrt'jf s[i0f;f/ ltgsf jGohGt'n] Û ca xfdLn] s] af3sf] cfqmd0faf6 s;/L af3 rf}sf vfg] < xf]Og, ltgsf jGohGt'n] xfd|f] l5d]sL jf bfh'efOnfO{ vfOlbof], aRg] < lxpFlrt'jf x'F8f/ To;sf] Ifltk" l t{ x' G 5 <Ú h:tf g/eIfL af3n] dfG5] n fO{ 9' s ] / r/fx¿ cfqmf] z , kL8f / s?0fufyf cfqmd0f ub{ 5 . af3n] /flt sfnf] ;f/; d'gfn jGohGt' k Ll8tn] kf] V g] ub{ 5 g . ufpFlt/ k;]/ klg l;sf/ vf]Hg] v/dh'/ lgs' ~ h / cf/Ifsf] lbuf] ;]tf] ;f/; ub{ 5 . ctM af3 ePsf Joj:yfkgsf] sdhf] / L jf hªun5]p5fpsf ufpFsf afl;Gbfn] rL/ ;fgf] v/dh'/ /fhwg]z jGohGt'k|sf]k lgoGq0f ug]{ ;+oGqsf] /flt / laxfg ;a] / } 3/aflx/ 8fFkm] cefjs} sf/0f klg o:tf]] cj:yf lg:sg'x'Fb}g . 3fF;bfp/fsf nflu hªun k:bf PSn}b'Sn} k:bf af3sf] 3;|g] hgfj/ oBflk ljBdfg /x]sf] x'g;S5 . cfqmd0fsf] l;sf/ aGg] ;Defjgf clhªu/ ;'guf]xf]/f] jGohGt'af6 kmfObf s] < x' G 5 . t;y{ , ;d" x agfP/ dfq 3l8ofn jif]{gL s/f]8f}F vr{ u/]/ hgtfnfO{ hªun k:g' pko'Qm x'G5 . ;|ftM /fli6«o lgs'~h tyf jGohGt' ;+/If0f ljefu ] b'Mv lbg] oL jGohGt'nfO{ ;/sf/n] jftfj/0fLo ;r]ttf Û xfd|f] k|lta4tf ÛÛ /)f÷ kof{ j /)f ÷ 11
  • 12. jGohGt'sf] /fh lsg kfn]sf] xf]nf eGg] lh1f;f w]/}nfO{ x'g;S5 . jGohGt'n] lbg] b'MvnfO{ ;fdfGo¿kdf lng'kg]{ x'G5 . jf:tjdf k[YjLdf /x]sf dflg;nufot ;a} hLj tyf cfxf/f gkfPkl5 :jefj}n] jGohGt' 5]p5fpsf ufpF jg:klt k|sl[ tsf cgdf]n /rgf x'g . ;[li6sf oL lglwnfO{ k:5g / 3/kfn'jf hgfj/, v]tLkftL gi6 ub{5g . df}sf clxn]sf] cj:yfdf cfOk'Ug s/f]8f}F jif{ nfu]sf] 5 . o:tf ldn] dflg;nfO{ cfˆgf] l;sf/g} agfpFb5g . s}of}F hLjsf] k[YjLdf dfgjLo lqmofsnfk / s]xL k|fs[lts g]kfnsf] ljb]zL d'b|f cfh{g ug]{ k|d'v ;|f]t ko{6g k|sf]k jf 36gfsf sf/0fn] ljgf; eO;s]sf] 5 . Psk6s Joj;fo /x]sf] 5 . oxfF cfpg] *) k|ltzt ko{6s ;+;f/af6 nf]k eO;s]sf k|f0fL tyf jg:klt hlt;'s} lgs'~h jf jGohGt' cf/Ifsf] e|d0fnfO{ k|fyldstf rfxgf u/] klg km]l/ kfpg ;lsGg . lbG5g . o; lx;fan] x]bf{ lgs'~hn] ko{6g Joj;fonfO{ k|s[ltsf] ;+/rgf / lgod lgs} cgf}7f] / hl6n 5 . 7"nf] 6]jf k'¥ofPsf] 5 . lgs'~hnufot xfd|f k|fs[lts k|s[ltn] ;+;f/df /x]sf x/]s hLjhGt' / jg:kltnfO{ ;Dkbfsf] ljgf; x'g] xf] eg] ko{6g Joj;fo 7Kk x'g] Pscsf{sf] ;xcl:tTjdf cfwfl/t agfPsf] 5 . o;y{, cj:yf cfpF5 . jGohGt' / jg:klt nf]k x'Fb} hfg' eg]sf] dflg;s} ;/sf/n] hgtfsf] kL/ ;'Gg'kb{5 cl:tTj ;ªs6df kb}{ hfg' klg xf] . s'g} klg ;+/lIft tyf ;+/If0fljxLg jgsf] klxnf] xsbf/ jghª u n / jGohGt' a f6 k[ Y jLsf] kl/l:yltsLo :yfgLo hgtf g} x'G5g . pgLx¿n] tL If]qsf] ;+/If0f k|0ffnLsf] ;Gt'ng dfq sfod x'Fb}g, o;af6 cd"No gul/lbPsf] eP g To:tf If]qn] /fli6«o lgs'~h jf h8La'6L;d]t k|fKt x'g] ub{5 . e"ldsf] ;+/If0f tyf jgohGt' cf/Ifsf] ¿kdf ljsl;t x'g] cj;/ kfpFy], g jftfj/0fLo ;Gt' n g / ;+ / If0fsf nflu jghª u n t jGohGt'n] ;'/lIft af;:yfg g} kfpg] lyP . To;sf/0f, ckl/xfo{ 5 . kxf8L If]qsf] e"ld Joj:yfkgsf nflu :yfgLo afl;GbfnfO{ Pstkm{ o:tf cf/lIft If]qsf] jg sl/a ^) k| l tzt If] q kmn jgn] 9flsPsf] x' g ' k g] { jf jGohGt'af6 k|fs[lts ;Gt'ng sfod eO{ u'0f:t/Lo lj1x¿sf] /fo /x]sf] oxfF :d/0fLo x'g cfpF5 . jftfj/0fsf] ljsf; x'Fbf pgLx¿nfO{ g} nfe k|fKt x'G5 eGg] r]tgf hfu[t u/fpg' cfjZos 5 eg] csf]{tkm{ jGohGt'n] dflg;nfO{ ;+;f/df hxfF klg b'Mv lbO/x]sf ToxfFsf] cfly{s ultljlwdf k|ToIf ;+nUg u/fpg' klg x'G5g, of] k|fs[lts lgod g} xf] . dflg;n] klg ltgsf] cfjZos 5 . lgs'~h jf cf/Ifaf6 k|fKt cfly{s nfesf] af;:yfg gi6 u/]/ ltgnfO{ b'Mv lbg] jf lj:yfkg ug]{ d'Vo c+z ;f]xL :yfg / ;d'bfosf] ljsf;df vr{ ug]{ sfo{ ul//x] s f] 5 . dflg;n] hª u nL jGohGt' s f] Joj:yf ul/P :yfgLo txdf ;+/lIft If]q / oxfF /x]sf af;:yfg x8k]sf 5g / ltgsf] ljgf; u/]sf 5g . jGohGt' tyf jg:klt cfˆg} ;DklQ xf] eGg] efjgfsf] jGohGt'sf] ljr/0fynf] ldr]/ hªunsf] cf8}df a;]kl5 ljsf; x'G5 . g]kfnL ;'/IffsdL{sf] pkl:ylt gx'bf kfFry/sf] pQ/L ;LdfjtL{ kmn}rfsf] ltDa'kf]v/L / tfKn]hªsf] sfnLvf]nf F F ' ef/tLo t:s/n] ;vfk kf/] If]qdf kfOg] dxŒjk"0f{ h8La'6L / b'ne jGohGt' dfl;g]qmd tLj| ultn] a9]sf] 5 . ef/tLo e"–efuaf6 To; { If]qdf k|jz ug]{ t:s/x¿n] lgjf{w¿kdf h8La'6L ;ªsng u/L g]6f] s6fpg] u/]sf 5g eg] v'ndv'nf ] jGohGt'sf] cj}w l;sf/ u/]/ ;vfk} kfg{ yfn]sf] :yfgLo afl;Gbfsf] egfO 5 . h8La'6L / jGohGt' kof{Kt pknAw x'g] ;f] If]qdf g]kfnL ;'/IffsdL{sf] u:tL lgoldt x'g g;s]s} sf/0f t:s/x¿n] v'nf¿kdf rnv]n ug]{ cj;/ kfO/x]sf 5g . hªun / cf]9f/df cfuf] afn]/ a:g] x'nsf x'n t:s/n] h8La'6Lsf] cj}w cf];f/k;f/ ul//x]sf 5g . ef/tLo l;sf/Lx¿ jGohGt'sf] l;sf/ klg lgw{Ss;Fu ul//x]sf 5g . pgLx¿ ufpFn]n] lj/f]w u/]df Hofg lng];Ddsf] wDsL lbG5g . oxLsf/0f lgxTyf ufpFn] r'k nfu]/ a:g ljjz 5g . …;/sf/åf/f ;+/lIft jgsf] x]/rfx ug{ ;/sf/n] g} rf;f] lbFbg, } ef/tLo t:s/n] ax'dNo h8La'6L / b'ne jGohGt' ;vfk} kf/],Ú :yfgLo 8Dd/ ;'Aaf cfqmf]z JoQm u5{g . " { s]xL jif{cl3;Dd k|z:t kfOg] efn', s:t'/L d[u, 8fFkm], d'gfn, / lrlnd]h:tf kz'kG5L clxn] Hofb} yf]/} ;ªVofdf dfq b]lvG5g . elgG5, t:s/x¿n] o:tf hgfj/nfO{ 7"N7"nf w/fkdf kf/]/ kqmG5g / ltgsf ax'd"No cªu ef/ttkm{ n}hfg] ub{5g . jftfj/0fLo ;r]ttf Û xfd|f] k|lta4tf ÛÛ /)f÷ kof{ j /)f ÷ 12
  • 13. jGohGt'sf] /fh jGohGt'sf] cftªs s;/L 36fpg] < jGohGt'sf lsg t:s/L x'G5 < jGohGt'n] cfˆgf] af;:yfgglhssf ufpFdf k;]/ b'Mv jGohGt'sf ljleGg jGohGt'sf t:s/L x'g] cªu lbg' s'g} gf}nf] s'/f xf]Og . To;}n] lgs'~h, cf/If jf cª u x¿ t:s/L ;fd'bflos jgIf]qdf /x]sf jGohGt'x¿n] 5]p5fpsf eP/ ;+ ; f/sf u}F8f vfu, v'/ ufpFdf k;]/ b'Mv lbg] / cftªs l;h{gf ug]{ u/]sf] ljleGg s'gfdf k'Ug] af3 x88L, 5fnf kfOG5 . ;fgf jGohGt'n] afnLgfnL vfg] 36gfnfO{ ub{ 5 g . vf;u/L, s:t'/L lagf jgsf] 5]pdf a;f]af; ug]{ :yfgLo hgtfn] s]xL xb;Dd u}F8fsf] vfu rLg, efn' lkQ ;xg' klg kb{ 5 . t/, lx+ ; |s / cftªs dRrfpg] l;+ufk'/, lr¿ e'Tnf jGohGt'sf] xsdf ;/sf/L kIfaf6 s]xL g s]xL ug}{kg]{ blIf0fsf]l/of, b'D;L e'F8L, sfF8f cj:yf /x]sf] 5 . gq jGohGt'n] dfG5] dfg]{ / dfG5]n] tfOjfg cflb b]zdf lrQn l;ª, 5fnf jGohGt' dfg]{ qmd a9b} hfFbf ar]v'r]sf nf]kf]Gd'v t:s/L eP/ hfg] ;k{ 5fnf, ljif jGohGt' klg nf]k g} x'g a]/ nfUb}g . ub{5 . af3sf] x88L xfQL bfx|f, 5fnf rLg / rLgs} ltAat xfQLn] ljz]ifu/L t/fO{sf hªunglhssf ufpFnfO{ a9L afx|l;ªu] l;ª, 5fnf If] q df t:s/L x' g ] cftªlst ug]{ u/]sf] 5 . ctM xfQLn] o;/L vf; If]qdf ub{5 eg] s:t'/L lagf hfkfg;Dd hfg] ub{5 . cftªlst lsg kfb{5 / ltgLx¿sf] sf]l/8f]/ sxfF kb{5 eGg] s'/fsf] Pp6f lj:t[t cWoog ug'{ cfjZos b]lvG5 . af;:yfgsf] cltqmd0f / ;+/If0f xfQLn] ufpF k;]/ lauf/ ug{ yfn]]kl5 yk ljWj+; x'g dflg;, jGohGt' n ufot ;a} k| s f/sf k| f 0fL tyf glbg lgs'~hn] tbf?stf b]vfpFb} cfjZos Joj:yf jg:kltsf] cl:tTj logLx¿sf] cGt;{DaGwaf6 l6s]sf] ldnfpg] lhDd]jf/L axg ug'{kb{5 . hªunL xfQL ufpF 5 . t/, dfG5]sf] hg;ªVof tLj|¿kdf j[l4 x'Fb} hfFbf k:g] If]qdf ;bfOPsf xfQL / dflg;n] jghªun ljgf; tyf ;}lgs kl/rfng ug]{ Joj:yf s~rghª3fdf b'ne hLj cltqmd0f tLj|¿kdf ug{ yfn] . { ldnfO{ ufpF k:gaf6 /f] S g' ' kmn:j¿k, jGohGt' s f] @ ;o ld6/b] l v %*% ld6/ prfO;Dd af;:yfg Pjd cfxf/sf] cefj lhDd]jf/Lk"0f{ sfo{ x'g]5 . km}lnPsf] s~rghª3f ;+/If0f If]qsf] :yfkgf af3n] obfsbf b'Mv lbg] eP ePkl5 nf] k f] G d' v /ftf] kfG8f, r/Laf3, x' g yfNof] . cfxf/fsf nflu klg Ps}:yfgdf gf}hgf dfG5] lxpFefn', lxpFlrt'jf, ;fns, hªunL ofs hª u nL hGt' ufpF k:g] , dfg' { eg] s f] ;fdfGo s' / f tyf cGo w]/} k|sf/sf b'n{e jGohGt' o; afnLgfnL gi6 ug]{, dflg;sf xf]Og . o:tf ultljlw a9]kl5 If]qdf b]vfkg{ yfn]sf 5g . ;of}F k|hfltsf kfNt' hGt' dfg]{ / dflg;nfO{ g} lgs'~hn] ToxfFsf] g/eIfL af3 r/fr'?ªuLsf] ;d]t ;+/If0f eO/x]sf] o; klg dfg{ yfn] . o;/L dfG5] / kqmg tbf?stf b] v fpg' k g] { ;+/If0f If]qdf @–$ j6f ofs klg b]vfk/]sf jGohGt'sf] cGtå{Gå a9g uof] . xf] . af3s} ;ªVof w]/} a9]sf] 5g . lxdkft x'Fbf;d]t xKtf}F;Dd lxpFdf la:tf/}, o:tf jGohGt'sf xf8, eP klg pko'Qm af;:yfg / 5fnf, l;ª, v' / , lkQ cflb k'l/P/ a:g;Sg] of] hªunL ofs ltAataf6 cªusf] a]rlavg x'g yfn]kl5 cfxf/sf] k| a Gw ug] { sfo{ o; If]qdf cfPsf] x'g;Sg] cg'dfg ul/Psf] rf]/Ll;sf/L km:6fpg yfNof] . yflnxfNg' cfjZos 5 . cf/If jf lgs' ~ hdf ePsf 5 . rLgsf] sf] d f] n f] ª df g] r / l/he{ / jGohGt'sf cfk/flws l;sf/L jGohGt'sf ultljlwsf] lg/Gt/ ef/tsf] s~rghª3f g];gnkfs{ of] ;+/If0f ;ª u l7t¿kd} nfu] k l5 cWoog x' g ] Joj:yf ul/P If] q ;F u hf] l 8P/ /x] s f] x' F b f g] k fnsf] jGohGt'sf] cl:tTj ;ªs6df Pstkm{ o:tf jGohGt' a f6 s~rghª 3 f cf/If0f If] q df cfxf/ / kb} { uof] . kmn:j¿kM dflg;nfO{ x'g] vt/f sd ug{ af;:yfgsf nflu o:tf nf]kf]Gd'v hgfj/ jGohGt' s f] ;+ / If0f clgjfo{ ;lsG5 eg] jGohGt'sf] plrt cfpg] ;Defjgf k|an /x]sf] 5 . :d/0f cfjZostf aGg k'Uof] . kmntM Joj:yfkg / /]vb]vdf ;d]t /xf];, o; If]qdf /ftf] kfG8f / r/Laf3 jGohGt' s f] ;+ / If0fsf nflu pNn]Vo ;xof]u k'Ub5 . o;cl3 g} km]nfkl/;s]sf 5g . ;/sf/L tj/af6 kxn x'g'kg]{ jftfj/0fLo ;r]ttf Û xfd|f] k|lta4tf ÛÛ /)f÷ kof{ j /)f ÷ 13
  • 14. jGohGt'sf] /fh dx;' ; ul/of] . o;} q mddf a9L ePsfn] oxfF cfxf/ / jGohGt' s f] ;+ / If0f ug{ tLgsf] af;:yfg ckof{Kt /xg' :jfefljs} af;:yfg ;'/lIft ug{'kg]{ xF'bf /fli6«o xf] . cGo cf/IfeGbf o; lgs'~hdf lgs' ~ h / cf/Ifx¿sf] :yfkgf af3 / u}F8fsf] a9L g} rf]/Ll;sf/L k|f/De ePsf] xf] . g]kfndf xfn;Dd x'g] u/]sf] kfOG5 . Ps sd{rf/Ln] gf} j 6f /fli6« o lgs' ~ h, tLgj6f cfkmgf] gfd uf]Ko /fVg] ;t{df o; jGohGt' cf/If, tLgj6f l;sf/ jif{ dfq To; lgs'~hdf !# j6f cf/If / 5j6f dWojtL{ If]qdfkm{t u}F8f d/]sf / tLdWo] cf7j6f rflxF nf]kf]Gd'v jGohGt' ;+/If0f ug]{ sfo{ vfu–t:s/åf/f dfl/Psf] v'nf;f eO/x]sf] 5 . t/fO{If]qsf cf/Ifdf Psl;ªu] u}F8f, af3, u/] s f 5g . o; jif{ dfq u} F 8 f rf] / Ll;sf/Lsf] xfQL, aFb]n, cgf{, uf}/, rf}sf, x'F8f/, ;fns, 8lNkmg, cleof]udf (( hgf kqmfp k/]sfdf ^% hgf y'gfdf h/fof], lrQn, clhªu/, /ftf] d[u, s[i0f;f/, afx|l;ªu], /x]sf], !@ hgf cg';Gwfgsf] qmddf /x]sf / afFsLnfO{ uf]xL, 3l8ofn, lrt'jf, efn', gLnufO{, do'/, hªunL cg';Gwfgkl5 l/xf ul/Psf] yfxf ePsf] 5 . o;/L x]bf{, s'v'/f, 3f]/n cflb jGohGt' tyf kz'kG5L kfOG5g . u}F8ft:s/Lsf] cj:yf lgs} eofjx /x]sf] b]lvG5 . To;}u/L, kxf8L If]qsf ;+/lIft If]qdf lxpFlrt'jf, xfa|], lgs'~hn] o:tf 36gf uf]Ko /fVg'sf] p2]Zo t:s/ lu/f]x hªunL s's'/, lxdfnL yf/, s:t'/L d[u, 9'ªu]dn;fFk|f], efUg gkfcf];, kqm]/ sf/afxL ug{ ;lhnf] xf]; eGg] lxdfnL lrQn, gfp/, ytf/, emf/n, AjfF;f], lrt'jf, /x]sf] a'lemPsf] 5 . o;af6 s] b]lvG5 eg] u}F8fsf] sfnf] efn', af3, r/Laf3, 8fFkm], d'gfn cflb jGohGt' rf]/Ll;sf/L lgs} df}nfPsf] 5 . tyf kG5L kfOG5g . z'SnfkmfF6f cf/If / alb{of xfa|] klg ;lsg]ef] cf/Ifdf /x]sf jGohGt'n] klg g] k fnsf ;+ / lIft If] q dWo] l;sf/ v] N gsf nflu lgs' ~ hdf af3, lrQn cfˆgf] cl:tTjsf nflu 5'6ofOPsf] Ps dfq 9f]/kf6g l;sf/ cf/Ifdf b'n{e s[i0f;f/, u}F8f, xfQLnufot ljleGg k| s f/sf cˆ6] / fsf] jGohGt' xfa|] -/ftf]kfG8f_ sf] cj}w rf]/Ll;sf/L eO/x]sf] y'k|} jGohGt' kfOG5g . oxfF ;fdgf ug' { k l//x] s f] 5 . 5 . ljZj jGohGt' sf]ifn] ;+/lIft jGohGt'sf] ;"rLdf klg rf] / Ll;sf/Lsf] 8/ t sf];L6Kk'' jGohGt' cf/Ifdf ;dfj]z u/]sf] xfa|] cyjf /]8kfG8f cf/Ifdf 3':g] cj}w 5Fb}5, ef/tLo If]qsf] cf8}df 3/]n' e}F;L 5f8f 5fl8gfn] l;sf/Lx¿n] yfk]sf] kf;f]df k/]sf] km]nfkf/]kl5 o;sf] /x]sfn] oxfFsf jGohGt' ef/t ToxfF dfq kfOg] cgf{ s f] l;sf/ / rf]/Llgsf;L a9]sf]] /x:o v'Ng cfPsf] xf] . knfog x'g] ;Defjgf klg j+zf0f'ut u'0fsf] ;'/Iff lgs} dfcf]jfbL o'4 / k|Tofqmd0fsf sf/0f u:tLljxLg ag]sf] k|r'/ /x]sf] 5 . r'gf}tLk"0f{ /x]sf] 5 . k;f{ ;f] l;sf/ cf/Ifdf k|To]s jif{ dªl;/ / k'; dlxgfdf jGohGt' cf/Ifdf xfQL, af3, dfq sd{rf/Lsf] u:tL v6fOg] u/]sf] 5 . o;k6s kxf8L If]qsf lgs'~h tyf gLnufO{ kfOG5g . t/, v6fOPsf] sd{rf/Lsf] u:tL 6f]nLn] cf/Ifsf] lzjcf]8f/ c f / I f d f 7 " n f h g f j / gLnufO{ df;'sf nflu / af3 eGg] :yfgdf yfk]sf] kf;f]df d/]sf] xfa|] km]nfkf/]sf] kfOF b } g g . bfp/fsf nflu 5fnf / x8 8 Lsf nflu lyof] . u:tL 6f]nLn] ut jif{ klg o:t} cj:yfdf d[t e P s f jgkmF8fgLaf6 rf]/Ll;sf/L x'g] 8/ TolQs} xfa|] km]nfkf/]sf] atfOPsf] 5 . Tolt dfq xf]Og, o; jGohGt'sf] cfxf/fsf] cefj /x]sf] 5 eg] cf/Ifsf] blIf0f jif{sf] u:tLdf cf/Ifsf ljleGg 7fpFdf yfk]sf ## j6f tyf dfgjLo ultljlw efudf kfgLsf] cefj x'gfn] cj}w kf;f]x¿;d]t km]nfk/]sf lyP . ut jif{ o:tf a 9 g f n ] k x f 8 L I f ] q s f oxfF s f jGohGt' ef} + t fl/P/ cj}w kf;f] %# j6f a/fdb ePsf] v'nf;f ;dfrf/ jGohGt' klg w] / } ;' / lIft aflx/ lg:sg] / l;sf/ aGg] ;|f]tn] u/]sf] 5 . /x]sf] dfGg ;lsg] cj:yf ;Defjgf klg clws g} 5 . afF;sf kft vfP/ afFRg] xfa|]sf] 5fnf ljnf;L pkef]usf 5} g . h] xf] ; , k| f oM ;a} ;a}eGbf k'/fgf] lrtjg /fli6«o ;fdfg agfpg k|of]u ul/G5 . d'VotM 5fnfsf nflu c f / I f j f l g s ' ~ h s f lgs' ~ hn] ljZje/ Voflt rf]/Ll;sf/L / cj}w sf/f]af/ x'g] ljZjd} b'n{e /x]sf] jGohGt' kz' k G5L ;' / lIft /]8kfG8f ;u/dfyf, dsfn', nfª6fª, s~rghª3f sdfPsf] eP klg w] / } ePsf] d f 9' S s dfGg' k g] { ;+/lIft If]q / 9f]/kf6g l;sf/ cf/If If]qdf kfOG5 . k|sf/sf jGohGt'sf] 3gTj cj:yfrflxF 5}g . ✲ jftfj/0fLo ;r]ttf Û xfd|f] k|lta4tf ÛÛ /)f÷ kof{ j /)f ÷ 14
  • 15. vfg]kfgL cf;]lgso'Qm kfgL lkpg ljjz t/fO{af;L { g] k fnsf] t/fO{ If] q sf lhNnfdf vfg] k fgLsf nflu xfn sfo{/t @ ;o %) tflndk|fKt k|fljlwsx¿af6 tLg ufl8Psf clwsfª z 6 o ' a j] n af6 tflgg] kfgLdf jif{df ;DkGg ug]{ nIo /x]sf] 5 . xflgsf/s tŒj cf;] { l gs kfOg] u/] s f] 5 . s] x L t/fO{sf vfg]kfgL;|f]tdf k|z:t cf;]{lgs km]nfkl//x]sf ;docl3 o' l g;] k m g] k fn, /] 8 qm; ;f] ; fO6L af/f / ;dfrf/ gf} n f xf] O gg . af/fsf] h:t} cf;] { l gssf] vfg]kfgL ljefun] ;+o'Qm¿kdf !$ ufpF ljsf; ;ldltdf ;d:of t/fO{ s f k| f oh;f] ;a} u/] s f] cg' ; Gwfgaf6 af/f If] q sf 6 o ' a j] n af6 lgsflng] lhNnfsf $ ;o (! 6o'aj]nsf] kf“rtf/] ;]ldgf/ vfg] k fgLdf /x] s f] ;dfrf/ kfgLdf cf;]{lgs /x]sf] atfOPsf] s]xL dlxgfcl3 sf7df8f}Fsf] Ps kfFrtf/] cfO;s]sf 5g . t/, o; If]qdf 5 . ljleGg ufpF ljsf; nuftf/ cWoog / cg';Gwfg x'g] xf]6ndf vfg]kfgLdf km]nfk/]sf] cf;]{lgss} u/] s f] 5 / kfF r tf/] xf] 6 ndf ;ldltsf $,!!@ :yfgsf lghL, ;fj{ h lgs 6 o ' a j] n / Ogf/sf] ] ljifonfO{ lnP/ /f]rs sfo{qmd cfof]hgf ;Dd]ng jf ;]ldgf/sf] cfof]hgf kfgLsf] gd' g f ;ª s ng u/L ePsf] lyof] . g]kfn vfg]kfgL ljefusf] klg x' g ] u/] s f] n ] oxfF dfq} cf;]{lgssf] ;d:of /x]sf] 5 ls k/LIf0f ul/Psf] d f Ogf/sf] ;d] t ;xeflutf /x] s f] ;f] sfo{ q mddf eGg] e|d l;h{gf ePsf] 5 . kfgLdf eg] cf;] { l gs km] n f hg:jf:Yosf nflu xflgsf/s ePsf sf/0f gk/]sf] yfxf ePsf] 5 . cf;]{lgso'Qm kfgL glkpg ;Nnfx lbOPsf] cf;]{lgso'Qm kfgL / :jf:Yo lyof] . t/fO{ If]qdf cf;]{lgso'Qm kfgL lkpg cf;]{lgso'Qm kfgL lkpg / vfgf k/fk" j { s fnb] l v ljleGg sfo{ d f k|of]u x'b} cfPsf] eP klg cf;]l{ gs F ljjz s] x L hgtfsf] ;d] t k| l tlglwTj ksfpg k|of]u ug'{ gx'g] eP klg efF8f ;kmf ug{, n'uf w'g, g'xfpg tŒjnfO{ g cfFvfn] b]Vg ;lsG5, g u/fOPsf] ;f] sfo{qmddf tL ljkGg hgtfn] / cGo sfo{df k|of]u ug{ ;lsg] :jfb tyf uGwaf6 yfxf kfpg cfˆgf] cf;]{lgso'Qm wf/fsf] kfgLsf] ;f6f] wf/0ff lj1x¿sf] 5 . cf;]{lgs ;lsG5 . To;} n ] kfgLdf o;sf] Ps lbg dfq eP klg af]tnaGb -ldg/n ePsf] kfgL vfP/ la/fdL ePdf ld>0f eP–gePsf] yfxf kfpg jf6/_ kfgL lkpg kfpg' /f]rs gx'g] s'/} /f;folgs k/LIf0f g} ug'kb{5 . { ePg . t/, cfof] h s, :jf:YosdL{ / df5fdf;' , u] 8 fu' 8 L, kmnk" m n, cG8f, b"w / tfhf t/sf/Lh:tf cf;] { l gs tŒj kfgL, vfgf jf lhDd] j f/ clwsf/Lx¿n] u| f dL0f If] q sf kf]lifnf] vfgf vfg'kb{5 . /f]uLn] cGo dfWodaf6 dfgj z/L/df ;xefuLnfO{ 6o'aj]nsf] kfgL glkpg ;Nnfx w" d kfg, dBkfg ug' { cem k|j]z u/]kl5 :jf:Yodf k|lts"n lbFbf st} ldg/n jf6/sf] lj1fkg t ul/Psf] xflgsf/s x'g] tyf o;f] ul/Pdf k| e fj kb{ 5 . o;af6 xTs] n f, xf]Og eGg] ;xefuLaLrd} vf;v'; rn]]sf] /f] u n] a9L ;tfpg] lj1x¿ kfOtfnf, lk7o'F, 5ftL / z/L/sf b[Zon] emg /f]rstf yk]sf] b]lvGYof] . atfpF5g . cGo efusf 5fnfdf v} / f] , abfd] , sfnf] /ªsf bfu e"ldut kfgLdf s]xL g s]xL dfqfdf cf;]{lgs kSs} cyjf luvf{ b]lvg yfN5 . o:tf] cj:yfdf :jf:Yos]Gb| x'G5 . ljZj :jf:Yo ;ªu7gsf] dfkb08cg';f/ k|ltln6/ tyf c:ktfndf uP/ :jf:YosdL{ s f] ;Nnfxcg' ; f/ kfgLdf )=)! ldlnu| f d;Dd cf;] { l gs ePdf ;' / lIft pkrf/ u/fpg'kg]{ x'G5 . dflgG5 . otf aªunfb]z / ef/tn] k|ltln6/ kfgLdf t/fO{If]qsf ;txdf sd ufl8Psf clwsfªz 6o'aj]nsf] )=)% ldlnu|fd;Ddsf] cf;]{lgsnfO{ ;'/lIft dfkb08 kfgLdf cf;] { l gs e] l 6Psf] t/ w] / } ufl8Psf l8k– sfod u/]sf 5g, t/ g]kfndf clxn];Dd To:tf] s'g} 6o'aj]ndf eg] ge]l6Psf] hfgsf/L klg k|fKt ePsf] dfkb08 lgwf{/0f gul/Psf] eP klg aªunfb]z / ef/ts} 5 . ljleGg lhNnfsf @( xhf/ 6o'aj]nsf] kfgL k/LIf0f dfkb08nfO{ ;'/lIft dlgPsf] 5 . ubf{ ;a} e Gbf a9L gjnk/f;L lhNnfdf ufl8Psf cf;]{lgssf] k|d'v ;|f]t e"ldut k|fs[lts jftfj/0f g} 6 o ' a j] n sf] kfgLdf cf;] { l gs e] l 6Psf] 5 . cf;] { l gs eP klg dfgjLo lqmofsnfkn] jftfj/0fdf kg]{ k|efjsf ;d:ofu|:t t/fO{sf @) lhNnfdWo] klg ;Kt/L, l;/fxf, sf/0fn] klg hldgd' l gsf] kfgLdf cf;] { l gs a9] s f] ;nf{xL, /f}tx6, k;f{, gjnk/f;L, slknj:t' / s~rgk'/ x'g;S5 . /f;folgs dn, sf7 /ªUofpg] /ª pTkfbg a9L k|efljt ePsf] kfOPsfn] oL lhNnfsf 6o'aj]nsf] ubf{ k|of]u x'g] /;fog, sL6gf;s cf}iflwsf] k|of]u cflb kfgL k/LIf0f, vfg]kfgL u'0f:t/ ;'wf/ tyf cg'udg sf/0fn] e" l d tyf e" l dut kfgL k| b " i f0f x' g ] x' F b f zfvfn] o' l g;] k msf] ;xof] u df k| f /De u/] s f] 5 . tL cf;] { l gssf] dfqfdf klg j[ l 4 x' g ;Sg] ;Defjgfk| l t lhNnfsf sl/a c9fO{ nfv 6o'aj]nsf] kfgLsf] k/LIf0f lj1x¿sf] Wofgfs[i6 x'g yfn]sf] 5 . jftfj/0fLo ;r]ttf Û xfd|f] k|lta4tf ÛÛ /)f÷ kof{ j /)f ÷ 15
  • 16. gjLs/0fLo pmhf{ k[ YjLdf w]/} klxn]bl] v ;"oaf6 k|fKt x'g] ls/0fsf] tfk { ;~ro ug]{ w]/} k|sf/sf k|ljlwsf] ljsf; u/L ;fdfGotof Pp6f 3/df #–$ j6f aQL afNg, /]l8of], Sof;]6 ahfpg, ZofdZj]t 6]lnlehg x]g{ cfjZos kg]{ lah'nL pTkfbg x'g] ub{5 . o;eGbf a9L Ifdtfdf pkof]u xF'b} cfPsf 5g . 3/ tyf sfof{nodf lah'nL afNg, kfgL tfÌ] kDk rnfpg, vfgf / kmnk"mn ;'sfpg, lah'nL pTkfbg ug{ cfjZos k/] PseGbf a9L ;f]nf/ kfgL ttfpgnufot w]/} If]qdf ;f}o{zlQmsf] pkof]u Kofgn jf df]8o'n /fVg'kg]{ x'G5 . eO/x]sf] 5 . o;/L ;"o{af6 k|fKt x'g] / ljleÌ If]qdf ;"o{af6 k|fKt tfknfO{ vfgf ksfpg] sfo{df klg k|of]u k| o f] u ug{ ;lsg] zlQmnfO{ g} ;f} o { p mhf{ elgG5 . ug{ ;lsG5 . ;f]nf/ Kofgndf hDdf ePsf] tfknfO{ ;f}o{pmhf{ slxNo} g;lsg] / lg/Gt/ k|fKt x'g] ePsfn] pko'Qm lsl;dn] ljsf; ul/Psf] r'nf] cyjf efF8fx¿df o;nfO{ gjLs/0fLo pmhf{ klg elgG5 . o;sf cltl/Qm hf]8]/ lah'nL pTkfbg gu/L ;f]em} vfgf ksfpg] sfo{df of] pmhf{ pkof]u ug]{ k|ljlw b'u{d ufp“x¿df ;d]t ;lhn} ;d]t k|of]u ug{ ;lsG5 . o:tf w]/} k|sf/sf cfw'lgs h8fg ug{ ;lsg] ePsfn] of] ljs]Gb|Ls[t gjLs/0fLo r'nf]sf] ljsf; u/L ;kmntfk"j{s k|of]udf NofOPsf pmhf{sf ¿kdf klg kl/lrt 5 . hnljB'tsf] ;'ljwf 5g . ;f}o{ afs;–r'nf], ;f}o{ 5ft]r'nf], ;f}o{ ls6nL, gk' u ] s f, ljsf;sf k" j f{ w f/;d] t gePsf b' u { d / ;f}o{8«fo/h:tf pks/0f clxn] u|fdL0f Onfsfdf k|rlnt u|fdL0fIf]qdf of] k|ljlw a9L pkof]uL x'G5 . /x]sf 5g . oxfF ;f}o{ afs;–r'nf] / ;f}o{ 5ft]r'nf]sf ;"o{sf] ls/0faf6 k|fKt tfk cyjf zlQmnfO{ ;f]em} lah'nL ;DaGwdf rrf{ ul/Psf] 5 . -ljB'tLo zlQm_ df kl/jt{g u/L lah'nL pTkfbg ul/g] ;f}o{ afs;–r'nf]] ePsf]n] o;nfO{ ;f}o{ (Solar) lah'nL elgG5 . 3/]n' ;f}o{ ;f}ornf] Ps k|sf/sf] afs;h:t} x'G5 . o;n] ;"osf] { ' { lah''nLk|0ffnL lah'nLsf cGo ;|f]t gePsf 7fp“df aQL ls/0fnfO{ tfkzlQmdf kl/jt{g u/]/ afs;leq /flvPsf] afNg, /]l8of], Sof;]6 ahfpg / 6]lnlehg x]g{ a9L efF8fsf] vfBfÌnfO{ ksfpg] sfd ub{5 . of] r'nf] ;f}o{ pmhf{ sf ;/n k|ljlw ;f}o{ pmhf{ –;/f]h yklnof pkof]udf NofOG5 . ;fwf/0ftof #) b]lv $) jf6 sf8{af]8{, sfuh, sf7 / kmfOa/ Unf;af6 agfOG5 . Ifdtfsf] ;f}o{k|0ffnLsf] h8fgaf6 Pp6f 3/df & b]lv ;"osf] ls/0f l;;fsf] 9sgaf6 afs;leq l5/]kl5 o;nfO{ { !) jf6sf tLgj6f aQL afNg / b'O{ 3G6f;Dd ZofdZj]t o;leq /flvPsf] sfnf] efF8f] / sfn} ;txn] ;f}ol{ s/0f 6]lnlehg x]g{ ;lsG5 . t/, a9L Ifdtfsf] ;f}o{k|0ffnL ;f];/ tfkdf kl/jt{g ub{5 . o;/L afs;leqsf] tfkqmd ] h8fg u/] Ifdtfcg';f/ a9L aQL afNg / /ªuLg 6]lnlehg x]g{;d]t pkof]u ug{ ;lsG5 . 3/]n' ;f}o{ lah'nL pTkfbg ug{ k|of]u ul/g] d'Vo pks/0fnfO{ ;f] n f/ Kofg] n cyjf ;f] n f/ df] 8 o ' n elgG5 . ;f}o{df]8o'n ;f]nf/ ;]nx¿ (Solar Cells) ldn]/ ag]sf] x'G5 . ;f}o{df]8o'n cw{;'rfns l;lnsg (Silicon) af6 ag]sf] x'G5 . ;f}o{ df]8o'n agfpg k|of]u x'g] of] cw{;'rfns l;lnsg c¿ s]xL geO{ afn'jfdf kfOg] 6Nsg] kbfy{ xf] . ;f}o{ lah'nL pTkfbg ug{ ;f]nf/ Kofgn jf df]8o'n;lxt cGo ;fdfg klg cfjZos kb{5g . ;f} o { lah' n Lsf] pTkfbgsf] dfqf ;f] n f/ Kofgnsf] Ifdtfdf e/kb{5 . Ps yfg ;f]nf/ Kofgnaf6 ufp“3/df jftfj/0fLo ;r]ttf Û xfd|f] k|lta4tf ÛÛ /)f÷ kof{ j /)f ÷ 16
  • 17. gjLs/0fLo pmhf{ a9g yfNb5 . afs;leq pTkÌ x'g] tfk cGoq ;/]/ jf ;dodf c¿ sfd ug{ ;lsG5 . r'xfj6 eP/ hfg glbgsf nflu 7"nf] afs; / ;fgf] • vfgf ksfpg ;lhnf] x'G5 . afs;sf] aLrdf s'rfns j:t'x¿ sfuh, sf7sf] w"nf] • vfgf :jflbnf] x'G5 . jf skf; /flvPsf] x'G5 . afs;df tfkqmd hlt;Sbf] • vfgf ksfpFbf £o", t]n yf]/} /fv]/ klg ksfpg ;lsg] a9L cfjZos kg]{ x'bf afs;df l/kmnS6/ h8fg ul/Psf] F ] x'Fbf lrNnf] kbfy{af6 :jf:Yodf kg]{ g/fd|f] k|efj x'G5 . o;/L afs;leq k;]sf] 3fdsf] tfkzlQm a9b} Go"g ug{ ;xof]u k'¥ofpF5 . uPkl5 efF8fdf /flvPsf] vfgf kfSb5 . • vfgf ksfpg kfgL yf]/} nfUg] x'bf kfgLsf] art x'G5 . F k|of]u ug]{ tl/sf ;f}o{ afs;–r'nf] agfpg cfjZos kg]{ ;fdu|L M ;f} o { afs;–r' n f] 3/sf] sf} ; L, 5t, cfF u g jf kfFr jf 5hgfsf] kl/jf/sf nflu vfgf ksfpg ;lsg] ;'ljwfcg';f/ 3fd nfUg] /flknf] :yfgdf /fVg'kb{5 . Pp6f ;f} o { afs;–r' n f] agfpg lgDg ;fdfg vfgf ksfpg'eGbf sl/a ! 3G6fcufl8 g} r'nf]nfO{ cfjZostf kb{5 M 3fddf /fv]df vfgf kfSg] ;dosf] art x'G5 . vfgf • sf8{af]8{sf afs; jf b'O{j6f rf]ofn] a'g]sf] sf]qmf] ksfpg] ;dodf dfq vfgf ksfpg] efF8f];lxt r'nf]nfO{ -Pp6f 7"nf] / Pp6f ;fgf]_ 3fddf /fVbf vfgf kfSg cln a9L ;do nfUb5 . • 9sg jf lasf]{df /fVg] l;;f jf Knfl:6s r'nf]nfO{ 3fddf /fVbf l;;fsf] 9sgdf ;"o{sf] ls/0f • 6Nsg] ;txsf nflu PNd'lgod SjfOn kg]{u/L /fVg' cfjZos x'G5 . r'nf]sf] l;;fsf] 9sg • s' r fnssf] ¿kdf k| o f] u x' g ] k/fn, skf; jf /fd|/L ;kmf u/]/ vfgf ksfpg] efF8f] afs;leq /fv]/ sfuhsf uf]nf jf 6'qmf 9sg /fd|/L aGb ug'{kb{5 . 9sg km'6g;Sg] ePsfn] • l6gsf] ls:tL vf]Nbf / aGb ubf{ xf]l;of/ x'g'kb{5 . efF8f] afs;leq • ANofsaf]8{ k]G6 -sfnf] /ªdf_ /fv]kl5 9sg vf]ln/xg' /fd|f] x'Fb}g . • u'Fb, wfuf] ;f}o{ afs;–r'nf]df 3fdsf] ls/0f l;wf kfg{ ljz]if Wofg • AffF;sf ;–;fgf ef6fsf 6'qmf lbO{ o;nfO{ 3fdlt/ kmsf{pg'k5{ . vfgf kfls;s]kl5 ;fOh jf cfsf/ l;;fsf] 9sg vf]Nbf afkm lgl:s/x]sf] x'G5, To;}n] of] r'nf] ljleGg cfsf/–k|sf/df agfpg ;lsG5 . ;f}o{ l;;fsf] 9sg vf] N g] l alQs} vfgfsf] efF 8 f] aflx/ afs;–r'nf] agfpFbf kl/jf/sf] ;ªVof / cfjZostf x]//] glgsfnL s]xL ;dokl5 dfq lgsfNg' /fd|f] x'G5 . vfgf sqf] ;fOhdf agfpg] eg]/ lg0f{o ug'{kb{5 . kfFr jf ksfO;s]kl5 r'nf] /fd|/L ;kmf u/]/ ;'/lIft 7fpFdf ;fthgfsf] Pp6f kl/jf/sf] nflu ;fdfGotof leqL afs; /fVg'k5{ . $^ x %^ x @) -;]ld_ / aflx/L afs; %% x ^^ x @% ;f}o{ afs;–r'nf]af6 x'g] nfe -;]ld_ ePsf] ;f}o{ afs;–r'nf] agfpg' pko'Qm x'G5 . • 3fd nfu]sf] ;dodf vfgf ksfpg o;nfO{ ;lhn} ;f}o{ 5ft]r'nf] k|of]u ug{ ;lsG5 . cfNd'lgodsf kftfx¿af6 agfOg] o; r'nf]sf] cfsf/ • d§Lt]n, Uof;, bfp/f, lah'nLh:tf s'g} lsl;dsf 5ftfh:tf] x'G5 . ;f}o{5ftfnfO{ cfjZostfcg';f/ 3fd OGwg cfjZos kb}{g . nfu]lt/ kmsf{pg ;lsof]; eg]/ kmnfd jf sf7sf • w"jfF gcfpg] x'Fbf :jf:Yodf k|lts"n c;/ kb}{g . 8G8Lx¿af6 agfOPsf] k|m]ddf 5ftfnfO{ c8ØfP/ otf– • jftfj/0f k|b"if0f x'Fb}g . ptf 3'dfpg ldNg]u/L h8fg ul/Psf]] x'G5 . 3fdlt/ • of] r'nf] t'ngfTds¿kdf ;kmf / ;'ljwfhgs x'G5 . 5ftf k/]df r'nf]df vfg]s'/f l56f] kfSg] x'G5 . vfgf • vfgf g89g] ePsfn] vfgfsf] kf}li6s tŒj ;'/lIft ksfpg] efF8f]nfO{ ;f}o{5ftfdf /fv]kl5 5ftf tft]/ /xG5 . efF8f]df ePsf] vfBfGg kfSb5 . ;f}o{ 5ftfdf vfgf • cGo r' n f] d f h:tf] ;f} o { r ' n f] d f nuftf/ vfgf ksfpg k|of]u ul/g] efF8f]nfO{ aflx/af6 sfnf] /ªun] rnfO/xg] emGem6 x'Fb}g . kf]ltPsf] x'g'k5{ . o;/L kf]ltPsf] /ªun] 5ftfaf6 • efF8f]nfO{ Psk6s 3fddf /flv;s]kl5sf] art k/fjt{g ePsf] 3fdsf] ls/0f ;f];]/ lnO{ efF8f] l56f] jftfj/0fLo ;r]ttf Û xfd|f] k|lta4tf ÛÛ /)f÷ kof{ j /)f ÷ 17
  • 18. gjLs/0fLo pmhf{ tfT5 / efF8f]sf] vfg]s'/f kfS5 . k'5g'x'Fb}g . ;f}o{ 5ft]r'nf]sf] k|of]uljlw ;f}o{ 5ft]r'nf]sf kmfObfx¿ 5ft]r'nf]df 3fd /fd|/L kg]{ x'g'k5{ . o;nfO{ w]/} bfp/f, d§Lt]n, Uof;, lah'nL cflbsf] k|of]udf sdL ;do 3fd nfUg] / cfk"mnfO{ pko'Qm x'g] cfFug, eO{ vr{df art x'G5 . 3/sf] sf};L, 5t cflb v'nf 7fpFdf /fVg'k5{ . w" j fF / cGo xflgsf/s Uof; glg:sg] x' F b f ;s];Dd 5ftfdf s'g} lsl;dsf] 5fof kg{ lbg' x'Fb}g jftj/0fdf k|lts"n k|efj kb}{g / hg:jf:Yo klg / w]/} xfjf rNg] 7fpF klg /fd|f] x'Fb}g . v/fa x'Fb}g . 5ftfdf /x]sf] 6Nsg] ;txnfO{ r'nf] a;fpg'cufl8 ;f}o{ 5ft]r'nf] ;kmf / ;'ljwfhgs x'G5 . o; r'nf]df klg ;fwf/0f r'nf]df h:t} 5f]6f] ;dodf vfgf kfSb5 . of] r'nf] klg vfgf e'6g, tfg{, kfgL ttfpg k|of]u ug{ ;lsG5 . hf8f] df};ddf ljz]ifu/L ;x/LIf]qdf kfgL ttfpg of] r'nf] nf]slk|o 5 . of] r'nf]sf] lgdf{0f ug{ 7"nf] nufgL ug'{kb}{g . s'g} klg OGwg k|of]u ug'{ gkg]{ ePsfn] nfut l:y/ /xG5 . ;]jf tyf lj:t[t hfgsf/L k|fKt x'g] :ynx¿M j}slNks pmhf{ k|j4{g s]Gb|, wf]aLrf}/, kf6g, kmf]g g+= %%@*##%, %%#(@#& g]kfn ;f}o{ ljB't pTkfbg ;ª3 uxgfkf]v/L, gS;fn, sf7df8f}+, kmf]g g+= $$#@!)# g/d / ;kmf sk8fn] k'5]/ ;kmf ug{'k5{ . gjLs/0fLo pmhf{ s]Gb| 5ftfsf] efF 8 f] /fVg] 7fpF d f efF 8 f] c8ØfPkl5 afuahf/, sf7df8f}+, kmf]g g+= $@$*@%@ efF8f]nfO{ 9sgn] 5f]lklbg'k5{ . ;f]nf/ On]lS6«l;6L sDkgL k|fln 5ftfnfO{ 5] p df ePsf] lsnfdf 5fof k/] s f] kf]=a=g+= @$( afuahf/, sf7df8f}+, kmf]g g+= $@@&*&^, gb]lvg]u/L 3fd nfu]sf] lbzftkm{ kmsf{P/ k"/f 3fd nf]6; OghL{ k|fln nfu]–gnfu]sf] lgZro ug'{k5{ . kf]=a=g+= (@!(, ef6e6]gL, sf7df8f}+, kmf]g g+= $$!*@)# ;fwf/0f r'nf]df h:t} o; r'nf]df ksfpg] vfgfnfO{ ;"of]{bo pmhf{ k|fln ;do–;dodf 5ftfnfO{ k5fl8 kmsf{ P / dfq kf]=a=g+= !)@##, wfkf;L, sf7df8f}+, kmf]g g+= $#%#$@) rnfpg'k5{ . sf7df8f}+ kfj/ sDkgL x/]s @)–@% ldg]6df 5ftfnfO{ lsnfsf] 5fof kf]=a=g+= @!%##, uf]+ua', sf7df8f}+, kmf]g g+= $#%^##& gb]lvg]u/L ;"o{sf] ls/0f;Fu ldnfpg'k5{ . kf7o ;fdu|L M vfgf ksfpg] sfd ;lsPkl5 5ftfnfO{ tnlt/ ➨ Dofg'cn ckm ?/n 6]Sgf]nf]hL -Ol;df]8af6 k|sflzt_ kmsf{P/ /fVg'k5{ . ➨ j}slNks pmhf{ k|j4{g s]Gb|af6 k|sflzt k':tsx¿ 5ftfdf /x]sf] 6Nsg] ;txnfO{ s8f, 7f]; kbfy{sf] b'O{ k|sf/sf :tgwf/L hgfj/n] dfq 3if{0faf6 arfpg'k5{ . k'mn kfb{5g . xf“; r'Rr] Kn]6; / 5ftfnfO{ xfjfx'/L, cl;gfkfgL, wfl/nf] xltof/, Olr8gf gfdsf oL :tgwf/L hgfj/ 9'ªuf cflbsf] 7Ss/af6 arfpg'k5{ / v;|f] j:t'n] ci6«]lnofdf kfOG5g . jftfj/0fLo ;r]ttf Û xfd|f] k|lta4tf ÛÛ /)f÷ kof{ j /)f ÷ 18
  • 19. yfxf kfO/fvf}“ kf“r s/f]8 jif{ h]7f] :ofpdf *$ k|ltzt, cfn'df &* /f] r s 1fglj1fg k|ltzt / rLhdf $) k|ltzt nfdv'§] l;tf zdf{ kfgLsf] dfqf x'G5 . nfdv' § ] sL/fx¿sf] cjf{ l rg ¿k xf] . k[YjLdf o;sf] pTklQ dfG5]eGbf % s/f]8 8fOgf];/ s;/L gfl;P < jif{ k lxn] g} x'g t k[YjLsf hLj clxn] klg nf]k eO/x]sf 5g . t/, eO;s] s f] lyof] . k[YjLdf /x]sf] 5]kf/f]h:tf] :j¿ksf] eLdsfo 8fOgf];/ ljZjdf clxn] 7"nf s/f]8f}F jif{klxn] g} nf]k ePsf] lyof] . of] eLdsfo hLj ;fgf ljleGg 8fOgf];/ Iff/Lo jif{ (Acid rain) sf sf/0f nf]k zf/Ll/s agfj6df ePsf] x'g;Sg] cd]l/sL e"ue{ljb /f]gfN8 lk|g / a|'; kfOg] nfdv' § ] s f km]un]n] hgfPsf 5g . pgLx¿sf cg';f/ !@% nfv @,&)) eGbf a9L k|hflt kfOG5g . xfjfdf Ps}7fpFdf cl8/xg / e'mSofP/ efUg of] clt g} l;kfn' x'G5 . To;} x'gfn] bfp 5f]k]/ /ut r':g yfN5 / dfG5] jf hgfj/n] yfxf kfpgf;fy nfdv' § ] efUg ;kmn x' G 5 . kfgL kbf{ jiff{ s f yf]kfx¿aLraf6 ;lhn} l5b}{ p8g;Sg] Ifdtf klg of] nfdv'§]df x'G5 . nfdv'§]n] Ps ;]s]G8df %)) b]lv ^)) k6s;Dd cfˆgf] kv]6f km6km6fpg;S5 . %))) lsnf]ld6/ g/f]lsO{ p8g] r/f uf] N 8] g ˆnf] e / s/f]8 lsnf]u|fd tf}n ePsf] pNsf ^% lsnf]ld6/ gfdsf] r/f %))) k|lt;]s]G8sf] ultn] k[YjLlt/ nfdf] ;do;Dd x'lQP/ lsnf]ld6/;Dd Iff/Lo jiff{ u/fpFbf pTkGg tfkn] oxfFsf] jftfj/0fdf g/f]lsO{sg lg/Gt/ gfO6«f]hg cS;fO8 clws a9g uO{ 8fOgf];/ nf]k ePsf] p8g;S5 . o;n] x'g;S5 . !) xhf/ jif{klxn] Hjfnfd'vL lj:kmf]6 x'Fbf ofqf cjlwe/ g lg:s]sf ljiffn' Uof;sf sf/0f klg cDnLo jiff{ ePsf] vfgf vfG5, g x'g;Sg] pgLx¿sf] /fo 5 . lj>fd g} lnG5 . &% b]lv *) u|fd dfq tf}n x'g] of] r/fn] To:tf] ce"tk"j{ zlQm s;/L k|fKt ub{5 eg]/ ;"o{ / rGb|df lsg pq} b]lvG5g j}1flgs;d]t cfZro{rlst 5g . ;"osf] Jof; rGb|dfsf] eGbf nueu $)) u'0ff 7"nf] 5 . { s]df, slt kfgL < To;} u /L, k[ Y jLaf6 rGb|dfsf] b"/Lsf] $)) kfgL dflg;sf nflu w]/} dxŒjk"0f{ x'G5 . kfgL lkpg u' 0 ff b" / Ldf ;" o { s f] gkfpF b f xfd| f ] 3fF 6 L ;' S 5, cjl:ylt /x]sf] 5 . ;"o{ z/L/ l;lyn aGb5 . t/, / rGb| d fsf] cfsf/ / xfdLn]] kmnk"mn, ;fukft / k[ Y jLaf6 /x] s f] b" / Lsf] cGo vfBkbfy{ ;] j g ubf{ klg 7" n f] dfqfdf kfgL cg' k ft ;dfg /x] s f vfO/x] s f x' G 5f} + . sfF q mf] d f sf/0f xfdL] ;"oeGbf $)) { (^ k|ltzt, v/a'hfdf (@ u'0ff ;fgf] rGb|dfnfO{ klg k|ltzt, b"wdf *& k|ltzt, ;"ohq} b]Vb5f}F . { jftfj/0fLo ;r]ttf Û xfd|f] k|lta4tf ÛÛ /)f÷ kof{ j /)f ÷ 19
  • 20. yfxf kfO/fvf}“ k[YjLsf] ;a}eGbf alnof] :tgwf/L d';fsf] j[l4 slt < xfdLnfO{ nfUg;S5, ;a}eGbf alnof] :tgwf/L hgfj/ d';fn] xfd|f] l9s'6Lsf] cGg vfP/ x}/fg kfb{5 . d';fsf] xfQL xf] . xfQL :ynk|f0fLdWo] ;a}eGbf 7"nf]rflxF xf] t/ k|fs[lts l;sf/L ;k{, lrn, la/fnf], nf6f]sf];]/f]h:tf jlni7 g} eg] xf]Og . b'O{ km'6 dfq nfdf] c:6«]lnofdf hLj gx'g] xf] eg] Pshf]8L d';faf6 pTkfbg ePsf kfOg] Kn]l6k; ljZjdf kfOg] :tgwf/L k|f0fLdWo] ;a}eGbf ;Gtfg Ps jif{df * ;o *) k'Ub5g . To;} b/df alnof] x' G 5 . ;ª V of a9 b f :tgwf/L eP Pshf]8L d';faf6 % klg o;n] r/fn] jif{ d f ($,)#& h:t} k"mn kfb{5 s/f] 8 d' ; fsf] x' n / hª u nL aGb5 . o;/L xfF ; sf] h:tf] ;+ V of a9 g kfpg] u' F 8 agfP/ xf] eg] d';fn] a:5 . o;sf] k[ Y jLdf s:tf] txNsf dRrfpnf eGg] cg' d fg ug{ k' R 5/ df5f vfg] cf] t sf] h:tf] x' G 5 . kfgLdf klg sl7g x' G 5 . df5fh:t} kf} 8 g;Sg] Kn] l 6k;nfO{ k[ Y jLdf cfˆgf] cl:tTj arfpg ;Ifd ;a}eGbf k'/fgf] / k|f/lDes !@ xhf/ jif{ lxp“df k'l/P/ klg lhp“b} cj:yfsf] :tgwf/L hgfj/ dflgG5 . xfdLn] ha Zjf;k|Zjf; aGb ub{5f}F, db{5f}F t/ k]ml/ k'gh{Gd kfpg ;Sb}gf}F . lxpFdf k'l/Psf] s]xL ;dod} ;fOsnsf] cflj:sf/ xfdL db{5f}F . t/, AofS6]l/of, kmGhfO{ tyf 9';Ldf To:tf] jftfj/0f / ce"tk"j{ Ifdtf kfOPsf] hg:jf:Yosf nflu 5, hf] !@ xhf/ jif{;Dd ;d] t nfebfoL d[ t fj:yfdf /x] / klg ;jf/L;fwgsf] dfGotf k'ghL{jg kfpg;S5g . kfPsf] ;fOsnsf] ?;L j} 1 flgsx¿n] ] cflj:sf/ :s6NofG8sf cG6fl6{ s fsf] lxpF d f ls/Kofl6«s Dofsldngn] ;g !*$@ df ubf{ kmnfd] xhf/fF} ld6/ ulx/fOleq /8sf kfO8n / rSsfsf] k|of]u u/]sf lyP . k|mfG;df sDtLdf klg !@ xhf/ ;g !*^% df rSsf 3'dfpg Sofªs hl8t jf]g]:s/ jif{klxn]b]lv hd]sf o:tf ;"IdhLjnfO{ k'ghL{jg lbg gfds ;fOsn aGof] . ;fOsndf qmdzM /a/sf rSsf ;kmntf k|fKt u/]sf 5g . / c¿ ;'ljwfo'Qm efu ljsf; ub}{ OªUNofG8sf h]D; :6f/n]n] ;g !**% df ;fOsnnfO{ cfw'lgs ¿k lbP . d'6sf] rfn slt < ' clxn] ahf/df cfw'lgs k|ljlwaf6 ljsl;t %) eGbf dfgjd' 6 ' k| l tldg] 6 %@ k6s a9L luo/ ePsf ;fOsn;d]t pknAw 5g . cyjf k|ltlbg ! nfveGbf a9L pDn“bf] kfgL lxp“ aGg] 7fp“ k6s wl8sG5 . k|To]s w8sg;Fu} d' 6 ' n ] &) l;l; /ut z/L/sf ;fOa]l/of ljZjsf] ;a}eGbf 7"nf] d?e"ld xf] . o; g;fx¿df k|jflxt ub{5 . d'6'af6 d?e"ldnfO{ cToGt lr;f] / cToGt udL{ x'g] :yfgsf ;~rfl/t ePsf] /ut z/L/sf ¿kdf lrlgG5 . ljzfn e"If]qdf km}lnPsf] o; d?e"lddf g;f xF ' b } ! nfv @) xhf/ udL{ofddf ^) l8u|L ;]lG6u|]6 tfk x'G5 eg] hf8f]ofddf dfOnsf] ofqf k" / f u/] / k] m l/ dfOg; ^) l8u|L;Dd tn emb{5 . o; d?e"ldsf] d'6'd} k'Ub5 / ljsf//lxt eP/ e;f]{ofg:s klg p:t} cToGt lr;f] :yfg xf], hxfFsf] k'g;{~rfl/t x'G5 . hldgdf plDn/x]sf] kfgL kf]Vg]lalQs} hd]/ lxpF aGb5 . jftfj/0fLo ;r]ttf Û xfd|f] k|lta4tf ÛÛ /)f÷ kof{ j /)f ÷ 20
  • 21. :yfgLo hfu/0f ;fd'bflos jg Joj:yfkgcGtu{t pkef]Qmfaf6} ;+/If0f o; jgIf]qs} cUnf] 6fs'/fdf Pp6f 6fj/ agfpg] nIo kfPkl5 xnSs a9]sf] kf]v/fsf] hosf]6 ;fd'bflos jg klg /x]sf] 5 . sfx'F ufpF ljsf; ;ldltsf] j8f g+ @ df ca lrl8ofvfgf aGg] ePsf] 5 . @$=$( x] S 6/ If] q kmndf km} l nPsf] ;f] jg s] x L kf]v/f;Fu} hf]l8Psf] of] jgnfO{ kf]v/f cfpg] ko{6s jif{cl3;Dd kf]y|fkf]y|L / a'6ofg dfq ePsf] gfªuf] kfvf] leqofpg] dfq xf]Og, Jojl:yt jgef]h Pjd kf]v/fsf] lyof] . n]s;fO8sf afl;Gbfn] ;d]t sf7 / bfp/fsf k|b"if0f, eL8ef8 / xf]xNnfaf6 Ps}l5g zflGt vf]Hg]sf nflu o;} jgnfO{ k|of]u ug{ yfn]kl5 ¿vsf h/f;d]t nflu /d0fLo k|fs[lts b[iofjnf]sgsf] cj;/;d]t k|bfg ;dfKt ePsf] ;f] jgsf] ;+/If0fdf :yfgLo afl;Gbfn] ug]{] :ynsf ¿kdf ljsl;t ug]{ k|of; pkef]Qmfaf6 lgs} b' M v v] K g' k /] s f] 5 . jf:tjdf ;/sf/n] o; k|f/De ePsf] 5 . jgIf] q nfO{ /fli6« o jgsf] ¿kdf ;+ / If0f ug{ ;ldlt pkef]Qmf :jo++n] tf/af/, j[If/f]k0f / /]vb]v ub}{ cfPsf] agfPkl5 eg] ;'wf/ x'g yn]sf] lyof] / lg/Gt/ j[If/f]k0f ;f] jgaf6 k|To]s pkef]Qmfn] jgsf] uf]8d]n ubf{ lg:sg] ePk5L jg df}nfpFb} uof] . pQ/tkm{ sfxF' ufpF ljsf; bfp/fdWo] 5 ld6/ 8f]/La/fa/ dfq lgsfn]/ n}hfg ;ldlt / afFsL l;dfgfdf kf]v/f pkdxfgu/kflnsf kg]{ kfpg] Joj:yf ePsf sf/0f klg jg;+ / If0fn] /fd| f ] ;f] jgdf xfn ! ;o $$ pkef]Qmf jg;+/If0f sfo{df ;kmntf kfPsf] 5 . jg x'ls{Psf] k5L r/fx¿sf] ;ªVof ;xefuL eO/x]sf 5g . a9] / r/fpBfgsf] ¿kdf ljsl;t x' F b } uPkl5 jgsf] 5]j}df xfF; / as'Nnfsf ayfg b]Vg kfOg] tyf lrl8ofvfgf g} agfpg] sfo{df pkef]Qmf h]6]sf 5g . 9sdSs sdn km'Ng] sdnkf]v/Ln] jftfj/0f emg df]xs k/Dk/fut¿kdf kfOg] sfu, 9's'/, sflnh, jgs'v'/f, agfPsf] b]lvG5 . t/, sl/a %) /f]kgL If]qkmnsf] ;f] nfdk'R5«|], h'/]nL, lkm:6], eb|fO{, 8fªu|], wf]lagL, sf]OnL, kf] v /L cltqmd0fsf sf/0f sl/a #@ /f] k gLdf ltqf, x' l rn, ;' u f, v'lDr;s]sf] 5 . jgsf] ljsf; / lj:tf/;Fu} sdnkf]v/L cflb r/f a9 b } tfnsf] ;+ / If0f;d] t uPsf 5g eg]] jg x' g ] xf] eg] s' d f/L aflSnPkl5 af3, df5fk' R 5« | ] ;lxtsf] d[ u / v/fof] klg lxd >[ ª v nf, km] j f b]lvg yfn]sf 5g . tfn, kf] v /fahf/, n' D n] , x] D hfh:tf jgnfO{ r/fkfs{ s f] sl/a () k| l tzt ¿kdf ljsf; ug{ /d0fLo :yfg b] V g a9LeGbf a9L r/f ;lsg] o; If] q n] cfslif{ t u/L /Do kf] v /fsf] ko{ 6 gnfO{ jftfj/0f agfpg, 6]jf lbg;Sg]5 . lrl8ofvfgf aGb}5 hosf]6 jg ltgLx¿sf] cfxf/ / af;:yfgsf] cg' s " n tf agfpg jglj1fgsf ljBfyL{ s f] k| o f] u zfnfsf ¿kdf ;d] t jg;+ / If0fdf ljz] i f hf] 8 lbF b } jgpkef] Q mf ;ldltn] ljsl;t x'Fb} u/]sf] of] jgdf v'nf jftfj/0f, kfgLsf] o;sf] cWoog k|f/De ul/;s]sf] 5 . r/fkfs{sf nflu ;' l jwf, efG;f3/, jgjfl6sf, kSsL jgef] h :yn / ljz] i f1åf/f ;DefJotf cWoog u/fpg kf] v /f df]6/af6f] ePsfn] jgef]hsf nflu lgs} cfsif{s ynf] pkdxfgu/kflnsfn] ;d"xnfO{ Ps nfv ¿k}ofF k|bfg alg;s]sf] 5 . ;'?df a]lNhod k'u]sf :yfgLo o'jfn] ul/;s]sf] 5 eg] of]hgf sfof{Gjogsf nflu !) nfv vfg]kfgL 6ofªsL agfpg Ps nfv ¿k}ofF ;xof]u:j¿k ?k}ofF 5'6ofPsf] 5 . k7fPkl5 k|f/De ePsf tL k"jf{wf/ lgdf{0fdf emG8} gf} sf:sL lhNnfsf $ ;o !@ ;fd'bflos jgdWo] ut jif{ nfv ?k}ofF vr{ eO;s]sf] atfOG5 . bf];|f] pTs[i6 ;fd'bflos jg k'/:sf/ kfPsf] o; hosf]6 jgleqsf] cf7 /f]kgL If]qkmndf @)!& ;fndf :yfkgf jgdf rfFk, nK;L, a8x/, s6';, ;Nnf, pQL;, lrnfpg], ePsf] dgfªu] u'Daf klg o; jgsf] csf]{ cfsif{0f xf] . s'l/nf], t]hkQf, afF; / ;Nnf cflb jg:klt kfOG5g . kf]v/f pkdxfgu/kflnsf;Fu hf]l8Psf] o; jgnfO{ v'nf oxL] u'Daf x]g{ jif]{gL xhf/f}F ljb]zL tyf :jb]zL ko{6s lrl8ofvfgfsf] ¿kdf ko{6sLo If]q agfpg nfluPsf] hfg] ub{5g . – a'l4;fu/ a/fn, kf]v/f jftfj/0fLo ;r]ttf Û xfd|f] k|lta4tf ÛÛ /)f÷ kof{ j /)f ÷ 21 1
  • 22. hnjfo' ;" o{af6 k[YjLdf cfpg] k|sfzdf /x]sf] ljsL/0fnfO{ jfo'd08nsf] aflx/L ;txdf /x]sf] cf]hf]gsf] k/tn] leq l5g{af6 /f]s/ oxfFsf hLj–hutsf] /Iff ul//x]sf] ] jif{df ljZjsf] cf};t tfkqmd !=% af6 j[l4 eO{ $=% l8u|L ;]lN;o; k'Ug] cg'dfg ul/Psf] 5 . o;f] ePdf ljut (,))) jif{sf] Oltxf;df of] ztfAbL k[YjLsf] tfkqmd 5 . jf:tjdf cf]hf]g gx'bf] xf] t k[YjLdf hLjgcg'sn F " ;a}eGbf rfF8f] a9g] ztfAbsf] ¿kdf /xg]5 . o;sf] jftfj/0f g} x'Fb}gYof] eg] klg x'G5 . cf]hf]gafx]s b' : kl/df0fM o; wlt{ d f a;f] a f; ul//x] s f dfgj jfo'd08ndf cGo y'k}| k|sf/sf Uof;x¿ klg /x]sf 5g . hLjgnufot k[YjLsf ;Dk"0f{ hLj ;~hfn tyf kfl/l:ylts jfo'd08ndf cGo ljleGg k|sf/sf Uof;x¿sf] pkl:ylt k|0ffnLnfO{ uDeL/ c;/ kg]{5 . a9bf ;"oaf6 cfpg] 5f]6f] cfj[lQsf ls/0fx¿ k[YjLsf] { o;af6 ;fd' l b| s ;tx ;txdf cfpgnfO{ cj/f]w xFbg t/ o:Tff Uof; clws ' } c;fdfGo¿kdf a9g;Sg], jiff{sf] ePkl5 k[YjLaf6 kms{g] nfdf] cfj[lQsf ls/0f eg] aflx/ lgoldttfdf vnn cfpg] ] , xl/tu[x k|efj tfTbf] k[YjL hfgaf6 /f]lsG5 . o;/L ;"oaf6 k|fKt tfk pmhf{ oxLF { h'4axfb'/ u'?ª ✍ ;l~rt eP/ k[YjLsf] tftf]kg a9g] k|lqmofnfO{ xl/tu[x k|efj elgG5 . cf}Bf]lusLs/0fsf] k|lqmof ;'? ePkZrft tfkqmdn] s[lifk|0ffnLdf gsf/fTds c;/ kg],{ df6f] tyf k[YjLsf] jfo'd08ndf o:tf xl/tu[x Uof;x¿sf] dfqf () jftfj/0fLo cfb|Tffdf kl/jt{g cfpg]nufot kfgLsf u'0ff a9]sf] cg'dfg ul/Psf] 5 . o;/L xl/tu[x Uof;sf] ;|ftx¿df ;d]t ;+s6 b]vfkg{;Sg]5 . ] dfqfTds j[l4sf sf/0f ;f}o{ ls/0faf6 cfpg] tfk oxLF lhDd]jf/ sf] < /f]lsg] k|lqmof;Fu} k[YjLsf] tfTg] k|lqmof klg a9]sf] 5 . cfhef] l n eO/x] s f ljleGg dfgjLo lqmofsnfkn] To;}sf/0f, xl/tu[x k|efjn] k[YjLdf cjl:yt ;Dk"0f{ hLjdf jfo'd08ndf xl/tu[x Uof;sf] kl/df0f a9fpg ;xof]u ljljw gsf/fTds kl/0ffd b]vfkb{5 . xl/tu[x Uof;dWo] ul//x]sf] 5 . h}ljs cjz]ifsf OGwgx¿ vf;u/L vlgh sfa{g8fOcS;fO8nfO{ xl/tu[x k|efj a9fpg] k|d'v t]n, sf]Onf tyf k|fs[lts Uof;df /x]sf] sfa{g8fOcS;fO8 sf/stŒj dflgG5 . olb sfa{g8fOcS;fO8 jfo'd08ndf Uof;sf] k|r/ k|of]u eO{ hngk|lqmofåf/f pT;lh{t eO/x]sf] ' ylkg] qmd oxL b/ sfod /x] ;g @!)) ;Dddf tfkqmd 5 . 7"nf] kl/df0fdf hlnt h}ljs cjz]ifn] ljut s]xL lgs} pRr /xg] eljiojf0fL j}1flgsx¿n] u/]sf 5g . bzsklxn]bl] v g} jfo'd08ndf sfa{g8fOcS;fO8sf] kl/df0f o;}sf sf/0f ljZjsf] hnjfo'df ;d]t kl/jt{g cfO/x]sf] a9fO/x]sf] 5 . l;d]G6 tyf cGo sf/vfgfsf] j[l4n] j}1flgsx¿sf] bfaf 5 . } sfa{g8fOcS;fO8sf] pTkfbgnfO{ a9fjf lbO/x]sf] 5 . hnjfo' kl/jt{gsf c;/x¿ jfo'd08nsf] sfa{g8fOcS;fO8nfO{ vf;u/L la?jfsf ljZjJofkL pi0ftf g} xl/tu[x Uof; pT;h{gsf] k|dv k|efj slnnf kftn] ;f]:g] ub{5 . To;}n] jgljgf;sf] tLj|tf;Fu} ' xf] . k[YjLsf hnjfo'af/] eljiojf0fL ug{ tof/ ul/Psf oxfFsf] jfo'd08ndf /x]sf] sfa{g8fOcS;fO8 ;f]:g] sfo{ sDKo'6/ gd'gfcg';f/ clxn]sf] cj:yfsf] xl/tu[x Uof; klg 36b} uPsf] 5 . o;/L Pslt/ h}ljs OGwgsf] hngdf pT;h{g lgoGq0fsf nflu s'g} k|of; gePdf cfufdL ;o j[ l 4 / csf] { l t/ a9 b f] jgljgf;n] jfo' d 08ndf jftfj/0fLo ;r]ttf Û xfd|f] k|lta4tf ÛÛ /)f÷ kof{ j /)f ÷ 22
  • 23. hnjfo' sfa{g8fOcS;fO8sf] sfa{g8fOcS;fO8 pT;h{g ug]{ d'Vo b]zx¿ w]/} of]hgfx¿df ;g dfqf eofjx !(*& nfO{ cfwf/jif{ lsl;dn] al9/x]sf] 5 . @@ cd]l/sf %$# dflgPsf] 5 . oxfF s f] !* Sofg8f $(=& jfo'd08ndf k|ltjif{ @)=) dfgjLo lqmofsnfk !^ ci6«l] nof @* g}} k[YjLsf] ljlnog 6g !# k'j{ ;f]leot;+3 #^) jfo'd08ndf xl/tu[x !# hd{gL !)# sfa{g8fOcS;fO8 pT;h{g x'g] Uof;x¿ a9fpg !# g]b/n]08 !(=^ ub{ 5 . ljZjsf PsltxfO lhDd]jf/ /x]sf 5g . !! a]nfot ^) hg;+Vof /x]sf cf}Bf]lus /fi6«x¿n] k|fs[lts Uof;sf] r'xfj6, !! kf]Nof08 $#=^ jfo'd08ndf /xg] nueu *) k|ltzt vfgL tyf sf]Onf *=& /f]dflgof @)=! sfa{g8fOcS;fO8 pT;h{g ug]{ ub{5g . pTvggnufot s[lifdf *=^ hfkfg !)^ t;y{, cf}Bf]lus /fi6« g} xl/tu[x Uof; &=% O6fnL $# pT;{hg u/L k[YjLsf] pi0ftf a9fpg cTolws rfk kgf{n] k|mfG; $)=^ & a9L lhDd] j f/ /x] s f 5g . jfo'd08ndf ldy]g %=( :k]g @#=@ Uof; pT;h{g a9b} cf}Bf]lus tyf ljsl;t b]zsf @ rLg @#) dflg;n] g} h}ljs OGwgsf] 7"nf] uPsf] 5 . cf}Bf]lus )=& ef/t %*=@ sf/vfgfx¿af6 k|ltJolQm CO2 lg:sf;g kl/df0fdf k|of]u ub{5g . hDdf CO2 lg:sf;g o;/L x] b f{ ljZjsf Snf]/f]kmnf]/f] - 6g _ -s/f]8 6g _ sfa{gh:tf Uof; cf}Bf]lusLs/0fsf] pT;h{g eO/x]sf 5g . jfo'd08nsf] tNnf] ;txdf cu| k + l Qmdf /x] s f] ;+ o ' Q m/fHo cd] l /sfn] k| l tJolQm gfO6«;cS;fO8 tyf cf]hf]gsf] dfqf tLj| ultdf al9/x]sfn] sfa{g8fOcS;fO8 pT;h{gdf cu|tf lnPsf] 5 . jfo'd08n wldnf] b]lvg yfln;s]sf] 5 . k[YjLdf dflg; dfgjLo lqmofsnfkaf6 pT;lh{t Uof; cg'kft cl:tTjdf cfPkl5sf] ;dosf ljut b'O{ ztfAbLsf jif{x¿df ^! Ü sfa{g8fOcS;fO8 (CO2), k|dv xl/tu[x Uof;sf] pT;h{g tLj|¿kdf j[l4 ePsf] 5 . ' !( Ü ldy]g (CH4) xl/tu[x Uof; pTkfbgsf dfgjLo lqmofsnfk !$ Ü Snf]/f]ˆnf]/f]sfa{g (ClFCs) $ Ü gfO6«;cS;fO8 (N2O) k[YjLsf] jfo'd08ndf sfa{g8fOcS;fO8sf] dfqf 36fpg @ Ü cGo (HClFCs / HFCs) ✭ hnjfo' kl/jt{gdf dfgjLo lqmofsnfks} k|d'v xft /x]sf]] jftfj/0fljb tyf j}1flgsx¿sf] /fo 5 . ;jf{lws hnjfo' kl/jt{gsf] ztfAbL xfn} cd]l/sfsf jfo'd08nljbx¿n] k[YjLsf] jftfj/0fLo lg/LIf0f Pjd sDKo'6/åf/f lvlrPsf hnjfo' kl/jt{g;DaGwL tl:a/x¿sf] cWoogaf6 k[YjLsf] tfkqmd tyf hnjfo'hGo k|sf]kdf j[l4 eO/x]sf] k'li6 u/]sf 5g . pgLx¿sf cg';f/ dfgjLo sfo{af6 pT;h{g x'g] xl/tu[x Uof; jfo'd08ndf lj;h{g x'gfn] jfo'd08nLo tfkqmd lg/Gt/ al9/x]sf] 5 . xl/tu[x Uof;sf] pT;h{gnfO{ lgoGq0f gug]{ xf] eg] k[YjLsf] tfkqmd a9b} hfFbf w|'jLo lxpF kUn]/ ;d'b|;tx dfly p7g] / lgoGq0f g} ug{ g;lsg] ;d:of b]vfkg{;S5 . j}1flgs sfn{ / 6«]gjy{sf cg';f/ ljut %) jif{b]lv pBf]uaf6 lgl:sPsf xl/tu[x Uof; g} hnjfo' kl/jt{gsf k|d'v sf/s x'g . d'Vo xl/tu[x Uof; sfa{g8fOcS;fO8sf] dfqf cf}Bf]lusLs/0fkl5 dfq #! k|ltzt a9]sf] 5 . ;x/Ls/0fsf lqmofsnfk, ;Nkm]6sf] pTkfbg tyf jfo'df w"jfF 5f8g] pBf]ux¿sf] lj:tf/af6 :yfgLo tj/df tfkqmd 36a9 x'g] eP klg To;n] ;du| jfo'd08ndf xl/tu[x Uof; eg] a9fpFb}g . t/ klg tftf] nx/ rNg], v8]/L nfUg], cgfj[li6, cltj[li6 cflb;Fu ;DaGw /fVg] hªunL cfuhgL, jfg:klts kl/jt{g, lxpFF kUng] / ;d'b|sf] kfgLsf] ;tx dfly p7g]h:tf k|efjx¿ eg] 68sf/f]¿kdf b]vfkb{5g . k[YjLsf] tfTg] qmd clxn]s} :t/df /xg] xf] eg] ;g @!)) ;Dddf oxfFsf] tfkqmd $=( ;]lN;o;;Dd a9g5 . ] cWoogdf ;+nUg jfo'd08n j}1flgsx¿n] xl/tu[x Uof;sf] pT;h{gnfO{ lgoGq0f gug]{ xf] eg] of] ztfAbL ljut !) xhf/ jif{sf] Oltxf;df ;a}eGbf a9L hnjfo' kl/jt{g x'g] ztfAbL aGg] r]tfjgL lbPsf 5g . – kof{j/0f 8]:s jftfj/0fLo ;r]ttf Û xfd|f] k|lta4tf ÛÛ /)f÷ kof{ j /)f ÷ 23
  • 24. l;“rfO esf/L e/f},+ yf]kf yf]kf pkof]u u/f}+ l;nf dfl6{g g]kfn clwsfªz If]qkmn kxf8 / lxdfnn] 9flsPsf] g] k fnsf] ef} u f] l ns tyf w/ftnLo cj:yfcg' ; f/ s[lifk|wfg b]z xf] . o;sf] s'n ! s/f]8 $& nfv $* s[life"ld l;~rt u/fpg ;dofg's"n k|ljlw ljsf; klg xhf/ x]S6/ If]qkmndWo] #) nfv %@ xhf/ x]S6/ x'Fb} cfPsf 5g . g]kfnsf] ;Gbe{df xfn;Dd l;FrfOsf If]qkmnnfO{ s[life"ldn] cf]u6]sf] 5 . s[lifdf pkof]u nflu !% k|sf/sf k|ljlwsf] ljsf; eO;s]sf] kfOG5 . ePsf] If]qkmndWo] %& k|ltzt efu kj{tLo If]qdf kb{5 t/, g]kfndf kfFr bzsdf l;FrfOIf]qdf ^^ ca{ nufgL eg] afFsL $# k|ltzt t/fO{sf] ;dy/ e"efudf /x]sf] 5 . eO;s] klg ck]lIft ;kmntf eg] k|fKt ePsf] 5}g . ljs6 ef}uflns w/ftnsf sf/0fn] ubf{ kxf8af;Ln] ljsf; ul/Psf sltko k| l jlw vlr{ n f Pjd lkpg] kfgLsf nflu;d] t cJofjxfl/s ePsf] x' F b f 3G6f}F lxF8]/ vf]nf, wf/f tyf ltgn] nf] s lk| o tf s' j faf6 kfgL kfpg;s] s f 5} g g . af] S g' k l//x] s f] 5 . ljZj o;}aLr k|rngdf cfPsf hg;ªVofsf] 7"nf] efunfO{ kfgLesf/L / yf]kf l;FrfO kfgL pknAw u/fpg] k| l jlw cfsfz] kfgL kxf8n] ToxLFsf afl;GbfnfO{ ;ª s ng ug] { , yf] / } eg] kfgLsf] ;' l jwf lbg hne08f/af6 w]/} If]qdf ;s] s f] 5} g . To:t} , l;F r fO pknAw u/fpg t/fO{sf] cj:yf klg v';L ;lsg] tyf sd vlr{nf] dflgxfNg'kg]{ vfnsf] 5}g . ePsfn] ] u| f dL0f If] q df d'n'ssf] cfly{s ljkGgtfsf l;“rfOsf] cefjdf a~h/ v]t . kmf]6f]M kof{j/0f 8]:s . lgs} nf] s lk| o ePsf sf/0f t/fO{ s f] ;dy/ If] q sf s[ l ife" l ddf klg b]lvG5g . cfzftLt¿kdf l;FrfOsf] Joj:yf x'g;s]sf] 5}g . kfgLesf/L k|ljlw g]kfn afx|} dlxgf alu/xg] ;bfjxf/ gbLx¿ k|z:t kfgLsf] ;|f]t gePsf :yfgdf hldgdf vfN8f] vg]/ ePsf] hn;| f ] t sf b[ l i6n] cToGt wgL d' n ' s xf] . jiff{bsf] kfgL hDdf ug]{ k|ljlwnfO{ kfgLesf/L elgG5 . ef}uf]lns :j¿k / hn pknAwtfsf cfwf/df b]zsf] jiff{bdf k/]sf] kfgLnfO{ hldgdf ljz]if k|sf/sf] vfN8f] s'n !* nfv x]S6/ s[life"lddf l;FrfO ;'ljwf k'¥ofpg lgdf{ 0 f u/] / hDdf ug] { / ;' V vf df} ; d cyjf ;lsg] cj:yf eP klg xfn;Dd $ nfv x]S6/df dfq cfjZostfcg';f/sf] ;dodf ;f] kfgLnfO{ v]taf/L jf of] ;' l jwf pknAw ePsf] 5 . o;} s f/0f, b] z sf] t/sf/L v] t Ldf l;F r fO ug{ k| o f] u ul/G5 . ul/a clwsfªz s[liftGq cfsfz] kfgLsf] e/df l6s]sf] 5 . s[ifsx¿sf nflu ;xof]u sfo{qmd -;k|f];_ åf/f ljsl;t g]kfnsf] sl/a *# k|ltzt hg;ªVofn] s[lif k];f cFufn]sf] o; k|ljlwn] u|fdL0f If]qdf lgs} nf]slk|otf k|fKt u/]sf] 5 . ljs6 u|fdL0f Onfsfdf vfg]kfgLsf] nflu t8lkg'kg]{ 5 . kfgLesf/L k|ljlwsf] k|of]u xfn uf]/vf, wflbª, cj:yfdf klg s[lif k];fnfO{ cfˆgf] hLjg lgjf{xsf] d'Vo lrtjg, ;fwgsf ¿kdf ckgfpg' ljkGg tyf lk5l8Psf ls;fgsf]] dsjfgk'/, afWotf g} xf] . w]/h;f] cj:yfdf cfsfz] kfgLsf] cefj cf]vn9'ªuf, } tyf cfjZos ;dodf jiff{ gx'gh:tf sf/0fn] v]tLkftL ndh'ª, ] k"/} gi6 x'g] jf cfzftLt pTkfbg gx'g] cj:yf l;h{gf Onfd, x' G 5 . To;af6 clgsfn, s' k f] i f0f, /f] u Jofw, aemfª tyf dxfdf/Lnufot ;d:of;d]t b]vfkg]{ ub{5g . afh'/f jftfj/0fLo ;r]ttf Û xfd|f] k|lta4tf ÛÛ /)f÷ kof{ j /)f ÷ 24
  • 25. l;“rfO lhNnfdf k/LIf0f eO{ ;kmntf;fy k|of]u eO/x]sf] k|ljlwnfO{ yf]kf l;FrfO elgG5 . o;/L l;FrfO ubf{ b]lvPsf] 5 . kfgLsf] ;fgf] ;|f]t jf yf]/} e08f/af6 w]/} la?jfdf n3'l;FrfOsf lgldQ pkof]uL x'g] o; ;kmn k|ljlwsf] l;FrfO ug{ ;lsg] x'Fbf o; k|ljlwn] ls;fgnfO{ lgs} Pp6f esf/L lgdf{0f ug{ sl/a %) xhf/ ?k}ofF vr{ cfslif{t u/]sf] 5 . nfUb5 . jiff{ ePsf] ;dodf jl/kl/af6 au]/ hfg] kfgL yf]kf l;FrfO k|ljlw vf;u/L sfpnL, aGbf, a|f]sfpnL, hDdf x' g ;Sg] / hldgn] ;f] : g g;Sg] lsl;dn] sfFqmf], s/]nf, vf];f{gLh:tf df};dL jf a]df};dL t/sf/L esf/Lsf] lgdf{0f ul/G5 . of] esf/L yf]/} hldg x'g] v]tLsf nflu pkof]uL x'G5 . o; k|ljlwcGtu{t lxpFbdf ls;fgn] ;fd"lxs¿kdf jf w]/} hldg x'g] ls;fgn] nufOg] t/sf/Lsf *) j6f la?jfdf dfq !% ln6/ / JolQmut¿kdf lgdf{0f u/]/ k|of]u ug{;S5g . o;/L ;'Vvfofddf #) ln6/ kfgLn] kof{Kt l;FrfO ug{ k'Ub5 . lgld{t Pp6f o; k| l jlwcGtu{ t esf/Ldf hDdf s/] ; faf/L jf t/sf/L ePsf] kfgLn] sl/a v]tL ul/Psf] hldgdf !* b]lv @) /f]kgL Psrf}yfO OGrsf] kfOk v]tLof]Uo e"ldsf] la5ofOG5 . ^) ln6/ l;FrfO ug{ ;lsG5 . cyjf pknAw kfgLesf/Ldf ;l~rt kfgLsf] ePcg' ; f/sf] Ifdtfsf] k|of]u a]df};dL 6ofªsLdf Tof] kfOknfO{ t/sf/L v]tLdf hf] l 8G5 . la5 o fOPsf] l;FrfO ug{sf kfOk x/]s la?jfsf km]b cnfjf ;'Vvf x'Fb} uPsf] x'g'kb{5 eg] df};ddf 3/kfn'jf hgfj/nfO{ v'jfpg;d]t k|of]u ug{ k|To]s la?jfsf] km]bdf kg]{u/L ;fgf] lkgn] Kjfn kl/Psf] ;lsG5 . x'g'kb{5 . kfOksf] clGtdsf] d'v kfgL glg:sg] u/L Psk6s agfPkl5 nfdf] ;do;Dd 9'Ss x'g ;lsg] Pp6f cfuf]n] kf]n]/ jf cGo tl/sfaf6 aGb ul/g'kb{5 . olt kfgLesf/Lsf] k|of]uaf6 s[ifsx¿ % nfv;Dd cfDbfgL k|lqmof k"/f ePkl5 6ofªsLsf] wf/f vf]lnlbP l;FrfO ug{ ;kmn ePsf 5g . o;}sf] k|of]u u/]/ Onfdsf Ps ;'? x'G5 . o;/L l;FrfO ubf{ 6ofªsLdf ePsf] kfgLsf] s[ifsn] !$ /f]kgL hUufdf csa/] v';f{gL nufP/ dfqf / l;hgsf lx;fan] slt af]6la?jfdf l;FrfO k'U5 ckTofl/nf] Pj+ pbfxf/0fLo lsl;dn] &% nfv cfDbfgL eg]/ klxn] g} lgSof]{n ug'{ eg] cfjZos x'G5 . u/]sf 5g . o;/L l;FrfO ubf{ af]6–af]6df hfg' gkg]{ / l;FrfOsf] vf;u/L l;F r fOsf cGo dfWodaf6 kfgL k' ¥ ofpg Joj:yf ldnfP/ c¿ sfd ug{ ;lsg] x'Fbf ;dosf] art g;lsg], kfgLsf] ;|f]t g} gePsf] v]tLof]Uo le/fnf] jf dfq x'g] xf]Og, emf/kft sd pd|g], df6f] v's'nf] x'g] / nfdf] ;do;Dd lr:ofg /xg]h:tf sf/0fn] of] k|ljlw kfvf] hUufdf pko'Qm dflgPsf] of] n3'l;FrfO k|ljlwnfO{ ckgfpFbf pTkfbg a9g] u/]sf] kfOPsf] 5 . kfgLdf lj:tf/ ug{ ;lsP kj{ t Lo u| f dL0f If] q sf] cfly{ s 3'Ng] dn / ;"Id vfBtŒj;d]t 6ofªsLsf] kfgLdf g} pTyfgdf 6]jf k'Ug]5 . g]kfnsf] b;f}F of]hgfn] ;f] 3f]/]/ l;FrfO ubf{ la?jfdf k'gM dn xfNg'kg]{ emGem6af6 cjlwdf /fv]sf] yk @ nfv x]S6/ s[life"lddf l;FrfO kf/ kfpg] dfq geO{ v]tL ul/Psf la?jfdf To:tf ;'ljwf k'¥ofpg] nIok"lt{df ;d]t o; k|ljlwn] pNn]Vo tŒjsf] ;dfg'kflts ljt/0f;d]t x'G5 . ;xof]u ug{;S5 . l;FrfOsf cGo ;|f]t gePsf jf kfgL cefj ePsf yf]kf l;“rfO k|ljlw :yfgdf yf]kf l;FrfO k|ljlw kfgL / ;do b'j} art ug]{ v]tL ul/Psf] hUufnfO{ k"/f glehfO{sg h/f dfq pkof]uL k|ljlw ePsf] x'Fbf t/sf/L v]tL ug]{ ls;fgaLr leHg] u /L la?jfsf] km] b df kfgL xfn] / l;F r fO ug] { of] l;FrfO k|ljlw lgs} nf]slk|o ePsf] 5 . ✪ jftfj/0fLo ;r]ttf Û xfd|f] k|lta4tf ÛÛ /)f÷ kof{ j /)f ÷ 25
  • 26. k|fs[lts ;Dkbf Joj:yfksLo ;d:ofleq g]kfnsf l;d;f/ –/fdrGb| Gof}kfg] l; d;f/ kfl/l:ylts k|0ffnLsf lx;fan] ljZjdf k|fs[lts jftfj/0f ;Gt'ngsf] ljlzi7 k|0ffnL tyf jGohGt' l;d;f/ 5g eGg] t km{ Wofg lbPsf] b]lvFb}g . bfFt grkfO{sg eGg] xf] eg] cem;Dd klg xr'jfs} e/df / jg:kltsf] pQd ;+/If0f:ynsf ¿kdf dflgG5 . :yfg, l;d;f/sf s'/f p7fpg] / ;+/If0fsf gfddf pkxf;k"0f{ ef}uf]lns cj:yf / xfjfkfgLsf] ljt/0fcg'¿k l;d;f/n] xf]xNnf ug]{ sfd dfq eO/x]sf 5g . t/, l;d;f/sf] ljleGg k|sf/sf jg:klt tyf k|f0fLnfO{ cf>o k|bfg u/]sf] ;+/If0f / Joj:yfkg x'b} gePsf] eGg] klg xf]Og . o; F x'G5 . l;d;f/n] h}ljs ;|ft tyf ljljwtfsf] ;+/If0f dfq ] cjlwdf l;d;f/ ;+/If0fsf nflu x'gkg]{ of]hgfa4 sfd ' ug] { geO{ dfgjLo rfxgfsf ljljw lqmofsnfk / ePsf 5}gg h]–hlt sfd eP, ltgn] klg :ki6 ult lng cfocfh{ g sf] cj;/;d] t k| b fg u/] s f] x' G 5 . t/, / k|ltkmnd"ns aGg ;ls/x]sf 5}gg . hg;ªVof j[l4, s[life"ldsf] lj:tf/, a9bf] cfly{s nfesf l;d;f/sf] ;du| cj:yfnfO{ x]g]{ xf] eg] b]zsf]] s'n nflu l;d;f/sf] clt bf]xgh:tf dfgjLo cltqmd0fåf/f If] q kmn ! s/f] 8 $& nfv $* xhf/ x] S 6/ l;d;f/x¿sf] lg/Gt/ ljgf; klg eO/x]sf] 5 . o;af6 (HMG/ADB/FINNIDA, 1988) dWo] & nfv $# xhf/ % l;d;f/df ;+/lIft w]/} k|hfltsf k|f0fL / jg:kltsf] ;o ^# x]S6/ l;d;f/sf ;Defljt If]qsf ¿kdf /x]sf] cl:tTj vt/fdf kb}{ uPsf] 5 . b]lvG5 . sl/a b; jif{klxn] ePsf] o; cWoogcg';f/ g]kfn If]qkmnsf lx;fan] ;fgf] d'n's eP klg h}ljs e"ldsf] k|fs[lts tyf dfgjLo pkof]usf cfwf/df lghL ljljwtfsf b[ l i6n] lgs} wgL 5 . 5l/P/ /x] s f l;d;f/sf] ;Defljt If]qkmn l;d;f/sf kfl/l:yltsLo k|0ffnLn] g]kfnnfO{ h}ljs ;|f]t If]qkmn -x]S6/df_ k|ltzt ljljwtfsf nflu ;DkGg agfpg yk e"ldsf lgjf{x gbL #,(%,))) %#=) u/]sf] 5g . t/, k|fs[lts kfl/:yltsLo k|0ffnLsf] tfn %,))) )=& dxŒjk"0f{ kIfsf] ¿kdf /x]sf] ;Dk"0f{ l;d;f/ If]qsf] hnfzo !,#*) )=@ cflwsfl/s tYofªs g]kfndf cem} klg pknAw 5}g . u|fdL0f tnfp %,!*# )=& cgf}krfl/s¿kdf sl/a @$) j6f l;d;f/If]q ePsf] s'/f p7g] u/]sf] eP klg o;df cflwfl/stf;d]t s[life"ld #,@%,))) $#=^ e]l6Fb}g . ;g !(&! df /fd;f/ ;lGw nfu" eP/ g]kfnn] bnbn !@,))) !=^ ;g !(*& sf] l8;]Da/ !& df cg'df]bg ul/;s]sf] eP hDdf &,$#,%^# !)) klg b]zdf slt :yfgLo, /fli6«o / cGt/f{li6«o dxŒjsf ;|f]t M Rajbanshi and Gurung, 1994 . jftfj/0fLo ;r]ttf Û xfd|f] k|lta4tf ÛÛ /)f÷ kof{ j /)f ÷ 26
  • 27. k|fs[lts ;Dkbf / ;fj{hlgs :jfldTjdf /x]sf gbL, tfn, hnfzo u}/;/sf/L ;+:yf IUCN n] ;d]t yk of]ubfg lbO/x]sf] cflbnfO{ cfwf/ dfg]/ juL{s/0f ul/Psf] 5 . yfxf ePsf] 5 . t/, ;DalGwt If]q;Dd l;d;f/ gLlt o; cWoogn] klg tTsfn} ;+ / If0f ul/xfNg' k g] { nfu" eO;s]sf] hfgsf/L;d]t k'Ug ;s]sf] 5}g . l;d;f/sf] klxrfg ug{;s]sf] b]lvFb}g . To;kl5 ePsf l;d;f/ s;sf] lhDdf < cWoog tyf cg';GwfgnfO{ ;fj{hlgs u/]/ gful/snfO{ Pstkm{ l;d;f/ ;+/If0fsf nflu xfn;Dd pNn]Vo / ;' ; " l rt ug] { sfo{ klg ul/Psf] b] l vF b } g . pknlAwd"ns sfd ePsf] 5}g eg] csf]{tkm{ l;d;f/sf] ;~rf/dfWoddf klg /fhgLlts ljifoj:t'n] g} a9L PsLs[t Joj:yfkgsf nflu /fli6«o l;d;f/ gLlt df}g :yfg kfpgfn] / k|fs[lts ;|f]tJoj:yfkgtkm{ dfgjLo /x]sf] 5 . gLltn] l;d;f/dflysf] clwsf/nfO{ klg e'msfj k"0f{tM cfs[i6 x'g g;s]sf sf/0f klg o:tf] 5/ki6 kf/]sf] 5 . /fli6«o lgs'~h jf cf/IfIf]qsf ePsf] x'g;Sb5 . /fhgLltsdL{sf] t d"nk];f g} s'/f ehfP/ s';L{df cf;Lg x'g] k|oTg ug'{ /x]sf]n] o:tf] l;d;f/sf] :jfldTj lgs'~h;Fu} /xg] / ltgsf] cWoog, sfo{df pgLx¿sf] rf;f] al9xfNof] eg] r}tdf kfgL ;+/If0f / Joj:yfkg klg lgs'~hn] g} ug]{ Joj:yf /x]sf] k/]h:t} dfGg'k5{ . o; cj:yfdf ;/sf/n] NofPsf] 5 . ;+ / lIft If] q aflx/sf /fli6« o jgleq cjl:yt l;d;f/ gLlt, @)%( cGtu{t /x]/ /fHon] s]–s:tf] l;d;f/sf] ;+/If0f eg] jgljefucGtu{tsf lhNnf jg sfg'gsf] lgdf{0f ug]{ xf] / To;sf] sfof{Gjog s;/L sfof{non] ug'{kg]{ cgf}krfl/s Joj:yf b]lvG5 . t/, x'g] xf] eGg] k|Zgn] ;a} kIfnfO{ emsemSofpg'kg]{ xf] . sltko lhNnfsf lhNnf jg sfof{nonfO{ g} cfkmgf] clxn] klg sltko l;d;f/sf ljz]if1, ;DalGwt If]qdf lhNnfsf jgIf]qdf l;d;f/ klg 5g eGg] s'/f;Dd yfxf sfo{ ug] { JolQm, :yfgLo lgsfosf k| l tlglw tyf 5}g, ;+/If0f / Joj:yfkg w]/} k/sf] s'/f x'g . cem sfo{stf{nfO{ g} l;d;f/ gLlt s] xf] / o;df s] 5 u|fdL0f tyf ;x/L If]qsf ;fj{hlgs :ynsf ¿kdf /x]sf eGg] k| Z gn] ;tfPsf] kfOG5 . l;d;f/ gLltsf] l;d;f/dflysf] clwsf/ :jfoQ zf;g P]gdf pNn]v k| r f/k| ; f/ ug{ /fHo :jo+ nflukl//x] s f] / o;df ePcg';f/ :yfgLo lgsfosf] /xg'kg]{ xf] t/ ltgsf] k|fs[lts ;|f]tsf] ;+/If0fsf If]qdf sfo{/t cGt/f{li6«o ;+/If0fsf] lhDdf s;sf] xftdf /xG5 eGg] s'/f s;}nfO{ /f d;f/ dxf;lGw -;g !(&!_ sf] ;b:o/fi6«sf] x} l ;otn] ] l;d;f/;DaGwL Pp6f :ki6 /fli6« o /fli6«o l;d;f/ gLlt gLltsf] th'{df ug'{ g]kfnsf] bfloTj xf] . oxL bfloTj Joj:yfkgaf6 b]lvPsf] ;sf/fTds kl/0ffdaf6 k|]l/t k" / f ug] { qmddf l;d;f/ dxf;lGwsf] kIf/fi6« s f] ePsf] b]lvG5 . o;y{, of] gLlt g]kfnsf] ;Gbe{df cToGt} bfo/fleq /x]/ l;d;f/sf] ;+/If0f tyf Joj:yfkg ug]{ ;fGble{s / kl/0ffdd'vL x'g;Sg] b]lvPsf] 5 . nIo;lxt /fli6«o l;d;f/ gLlt, @)%( cfPsf] 5 . o; gLltn] dxf;lGwsf] d'Vo nIocg'¿k ;du| d'n'ss} o; /fli6« o gLltnfO{ sfof{ G jogdf Nofpg] / l;d;f/x¿sf] ;+/If0f / lbuf] pkof]u ug{sf nflu sfof{Gjogsf ljleGg r/0fx¿af6 k|fKt x'g] kl/0ffdåf/f lgb]{zs cfwf/sf] ¿kdf sfd ug]{5 . x'g t /fli6«o kf7 l;s] / gLltnfO{ ;d;fdlos kl/jt{ g ug' { / l;d;f/ gLlt cfpg' c ufj} jg tyf e" ; + / If0f sfof{GjognfO{ cem ;zQm agfpg' casf] d'Vo r'gf}tL dGqfnoåf/f k|sflzt g]kfn h}ljs ljjwtf sfo{gLlt xf] . k| : t' t gLltn] l;d;f/sf] ;Gbe{ s f sfg' g L / -;g @))@_ n] l;d;f/ ;+/If0f / a'l4dQfk"0f{ pkof]usf Joj:yfksLo lhDd]jf/L w]/} lgsfox¿sf] dftxtdf nflu Ps :ki6 af6f] v'6ofO;s]sf] lyof] . t/, /fli6«o k/]sf] 5 . h:t}, /fli6«o lgs'~hleqsf l;d;f/ :ki6tM l;d;f/ gLltn] s]xL yk alnof d"nx¿ klxNofPsfn] /fli6« o lgs' ~ h tyf jGohGt' cf/If0f ljefusf] o;af6 /fi6«sf ;d:t l;d;f/ hf]ufpg d2t k'Ug] dftxtdf, /fli6« o jgleqsf l;d;f/sf] lhDdf ck]Iff ug{ ;lsG5 . ;j{k|yd, o; gLltn] g]kfnsf] jgljefucGtu{t, l;FrfO tyf ljB't pTkfbgsf nflu ;Gbe{df l;d;f/sf] :ki6 JofVof u/]sf] 5 eg] bf];|f] lgld{t hnfzoåf/f lgld{t l;d;f/x¿sf] lhDdf hn;|f]t txdf l;d;f/x¿nfO{ ;fd'bflos, sa'lnotL, lghLh:tf dGqfnocGtu{t, dT:okfng;Fu ;DalGwt hnfzosf] ljljw :j¿kdf Joj:yfkg ug{;lsg] s'/fdf hf]8 lbPsf] lhDd]jf/L s[lif dGqfnocGtu{t kb{5g . g]kfnsf] :jfoQ 5 . cyf{t, of] gLlt g]kfnsf] jgIf]qsf] ;xeflutfTds zf;g P]gcGtu{t t lghL / lgs'~h tyf cf/Ifaflx/sf jftfj/0fLo ;r]ttf Û xfd|f] k|lta4tf ÛÛ /)f÷ kof{ j /)f ÷ 27
  • 28. k|fs[lts ;Dkbf yfxf 5}g . lghL l;d;f/sf] ;+/If0f :jfldTjjfnfn] u¥of] < o;sf] ljgf; eP s]–s:tf] c;/ kb{5 < o;sf] plrt eg] u¥of], cGoyf To;sf] eljio s] x'g] xf] eGg;Sg] ;+/If0f / Joj:yfkgaf6 yk s:tf nfe k|fKt x'g;S5g cj:yf klg 5}g . eGg] ljifodf k"0f{hgr]tgfsf] cefj /x]sf] 5 . o;af/] l;d;f/sf] ;+/If0f / Joj:yfkgsf nflu l;d;f/ hgr]tgf clej[l4sf nflu 7f]; kxnsbdL ug'{ /fHosf] gLltdf b]lvPsf cg]sf}F ;d:ofdWo] oL s]xL pbfx/0f bfloTj x'ghfG5 . ;/sf/n] plrt gLlt, lgodsf] th'{df dfq x'g . l;d;f/ gLltn] l;d;f/ ;+/If0fsf nflu ug] { jf ;+ / If0fsf nflu cfjZostfeGbf a9L PsLs[ t ¿kdf ;+ / If0f Joj:yfkgsf] sfo{ ug] { zlQm;~rosf] sfo{ ub} { d f ;+ / If0f ;kmntfk" j { s clwsf/;DkGg lgsfosf] ;f]r /fv]sf]] 5}g . :yfgLo ug{;lsG5 eGg] klg 5}g . :jfoQ zf;g P]gn] lbPsf] clwsf/cg';f/ u|fdL0fIf]qsf lzlIft gful/s klg l;d;f/af/] cgle1 x'g;Sb5g . ;fj{ h lgs e" l ddf ePsf l;d;f/dflysf] clwsf/ ljBfno tyf dxfljBfnox¿sf z} l Ifs ;fdu| L df :yfgLo lgsfodf g} hfG5 t/ :yfgLo txsf l;d;f/sf] l;d;f/sf] ljifodf st} 5f]OPsf] klg 5}g . o;s} ;+/If0f ug{ /fli6«o:t/af6 s:tf] of]hgf aGg] xf] < jf kl/0ffd:j¿k lzlIft gful/snfO{ klg l;d;f/sf] :yfgLo lgsfoaf6} To:tf l;d;f/ gi6 u/]/ cGo cfly{s dxŒj / ;+ / If0fsf] cfjZostfsf] oy] i 6 hfgsf/L ultljlwdf k|of]u x'gaf6 s;/L /f]Sg]h:tf k|Zg lgs} gePsf] dfGg ;lsG5 . uDeL/ 5g . oL s'/fnfO{ x]bf{ ;/sf/n] NofPsf] gLltn] l;d;f/sf] cj:yf, ef}uflns :j¿k, k|sf/ / To;n] l;d;f/ ;+/If0f / Joj:yfkgdf låljwf pTkGg ul/lbPsf] rr] {sf] If]qkmn, To; If]qsf ;d'b fosf] ;fdflhs, 5 . l;d;f/nfO{ cem 5/ki6 kfg]{ k|of; u/]sf] 5 . cfly{s, z}lIfs:t/ tyf ;f+:s[lts Pj+ wfld{s dfGotfsf] hghfu/0f tyf r]tgf clej[l4 M klxrfg u/]/ ;'xfpFbf] z}lIfs sfo{qmd to ug'{ cToGt l;d;f/ s] xf] eGg] ljifodf cfdgful/s cgle1 g} cfjZos 5 . jf:tjdf ;a} l;d;f/af6 k|fKt x'g] /x] s f] cj:yf ljBdfg 5 . l;d;f/af6 k| f Kt x' g ] nfesf] k|s[lt / jftfj/0fLo of]ubfg ;dfg xF'b}g . /f/f k|fs[lts tyf cfly{s nfe s] x'g < s;/L k|fKt eO/x]5 /fli6«o lgs'~hleq ePsf] l;d;f/ jf lrtjg /fli6«o sfof{Gjog M lsg / s;/L < –;dL/ sfsL{, sfo{qmd ;+of]hs, IUCN l;d;f/nfO{ ufpF ljsf; ;ldlt, lhNnf ljsf; ;ldlt, gbLgfnfsf k|b"if0f / ;|f]tsf] cg'lrt pkef]u klg ;a} dxfgu/kflnsf, pkdxfgu/kflnsf / guf/kflnsfx¿sf] l;d;f/sf ;d:ofsf ¿kdf /x]sf 5g . ;DklQsf] ¿kdf klg x]g{ ;lsG5 . ljZj;+/If0f ;ª3 (IUCN) n] >L % sf] ;/sf/ / cGo l;d;f/ gLltsf] ;kmn sfof{Gjogsf nflu plNnlvt lgsfo tyf ;ª3;+:yfx¿l;t ldn]/ /fli6«o l;d;f/ lgsfo / cGo ;/f]sf/jfnfx¿nfO{ /fli6«o l;d;f/ gLlt, gLltsf] th'{df ug{;d]t ;xof]u k'¥ofPsf] lyof] . xfn @)%( sf] 1fg x'g' cfjZos 5 . xfnsf] cj:yfdf ;xof] u sf] qmddf IUCN n] o; gLltsf] Jofks tTsfn g} ;a} l;d;f/x¿nfO{ Ps} lgsfocGtu{ t k|rf/k|;f/ / sfof{Gjogsf] klg kxn ul//x]sf] 5 . Joj:yfkg ug{ ;lsg] ;Defjgf b] l vF b } g . o;} n ] IUCN n] o; /fli6«o gLltnfO{ Ps k'l:tsfsf] ¿kdf gLltadf]lhd ljleGg l;d;f/x¿sf] Joj:yfkg nlrnf] k|sfzg / k|;f/ ug{ /fli6«o lgs'~h tyf jGohGt' 9ªun] ug{ o;sf nflu cfjZos sfo{ ug'{ h?/L 5 . cf/If0f ljefunfO{ ;xof]u u/]sf] lyof] . jg tyf gbLgfnfsf t'ngfdf k|fs[lts tfn tyf bnbnh:tf e";+/If0f dGqfno / IUCN n] ;+o'Qm k|of;af6 IUCN l;d;f/x¿sf] cl:tTj g]kfndf a9L vt/fdf /x]sf] n] o; gLltsf] sfof{Gjog u/fpg] d'Vo p2]Zo /fv]/ x'gfn] logsf] Joj:yfkg / ;+/If0fsf] sfo{nfO{ klxnf] k|fyldstf lbg' pko'Qm x'g]5 . clxn] k|fs[lts tyf /fli6«o sfo{qmd klg th'{df ul/;s]sf] 5 . o;sf s[lqd t/ k|frLg tfn jf kf]v/L / bnbnx¿ vf;u/L cltl/Qm slknj:t' lhNnfdf /x]sf] hªunL wfgx¿sf k'l/Fb} uP/, k|bif0f a9]/, hns'DeLh:tf ldrfxf jg:kltsf] " nflu k|Voft clhªu/f tfnsf] ;+/If0f / Joj:yfkg j[l4 / ljb]zL k|hfltsf df5fkfng / l;FrfOdf k|of]u ug] { kxnsf] ¿kdf n' l DagL–slknj:t' arfp eP/ dfl;g] / gi6 x' g ] u/] s f 5g . o;afx] s , cleofg;Fu IUCN n] ;xsfo{ ub}{5 . ✫ jftfj/0fLo ;r]ttf Û xfd|f] k|lta4tf ÛÛ /)f÷ kof{ j /)f ÷ 28
  • 29. k|fs[lts ;Dkbf lgs'~hleq ePsf] l;d;f/, ;fd'bflos jgleq ePsf k|fljlws 1fg 5}g eGg] dfgl;stf kfNg] ul/Psf] 5 . jf cfjf;LoIf]qsf ;fj{hlgs e"lddf /x]sf l;d;f/, cfw'lgs k|ljlwsf] 1fg ltgLx¿;Fu gx'g;S5, t/ t/fO{, r'/], dxfef/t kj{t tyf lxdfnL If]qdf ePsf cflbsfnb]lv l;d;f/nfO{ cfˆgf] hLjgsf] cleGg cªu l;d;f/sf] cj:yf, ltgn] lbg] nfe, cfly{s, ;fdflhs, agfpFb} cfPsf :yfgLo jf /}yfg] hghfltsf] :yfgLo ;f+:s[lts / jftfj/0fLo x}l;ot kSs} klg km/s x'G5 . 1fg / ;Lk cfw'lgs k|ljlwsf] t'ngfdf lgs} k|efjsf/L l;d;f/;DaGwL z}lIfs ;fdu|Lsf] lgdf{0f ubf{ o:tf klg x'g;S5 . o;sf cltl/Qm, :yfgLo hgtf;Fu ePsf] ljifoj:t'tkm{ Wofg k'¥ofpg' cfjZos x'G5 . clzlIft ;Lk;Fu cfw'lgs k|ljlwnfO{ ;dfof]hg u/]/ ;+/If0f / ;d'bfonfO{ l;d;f/af/] r]tgzLn agfpg 5'§} sfo{qmd Joj:yfkg of] h gf th' { d f ug] { / To;sf lgldQ nfu" ug'{kg]{ x'G5 . pgLx¿nfO{ tflnd tyf lzIff k| b fg ug] { xf] eg] ljZjl;d;f/;"rL /fd;f/df ;"rLs[t sf];L6Kk' jGohGt' Joj:yfkg of]hgf lgdf{0f / sfof{Gjogdf ltgn] pNn]Vo cf/Ifsf] ;+/If0f tyf Joj:yfkg ug{ clxn];Dd lgs} 7"nf] e"ldsf v]Ng;S5g . nufgL eO;s]sf] 5 . tyflk, To; If]qsf $@ k|ltzt l;d;f/sf] ;+/If0f / lbuf] pkof]usf nflu th'{df ul/g]] hgtfnfO{ l;d;f/sf] ;+/If0fsf] cfjZostf lsg eGg] of]hgf tyf l;d;f/ gLlt ;kmntfk"j{s sfof{Gjog ug{ ljifodf cem} hfgsf/L 5}g eg] sl/a @! k|ltzt dflg; :yfgLo ;d'bfo, vf;u/L l;d;f/ / To;sf] cfwf/If]qdf l;d;f/af6 pTkGg ;d:ofaf6 cflht eO;s]sf 5g . a;f]af; ug]{ /}yfg] hghfltsf] Ifdtf clej[l4tkm{ of] cj:yf /x];Dd l;d;f/ Joj:yfkgsf] sfo{n] d"t¿k{ klxnf] Wofg hfg'kb{5 . a;fOF;/fOaf6 cfPsf :yfgLo lng;Sg] ck]Iff ug{ ;lsFbg . } afl;Gbfsf] klg ;Lk clej[l4 ug{ / ltgsf] ;d]t ;dfg' k flts ;xeflutfsf nflu r] t gf clej[ l 4sf] Joj:yfkg of]hgfdf :yfgLo ;xeflutfM sfo{qmd dxŒjk"0f{ x'G5 . obfsbf x'g] u/]sf sfo{zfnf, /fli6«o tyf :yfgLo dxŒjsf l;d;f/af6 k|fKt x'g] ;]jf n3'tflnd, ;xeflutfd"ns 5nkmnnfO{ lgoldt¿kdf jf nfenfO{ lbuf]¿kdf pkof]u ug{ ltgsf] kl/l:yltsLo ;~rfng ug]{ kl/kf6Lsf] ljsf; ug{;s] lbuf] pkof]usf k|0ffnLsf] ;+/If0f tyf ;Da4{g lgtfGt cfjZos x'G5 . nflu :yfgLo afl;Gbfaf6} sfo{of]hgf tof/ x'g;S5 . :yfgLo hgtfn] l;d;f/af6 k|fKt ub}{ cfPsf] nfe jf ;w}F /fHo jf aflxl/of JolQm tyf ;+:yfn] Joj:yfkg To;af6 ef]lu/x]sf] b'Mvsf] d"Nofªsg u/]/ Joj:yfkg of]hgf tof/ ug]{ / sfof{Gjogdf klg x:tIf]k ug]{ xf] of]hgf th'{df ug'{ /fHo tyf o; If]qdf sfo{/t ;+:yfsf] eg] :yfgLo hgtfn] g slxNo} dfly p7g] cj;/ klxnf] bfloTj x' G 5 . l;d;f/ If] q df eO/x] s f ultljlwdf ;'wf/ Nofpg'kg]{ cj:yfdf :yfgLo hgtfsf kfpg]5g, g of]hgfn] lbuf]¿k g} lng;Sg]5 . cfwf/e"t cfjZostfnfO{ klxnf] k|fyldstf lbg'kg]{ / cfocfh{g tflnd tyf nufgL Joj:yfkg M l;d;f/;DaGwL s'g} klg lg0f{o ubf{ :yfgLo hgtfnfO{ lg/Gt/ al9/x] s f] hg;ª V ofsf] ] cfjZostfk" l t{ ;xefuL u/fP/ ltgsf] dtsf] sb/ ug'{kg]{ Joj:yf l;d;f/af6 dfq ;Dej x'Fb}g . l;d;f/sf] cltqmd0f cGt/f{li6«o hutdf k|rlnt 5 . g]kfnsf] ;Gbe{df u/L v]tLof]Uo e"ldsf] ljsf; / lj:tf/ ePdf To; l;d;f/ ;+/If0fsf nflu :yfgLo ;d'bfonfO{ ;xefuL If]qsf] kl/l:yltsLo k|0ffnLdf g} kl/jt{g cfpF5 . u/fpg] k|rng eP klg /fhgLlts tyf k|zf;lgs l;d;f/sf] ljgf;af6 ;d'bfon] ToxfFaf6 k|fKt ul//x]sf] cf8Da/sf sf/0f Joj:yfksLo lg0f{ o df ltgsf h}ljs tyf ch}ljs j:t' / ;]jf;d]t u'dfpF5 . o;af6 k|ltlglwnfO{ ;xefuL u/fpg] k|rng al;;s]sf] kfOFb}g . lgd{nLs[t kfgLsf] dfqf 365, gbLlsgf/sf] s6fg a9]/ st} :yfgLo ;xeflutf u/fOof] g} eg] klg ltgn] /fv]sf klx/f] / af9Lsf] k|sf]k a95, h}ljs ;|f]t x|f; x'G5, ;'emfjnfO{ lg0ff{os 38Ldf nTofpg] ul/G5 . o:tf] k|b"if0f j[l4 x'G5, l;d;f/df cfl>t hLj tyf jg:kltsf] cj:yf cfpg' d f /fHo jf /fHoåf/f Joj:yfkg ljgf; eO{ ;du| kfl/l:ylts k|0ffnLd} vnn k'Ub5 . sfo{of]hgf sfof{Gjog ug]{ lhDd]jf/L kfPsf /fli6«o tyf l;d;f/sf] ljgf;af6 eofjx cj:yf / efjL cGt/f{li6«o ;+:yfnfO{ g} lhDd]jf/ dfGg'kg]{ x'G5 . b':kl/0ffdsf Bf]ts aGg k'U5g . lg0f{oIfdtf clej[l4 M l;d;f/cf;kf; tyf To;åf/f k|efljt If]qdf a;f]af; :yfgLo hgtf;Fu l;d;f/ ;+/If0fsf nflu cfjZos ug]{ dflg;nfO{ cfocfh{gsf lglDt j}slNks ;|f]tsf] jftfj/0fLo ;r]ttf Û xfd|f] k|lta4tf ÛÛ /)f÷ kof{ j /)f ÷ 29
  • 30. k|fs[lts ;Dkbf Joj:yf ug'{ cfjZos x'G5 . o;sf nflu l;d;f/sf] clwsf/ ;+/If0f tyf Ifltk"lt{ M cj:yf, To;af6 k|fKt x'g] df}lb|s tyf jftfj/0fLo l;d;f/ / To;sf] cfwf/If]qdf a;f]af; ug]{ dflg;sf] nfesf] ;d]t ljrf/ u/L s]–s:tf cfocfh{gsf sfo{af6 hLljsf]kfh{g l;d;f/af6 pknAw x'g] j:t'df g} cfwfl/t l;d;f/dfly kg]{ rfk Go"g ug{ ;lsG5 eg]/ klxrfg x'G5 . To;f] ePs} sf/0f ltgn] l;d;f/sf pTkfbgnfO{ ug{'kg]{ x'G5 . :yfgLo ;d'bfosf] z}lIfs cj:yf, :yfgLo clwstd k|of]u ug]{ dfgl;stf agfpg' c:jfefljs ;Lksf] k| o f] u sf] cj:yf, /f] h uf/Lsf cj;/sf] x'bg . /fHoåf/f ;+/lIft l;d;f/If]qdf dfgjLo cltqmd0f F } ;DefJotf, ;DefJo 3/] n ' pBf] u sf] klxrfg tyf x'bf /fHon] ltgaf6 hl/jfgf lng] sfg'gL Joj:yf /x]sf] F ;fd' b flos v] t Lk4ltsf] ;Defjgfsf cfwf/df If] q 5 t/ l;d;f/ / ;f] If]qdf cfl>t hgfj/af6 hgwgsf] klxrf/ ul/g'kb{5 . o;}sf] cfwf/df kmnbfoL x'g;Sg] Iflt ePdf To;sf] Ifltk"lt{ lbg] sfg'gL Joj:yf cefjn] If]qdf tflnd lbg] / ;x'lnot Aofhdf nufgL Joj:yf /fHon] g} cfˆgf gful/ssf] afFRg kfpg] clwsf/sf] pk]Iff ul/lbg]tkm{ /fHon] kxn ug'{kb{5 . l;d;f/af6 k|fKt x'g] ul//x]sf] cg'ej x'G5 . l;d;f/ jf To;sf] ;+/lIft If]qsf] k|fs[lts ;|f]tsf] lbuf] pkof]uåf/f :yfkgf x'g;Sg] 3/]n' lj:tf/ ubf{ lbOg] Ifltk"lt{ slxNo} klg ljjfb/lxt kfOPsf] pBf]usf] ;DefjgfnfO{ lglZrt bfo/fdf /flvg'kb{5 . 5}g eg] jGohGt'n] ug]{ hgwgsf] Ifltk"lt{ lbg] s'g} ;a} dflg;n] df5f dfg]{ Joj;fo dfq} u/] eg] df5fsf] k|fjwfg gx'gfn] ;+/If0f sfo{df :yfgLo ;d'bfo pbf;Lg pTkfbg 36g] / ;d:of ylkg] ;Defjgftkm{ klg Wofg x'g' c:jfefljs b]lvFbg . } lbg'kb{5 . o;sf cltl/Qm, cTolws s[lqd lqmofsnfk :yfgLo gful/ssf] afFRg kfpg] clwsf/sf] ;+/If0f ug{ a9]df l;d;f/ hLljt /x] klg l;d;f/df x'g'kg]{ k|f0fL /fHon] l;d;f/ Ifltk"lt{ sf]ifsf] Joj:yf ul/lbP ;+/If0f jf jg:kltsf] cl:tTj vt/fdf kg{ ] / l;d;f/s} / Joj:yfkgdf :yfgLo ;d'bfosf] ;xeflutf j[l4 x'g] hLjGttf gi6 x'g] cj:yf cfpg;S5 . s'/fsf] ck]Iff ug{ ;lsG5 . l;d;f/sf] ;+/If0faf6 lghL tyf ;fd'bflos jgsf] ljsf; M cfˆgf] lxt x'G5 eGg] s'/fdf cfZj:t kfg{ / ltgsf] :yfgLo afl;Gbfn] l;d;f/If]qaf6 sf7, bfp/f, 3/kfn'jf dfgjLo clwsf/ ;+/If0f ug{ l;d;f/ gLltn] s'g} hgfj/sf nflu 3fF; cflb k|fs[lts j:t' k|fKt ub{5g . pT;fxk| b cjwf/0ffcufl8 ;fg{ ; s] s f] 5} g . o; b}lgs k|of]hgsf o:tf j:t'sf] ljsNk gePdf ltgn] afWo ljifonfO{ uDeL/tfk"j{s lng' cfjZos 5 . eP/ l;d;f/af6 k|fKt x'g] j:t'dfly g} cfl>t x'gkg]{ x'G5 . ' /fhgLlts tyf ;fdflhs k|lta4tf M o;sf nflu lghL e"lddf lghL jg nufpg k|fT;fxg ug]{ ] g]kfndf s'g} klg If]qsf] Joj:yfkg ug{ ag]sf w]/}h;f] / u|fdL0f If]qdf /x]sf ;fj{hlgs e"lddf ;fd'bflos jg gLlt xf]; jf /fHon] lgdf{0f u/]sf sfg'g, s'g} klg lj:tf/ ug{ ;xof]u ug]{ jf k|fljlws / cfly{s ;xof]usf] cfkm}Fdf Tolt cIfd jf ck"0f{ 5}gg . oxfF Pstkm{ gLlt k|aGw ug]tkm{ Wofg lbg' ;fGble{s x'g5 . { ] g} ePg eGg] ul/G5 / csf]{tkm{ gLltsf] sfof{Gjog ePg pmhf{ Joj:yfkg M eg]/ ljleGg k|sf/sf cQf] yfKg] sfd klg ul/G5 . of] l;d;f/j/k/ a;f]af; ug]{ ;d'bfosf] b}lgs pmhf{;|f]t cj:yf /fhgLlts / k|zf;lgs If]qdf JofKt /x]sf] 5 . gLltlgdf{0fdf ;+nUg sltko ljåfgaf6 g} o:tf pbuf/ l;d;f/ / ;f] 5]p5fpsf hªun g} x'g . g]kfnsf cfpg] u/]sf 5g . l;d;f/ ;+/If0f / Joj:yfkgsf nflu clwsfªz hnfwf/If]qdf a;f]af; ug]{ dflg;n] j}slNks nfu" gLltsf ;DaGwdf klg eljiodf To:tf wf/0ff pmhf{sf ¿kdf kfgL3§ tyf n3'hnljB'tsf] pkof]u cfpFb}gg eGg ;lsGg . g]kfn /fd;f/ dxf;lGwsf] ug{ yfn]sf eP klg t/fO{sf l;d;f/If]qdf o:tf] kIf/fi6« ag]sf] lgs} nfdf] ;dokl5 cfPsf] o; gLltdf k|ljlwsf] ;Defjgf Go"g g} 5 . t/, /fli6«o k|;f/0f nfOg sltko Jofjxfl/s jf sfg'gL q'l6 ljBdfg x'g;S5g . k'u]sf :yfgdf /fHon] ljz]if k|fyldstf lbP/ lah'nL sltko s'/f yk ug'{kg]{ jf x6fpg'kg]{ klg xf]nfg, t/ ljt/0f ul/lbP pmhf{ s f] vkt k| j [ l Qdf kl/jt{ g xfdLn] o;sf] sfof{ G jog k| f /De u/] k l5 dfq oL cfpg;S5 . To;sf cltl/Qm ;f} o { p mhf{ tyf ljifosf] jf:tljs Jofjxfl/s 1fg k|fKt ug{;S5f}+ . afof]Uof;df yk ;x'lnot lbP l;d;f/leq x'g] pmhf{sf gLltdf pNn]v ePsf /fd|f kIfsf] sfof{Gjog ug{ nflu jfg:klts ljgf;sf]] rfk 36fpg ;lsG5 . /fhgLlts tyf k|zf;lgs If]q k|lta4 eOlbP o;df jftfj/0fLo ;r]ttf Û xfd|f] k|lta4tf ÛÛ /)f÷ kof{ j /)f ÷ 30
  • 31. k|fs[lts ;Dkbf /x]sf sldsdhf]/LnfO{ x6fpFb} ;'wfg{ ;lsG5 . t/, sfo{qmd lgwf{/0f ug'{ cfjZos x'G5 . g]kfnsf] sfo{k|0ffnLsf] cj:yf x]bf{ x/]s gLlt–lgodsf] g]kfndf clxn];Dd /fli6«o lgs'~h tyf cf/If If]qleq sfof{Gjog b'/fzok"0f{ x'g] u/]sf] b]lvG5 . s'g} klg /x]sf l;d;f/sf] dfq ;+/If0f / Joj:yfkgsf nflu ljifon] ta dfq :yfloTj k|fKt ub{5, ha sfof{Gjog k|fyldstf lbOPsf] kfOG5 . ;+/lIft If]qleq ck|fs[lts tyf Joj:yfkgsf nflu /fhgLlts Pj+ k|zf;lgs ultljlw ;~rfng gx'g] xf] / cltqmd0f lgoGq0f ug]{ xf] k|lta4tf cufl8 cfpF5 / s;}sf] JolQmut nfedf k|]l/t eg] l;d;f/sf] ;+/If0f cfk}Fm x'G5 . o;sf cltl/Qm x'g] kl/kf6Lsf] cGTo x'G5 . dWojtL{ If]qsf] 3f]if0ff eO;s]kl5 ;f] of]hgfcg'¿k jt{dfg bfloTj M sfo{ ePdf :yfgLo hgtfsf cfwf/e"t ;d:of ;dfwfg l;d;f/ gLltdf h] pNn]v ul/Psf] eP klg jf To;df x'g] s'/fnfO{ gsfg{ ;lsFb}g . g]kfnn] jGohGt' ;+/If0f s] x L sldsdhf] / L /x] s f eP ;do;fk] I f kl/jt{ g , / cf/lIft If]qsf] Joj:yfkgdf blIf0f Pl;ofdf g} /fd|f] kl/dfh{g tyf ;'wf/ ug{ ;lsG5 . ;do, :yfg jf gd'gf k|:t't u/]sf] eP klg lrQ a'emfpg] / ylGsg] ef} u f] l ns cj:yf, l;d;f/sf] :yfgLo, /fli6« o / cj:yf eg] 5}g . jf:tjdf a9bf] hg;+Vof / ltgsf] cGt/f{li6«o dxŒjsf] klxrfg u/]/, l;d;f/j/k/sf cfjZostfk"lt{ ug]{ sfo{ Tolt ;xh / ;/n x'Fb}g . afl;Gbfsf] cfly{ s , ;fdflhs, ;f+ : s[ l ts, wfld{ s o;sf nflu k|fs[lts ;|f]tsf] Joj:yfkgdf /fHosf] cj:yfsf] cWoog u/]/, :yfgLo afl;Gbf;Fu /x]sf] ;Lk lgolGqt sfo{ q mdsf t' n gfdf hg;xeflutfd" n s jf k|ljlwsf] klxrfg u/]/ l;d;f/ Joj:yfkgsf nflu sfo{qmdsf] ljsf; / sfof{Gjog cfjZos 5 . ✰ SofG;/sf] cr's cf}iflw kfOg] tfn j/e08f/f – tfn}tfn aGb}5 ;f/;, k6]/f, sf}jf/L, wf]lwn, s}df, k/]O{, as'Nnf / cGt/f{li6«o l;d;f/df ;"rLs[t aL;xhf/L tfn /x]sf] nfn;f/h:tf dxŒjk"0f{ r/fsf] af;:yfg tyf a]/f{, j/e08f/f jgIf]qnfO{ tfn}tfnsf] jg agfpg] p2]Zon] s' O ofF , dfjf] s , ;] s L{ , guvt, x8hf] / , ltnsfgf, sl/a !$ x]S6/ If]qkmnsf] csf]{ tfnsf] lgdf{0fsfo{ jgsg; / yf]yLnufotsf dxŒjk"0f{ jg:klt kfOg] k|f/De ePsf] 5 . jgleqsf ;]lknf] / cf]l;nf] e"ldnfO{ clhu/f tfnnfO{ l;d;f/ ;" r Ldf ;" r Ls[ t ug] { 5gf]6 u/]/ afFw nufO{ h}ljs ljljwtfsf] ;+/If0f ug]{ ;DefJotf cWoog k| f /De ePsf] 5 . slknj:t' / cfGtl/s tyf afXo ko{6snfO{ cfslif{t ug]{ p2]Zon] lhNnfsf] klZrd If]qdf kg]{ o; tfndf ltGgfltGgL / ;f] If]qnfO{ tfn}tfnsf] jgsf ¿kdf ljsl;t ug{ t'Daf hftsf] hªunL wfg;d]t kfOG5g . nfluPsf] atfOPsf] 5 . lrtjg /fli6«o lgs'~hsf] ;b/d'sfd tf}lnxjfaf6 sl/a @% lsnf]ld6/ klZrddf dWojtL{ If]qdf kg]{ j/e08f/f dWojtL{ ;fd'bflos cjl:yt of] tfnsf] jiff{}Fb]lv ;+/If0f x'g g;s]sf]n] jgpkef]Qmf ;d"xåf/f lgdf{0f k|f/De ePsf] o; tfnsf] ;+/If0fsf nflu ufpF ljsf; ;ldltaf6 dfu ul/Fb} gfd …/fgLtfnÚ /flvPsf] 5 . cfPsf] lyof] . dfgjLo cltqmd0faf6 tfn ;fF3'l/Fb} nueu & nfv ¿k}ofFsf] nfutdf lgdf{0f ul/g] of] uPsf] / b'n{e r/f ;f/;sf] rf]/Ll;sf/Ln] To;sf] nf]k tfnsf nflu kfgLsf] j} s lNks ;| f ] t sf] ;d] t x'g] vt/f a9]sf] x'Fbf klg tfnsf] ;+/If0f cfjZos cfjZostf kg]{5}g . jgleq} k|fs[lts¿kdf lg:sg] b]lvPsf] atfOG5 . kfgLsf] d"naf6 hnfzosf] nflu kfgLsf] k"lt{ x'g]5 . :d/0fLo 5, SofG;/ lgsf] x' g ] cr' s cf} i flwo' Q m o;/L lgdf{0f ul/g] /fgL tfnsf] l8n -afFw_ sl/a kfFr jg:klt klg clhu/f tfndf kfOg] :yfgLo afl;Gbf ld6/ cUnf] x' g ] 5 . :d/0fLo 5, # xhf/ @ ;o atfpF5g . tfnsf] ljleGg If]qdf b]lvPsf] dxŒjnfO{ If]qkmndf km}lnPsf] j/e08f/f jgIf]qdf aL;xhf/L, b[li6ut u/L …n'lDagL–slknj:t' arfcf}F cleofgÚ n] 5kGgxhf/L, afO;xhf/Lh:tf y'k|} tfn /x]sf 5g . ljZj ;+/If0f ;ª3sf] ;xof]udf l;d;f/df ;"rLs[t dxfef/t kj{ t z[ ª v nf / zfxL lrtjg /fli6« o ug]{ nIo;d]t lnP/ cfjZos ;DefJotf cWoog lgs' ~ haLrsf] sf] l /8f] / sf ¿kdf /x] s f] j/e08f/ k|f/De ePkl5 :yfgLo afl;Gbf tfnsf] ;+/If0f x'g]df jgIf]q Psl;ªu] u}F8f, af3, lrt'jfh:tf b'n{e jGohGt' cfzfjfbL b]lvPsf 5g . tyf r/fr'?ªuLx¿sf] af;:yfg xf] . jftfj/0fLo ;r]ttf Û xfd|f] k|lta4tf ÛÛ /)f÷ kof{ j /)f ÷ 31
  • 32. k|fs[lts k|sf]k cfof] x'/Latf;sf] df};d uf]kfnk|;fb b'nfn xf] nL ev{/} ;lsof] . 3fd Kof/f] nfUg] lbg klg uP . ca sf]OnLsf] …s'x's'x'Ú n] j;Gt Ct'cfudgsf] lah'nL jf 6]lnkmf]gsf vDaf 9fNg], cfuhgL km}nfpg], oftfoft cj?4 ug]{h:tf ljWj+;fTds sfo{ ub{5 . pb3f]if ug{ yfln;Sof] . k|r08 udL{ / tftf] xfjfsf hnjfo'sf] k|fs[lts lqmofsnfkaf6 rNg] x'/Ln] ljZjdf lbgx¿sf] sNkgfn] dflg;nfO{ cTof; kfg{ yfln;Sof] . jif]{gL xhf/f}Fsf] Hofg lng] / caf}{F ?k}ofFa/fa/sf] cfly{s o;a]nf ¿vsf kft e'OFdf em/]/ ;f]Q/ aGb}5g eg] Iflt ub{5 . kfn'jf gofFhLjgsf] ;~rf/ ug{] k|of; ub}{5g . xf]nL udL{ df};ddf jfo'd08nsf] s'g} :yfgdf tfkqmd a9bf ;lsPkl5 jiff{ Ct' k|f/De geP;Ddsf] of] jf;GtL df};d To; :yfgsf] xfjf tft]/ xn'sf x'G5 / dflylt/ hfG5 . jf:tjd} xfdLn] rfx]h:tf] ;'vb 5}g . ¿vaf6 e'OFdf o; k|lqmofåf/f To; :yfgdf xfjfsf] pkl:ylt 365 . em/]/ ;'s]sf kft, k/fnh:t} ;'s]/ p/f7nfUbf ag]sf To; :yfgdf xfjfsf] kl/k"lt{ ug{ cGo If]qdf /x]sf] 3fF;]d}bfg, w"n]af6f], cfFvfel/ sl;ªu/ x'Tofpg] tftf] lr;f] xfjf ax]/ cfp“5 . of] k|lqmofsf] tLj|tfsf sf/0f xfjfsf] emf]FSsf / t'jfFnf]n] 9fs]sf] 3'd}{nf] cfsfzn] xfjfsf] axfasf] ult klg a95 . o;/L jfo'd08ndf cf;Gg lbg hLjgsf lglDt lgs} si6s/ aGg]5g . of] xfjfsf] ljt/0f ldnfpg] k|fs[lts lqmofsnfkaf6 pTkGg df};ddf gbL, tfn, s'jf, wf/f cflbsf] kfgLsf] ;|f]t jfo'sf] j]ujfg cj:yfnfO{ x'/Latf; tyf cf“wLa]x/L ;'Sg] dfq xf]Og, e"ldut kfgLsf] ;tx;d]t tn emg]{ x'bf F elgG5 . :yfgLo x'/L, ;fd'lb|s cf“wL / rqmLo cfFwL - sf7df8f}F pkTosf / w]/h;f] kxf8L If]qdf vfg]kfgLsf] } rqmjft_ x' / Latf;sf ljleGg ¿k x' g . x' / Latf; xfxfsf/ eP/ Ps yf]kf kfgLsf nflu klg t8lkg'kg]{ k|fs[lts lqmofsnfkaf6 l;h{gf x'g] eP klg x'/Latf; cj:yf ;w}F cfpg] u/]sf] 5 . cfpg] cj:yfnfO{ ljleGg dfgjLo lqmofsnfkn] a9fjf of] ;'Vvf v8]/Lsf] df};d xf] . ;'Vvf v8]/Ldf x'/Latf; lbO/x]sf] x'G5 . jt{dfg ;dodf eO/x]sf ljsf;sf ylkF b f dflg;n] cfunfuL, ef] s d/L / /f] u sf] ultljlwaf6 pTkGg jftfj/0f k| b " i f0f tyf df} ; d dxfdf/Lh:tf w]/} k|sf/sf k|sf]ksf] ;fdgf ug{'k5{ . g]kfnsf] ;Gbe{df v8]/L, ef]sd/L, x'/Latf;, /f]usf] kl/jt{gn] jfo'sf] ultdf kl/jt{g eP/ x'/Latf;sf] dxfdf/L cflb o;} df};dsf pkh x'g . tLj| j]udf k|sf]kdf ;d]t j[l4 x'Fb} cfPsf] 5 . rNg] x'/Ln] o;} df};ddf t/fO{ / dWokxf8sf w]/} x'/Latf; cfpg] sf/0f M e"efunfO{ k|To]s jif{ cftªlst kfg]{ u/]sf] 5 . o; jif{ k[YjLsf] ;txeGbf aflx/sf] lglZrt If]qnfO{ jfo' jf klg of] df};dn] ljut jif{x¿s} h:tf] x'/Latf; / xfjfn] 9fs] s f] cfsfzsf] of] efunfO{ { jfo' d 08n cfunfuLsf] ;Defjgf lnP/ ;+3f/ 6]ls;s]sf] 5 . elgG5 . xfjf kbfy{sf] To:tf] cj:yf xf]– h;n] lglZrt x'/Latf; s] xf] < cfsf/ / cfotg lnFb}g . jfo'd08ndf pTkGg x'g] rfk, lgoldt¿kdf jfo' axg] tyf l;/{/ xfjf rNg] cj:yf tfk, / zlQmsf sf/0f xfjfsf] 3gTj lgwf{l/t x'g]u5{ . jfo' s f] lgoldt ultzLntf xf] . t/, x' / Latf; tfkqmd a9bf jfo'sf] rfk sd x'G5 / of] dflylt/ jfo'd08nsf] tNnf] ;txdf jfo'd08nLo sf/0faf6} km}lnG5 . xn'ªuf] j:t'nfO{ yf]/} anzlQmsf] wSsfn] klg pTkGg x'g] xfjfsf] tLj| ultsf] axfa xf] . x'/Latf; ultzLn agfpg;S5 . k| T o] s Ps lsnf] l d6/ rNbf jfo'sf] axfa lbzf nuftf/ PstkmL{ x'G5 . o;/L jfo'd08nsf] dfly hfFbf nueu Ps l8u|L ;]lN;o; rn]sf] x'/Latf;n]] cfˆgf] ultsf cfwf/df ;–;fgf tfkqmd 36b5 / tnaf6 p7]sf] tftf] xfjf dflylt/ j:t'b]lv jhbgbf/ kbfy{nfO{ ;d]t cfk"m;Fu} ;d]6]/ hfFbf ;]nfpg] qmd klg k|f/De x'G5 . p8fP/ n}hfG5 . x'/Latf;n] v]taf/L tyf jghªunsf xfjfsf lqmofsnfksf plNnlvt u'0fx¿n] jfo'd08n ¿vsf xfFuf efFRg] jf ¿v} n8fpg], dflg;sf 3/, uf]7, lgoldt¿kdf ultzLn eO/x]sf] x'G5 . jfo'd08nsf] jftfj/0fLo ;r]ttf Û xfd|f] k|lta4tf ÛÛ /)f÷ kof{ j /)f ÷ 32
  • 33. k|fs[lts k|sf]k dflyNnf] If]qsf] t'ngfdf tNnf] If]qsf] tfkqmd a9L x'g] dWo -j}zfv_ af6 ;'? x'G5 eg] P6nflG6s dxf;fu/ / x'Fbf jfo'sf] ultzLntf klg tNnf] If]qd} a9L x'G5 . blIf0f cd]l/sL k|foåLkdf h'g -h]7_ df ;'? eP/ tyflk, k[YjLsf] tNnf] ;txdf ePsf ljleGg dfgjlgld{t ;]K6]Da/ -c;f]h_ dlxgf;Dd /xG5 . otf, aªufnsf] ;+ / rgfnufot kxf8 / jghª u nh:tf k| f s[ l ts vf8L tyf c/]laog ;fu/af6 pTkGg x'g] x'/L r}tb]lv ;+/rgfn] jfo'sf] ultzLntfnfO{ lgs} lgoGq0f ug]{ x'Fbf c;f/–;fpg;Dd rNb5 . o; If]qdf cfpg] x'/Laf6 xfjfsf] j]u lgoldt¿kdf tLj| x'g kfpFb}g . o:t}, ef/tsf] cfGw|k|b]z, pl8;f, laxf/, cf;fd, klZrd cj/f]wsf sf/0f jf jfo'd08ndf jfo'sf] sd pkl:ylt aªufn / aªunfb]zsf clwsfªz e"efu a9L k|efljt ePsf] If]qdf jfo' vlgg] k|lqmofaf6 jfo' axfa jf x'g] ub{5 eg] o;n] g]kfndf klg s]xL dfqfdf ck|ToIf x'/Latf;sf] lbzf klg km]l/g] ub{5 . c;/ k'¥ofpF5 . o;k|sf/, e"dWo/]vLo If]qafx]ssf cGo udL{ df};dsf] k|f/De ePkl5 k[YjLsf] afXo;txdf If]qdf df};d kl/jt{gsf cfwf/df x'/Latf; rNg] x'Fbf ePsf] kfgLsf] jfikLs/0f k|lqmof tLj| x'Fb} hfg] x'gfn] hf]lvdsf] klxrfg klg df};dcg';f/ lgwf{l/t x'g] ub{5 . lr:ofg sd x'Fb} hfG5 . o;}sf] kmn:j¿k kfgLsf] d"n tyflk, o;sf] ljZjJofkL cj:yf x] b f{ cfF w La] x /L ;'Sg], gbL, tnfp, kf]v/L, s'jfdf kfgLsf] dfqf 36g], cfO/xg] lgDgIf]qnfO{ ljz]if hf]lvdk"0f{ If]qsf ¿kdf e"ldut kfgLsf] ;tx tn emg]{ cflb cj:yf l;h{gf lnOPsf] kfOG5 M x'G5g . udL{ a9b} hfFbf To; :yfgdflysf] xfjf klg • klZrdåLkLo ;d"x, d]lS;sf] vf8L, Sof/]laog xn'sf eP/ dflylt/ p8]/ jfo'sf] 3gTj 365 / To; ;fu/ / ToxfFsf cfjf;Lo If]q . :yfgsf] jfo' s f] kl/k" l t{ k[ Y jLsf] ;txaf6 ePsf] • lkmlnlkG; åLk, rLg;fu/, hfkfgsf åLk;d]t jfikLs/0faf6 dfq x'g;Sb}g . jfo'sf] cfotg lng] pQ/L k|zfGt dxf;fu/cf;kf; If]q . u'0fsf sf/0f csf]{ If]qdf /x]sf] lr;f] xfjf Tof] vfnL • c/a ;fu/ tyf aªufnsf] vf8L . jf 3gTj sd ePsf] If]qtkm{ axG5 . o;/L 3gTj sd • d] l S;sf] tyf dWocd] l /sfsf] k" j L{ k| z fGt ePsf] :yfgtkm{ lr;f] xfjf x'lQg] ub{5 . Psgf;;Fu dxf;fu/Lo If]q . xfjf x'lQFbf cufl8sf] xfjfnfO{ k5fl8sf] xfjfn] lg/Gt/ • blIf0f lxGb dxf;fu/Lo If]q . wSsf lbG5 / To;sf] ann] jfo'sf] ult ck|Tol;t¿kdf • klZrd–blIf0f k|zfGt dxf;fu/ -;'dfcf], lkmhL a9b5 . oxL jfo'n] x'/Latf; jf cfFwLsf] ¿k lnG5 . tyf c:6«]lnofsf] pQ/L efu . o;/L jfo' axFbf k|fs[lts tyf dfgjlgld{t ;+/rgfdf x'/Latf;df ;d'bsf] e"ldsf M | uP/ 7f]lSsG5 . To; cj:yfdf ;+/rgfn] jfo'sf] annfO{ jfo'd08ndf x'/Latf;sf] s'g} lsl;dsf] lglZrt k|0ffnL y]Ug;s] x'/Latf; l;lyn x'G5, jf j]ucg';f/ To;n] 5}g . t/ klg jfo'd08ndf x'g] lgoldt lqmof–k|ltlqmof lbzf kl/jt{g ub{5 . x'/Latf;n] cfkmgf] annfO{ y]Ug tyf lqmofsnfkn] x'/Latf;sf] pTklQ x'G5 . k|f/Dedf g;Sg] ;+/rgfx¿nfO{ 9fNg] tyf p8fP/ n}hfg] ub{5, pTkGg ;fdfGo x'/L ;d'b|sf] tftf] kfgLdf 7f]lSsG5 / h;af6 hgwgsf] Iflt;d]t x'g k'U5 . To;af6 tfk Pj+ zlQm k|fKt ub{5 . o;af6 ;fd'lb|s x'/Latf;sf] hf]lvd If]q M jfikLs/0f tLj| eO{ x'/Ldf yk lr;f] jfo' ldl;G5 / k[YjLdf ljleGg ef}uf]lns cjl:yltdf df};dcg';f/ o;nfO{ k|r08 zlQmsf] jfik OlGhgh:tf] agfpF5 . tfkqmd kl/jt{g x'g] ub{5 . e"dWo/]vLo If]qdf tfkqmd pi0f;d'b|L;txdf 7f]lSsPkl5 x'/Ln] yk an / zlQm ;fdfGotof jif}{el/ a9L eP klg udL{ofddf emg k| f Kt ub{ 5 . o;/L pTkGg x' / LnfO{ jfo' d 008nLo a9b5 . o;/L e"dWo/]vfcf;kf; If]qdf o; ofddf lqmofsnfkn] kl/kSj agfpF5 / ljgf;sf/L ¿kwf/0f tfkqmd clws x'g] ub{5 . To;}n] xfd|f] If]qdf klg o;} ub{ 5 . t;y{ , x' / Latf; / cfF w La] x /Ln] ;d' b | t 6Lo ofddf ;"o{ pQ/fo0f eO{ udL{ a9bf x'/Latf;sf] k|sf]k If]qx¿df w]/} ljgf;nLnf dRofpg] ub{5g . klg a9g] ub{5 . x'/Latf;sf k|sf/ M e"dWo/]vLo If]qcf;kf;sf w]/} efudf x'/Latf; a9L k[ Y jLsf] e" ; txeGbf xhf/f} F lsnf] l d6/ dflyaf6 cfpg] ub{5 . k|zfGt dxf;fu/sf] klZrdL If]qdf jif{el/ cjnf]sg ubf{ jfo'd08nsf] tNnf] ;tx …cwf]d08nÚ df g} x'/L rNb5 . To;}u/L, o;sf] k"jL{ If]qdf d] dlxgfsf] cfFwLa]x/Lsf] 8/nfUbf] :j¿k b]lvG5 . cfFwLa]x/Ldf jftfj/0fLo ;r]ttf Û xfd|f] k|lta4tf ÛÛ /)f÷ kof{ j /)f ÷ 33
  • 34. k|fs[lts k|sf]k jfo'sf] cyfx zlQm / s7f]/tf;fy crDd;Fu cfk;df dflg;sf] Hofg uPsf] lyof] . 7f]lSs/x]sf ToxfFaf6 b]lvG5 . j}1flgs cWoogcg';f/ ;d' b | L cfF w L w] / } zlQmzfnL x' G 5 . o;n] cfˆgf] cwf] d 08nsf] dWoefu cyjf k[ Y jLaf6 sl/a !* k|efjIf]qdf /x]sf ¿v, 3/, lah'nL / 6]lnkmf]gsf vDaf lsnf]ld6/leq ultzLn jfo'sf] cfFwL rn]sf] x'G5 . o;/L n8fpg] / p8fpg] jf x'TofP/ ˆofFSg] u5{ . o:tf ;d'b|L rNg] cfFwLsf ljleGg ¿k x'G5g . jfo'sf] ult / cfFwLn] ljZjsf ljleGg efudf jif]{gL lgs} 7"nf] xflg k|s[ltsf cfwf/df x'/Latf;nfO{ d"ntM rf/ efudf k'¥ofO/x]sf] 5 . ;+o'Qm/fHo cd]l/sfsf] blIf0fL If]q, afF8g ;lsG5M rLg;fu/df cjl:yt rLgsf] k"jL{ tyf blIf0fL t6Lo != :yfgLo x'/L M o;k|sf/sf] x'/L jfo'd08nsf] s'g} If]q, hfkfg, lkmlnlkG;, d]lS;sf], ef/t, aªunfb]z, vf;If]qsf] tfkqmd a9]/ jfo'sf] pkl:ylt 36b} hfFbf c:6«]lnofh:tf ;d'b|t6Lo d'n'sdf ;d'b|L cfFwLn] a9L csf]{ If]qsf] lr;f] jfo' To;tkm{ x'lQP/ pTkGg x'g] k|efj kfg]{ ub{5 . ub{5 . o;/L jfo' x'lQFbf slt If]qdf jfo' el/g'kg]{ xf] $= ;d'b|L cf“wLa]x/L -rqmjft_ M ;d'b|L cfFwL ;d'b|sf] eGg] cfwf/df jfo'sf] ult a9b} hfG5 . 7"nf] If]qdf tftf] kfgLdf 7Ss/ vfFbf ToxfFsf] kfgLdf 7"nf] ljrng jfo' el/g'kg]{ eP cufl8sf] ultzLn jfo'nfO{ k5fl8af6 k}bf x'G5 / kfgLsf] 5fn w]/} dfly;Dd p75 . lg/Gt/ axg] jfo'n] wSsf lbFbf o;sf] ult a9]/ x'/Latf;sf] pl7/xg] To:tf kfgLsf 5fndf tfk / zlQm k|fKt u/]sf] ¿k lnG5 / jfo' el/g'kg]{ If]qaflx/sf] axfa lbzfsf] cfFwL 7f]lSsFbf ljgf;sf/L cfFwLa]x/L tyf e'j/Lsf] ¿kF :yfgdf ;d]t k|efj b]vfkb{5 . o;k|sf/sf] x'/Lsf] ult wf/0f ub{5 . o;/L jfo'sf] Pp7f uf]nf] rqm a6fl/Fb} cufl8 ;fdfGotof ## dfOn k|lt3G6feGbf sd x'G5 . o:tf] a95 . o;k|sf/sf] cfFwLa]x/Ln] ;d'b|sf] 5fn cfk"mdf x'/L cfpFbf sfnf] afbn d8fl/g], lah'nL rDsg], r6ofª ;dflxt u/]/ p8fpg] jf ws]Ng] x'bf ;d'bt6Lo If]q 8'Ag] F | kg]{ tyf kfgLsf l56f b]vfkg]{ ub{5 . g]kfndf cfpg] / d';nwf/] jiff{ x'g] cj:yf pTkGg x'G5 . o;sf] k|efljt clwsfªz x'/Latf; o;} >]0fLdf kb{5g . If]qsf k|fs[lts tyf dfgjlgld{t ;+/rgfx¿ Wj:t x'G5g . @= cf“wL M cfFwL x'/Lsf] k|r08 ¿k xf] . o;sf] pTklQ o:tf] cfFwLa]x/Lsf] ult &$ dfOn k|lt306feGbf a9L x'G5 . klg vf; :yfgdf pTkGg jfo' vfnL ePsf] If]qdf csf]{ vf;u/L, tftf] kfgL ePsf] ;fu/ jf dxf;fu/af6 pTkGg If]qsf] jfo' el/g] qmdd} x'g] eP klg jfo'sf] j]u x' g ] x' F b f e" d Wo/] v Lo pi0fhnjfo' I f] q df cfF w La] x /L cTolws x'G5 . ;fd'lb|s jfo'df o:tf] x'/L ldl;P/ ljgf;sf/L k|sl[ tsf] x'g] ub{5 . jfo'sf] 3gTj a9g;S5 . lah'nL rDsFb} a]ujfg jfo' x'/Latf;af6 x'g] Iflt M axg' o; >]0fLsf] cfFwLsf] k|s[lt xf] . o; cfFwLsf] j]u x'/Latf;sf] k|sf/, k|s[lt / ef}uf]lns cj:yfcg';f/ #( b]lv &# dfOn k|lt3G6f;Dd x'G5 . o;af6 x'g] Iflt w]/yf]/ x'G5 . ;d'bL cfFwL tyf cfFwLa]x/L | #= ;d'b|L cf“wL M ;d'b|L cfFwL ljgf;sf/L / 8/nfUbf] -rqmjft_ af6 ;a} e Gbf a9L Iflt x' G 5 . o;af6 x'G5 . cd]l/sfdf o;nfO{ …lx/]sgÚ elgG5 . o;n] k|efjIf]qsf 3/, ejg, ;8s, vfg]kfgL, ljB't ljt/0f cd]l/sfsf] blIf0fL If]qnfO{ lgs} k|efljt ug]{ u/]sf] 5 . k|0ffnL cflb eTsg] / ;~rf/;Dks{ ljR5]b x'g,] s[life"ld, ;d'b|dflysf] jfo'd08ndf ;fdfGo x'/Lsf] cj:yf pTkGg jghªun gi6 x'g,] crfgs cfunfuL x'g] / w/} dflg;n] ePkl5 o;n] ;d'b|sf] tftf] kfgLdf 7Ss/ lbFbf tfk / Hofg u'dfpg] cj:yf cfpg] ub{5 . t;y{, x'/Latf;sf zlQm k|fKt ub{5 . o;af6 kfgLsf] jfikLs/0f a9gfn]] cGo ¿ksf] t'ngfdf o;af6 clws Iflt x'G5 . lr;f] jfkm x'/Ldf ;dflxt ePkl5 o;n] ;d'b|L cfFwLsf] w]/}h;f] cj:yfdf x'/Latf; rNbf dfgjlgld{t sdhf]/ ¿kwf/0f ub{ 5 . o; cfF w Lsf] j] u k| l t3G6f &$ ;+/rgf, v]taf/L tyf jghªunsf ¿v, lah'nL tyf dfOneGbf a9L x'G5 . o;sf] j]un] ;d'b|df 5fn pTkGg 6]lnkmf]gsf vDaf cflb n8]/ lsRbf dflg; tyf cGo u/]/ t6Lo e"–efutkm{ x'TofpF5 / t6Lo aGb/ufx, hgfj/sf] d[To' x'g] ub{5 . 3/ p8fP/ dfgj ;d'bfo a;f]af; If]qnfO{ xflg k'¥ofpF5 . o:tf] cfFwLn] t6Lo 3/af/ljxLg x' g ] , u| f dL0fIf] q sf ljBfno elTsP/ If]qsf] ljzfn e"efudf $–% ld6/;Dd ulx/f] hnfzo lzIffh{g ug{af6 jl~rt x'g'kg]{, c:ktfn eTs]/ /f]uLn] klg pTkGg ug{;S5 . cd]l/sfsf] 6]S;f; /fHodf * :jf:Yo;]jf k|fKt ug{ g;Sg] cj:yf l;h{gf x'G5 . o;/L ;]K6]Da/, !()) df cfPsf] o:t} ;d'b|L cfFwLaf6 ^ xhf/ x'/Latf; / cfFwLa]x/Laf6 ljZjdf k|To]s jif{ nfvf}F jftfj/0fLo ;r]ttf Û xfd|f] k|lta4tf ÛÛ /)f÷ kof{ j /)f ÷ 34
  • 35. k|fs[lts k|sf]k dflg;n] Hofg u'dfpg'k/]sf] 5 eg] caf}F ?k}ofFsf] xflg jt{dfg ;dodf df};dsf] eljiojf0fL ljZjsf k|foM ;a} a]xf]g'{kl//x]sf] 5 . d'n'sdf x'g] u/]sf] 5 . t/, ljsf;f]Gd'v d'n'ssf ljZjsf cf“wLa]x/Lsf k|dv 36gf / Iflt M ' u|fdL0f If]qdf ;~rf/;'ljwfsf] cefj, clzIff, cr]tgf, ljZjJofkL¿kdf t'ngf ug]{ xf] eg] cd]l/sf k|r08 oftfoft / ljsf;sf cGo k"jf{wf/sf] cefj x'gfn] tL cfFwLa]x/L cfpg] If]qdf kb{5 . cd]l/sfsf] n'l;ofgf d'n'ssf u|fdL0f afl;Gbfn] df};dsf] eljiojf0fLaf6 k|fGtdf ;g !(%& df cfPsf] cfFwLa]x/Ln] 7"nf7"nf ¿v, vf;} nfe lng;s]sf 5}gg . df};dsf] ;Defljt :j¿k ;dflw:tDe, cfjf;Lo ejgx¿nfO{ #@ lsnf] l d6/ / To;af6 x'g] Iflt Go"gLs/0fsf nflu ckgfpg'kg]{ 6f9f;Dd x'TofPsf] lyof] eg] %%) dflg; d/]sf lyP . pkfosf af/]df ;dod} ;';"lrt x'gaf6 jl~rt u|fdL0f To:t}, ;g !(&) df 6]S;f;df cfPsf] cfFwLa]x/Ln] lgs} If]q vf;u/L b'u{d If]qsf dflg;n] cTolws hf]lvdsf] 7"nf] Iflt k'¥ofPsf] lyof] . of] cfFwLa]x/L olt zlQmzfnL ;fdgf ug''{kl//x]sf] 5 . lyof] ls o;n] !! 6g tf}n ePsf] a]ngfsf/ 7f]; j:t'nfO{ cd]l/sfdf x'/Latf;sf] eljiojf0fL M ;d]t !%)) ld6/ k/;Dd x'TofOlbPsf] lyof] . cd]l/sfd} cd]l/sfdf cfFwLa]x/Lsf] eljiojf0fL ToxfFsf] …g];gn ;g !(&@ df cfPsf] cfFwLa]x/Laf6 $)) dflg; d/]sf x' l /Sofg ;] G 6/ (NHC) n] ub{ 5 . blIf0f t6Lo / Ps nfv ^) xhf/ kl/jf/ 3/af/ljxLg ePsf lyP . ˆnf]l/8f/fHodf /fli6«o hnjfo' ;]jfsf] zfvfsf] ¿kdf To:t}, ;g !((^ df #! hgfsf] Hofg uPsf] lyof] eg] :yflkt To; s]Gb|n] blIf0fL P6nflG6s ;fu/, Sof/]laog caf}F 8n/sf] cfly{s Iflt ePsf] lyof] . cd]l/sfdf ;fu/, d]lS;sf] vf8L tyf k"jL{ k|zfGt dxf;fu/sf] jfo'sf] jif{el/df cfpg] sl/a %)) cfFwLa]x/Ldf !)) j6f ultljlwsf] ;"Id cWoogaf6 pknAw tYofªssf cfwf/df cfFwLa]x/Lsf 36gf ljgf;sf/L x'g] u/]sf] kfOG5 . eljiodf cfpg;Sg] cfF w La] x /L tyf x' / Latf;sf] t'ngfTds¿kdf cd]l/sfdf cfFwLa]x/L a9L cfP klg eljiojf0fL ub{5 . ;f] s]Gb|n] cfFwLa]x/Lsf ultljlwnfO{ o;af6 x'g] dfgjLo Iflt ljsf;f]Gd'v / ljsfzLn sDKo'6/ df]8naf6 ljZn]if0f u/]/ eljiojf0fL ug]{ x'bf ] F d'nsdf g} a9L x'g] ub{5 . sdhf]/ dfgjlgld{t ;+/rgf, ' lgs} e/kbf]{ x'g] u/]sfn] To;af6 k|efljt x'g;Sg] ;Dk"0f{ df} ; dLo eljiojf0fLsf] cfw' l gs k| l jlwsf] cefj, If]qsf afl;Gbfn] nfe lng] u/]sf 5g . oftfoftsf] c;'ljwf, ;~rf/sf] ck|fKotf, ul/aL / g]kfndf x'/Latf;sf] ;d:of M clzIffsf sf/0f x'/Latf; tyf cfFwLa]x/Lsf sf/0f t];f] | g]kfn ;d'b|glhs gePsf] e"kl/j]li7t d'n's ePsfn] d' n ' s n] t' n gfTds¿kdf hgwgsf] Iflt cTolws dxfljgf;sf/L k|s[ltsf cfFwL / ;d'b|L cfFwLa]x/L jf a] x f] g ' { k l//x] s f] 5 . ljsl;t d' n ' s df df} ; dLo rqmjft cfpg] ;Defjgf 5}g . tyflk, aªufnsf] vf8L eljiojf0fLsf] cfw'lgs Joj:yf, ;'/Iffsf pkfox¿sf] plrt Joj:yf, tyf cfjZos k" j f{ w f/sf] ljsf; / c/a ;fu/af6 l;lh{t ;d'bL cfFwL ;fdfGo x'g] qmdsf] | eO;s]sf] sf/0f cGo Ifltsf] t'ngfdf dfgjLo Iflt Hofb} cj:yfdf cfOk'u/ / t/fO{ If]qdf x'/Latf;sf] ¿kwf/0f ] yf]/} x'g] u/]sf] kfOG5 . ;g !((@ df jfo' cfFwLa]x/Laf6 ub{5 . g]kfnsf] klZrdsf h'Dnf, x'Dnf, dgfª cflb kxf8L @% s/f]8 8n/a/fa/sf] Iflt ePsf] cd]l/sfdf dfgjLo lhNnf;lxt cGo e]udf :yfgLo x'/Latf; rNg] ub{5 . Iflt eg] t'ngfTds lx;fjn] cToGt Go"g ePsf] lyof] . g] k fndf r} t b] l v c;f/–;fpg;Dd x' / Latf; rNg] hg Ifltsf b[li6n] ljZjsf k|dv cfFwLa]x/L ' ub{5 . df};dL kmnk"mn cfFk, lnrL, ;'Gtnf cflbsf] km"n k'mNg] / lrlrnf nfUg] o; ;dodf cfpg] x'/Latf;n] ;g b]z d[To" kmnk"mn pTkfbgdf lgs} k|lts"n k|efj kfb{5 . o;sf !(@# hfkfg @%),))) cltl/Qm vf;u/L t/fO{ / u|fdL0f If]qsf sdhf]/ 3/, !(&) a+unfb]z #)),))) uf]7 / ljsf;sf ;+/rgf eTsfpg] / dfgjLo Iflt;d]t !(&^ a+unfb]z !)),))) k'¥ofpg] u/]sf] 5 . !(&& ef/t %),))) g]kfnsf t/fO{ If]qdf o; df};ddf rNg] x'/Latf;n] !(*% a+unfb]z !!,))) sRrL k'm;sf 3/, uf]7, lah'nL jf 6]lnkmf]gsf sdhf]/ !((( ef/t !!,))) vDaf cflb eTsF b f jf n8 b f dflg; / 3/kfn' j f jftfj/0fLo ;r]ttf Û xfd|f] k|lta4tf ÛÛ /)f÷ kof{ j /)f ÷ 35
  • 36. k|fs[lts k|sf]k ;ªs6fled'v If]qdf gk/] klg o;af6 x'g] u/]sf] Ifltsf] g]kfndf x'/Latf;af6 Iflt sf/0f d"ntM dfgjLo c;fjwfgLnfO{ g} dfGg'kg]{ x'G5 . ;fn Iflt g]kfndf x'/Latf;af6 l;lh{t cfunfuLsf 36gfsf] 5'§} ;g d[To 3/af/ Wj:t cfly{s Iflt -?=_ tYofªs pknAw 5}g t/ klg cfunfuLsf clwsfªz 36gf o;} df};ddf x'g] u/]sf 5g . o;cy{df x'/Latf; !((% % @$^ @),$!!,)$*.— / cfunfuLaf6 x'g] Iflt Go"g ug{ PsLs[t k|of; ug'{ /fd|f] !((^ $& !!%$& *!,^^!,#%%.— x'G5 . w]/h;f] sf7sf] k|of]u / k/fnn] 5fPsf 3/ ePsf] } !((& ) %%% &#,##%,@%*.— xfd|f] u|fdL0f If]qdf x'/Latf;af6 w]/} Iflt x'g] ub{5 . o:tf] Iflt sd ug{ k"jtof/Lsf sfo{ ug'{ h?/L b]lvG5 . { !((* ^ !$) @@%,#$*,@*).— x'/Latf;af6 k'Ug] Iflt Go"gLs/0f ug{ ;fdflhs r]tgf !((( ^ %! %,%!^,(*%.— clej[l4 ug'{ g} klxnf] / k|efjsf/L pkfo x'g]5 . @))) # %& !@^,##^,^&#.— hgr]tgf clej[l4 M x'/Latf; / cfunfuLsf] k|efj @))! @ *#) #*,&)@,!#$.— ;x/LIf]qdf gkg]{ xf]Og, t/ g]kfnsf] u|fdL0f If]q o;af6 a9L k|efljt x'g] u/]sf] kfOG5 . clzIff / ul/aLn] u|:t @))@ # &) !!,*$&,%)).— u|fdL0f hgtfdf k|fs[lts k|sf]kaf6 aRg ug'kg]{ k"jtof/L { { @))# @) yfxf gePsf] yfxf gePsf] tyf ;ts{tfsf] 1fg gx'gfn] cTolws Iflt x'g] u/]sf] hDdf (@ !#$(^ %*#,!%(,@##.— 5 . o; cj:yfaf6 ;dfhdf x'g] Iflt sd ug{ cf}krfl/s ;|f]tM >L % sf] ;/sf/ u[xdGqfno kf7Øqmddf g} k|sf]ksf] k"jtof/L / Joj:yfkg ljifonfO{ { ;dfj]z ug]tkm{ lzIffljbx¿sf] Wofg k'Ug' cfjZos 5 . { hgfj/;d]t dg]{ tyf ;~rf/ / ljB't ;]jf aGb x'g] o;sf cltl/Qm cgf}krfl/s lzIff tyf ;fd'bflos u/]sf 5g . af6f]df ePsf ¿v n8]/ klg oftfoft sfo{qmddfkm{t k|sf]k Joj:yfkgsf ljifodf ;dfhnfO{ cj?4 x'g] / obfsbf ofqfdf /x]sf dflg;n] Hofg ;hu agfpg' cfjZos 5 . u'dfpg'kg]{ cj:yf cfpg] ub{5 . of] ;'Vvf df};ddf ePsf sf/0f x'/Latf;n] cfuf] p8fP/ 3/ / hªundf g]kfndf cfunfuLaf6 Iflt ;d]t cfunfuL x'g] ;Defjgf w]/} x'G5 . x'/Latf; ;fn Iflt rn]sf] ;dodf x'g] cfunfuLn] l;ªu} ufpF g} ;vfk k/]sf 36gf klg xfdLsxfF kfOG5g . o; cj:yfdf x'g] ;g d[To 3/af/ Wj:t cfly{s Iflt -?=_ cfunfuL lgoGq0f ug{ jf?0foGq tyf clUg;dgsf cGo !((% &# $&%% @#^,@*),(#&.— pkfo k|efjsf/L x'g g;Sg] x'Fbf hgwgsf] Iflt klg w]/} !((^ ^! ^)^$ #)*,#^$,%$%.— x'G5 . x'g t cfunfuL x'/Latf;s} sf/0fn] dfq x'Fb}g, dfgjLo c;fjwfgL / cGo sf/0faf6 ;fdfGo cj:yfdf !((& $% #@!$ @#),&%#,(%(.— klg cfunfuL x'G5 t/ x'/Latf;;Fu} nfu]sf] cfunfuL !((* %$ (@^ ##,%%*,@@*.— a9L k|nosf/L / ljgf;sf/L x'G5 . x'/Latf; rNbf !((( $^ !%(& !#%,&&^,!*(.— lah'nL rDsg], r6ofª kg]{, ljB't ljt/0f k|0ffnLdf cj/f]w l;h{gf eP/ cfunfuL x'g] ;Defjgf a9L x'G5 . @))) %# #)(( @#(,@%!,**!.— g]kfndf k|To]s jif{ x'/Latf; / cfunfuLsf sf/0f lgs} @))! @^ !#@@ @$^,@%^,$)!.— 7"nf] hgwgsf] Iflt x'g] u/]sf] 5 . @))@ !! !^)$ ($,&#(,%@^.— Iflt Go"gLs/0fsf pkfo M @))# !! yfxf gePsf] yfxf gePsf] pknAw tYofªssf] ljZn]if0f ubf{ g]kfndf x'/Latf;af6 hDdf #*) @@%*! !,%@$,(*!,^^^.— lgs} 7"nf] Iflt x'g] u/]sf] kfOG5 . x'/Latf;sf] pTklQ, axfa cj:yf / ef} u f] l ns cjl:yltcg' ; f/ g] k fn ;|f]tM >L % sf] ;/sf/ u[xdGqfno jftfj/0fLo ;r]ttf Û xfd|f] k|lta4tf ÛÛ /)f÷ kof{ j /)f ÷ 36
  • 37. k|fs[lts k|sf]k ;" r gf k| j fx M x' / Latf; x'/Latf; cfP jf cfunfuL ePdf ;'Vvf / x'/Latf;sf] o; df};ddf jfo'd08nLo ultljlwaf6 l;h{gf ;ts{tfsf ;fy cfuf]sf] k|of]u u/L eO{ cfpg] k|fs[lts k|sf]k ePsfn] r'/f]6, la“8L glkpg], lkPdf 7'6f lgefP/ o;sf] sfd ;lsPkl5 /fd| / L dfq kmfNg], d§Lt]n, k]6fn, l:k|6, Uof;h:tf lgefpg'kb{5 . x'/Latf; rn]sf] «] /fHon] o:tf] k| s f] k cfpg] k|HjngzLn kbfy{ s]6fs]6L / cfuf]n] e]6g] ;Defjgfsf] eljiojf0fL ug{ :yfgdf g/fVg] . ;dodf cfuf]sf] k|of]u gug],{ r'/f]6– cTofw' l gs pks/0fsf] Joj:yf cfuf]sf] k|of]u ;fjwfgL;fy ug]{ / sfd laF8L hyfefjL glkpg]], nfO6/, ug'kg]{ x'G5 . g]kfnsf] ;Gbe{df eGg] { ;lsPkl5 /fd| / L lgefpg] . x' / Latf; ;nfO{ / cfuf] pTkGg x'g] j:t' xf] eg] hnjfo' s f] eljiojf0fL rn] s f] ;dodf cfuf] gafNg] / aflx/ s]6fs]6Ln] ge]6g] 7fpFdf /fVg], df};d lj1fg ljefun] ub}{ cfPsf] glx“8g] . 3/jl/kl/af6 3'¥ofg ;kmf ug]{ 5 . t/, pks/0f / bIftfsf] k| s f] k sf ;dodf s] 6 fs] 6 L, a" 9 fa" 9 L / cflb sfo{ cfunfuLaf6 aRg] cefjsf sf/0f ljefun] ug] { c;QmnfO{ ljz]if ;xof]u ug]{ . ;fdfGo pkfo x' g . ;s] ; Dd hnjfo' k"jf{gdfg Tolt k|efjsf/L ' glhs}sf jf?0foGq / ;'/Iff lgsfonfO{ x' / Latf; nfu] s f a] n f 3/af6 ePsf] b]lvFb}g . x'/Latf; cfpg] ;s];Dd l56f] vj/ ug]{ . aflx/ lg:sg] ug{xbg . cfuf] km}ng ' F' } ;Defjgf ePdf To;sf] ;" r gf ;j{k|yd 3fOt]sf] k|fylds pkrf/ ug]{ / glbg d§Lt]n, k]6fn, Uof; cflb«] ;ªs6fled'v If]qdf tTsfn} k|jfx cfjZos k/]df :jf:Yos]Gb|df n}hfg] . ;' / lIft :yfgdf /fVgfn] ug]{ / p4f/ sfo{sf nflu ;/sf/L kLl8t JolQm tyf kl/jf/nfO{ tTsfn cfunfuLsf] k|sf]kaf6 aRg ;xof]u ;+oGqnfO{ ;ts{ u/fpg] bfloTj cfjZos kg]{ /fxt ;fdu|Lsf] Joj:yf ug]{ . k'Ub5 . ;fy}, cfuf] jf 6'sL afNbf ;/sf/n] axg u/] w]/} xb;Dd Iflt /fxt Joj:yfkg / bL3{sfnLg k'g:{yfkgfsf] 3/sf] 5fgf], af/, k|HHjngzLn Go"g ug{ ;lsg]5 . sfo{ ug{ kLl8t kl/jf/x¿sf] ;d] t j:t'glhs gafNg' pQd x'G5 . ;xeflutfdf k'g:yf{kgf ;ldlt u7g u/L j[If/f]k0f tyf sf“65f“6 M au}rf cfjZos kg]{ j:t'x¿sf] ;"rL tof/ ug]{ / clUglgoGq0f M slxn] s fxLF F jf 3/nfO{ 5]Sg]u/L lglZrt b"/Ldf ;/sf/ tyf cGo ;xof] u L ;+ : yfx¿;“ u cfunfuLaf6 ;ts{ x'Fbfx'Fb} klg h/f ulxl/P/ hfg], emofDd km}lng], ;xof]u tyf k'g:yf{kgfsf nflu kxn ug]{ . cfunfuLsf 36gf x' g ;S5g . alnof] sf08 x'g] hftsf afF;, To:tf] cj:yfdf ;/sf/L lgsfo, ljleGg hftsf ¿v tyf xf]rf af]6 x'g] s]/fh:tf jg:klt jf?0foGqnfO{ va/ ug]{ / ;fd'bflos¿kdf pknAw kfgLsf] /f]Kgfn] x'/Lsf] tLj| ultnfO{ /f]Sg] x'bf au}rf / 3/df ;|ft k|of]u u/L p4f/ / clUglgoGq0fsf] sfo{df h'6gkb{5 . F + ] ' x'/Lsf] bafa sd x'G5 . 3/5]p5fp sdnf] sf08 x'g] gful/s clwsf/ / /fHo M cGo k| s f] k h:t} cUnf hftsf ¿v nufpg'xbg . o:tf ¿v xfjfsf] ;fgf] x'/Latf; / o;af6 km}ng] cfunfuLaf6 g]kfndf jif]{gL F' } emSsfn] g} 9fNg] x'bf ;8s, lah'nL vDaf ePsf If]qdf hgwgsf] 7"n} Iflt x'g] u/]sf] 5 . cfunfuLsf clwsfªz F klg g/f]Kg' /fd|f] x'G5 . k'/fgf, ;'s]/ dlSsPsf jf 36gf t/fO{sf em'k|fem'k|L a9L ePsf a:tLx¿df a9L x'/Latf;n] 9fNg] ;Defjgf ePsf ¿vnfO{ 3/ / af6f] jf x'g] / o;af6 ljkGg ju{ g} a9L k|efljt x'g] u/]sf] ;8saf6 ;dod} x6fpg' / sf“65f“6 ug'kb{5 . { b]lvG5 . dd{t;Def/ M x'/Latf; k|efljt If]qdf To;sf] k|lt/f]w x'/Latf; / cfunfuLaf6 g]kfnsf] t/fO{nfO{ g} a9L ug{;Sg] vfnsf 3/ lgdf{0f ug'{kb{5 . sf7sf jf sRrL cfqmfGt kfg]{ / ufpFsf sRrL ;+/rgfsf] a9L Iflt k'Ug] 3/ w]/} cUnf] agfpg'x'Fb}g . k'/fgf Pj+ sdhf]/ 3/nfO{ ub{5 . x'/Latf; / cfunfuLsf o:tf ;Defljt If]qdf ;dod} dd{t ug'{kb{5 . x'/Ln] p8fpg;Sg] 5fgf jf Iflt Go"gLs/0f ug{ ;/sf/n] jf?0foGqsf] oy]i6 Joj:yf j:t'nfO{ ux|f}F j:t'n] lyr]/ jf alnof] 8f]/Ln] afFw]/ u/L pRr;ts{ cj:yfdf /fVg], kfgLsf] hf]xf] ug]{ / x'/Laf6 x'g] Iflt 36fpg ;lsG5 . ;fdflhs r]tgf clej[l4sf nflu ljz]if sfo{qmdx¿sf] ;~rfng ug'{kg]{ b]lvG5 . ;/sf/n] k|sf]k kl5 afF8g] cfunfuLaf/] ;ts{tf M x'/Latf; rn]sf] ;dodf cNksfnLg /fxtsf] Joj:yf ub}{ k|sf]kaf6 3/af/ljxLg cfunfuL x'g] / km}ng] ;Defjgf a9L x'G5 . o;sf ePsfx¿nfO{ tTsfn} k' g :yf{ k gf ug{ ; Sg] gLltut cltl/Qm of] df};d ;'Vvf x'g] x'gfn] cfuf] rfF8f] ;lNsG5 . Joj:yf ldnfpg' cfjZos 5 . ✭ jftfj/0fLo ;r]ttf Û xfd|f] k|lta4tf ÛÛ /)f÷ kof{ j /)f ÷ 37
  • 38. kz'kfng kz'kG5LnfO{ /f]uaf6 arfpg] k|efjsf/L pkfo kbds'df/ /fO{ g]kfnsf] hghLjg vf;u/L s[lif k];fdf cfwfl/t 5 . cl:tTj ;ªs6fkGg x'Fb}5 . ls;fgn] afnLgfnL nufpg'sf cnfjf 3/]n' cfjZostf df;' , b" w jf cGo pTkfbgsf nflu clxn] ljZje/ k"lt{ ug{ / cfocfh{gsf nflu cf–cfˆgf 3/df kz'kG5L j0f{ z ª s / kz' k G5Lsf] nf] s lk| o tf a9 b } 5 . /} y fg] klg kfNb5g . ;d' l rt 1fgsf] cefjdf k/Dk/fut k|hflteGbf a9L pTkfbg lng qm; u/L ljsf; ul/Psf k|ljlw / tf}/tl/sfaf6 kflng] kz'kG5L slxn]sfxLF ;?jf o:tf kz'kG5Ldf /f]usf sL6f0f';Fu n8g] k|lt/f]wfTds /f]uaf6 ;ªqmldt x'G5g / ;f]Q/ eP/ db{5g . o;af6 Ifdtf Psbd} Go"g x'G5 . j0f{zªs/ hftsf kz'af6 ls;fgn] 7" n f] cfly{ s gf] S ;fgL a] x f] g ' { k b{ 5 . o:tf pTkflbt j:t'sf] k|of]us} sf/0f dflg;sf] klg pTkfbg /f] u u| : t kz' k G5Lsf] df;' vfF b f hg:jf:Yodf kg] { Ifdtf tyf zf/Ll/s zlQm x| f ; eO/x] s f] 5 . km] l / c;/af/] cgle1tfsf sf/0f dg{ nfu]sf kz'kG5LnfO{ jftfj/0fLo ljgf;, k| b " i f0f tyf k| l ts" n dfgjLo xtf/–xtf/ sf6]/ vfg'k5{ eGg] dfGotf ufpF3/df cem} lqmofsnfkaf6 gofF hLjf0f'x¿ pTklQ eO/x]sf 5g / klg JofKt /x]sf] 5 . Tolt dfq xf]Og, ;x/ahf/df x'g] xfd| f ] cfˆg} c;fjwfgLn] tL hLjf0f' s f] ;ª q md0fsf] Jofkfl/s sf6df/sf] Joj:yfkg / sfl6g] hgfj/sf] bfo/f km/flsnf] kfg{ ;xof]u ul//x]sf] 5 . :jf:Yok/LIf0f ug]{ Joj:yf gx'gfn] /f]uu|:t hgfj/sf] df;'sf] laqmLljt/0f x'Fb}g eGg;Sg] cj:yf klg 5}g . ;ªqmfds /f]u s;/L ;5{g < hLjhGt'sf] z/L/df /f]usf sf/s tŒjx¿ k|j]z u/]kl5 ev{/} yfONofG8 tyf s]xL Pl;ofnL d'n'sdf b]vfk/]sf] z/L/sf] ;" I d cfGtl/s sfo{ k | 0 ffnLn] k| f s[ l ts¿kdf …a8{kmn'Ú /f]un] ;+;f/e/d} v}nfa}nf dRrfO/x]sf] 5 . sfo{ ug{ ;Sb}g . efO/;, AofS6]l/of, 9';L, k|f]6f]hf]jf cd]l/sf, hfkfg, sf]l/ofnufotsf b]zx¿df y'k|} s'v'/f tyf cGo k/hLjLx¿ g} /f]usf k|d'v sf/s tŒjx¿ df/]/ gi6 ul/P . of] /f]usf ljiff0f' cToGt ;ªqmfds x' g . logLx¿ kfgL, cfxf/, xfjf, b} l gs k| o f] u x' g ] tyf 3fts k|s[ltsf x'g] x'Fbf cGo kz'kG5L / :tgwf/L efF 8 fs' F 8 f, n' u fkmf6f] , b" w , df;' , dnd" q / zf/Ll/s hgfj/ tyf dflg;nfO{ ;d]t cfˆgf] l;sf/ agfpg] ;+;u{af6 Pscsf{df ;/]/ lj:tfl/t x'G5g . oL /f]uafxs s' / f ljz] i f1x¿n] atfPsf 5g . o; /f] u af6 s] x L hLjf0f' hLjhGt' tyf dflg;sf] z/L/df k| j ] z u/L :tgwf/L hgfj/ / hª u nL kG5L ;ª q mldt ePsf] /f]uu|:t agfPkl5 dfq o;sf] cfqmd0f ePsf] rfn cfzª s f ul/F b } 5 eg] s] x L dflg;n] ;d] t o;sf] kfOG5 . /f]u pTkGg ug]{ o:tf tŒjn] Pp6f uf]7 jf ;ª q md0faf6 Hofg u' d fO;s] s f 5g . o;} u /L, s] x L vf]/ ;ªqmldt u/] klg csf]{ :yfgsf kz'kG5Ldf lj:tf/ dlxgfcl3 rLgdf b] v fk/]s f] ;f;{ /f] u n] cGt/f{l i6« o x'g glbg vf;k|sf/sf]] ;'/Iff pkfo ckgfpg] xf] eg] gfsfx¿ g} aGb ug'{kg]{ cj:yf l;h{gf ePsf] lyof] . o;sf] dxfdf/Laf6 Jofj;flos kz' k G5Lkfng w] / } 7"N7"nf ;x/df Sjf/]G6fOg -lgu/fgL_ nfu" ul/of] . k"/} xb;Dd ;'/lIft x'g;S5 . ;x/ ;'g;fg klg ag] . xªsª, leotgfd, l;ªuf– k' / nufot ljZjahf/sf rlr{ t d' n ' s / ;x/x¿sf] uf]7 jf vf]/ agfpg] :yfgsf] rog M cy{tGq o; ;?jf /f]uaf6 k|efljt eof] . of] /f]usf] • kz'kG5Lsf nflu uf]7 jf vf]/ agfpg] :yfgsf] kfgL ;ªqmd0f Psk|sf/sf] hªunL la/fnf]af6 ePsf] kQf z'4 x'g' cfjZos x'G5 . /f]u ;g]{ d'Vo dfWod kfgL nfu]kl5 ltgnfO{ dfg]{ sfd yflnPsf] 5 . o;/L hªunL g} ePsf] x'Fbf o;sf] z'4tf hfFr u/L ToxfF /f]u pTkGg ug]{ jf ;ªqmd0f ug]{ hLjf0f' tyf tŒjx¿ la/fnf]sf] k|hflt g} nf]k x'g] cj:yf cfPsf] 5 . gePsf] lgSof]{n ug'{kb{5 . aL;f}F ztfAbLsf] cGTolt/ clk|msL afFb/af6 dfG5]df • uf]7 jf vf]/ ljut ;dob]lv kz'kG5L kfng ul/Psf] ;/] s f] 7flgPsf] P8 ; /f] u n] clxn] ljZjsf s/f] 8 f} F :yfgaf6 sDtLdf @ lsnf]ld6/ k/ agfpg' pko'Qm dflg;nfO{ cfˆgf] ljiffQm kGhfdf hsl8;s] s f] 5 . x'G5 . uf]7 jf vf]/ kz'kG5Lsf] bfgfldn, rNnf sf9g] o;sf] pkrf/ kQf nufpg jif] { g L caf{ } F 8n/ vr{ Xofr/L jf zªsf:kb /f]uL kz'kG5L Sjf/]G6fOgdf eO/x]sf] 5 . tyflk, o;af6 ;ªqmldt dflg;n] d[To'sf] /flvg] :yfgaf6 6f9f x'g'kb{5 . 38L kv{g'sf] s'g} ljsNk 5}g . o;/L ;+;f/df ljleGg • 3gfa:tL jf Jo:t /fhdfu{df kz'kG5Lsf] Nofpg]– k| s f/sf ;ª q mfds /f] u x¿ lg/Gt/ b] v fkb} { 5 g . n}hfg] sfo{ eO/xg] x'Fbf /f]usf hLjf0f' tyf tŒj cy{tGqdf uDeL/ bafa k}bf x'Fb}5 . ;Dk"0f{ hLjhuts} klg cfpg] ;Defjgf a9L x'G5 . t;y{, Jofj;flos jftfj/0fLo ;r]ttf Û xfd|f] k|lta4tf ÛÛ /)f÷ kof{ j /)f ÷ 38
  • 39. kz'kfng kz' k G5L kfng /fhdfu{ jf 3gfa:tLeGbf 6f9f /fd|f] pTkfbg lng ;lsG5 tyf a9L ePsf] dn laqmL PsfGt 7fpFdf ug'{ pko'Qm x'G5 . u/]/ cfly{s nfe;d]t lng ;lsG5 . uf]7 jf vf]/sf] lgdf{0fdf Wofg k'¥ofpg'kg]{ s'/fx¿ M h}ljs ljiffbLsf] k|of]u M • aflx/L kz'kG5L jf cgfjZos dflg;sf] cfjthfjt • df;' / k'mn -cG8f_ sf nflu kz'kG5L kfNbf PskN6 Ps} /f]Sg vf]/ jf uf]7jl/kl/ sDtLdf !) lkm6 6f9faf6 pd]/sf rNnf jf aRrfx¿ kfNg'kb{5 . b"w jf uf]7 tf/af/ ug'{kb{5 . lj:tf/sf nflu kflng] kz'nfO{ cnUu} vf]/ jf uf]7df • kz'kG5Lsf] cfxf/nfO{ nfk/afxLk"js e08f/ ubf{ To;df { kfNg' pko'Qm x'G5 . Ps l5dn kz'kG5L ahf/ k7fPkl5 9';L cfpg] tyf cGo k/hLjL b]vfkg{;S5g . t;y{, vf]/nfO{ /fd|/L ;kmf u/]/ h}ljs ljiffbL k|of]u u/L sL6f0f' bfgfsf] e08f/ cnUu} / cf]efgf] sf]7fdf ug'kb{5 . { tyf hLjf0f'/lxt ul/Psf] uf]7 jf vf]/df !) lbg;Dd • tf/af/leq k/] s f] If] q nfO{ ;kmf ug] { tyf h} l js csf]{ l5dn kz'kG5Lsf aRrf g/fVg' >]o:s/ x'G5 . k| l jlwcg' ; f/ xf] r f af] 6 x' g ] t/sf/L v] t L ug{ • uf]7 jf vf]/kl/;/df r'g 5s{g' tyf cfjthfjt ug]{ ;lsG5 . d';f, 5'r'Gb|f, ;k{, nf]vs]{, sfu, k/]jfh:tf af6f]df ;d]t pknAw ljiffbLsf] k|of]u ug'{ pko'Qm x'G5 . hLjn] /f] u sf hLjf0f' cf] ; f/k;f/ ug] { tyf cGo • efF8fs'F8f tyf cGo j:t'nfO{ uf]7 jf vf]/leq n}hfFbf k|sf/n] xflg k'¥ofpg] x'Fbf o:tf hLj uf]7 jf vf]/ k/hLj/lxt agfpg tftf] k fgL jf cGo /;fogdf cf;kf; cfpg g;Sg] Joj:yf ldnfpg'kb{5 . pkrf/ ug'{kb{5 . • d/]sf kz'kG5LnfO{ w]/} ;do;Dd v'nf 7fpFdf /fVbf • /f]usf] ;ªqmd0fsf] cfzªsf ePsf kz'kG5LnfO{ 5'§} To;df ePsf] ;ªqmd0f cToGt rfF8f] ;b{5 . cGo /fv]/ pkrf/ ug'{kb{5 . sf/0fn] d/]sf] cj:yfdf klg s'lxP/ /f]usf hLjf0f' • kz' l rlsT;ssf] ;Nnfxcg' ; f/ kz' k G5LnfO{ pTkGg x'G5g . d/]sf kz'kG5LnfO{ uf]7 jf vf]/af6 lgs} EoflS;gx¿ lbg] tyf lgoldt k/LIf0fsf] Joj:yf k/ ulx/f] vf8n vg]/ k'g'{kb{5 . jfujfgL nufOPsf] ldnfpg] ug'{kb{5 . eP kmnk"mnsf ¿vsf km]bdf d/]sf hLjnfO{ uf8bf • tLt]kftLsf] emf]n, lgdsf] emf]n tyf jgdf/fsf] emf]n la?jfn] kf]ifstŒj k|fKt u/L /fd|f] pTkfbg lbG5g . h}ljs ljiffbL agfpg k|of]u x'g] k|dv jg:klt x'g . ' • kz'kG5Lsf] cfxf/ tyf aRrf jf rNnf NofOPsf afs;, o;/L] ;' / IffTds pkfo cjnDag ubf{ w] / } xb;Dd af]/f tyf sfuhnfO{ vf]/ jf uf]7eGbf cnUu} vf8n cfˆgf] uf]7sf kz'kG5LnfO{ /f]usf] ;ªqmd0faf6 arfpg vgL k'g'{kb{5 . o:tf j:t'nfO{ hnfP/ klg gi6 ug{ ;lsG5 . of] ;' / IffTds pkfo vf;u/L s' v ' / fsf] ;lsG5 t/ afNbf ljiffn' Uof; jf w"jfFn] jfo'k|b"if0f Jofj;flos kfngdf k|efjsf/L x'g] dflgP klg aªu'/, a9fpg] x'bf ;s];Dd gafNg' pko'Qm x'G5 . F xfF;, v/fof], afv|fh:tf kz'kG5Lsf] Jofj;flos kfngdf • kz'kG5Lsf] dnd"q tyf la:6fnfO{ h}ljs ljiffbLn] ;d]t pkof]u ug{ ;lsG5 . of] ;fdfGo ;ts{tfsf] ljlw pkrf/ u/]/ s[l[ ifdnsf] ¿kdf k|of]u ubf{ v]tLkftLaf6 eP klg 7"nf] gf]S;fgLaf6 aRg] k|efjsf/L pkfo xf] . cfo'jl{] bs cf}iflwsf nflu dxŒjk"0f{ dflgPsf] ljho;fn g]kfnaf6 nf]k x'g] cj:yfdf 5 . j}1flgs gfd …6]/f]sfk{; df;{lkdÚ af6 lrlgg] ljho;fnsf] vf]6f], af]qmf, kft, 8fF7;d]t cfo'jbdf k|frLgsfnb]lv g} k|of]u x'b} cfPsf] 5 . ;d'b;txb]lv sl/a {] F | ljho;fn nf]k x'b5 !))) ld6/ prfO;Dd kfOg] ljho;fn cTolws r/Lr/g, k'/fgf ¿v /f]uL x'g,' hªun cfunfuL / cj}w s6fg tyf “ } rf]/Llgsf;L g} nf]k x'gsf k|dv sf/0f x'g . :yfgLo hgtfåf/f 3/]n' cf}iflwsf nflu ¿vsf] af]qmf jf xfFuf sfl6g] x'bf ' ' F ljho;fnsf d"n ¿vsf] :jf:Yo v/fa eP/ pTkfbg Ifdtf klg 36]sf] dflgG5 . xfn} If]qLo jg tflnds]Gb| wgu9Lsf] 6f]nLn] s~rgk'/sf] b}hL If]qdf u/]sf] cjnf]sg e|d0fsf qmddf ;f] If]qsf ljho;fnsf s]xL ¿vdf dfq k"mn k'mn]sf], ¿vsf] 6'Kkf] dg{ yfn]sf], xfFuf / af]qmf sfl6Psf] kfOPsf] lyof] . ljho;fnsf ;DaGwdf cWoog–cg';Gwfg gx'g,' pTkfbg Ifdtf j[l4sf pkfo gvf]lhg' tyf o;sf] ;+/If0fsf nflu k|efjsf/L sfo{ gul/g'n] klg of] dxŒjk"0f{ j[If nf]k x'g] cj:yfdf k'usf] 5 . ] ljho;fndf w]/} cf}iflwhGo u'0f kfOG5g . o;sf] sf7af6 ag]sf efF8fdf /flvPsf] kfgL lgoldt lkpgfn] k]6;DaGwL /f]u, dw'dx, sdnlkQ cflb lgsf] x'g] ljZjf;n] ubf{ o;sf] sf7sf] 7]sL, lunf;, cDvf]/f, a6'sf agfP/ laqmL ug]n] /fd|f] kmfObf ] {] lnFb} cfPsf 5g . o;sf] vf]6f], af]qmf] / slnnf kft klg cfo'jl{] bs pkrf/df k|of]u ul/G5 . :d/0f /xf];, >L % ;'/Gb|sf /fHosfndf ag]sf] d'nsL P]gn] g]kfnsf] k"jklZrd t/fO{ tyf r'/sf] blIf0fL If]qsf ljz]ifu/L ] ' { ] s}nfnL, s~rgk'/, slknj:t', df]/ª, ;'g;/L, emfkfdf kfOg] ljho;fnsf] ¿v sf6g] jf df:g]nfO{ 7"nf] ;hfo x'g] Joj:yf u/]sf] lyof], t/ jt{dfg ;dodf o; cf}iflwhGo jg:kltsf] ;+/If0fdf vf;} rf;f] lbOPsf] b]lvFbg . } jftfj/0fLo ;r]ttf Û xfd|f] k|lta4tf ÛÛ /)f÷ kof{ j /)f ÷ 39
  • 40. ufp“–ufp“af6 ■ jgt:s/nfO{ sd{rf/Lsf] ;fy ■ jg k:g h'Qf k'msfNg] Û /fhgLlts kl/l:yltsf] nfe hfnL, km6fxf / t:s/n] g} k" h fcfhf ug{ jf cGo s' g } a9L p7fpg] ub{5g . o:tf] k|j[lQdf sfdn] b] j Lb] j tfsf] dlGb/df jgt:s/ dfq xf] O g, /fi6« ; ] j fdf ;Gbe{ ;dfrf/ k:bf h'Qf k'sfNg' /fd|f] k/Dk/f ;+nUg sd{rf/L klg cfly{s k|nf]egdf 8'a]/ jgdf/f xf] . t/, jg k:bf klg h'QfrKkn km'sfNg'k5{ eGbf sfo{df nfUg] u/]sf] kfOG5 . ;a} sd{rf/LnfO{ Pp6} xfdLnfO{ crDd nfUg' c:jfefljs xf]Og . jgdf 3fF;– 8ofªsf] d'nf 7fGg' pko'Qm x'bg t/ jg;+/If0fsf nflu bfp/f ug{ hfFbf klg h'Qf–rKkn k'msfNg'kg]{ k/Dk/f F } v6fOPsf s]xL sd{rf/L g} t:s/;Fu ldn]/ d"Nojfg la/n} kfOG5 . 88]Nw'/f lhNnf b]jn lbJok'/L ufpF ljsf; sf7sf] t:s/Ldf ;+ n Ug tfKn]hªdf jgt:s/ k;] ' ;ldltsf afl;Gbf ePkl5 To:tf] sfo{ lgoGq0f 3fF F ; bfp/fsf nflu jg ug{ :yfgLo afl;Gbf hfu?s kxf8L lhNnf tfKn]h'ªsf a]+;Lv08df kg]{ ljleGg ufpFdf k:bf cfk" m n] nufPsf x'g'nfO{ jg;+/If0fsf If]qdf t:s/x¿n] b} l gs ;of} F ;fnsf ¿v sf6] / jg h' Q frKkn k' m sfn] / dfq /fd|f] ;'?jft dfGg ;lsG5 . gª U ofpF b } 5 g . k| f Kt ;dfrf/cg' ; f/ tfKn] h ' ª sf hfg] cgf} 7 f] rngnfO{ lg3'/flbgsf] rf]Kk'/, rfFu]sf] bk{g], k"mnaf/Lsf] 9f8] tyf dxf] Q /L lhNnfsf :yfgLo k} / ] / ;fgy| f ssf] ;fSkmf/fh:tf jgIf] q af6 b} l gs k' : tf} F b ] l v sfod /fVb} afl;Gbfx¿n] rf]/Lt:s/Ldf ;oeGbf a9L ;fnsf ¿v rf] / L, s6fgL, lr/fgL / cfPsf 5g . ;+ n Ug tLghgf t:s/nfO{ lgsf;L x'g] u/sf] 5 . …jgb] j tf a] t fnsf] cj}w sf7;lxt kqm]/ /fi6«sf] af;:yfg ePsf] x' F b f ;DklQk|lt gful/s rf;f]sf]] jt{dfg /fhgLlts kl/l:yltdf jgkfn] hªun u:tLdf 3fF ; bfp/fsf nflu hfF b f pnn]vgLo pbfx/0f k|:t't ghfg] / ;j{;fwf/0f gful/s ph'/L ug{ 8/fpg] x'Fbf h' Q frKkn k' m sfn] / u/]sf 5g . o;sf cltl/Qm hl6n /fhgLlts cj:yfsf] nfe lnFb} jgt:s/ o;/L hfg' k b{ 5 . cGoyf a] t fn pgLx¿n] t:s/L lgoGq0fsf df} n fPsf x' g . :d/0f/xf] ; , ;/sf/n] s' g } klg b] j tf l/;fP/ ufpF d f nflu /flqu:tL klg k|f/De jgIf]qsf ;fn, l;dn, rfFk / cf]v/sf la?jf tyf ljklQ cfpF5,Ú pgLx¿sf] u/] s f 5g . …xl/of] jg, ¿v sf6g k|ltaGw nufPsf] eP klg b]zsf ljleGg g]kfnsf] wgÚ eGg] zfZjt :yfgdf t:s/x¿n] lgoldt¿kdf o:tf ¿v sf6] / k/Dk/fut dfGotf xf] . plQmnfO{ a] j f:tf ub} { cj}w laqmLljt/0f ul//x]sf 5g . cfk}Fm jgt:s/L /f]Sg :d/0fLo 5, hªun uPsf] sf7t:s/sf lu/f]xsf] cfly{s c;dy{ eO/x]sf lhNnf jg sfof{nosf sd{rf/L s;}n] ;dodf s' g } dlxnf k|nf]egdf k/]/ jg sd{rf/Ln] ls6fgL u/]/ ph'/L u/] bf]ifLdfly sfg'gL sf/afxL ug{ /h:jnf ePdf d'vdf 3fF; g} sf7t:s/Ldf 5' 6 lbF b } ;lhnf] x'g] atfpF5g . RofkL k5fl8 gkmsL{ hªun ;vfk u/fpg] cj:yf :d/0f/xf];, jg P]g, @)$( tyf jg lgodfjnL, @)%! eujfg ; F u dfkm dfUb} cfPkl5 jg;+ / If0fdf sf] kl/R5]b !! sf] bkmf %) sf] pkbkmf ! sf] v08 …3Ú 3/tkm{ bf}8g'kg]{ rng 5 . h'd'{/fPsf :yfgLo afl;Gbfn] df k| l talGwt ¿v sf6 g ] s;' / bf/nfO{ Ps ;o of] k/Dk/f clzlIft jg;+/If0f ;ldlt g} u7g u/]/ ¿k}ofF;Ddsf] lauf] ePdf Ps ;o ¿k}ofF tyf ;f]eGbf gful/s / dlxnfn] dfq /ft lbg u:tL ;'? 5g . dfly % xhf/ ¿k}ofF;Ddsf] lauf] eP, lauf]adf]lhd xf] O g, lzlIft ju{ n ] klg lhNnfsf] pQ/k"jL{ If]qdf kg]{ hl/jfgf jf 5 dlxgf s}b jf b'j} ;hfo x'g] Joj:yf 5 . TolQs} cg' z /0f ub} { /df} n L, lj>fdk' / , j[ G bfjg To:t}, % xhf/eGbf dfly hlt;'ssf] lauf] eP klg lauf]sf] cfPsf 5g . 3fF ; – } cflb /]Ghkf]:6af6 cj}w sf7 bf]Aa/ hl/jfgf jf Ps jif{ s}b jf b'j} ;hfo x'g] Joj:yf bfp/fsf nflu ufpF s f ;LdfjtL{ ef/ttkm{ lgsf;L 5 . sf7sf] cj}w sf/f]af/ ubf{ hkmt ePsf] sf7sf] lauf] dlxnfn] g} a9L jg k:g'kg]{ x' F b } cfPsf] 5 . gful/s sfod ubf{ k|ltSo'ljslkm6sf] @ ;o ¿k}ofF sfod x'g] / lbgx'F sl/a % lsnf]ld6/ u:tLn] kqmfp u/]sf ;nf{xL Joj:yf 5 . jgsf] ofqf ug{ h'QfrKkn lhNnf /fh3f6sf sf7t:s/ P]gdf h'g;'s} s'/f n]lvPsf] eP klg /fhgLlts / vf]Ng'kg]{ x'Fbf ltgn] lgs} ljb'/ /]UdL, kbd v8sf / zflGt;'/Iffsf] sf/0f b]vfO{ sd{rf/Ln] jgu:tL ug{ b' M v v] K g' k /] s f] eP klg k|tfk nfdfnfO{ lhNnf jg 5f8]kl5 jgkmF8fgL tLj| ePsf] kfOPsf] 5 . o;tkm{ ;/sf/ k/Dk/fut cGwljZjf;nfO{ sfof{non] klg jg P]gcGtu{t ;r]t geP s]xL jif{d} g]kfnsf] afFsL] hªunIf]q klg phf8 h:t} sl7g eP klg d'2f bfo/ ul/;s]sf]] 5 . aGg]] ;Defjgf a9b} uPsf] 5 . lg/Gt/tf lbO/x]sf 5g . –/d]zrGb| ofbj, dxf]Q/L –;"o{ dfb]g, tfKn]h'ª . –;'dg rGb, 88]nw'/f . jftfj/0fLo ;r]ttf Û xfd|f] k|lta4tf ÛÛ /)f÷ kof{ j /)f ÷ 40
  • 41. ;xsfo{sf nflu cg'/f]w jftfj/0f tyf afn ;/f]sf/ ;+:yf–g]kfn, jftfj/0f ;+/If0fsf If]qdf sfd ub}{ cfPsf] gfkmf sdfpg] clek|fo gePsf] u}/;/sf/L ;+:yf xf] . o; ;+:yfn] jftfj/0f lzIff sfo{qmd -jflzsf_ cGtu{t kof{j/0f dfl;ssf] k|sfzg u/L u|fdL0f If]qsf ljBfno / ufp“ ljsf; ;ldltx¿;Dd ljt/0f ul//x]sf] tkfO{+x¿nfO{ cjut ePs} s'/f xf] . o; k|sfzgn] jftfj/0fk|b"if0f, ljleGg k|sf/sf k|sf]k, k|fs[lts ;|f]t, kof{j/0fLo ko{6g, h}ljs ljljwtf, pmhf{h:tf ljljw ljifodf r]tgf clej[l4 ub}{ ;dfhsf] lbuf] ljsf;sf nflu pTk|]/ssf] sfo{ ug]{ p2]Zo lnPsf] 5 . o; cleofgnfO{ ;kmn / k|ltkmnd'vL agfpg cfk;L ;xof]usf] cfj:ostf kg]{ x'“bf tkfO{+;“u ;xsfo{sf nflu cg'/f]w ub}{5f}“ . tkfO{“n] o; cleofgdf kof{j/0fsf] jflif{s ;b:o ag]/ jf c¿nfO{ klg ;b:o aGg k|]l/t u/]/, o;df k|sfzgfy{ n]v, /rgf tyf cGo ;fdu|L pknAw u/fP/, k|sfzgnfO{ cem lzIffk|b / pkof]uL agfpg ;'emfj ;Nnfx lbP/, z'esfdgf tyf Jofkfl/s tyf Jofj;flos lj1fkg pknAw u/fP/ ;xefuL x'g ;Sg'x'g]5 . ;xof]u:j¿k jflif{s ;b:otf z'Ns -ljt/0f z'Ns;d]t_ ;b:otf kmf/fd / z'Ns sxf“ k7fpg] < ;:+yfut ;b:otf ?= %))÷– kof{j/0f dfl;ssf nflu z}lIfs ;+:yfx¿sf nflu ¿= ?= #))÷– jftfj/0f tyf afn ;/f]sf/ ;+:yf–g]kfn JolQmut ?= !%)÷– sf7df8f}“ dxfgu/kflnsf– #!, wf]aLwf/f, ljBfyL{sf nflu ljz]if ;x'lnot ?= &%÷– kf]:6aS; g+= !(&@), sf7df8f}, g]kfn “ -ljBfyL{n] jflif{s ;b:otf kmf/fd;fy kl/rokqsf] k|ltlnlk ;+nUg ug'kg]5_ { { kmf]gM $$$%#@), kmofS;M $@^%$%% ✁ ✁ ✁ u|fxs g+=M___ jflif{s u|fxs kmf/d u|fxs k|ltM__ k|lt ✁ kof{j/0f dfl;s gfdM________________________________________________________________________ k"/f 7]ufgfM_________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________ kmf]gM _____________________Od]nM____________________________________________ ;b:otf cjlwM_______________b]lv_______________;Dd u|fxssf] ;xLM____________________ ______________________ gfdM_____________________________ ✁ sfof{nosf] 5fk ;b:otf z'Ns ?= sf] A/C Payee r]s÷8«fˆ6 ;+nUg 5 . gf]6 M 7]ufgf kl/jt{g ePdf oyfzL3| hfgsf/L lbg'xf]nf . jftfj/0fLo ;r]ttf Û xfd|f] k|lta4tf ÛÛ /)f÷ kof{ j /)f ÷ 41