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            "               ÷34
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4. environment pollution and disaster

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4. environment pollution and disaster

  1. 1. jftfj/0f k|bif0f / k|sf]k " ÷1
  2. 2. k|sf]k–1fgdfnf–$ jftfj/0f k|bif0f " / k|sf]k /fdrGb| Gof}kfg] jftfj/0f k|bif0f / k|sf]k " ÷2
  3. 3. s[lt M jftfj/0f k|bif0f / k|sf]k " n]vs M /fdrGb| Gof}kfg] k|sfzs M jftfj/0f tyf afn ;/f]sf/ ;+:yf–g]kfn (ECO-Nepal) ;jf{lwsf/ M k|sfzsdf ;'/lIft ;+:s/0f M k|yd, c;f/ @)^# ;ªVof M @,))) k|lt cfj/0f l8hfOg M /d]z bfxfn d'b|s M lszf]/ ckm;]6 k|; -k|f=_ ln=, kmf]g M $#%!)$$ ] d"No M ?= %)÷– ISBN : 978-99946-927-4-3 k|sf]ksf] hf]lvd Go"gLs/0f tyf k|sf]ksf] ;fdgf ug]{ ;fd'bflos Ifdtf clej[l4sf nflu ;r]tg cleofgcGtu{t k|sf]k–1fgdfnf k|sfzgdf cf+lzs ¿kdf cfly{s ;xof]u ug]{ lgDg ;fem]bf/ ;+:yfx¿k|lt Osf]–g]kfn xflb{s cfef/ JoQm ub{5 M PS;gP8 g]kfn cS;kmfd hLaL g]kfn kf]= a= g+= ^@%&, sf7df8f}+, g]kfn kf]= a= g+= @%)), sf7df8f}+, g]kfn kmf]gM $$#^$&& kmf]gM %%@)%*^ kmofS;M (&&–!–$$!(&!* kmofS;M (&&–!–%%@#!(& j]e;fO6M www.actionaid.org/nepal j]e;fO6M www.oxfam.org.uk jftfj/0f k|bif0f / k|sf]k " ÷3
  4. 4. n]vssf] egfO k|sf]knfO{ k|fs[lts sf/0faf6 x'g] ljklQsf ¿kdf lng] dfgjLo k/Dk/fdf clxn];Dd klg vf;} kl/jt{g ePsf] 5}g . k|sf]k s;/L x'G5 / o;sf] pTklQsf] 7f]; cfwf/ s] xf] eGg] ;fdfGo hfgsf/L;d]t gx'g' g} k|sf]ksf] k|dv sf/0f xf] . k|sf]ksf 36gfaf6 Iflt x'bf xf Û ' F b}j eg]/ cfˆgf] efUo tyf sd{nfO{ bf]if lbg] k/Dk/f xfdL lzlIft ;d'bfoaf6 ;d]t aflxl/g ;s]sf] 5}g . k|sf]khGo 36gfsf] j[l4df jftfj/0f k|bif0f / cksif{0fn] lgs} 7"nf] e"ldsf v]nsf] oyfy{ " ] ljZj ;dIf 5n{ªu eO;s]sf] 5 . lgtfGt ef}ule{s sf/0faf6 x'g] e"Orfnf], Hjfnfd'vL, F pNsflk08 7f]lSsg]h:tf s]xL 36gf afx]s clwsf+z k|sf]ksf 36gfsf] j[l4 x'gdf dflg;sf] ' g} xft /x]sf] 5 . jftfj/0fsf ;|ft tyf 36sdf x'g] k|bif0fsf sf/0f pTkGg x'g] dxfdf/L ] " / jgljgfz, e"pkof]u tyf k|fs[lts ;|ftsf] cTolws pkof]uaf6 x'g] k|bif0f / jftfj/0fLo ] " cksif{0fsf sf/0f ef}uf]lns k|sf]k, hnpTkGg k|sf]k, jfo'hGo k|sf]kdf nuftf/ j[l4 eO/x]sf] oyfy{ xfdLn] ef]lu/x]sf 5f}F . jt{dfg ;dodf b]lvPsf o:tf ;d:ofsf] lg/fs/0f k"0f{ ¿kdf ug{ ;lsFbg tfklg o;af6 kg]{ k|lts"n k|efjsf] ;fdgf ug{ / ;'/lIft eljiosf] } nflu ;+/If0f k|of;df nfUg' h?/L b]lvPsf] 5 . k|sf]k 1fgdfnfsf] o; rf}yf] z[ªvnfdf jftfj/0f k|bif0f, cksif{0f / o;af6 kg]{ k|efjnfO{ " 5f]6s/Ldf JofVof ug]{ k|of; ul/Psf] 5 . k|sf]ksf ljleGg 36gfsf ljifodf k|jz ug'{ ] klxn] To:tf 36gfsf] pTklQ x'g] o:tf ljifodf hfgsf/L k|fKt ug'{ cfjZos ePsf] 7fg]/ jftfj/0f ljgfzsf sf/0f / k|efjsf ljifodf dfq oxfF rrf{ ul/Psf] 5 . lg/Gt/ al9/x]sf / ljgfzsf/L aGb} uPsf k|sf]ksf 36gfn] gofF–gofF ¿k wf/0f ug{ yfn]sf] ;Gbe{nfO{ klg xfdLn] la;{g' x'bg / o;sf] d"n sf/0f jftfj/0f cksif{0f g} xf] F} eGg' kg]{ cj:yf b]lvPsf] 5 . To;}n] k|sf]k Joj:yfkgsf lqmofsnfknfO{ tNnf] ;d'bfo;Dd k|efjsf/L agfpg] nIo lnP/ jftfj/0f ljgfz / k|sf]khGo 36gfnfO{ Ps;fy hf]8/ ] ljZn]if0f o; z[ªvnfdf ul/Psf] 5 . k|sf]ksf] Joj:yfkgsf qmddf :jR5, :j:y jftfj/0fsf] ljsf; ub}{ k|sf]ksf] hf]lvd Go"g ug]{ lbuf] ljsf;sf k|of;df k|sf]k 1fgdfnfsf] o; z[ªvnfn] o; If]qdf sfo{/t JolQm, ;+:yf tyf ;d'bfonfO{ yf]/} dfq 1fg tyf hfgsf/L lbg;Sof] eg] klg xfdL of] k|of; ;fy{s ePsf] 7fGg]5f}F . k|sf]k 1fgdfnf k|sflzt ug{ k|/0ff k|bfg ug]{ PS;gP8 g]kfnsf l;lgo/ lydln8/ ] Zofd;'Gb/ 1jfnL / cS;kmfd hLaL g]kfnsf sfo{qmd ;+of]hs lji0f'k;fb v/]n tyf | o;sf] z'4fz'l4 / ;fh;Hhfdf ct'ngLo ;xof]u ug]{ Osf]–g]kfndf sfo{/t d]/f ;xsdL{ ldqx¿k|lt cfef/ JoQm ub{5' . – /fdrGb| Gof}kfg] jftfj/0f k|bif0f / k|sf]k " ÷4
  5. 5. ljifo;"rL k[i7e"ld % jftfj/0f / o;sf tŒj jftfj/0fsf] kl/ro ^ jftfj/0fsf tŒjx¿ & jftfj/0f k|bif0f " kl/ro tyf kl/efiff !) jftfj/0fsf k|bifs " !! jftfj/0f cksif{0f kl/ro !# jftfj/0f k|bif0f / cksif{0faLr leGgtf " !$ jftfj/0f k|bif0f / cksif{0fsf sf/0f " !% jftfj/0f ljgfz / k|sf]khGo hf]lvd kl/ro @$ hf]lvdsf] z[ªvnf @% jftfj/0f ljgfzaf6 pTkGg k|sf]khGo 36gf @^ jftfj/0f ljgfzsf k|efj @& pk;+xf/ #@ jftfj/0f k|bif0f / k|sf]k " ÷5
  6. 6. jftfj/0f ljgfz / k|sf]k k[i7e"ld jftfj/0fLo ;d:of jt{dfg ljZjsf] lrGtf / rf;f]sf] ;jfn ag]sf] 5 . e"ld, hn / jfo'nufot ;a} If]qdf a9]sf] k|bif0f / cksif{0fn] jftfj/0fnfO{ k|bl" ift " / u'0f:t/xLg agfPsf] 5 . tLj| ¿kdf eO/x]sf] jftfj/0f k|bif0fn] o;sf] " k|fs[lts u'0f:t/nfO{ ck|fs[lts cj:yfdf ¿kfGt/0f ul//x]sf] 5 . jftfj/0fLo k|bif0f / cksif{0fsf sf/0f g} k|sf]khGo 36gfx¿df j[l4 ePsf] 5 / " hgwgsf] Iflt a9g] k|lqmofdf klg lj:tf/ ePsf] 5 . dflg;n] cfˆgf cfjZostf k"lt{sf nflu k|fs[lts ;|ftdfly lg/Gt/ cltqmd0f ] ul//x]sf] 5 eg] cfly{s ljsf;sf lgldQ b|tt/ cf}Bf]lus ljsf; ul//x]sf] ' 5 . x/]s lbg gofF /;fog, gofF k|ljlwsf cf}Bf]lus oGq, nfvf}F ;jf/L;fwgsf] pTkfbg eO/x]sf] 5 . oL oGq, j:t' tyf ;fwg pTkfbg ug{ / ;~rfng ug{ k]6fn, l8h]n, Uof;, sf]Onfh:tf OGwgsf] k|of]u x'G5 . o:tf j:t' pknAw «] gx'g] :yfg / 3/fo;L cjZostf k"/f ug{ jgaf6 bfp/f / sf7 ;ªsng u/]/ afNg] sfo{ x'G5 . oL ;a} dfgjLo ultljlwn] jftfj/0fdf k|lts"n k|efj kf/]sf] 5 . o;sf cltl/Qm cJojl:yt e"pkof]u, v]taf/Ldf /f;folgs dn, sL6gfzs cf}iflw cflbsf] k|of]un] e"kbif0f dfq a9fPsf] 5}g, To;n] e"ldut | " kfgL / jfo'd08nnfO{ klg k|bl" ift agfPsf] 5 . TolQ dfq xf]Og, kmf]xf]/d}nfsf] cTolws lgisfzg / Joj:yfkgsf] sdLn] dxfdf/L lj:tf/ x'g] vt/f a9]sf] 5 . ;+oQm /fi6«;ª3Lo jftfj/0f sfo{qmdsf] cWoog k|ltj]bgn] ljZjdf *) ' k|ltzt /f]usf] sf/0f k|bl" ift kfgL ePsf] tYo ;fj{hlgs ul/;s]sf] 5 . o:tf ;Dk"0f{ lqmofsnfkdf dflg;s} xft /x]sf] tYonfO{ j}1flgsx¿n] :jLsf/ ul/;s]sf 5g . jftfj/0f cksif{0f / k|bif0fsf] j[l4n] ljleGg k|sf/sf " k|sf]khGo 36gfsf] lj:tf/ / hgwgsf] Iflt klg lg/Gt/ a9b} uPsf] 5 . jftfj/0f k|bif0f / k|sf]k " ÷6
  7. 7. jftfj/0f / o;sf tŒj jftfj/0fsf] kl/ro xfdLn] b]lv/x]sf] tyf xfd|f] jl/kl/sf]] ef}uf]lns :j¿knfO{ k|sl[ t elgG5 . xfjf, kfgL, kxf8–kj{t, t/fO{ tyf ;dy/ e"ld, b"g, pkTosf, vf]nf, gbL, kf]v/L, ;d'b,| jghªun, v]taf/L cflb k|sl[ tsf cleGg cªu x'g . oL ;a} b[io Ps} 7fpFdf kfpg ;lsFbg . xfdLn] ;d'b| b]Vg ef/t jf cGo ;d'bt6Lo } | d'nsdf hfg' k5{ . lsgeg] g]kfnsf] ;Ldfdf ;d'b| 5}g . sltko t/fO{af;Ln] ' kxf8 / kxf8af;Ln] t/fO{ gb]vsf] klg x'g ;S5 . h] eP klg xfdLn] cfˆgf] ] jl/kl/sf] e"ld, cfsfz, jghªun, jGohGt' / k|sl[ tdf kfOg] cGo w]/} s'/fx¿ b]vsf 5f}F . k|sl[ tdf jg x'G5, jGohGt' x'G5g, kfgL x'G5, xfjf x'G5, ] df6f] klg ToxLF x'G5 . oL ;a} j:t' tyf hLjsf] ;ªuddf ag]sf] k|sl[ tsf] kl/l:yltsLo k|0ffnLnfO{ jftfj/0f jf kof{j/0f (Environment) elgG5 . …k[YjLsf] ;Dk"0f{ cfj/0f, hxfF;Dd hldg, hn / xfjf km}lnPsf] 5Ú jftfj/0fsf] d]?b08 cyjf d"n ¿k xf] . o;k|sf/ cfsfz / k[YjLdf kfOg] hn, yn, jg, d?e"ld ;a} jftfj/0fleq k5{g . ctM …k[YjL / cfsfz hxfF;Dd xfjf km}lnPsf] 5, To;aLrsf] ;hLj / lghL{j j:t'sf] ;+oQm :j¿k cyf{t xfjf, ' kfgL, df6f], k|f0fL / jg:kltaLr /x]sf] cGt;{DaGw / afFRgsf nflu Ps csf{;u ;DalGwt / cfl>t /x]sf] k|sl[ tsf] ;'Gb/ :j¿knfO{ jftfj/0f F elgG5Ú . o;af6 xfdLn] s] a'‰g' k5{ eg] jftfj/0fleqsf dflg;, 3/kfn'jf hgfj/, hªunL hgfj/, sL/f–km6ofªuf, hLjf0f';lxt ;Dk"0f{ hLj / ;a} | k|sf/sf ¿v, la?jf tyf jg:klt / lghL{j j:t'x¿– xfjf, kfgL, k|sfz, tfk, 9'ªuf, df6f] cflbsf] ;Gt'ngn] k[YjL hLjgof]Uo ag]sf] 5 . jftfj/0f b'O{ zAb– …jftÚ / …cfj/0fÚ ldn]/ ag]sf] 5 . oxfF …jftÚ eg]sf] jfo' / …cfj/0fÚ eg]sf] jfo'n] 9fs]sf] If]q cyjf jfo'sf] cfj/0f eGg] a'lemG5 . t;y{ jfo'n] 9fs]sf] jf 3]l/Psf] (surrounding) If]q, hxfF dflg;, hgfj/, jftfj/0f k|bif0f / k|sf]k " ÷7
  8. 8. ¿vla?jf, df6f], xfjf, kfgL cflbsf] pkl:ylt x'G5 Tof] g} jftfj/0f xf] . oL ;a} tŒjx¿sf] pkl:yltn] k|f0fL / jg:kltsf] hGd, j[l4 tyf ljsf;, d[To', ltgLx¿sf] sfo{k0ffnL cflb ljifodf k|ToIf–ck|ToIf ;/f]sf/ /fv]sf] x'G5 . | ljleGg ljåfgn] jftfj/0fsf] kl/efiff lbPsf 5g . k|l;4 jftfj/0fljbåo P= Pg= :6«Xn/ / P= Pr= :6«Xn/n] ;g !(&^ df jftfj/0fsf ;DaGwdf eg]sf ] ] lyP– …x'g t clwsf+z jftfj/0fljb tyf e"uf]nj]Qfx¿sf] ;f]r dfgjLo jftfj/0ftkm{ s]lGb|t /x]sf] kfOG5 . t/ dflg;sf] ;DaGw p;sf] cfˆgf] lghL hLjg;Fu dfq ;Lldt /x]sf] x'bg, a? p;n] afFRgsf nflu 3/kfn'jf tyf F } jGohGt' / ;a} jg:kltsf] cl:tTjnfO{ :jLsfg'{ k5{ .Ú o;}u/L s]= cf/= bLlIftn] eg]sf 5g– …jftfj/0f ljZjsf] To:tf] ;du| b[li6sf]0f xf], h;n] s'g} ;do / ;Gbe{df ax':yflgs tŒj tyf ;fdflhs, ;f+:s[lts / cfly{s k|0ffnL;Fu ;Da4 x'G5, h'g h}ljs tyf ch}ljs tŒjx¿sf] Jojxf/ jf cfr/0f cyjf :yfgsf] pkof]lutf (utility) cyjf u'0f (attributes) sf cfwf/df cnu x'G5 tfklg Ps;fy sfo{ ul//x]sf] x'G5 .Ú bLlIftsf cg';f/ jftfj/0fsf] kl/efiff tyf ljifo If]q xfd|f] lxt, cle?lr / k|fyldstfn] lgwf{/0f u5{ . xfd|f] tTsfnLg cle?lr jf cfjZostfsf ;fwgx¿ M :yfg– hxfF xfdL a:5f},F vfgf– h'g xfdL vfG5f},F kfgL– h;nfO{ xfdL lkp5f},F jfo'– h;af6 xfdL ;f; km]5f}F / xfd|f] cfly{s Joj:yfnfO{ ;an / ;Ifd agfpg] sfo{ ub{5f},F Tof] g} jftfj/0fsf] pkof]lutf tyf u'0f:t/ xf] . pgsf cg';f/ jftfj/0fdf …jfo'– hn–:yn–jg:kltÚ sf] k|dv :yfg x'G5 . ' jftfj/0fsf tŒjx¿ jftfj/0f hLljt k|f0fL, jg:klt / df6f], kfgL, jfo'h:tf lghL{j j:t'sf] ;+of]u ePsfn] ltgLx¿nfO{ g} jftfj/0fsf] tŒj dflgG5 . jftfj/0fsf tŒjnfO{ lgDg cg';f/ juL{s/0f ul/Psf] 5 M != lghL{j tŒj jftfj/0fsf] k|fs[lts cj:yfnfO{ ;Gt'lnt /fVg lghL{j tŒjsf] 7"nf] e"ldsf /x]sf] x'G5 . lghL{j tŒjn] k|f0fL tyf jg:kltnfO{ cfjZos kf]if0f k|bfg ul//x]sf] x'G5 . jftfj/0fsf lghL{j tŒj lgDg cg';f/ 5g M s= df6f] df6f] jftfj/0fsf] k|dv tŒjdWo] Ps xf] . df6f]n] k|fs[lts :j¿k lgdf{0fdf ' jftfj/0f k|bif0f / k|sf]k " ÷8
  9. 9. dxŒjk"0f{ e"ldsf v]N5 . df6f]d} jg:klt pd|G5g / x'sG5g . hldgsf] { cj:yf ef}uf]lns agf]6cg';f/ km/s–km/s x'G5 . dlnnf] df6f], anf}6] df6f], r§fgL jf 9'ªu] df6f] o;sf ;fdfGo pbfx/0f x'g . dflg;n] vfg] cGg, t/sf/L, kmnkm"n / kz'n] vfg] 3fF;, cf}iflwsf nflu cfjZos kg]{ h8La'6L df6f]d} pld|G5g . xfdLn] b]lv/xg] ;dy/ tyf d}bfg, kxf8, pkTosf, lxdfndf kfOg] df6f]sf :j¿k ljleGg k|sf/sf x'G5g . v= jfo' xfjf cyf{t jfo' jftfj/0fsf] csf]{ dxŒjk"0f{ tŒj xf] . clS;hgnfO{ t k|f0fjfo' g} elgG5 . To;}n] jo' k|f0fLsf] hLjgbftf xf] . jfo'ljgf s'g} hLj If0fe/ klg afFRg ;Sb}gg . jfo' cb[io Uof;Lo tTj xf] . ljleGg k|sf/sf Uof;x¿ ldn]/ o;sf] lgdf{0f ePsf] 5 . jfo'df clS;hg, gfO6«fhg, sfa{g 8fOcS;fO8, ldy]g, km:kmf]/; ] cflbsf] ;+of]u /x]sf] x'G5 . ljz]if1x¿sf cg';f/ jfo'd08ndf lgDg Uof;x¿sf] ;+of]hg /x]sf] x'G5 M gfO6«fhg ] &*=)) k|ltzt clS;hg @)=(% k|ltzt cfu{g )=(# k|ltzt sfa{g8fO cS;fO8 )=)$ k|ltzt cGo )=)* k|ltzt u= kfgL jftfj/0fsf] csf]{ dxŒjk"0f{ tŒj kfgL xf] . h;/L xfjfljgf hLjg ;Dej x'bg To;}u/L kfgLsf] cefjdf klg hLjsf] cl:tTj ;Dej x'bg . kfgL geP F } F } df6f] jfo' ;lxt ;Dk"0f{ jftfj/0f ;'Vvf / tftf] x'G5 . To;}n] kfgLnfO{ hLjgbfoL tŒjs} ¿kdf lnOG5 . df6f]af6 cGgafnL, 3fF;kft / af]6la?jf k|fKt ug{ / jftfj/0fnfO{ ;'Gb/–/d0fLo agfpg kfgL geO x'bg . kfgL F } udL{ofddf tft]/ afkm aG5 / xfjf;Fu ldN5 . kfgLsf] afkm ldn]sf] xfjf afbndf kl/0ft eO{ cfsfzdf k'ukl5 kfgL, lxpF / cl;gfsf] ¿k lnP/ km]l/ ] k[YjLdf kmls{G5 . o;/L ;~rfng x'g] hnrqmn] jftfj/0fLo ;Gt'ngdf cxd e"ldsf lgjf{x u5{ . 3= k|sfz / tfk jftfj/0fsf cGo tŒjx¿nfO{ ;Gt'lnt agfO{ /fVg tfk / k|sfzsf] 7"nf] jftfj/0f k|bif0f / k|sf]k " ÷9
  10. 10. e"ldsf /x]sf] x'G5 . cWofF/f] x6fpg k|sfz rflxG5 . vfgf agfpg, z/L/nfO{ ;Gt'lnt tfkdf /fVg tftf]kg jf tfk rflxG5 . To;}u/L af]6 lj?jfnfO{ cfkmgf] vfgf agfpg] k|sfz ;+Zn]if0f k|lqmofsf nflu k|sfz / tfk b'jsf] } cfjZostf k5{ . jfo'd08ndf x'g] /f;folgs k|ltlqmof, hLjd08ndf x'g] h}ljs lqmofsnfksf nflu oL b'j} tTj geO x'bg . k|sfz tyf tfk pmhf{sf F } k|dv ;f]t x'g, h;sf] 7"nf] lx:;f ;"oaf6 k|fKt x'G5 . dflg;n] k/Dk/fut ' { ¿kdf h}ljs lk08 afn]/ gu0o dfqfdf tfk / k|sfz k|fKt ul//x]sf] eP klg xfn j}1flgs k|ljlwsf] pkof]uåf/f lah'nL jf cf0fljs e§Lsf] :yfkgf u/]/ klg pmhf{ k|fKt ug{ yflnPsf] 5 . t} klg ;"oaf6 k|fKt x'g] tfkLo pmhf{ tyf { k|sfzsf] t'ngfdf dflg;n] pTkfbg u/]sf] pmhf{ Hofb} guGo /x]sf] 5 . @= ;hLj tŒjx¿ lghL{j tŒjx¿sf] pkl:yltn] dfq k[YjLsf] jftfj/0f ;Gt'lnt x'g ;Sb}g . k|fs[lts jftfj/0f tyf kl/l:yltsLo k|0ffnLsf] ;Gt'ngsf nflu jftfj/0fsf ;hLj tŒjx¿sf] e"ldsf klg dxŒjk"0f{ x'G5 . ;hLj jftfj/0fLo tŒjnfO{ lgDg cg';f/ b'O{ ju{df ljefhg ul/Psf] 5 M s= jg:klt jftfj/0fdf nfvf}F k|hfltsf af]6–la?jf, kmnkm"n, 3fF; kft, h8La'6Lsf] cl:tTj /x]sf] 5 . hLjgofkgdf jg:klts ;|ftsf] pkof]u ;a}eGbf a9L ] x'G5 . cfFvfn] b]Vg g;lsg] ;–;fgfb]lv cUnf / 7"nf ¿vsf ¿kdf ;d]t jg:klt kfOG5g . n]p, Rofp / ‰ofpb]lv lnP/ xfd|f cGgafnL, ¿v–la?jf cflb o; ju{df k5{g . jg:klt :ynLo / hnLo b'O{ k|sf/sf x'G5g . h'g jg:kltsf] cl:tTjdf dfq ;Lldt x'G5 ltgnfO{ hnLo jg:klt elgG5 / kfgLaflx/ x'sg jg:kltnfO{ { :ynLo jg:klt elgG5 . k|fs[lts jftfj/0fsf] /Iff tyf ;Gt'ngsf nflu oL b'j} k|sf/sf jg:kltsf] e"ldsf dxŒjk"0f{ /x]sf] 5 . v= k|f0fL jftfj/0fsf] csf]{ ;hLj tŒj k|f0fL xf] . o;leq hnLo / :ynLo b'j} k|sf/sf k|f0fL k5{g . kfgLdf a:g] df5f, Xj]n, 8lNkmgnufotsf hnLo hgfj/ / hdLgdf a:g] xfQL, u}8f, af3h:tf 7"nf hgfj/b]lv lnP/ cfFvfn] b]Vg F g;lsg] ;'Id hLjf0f' klg o; ju{df k5{g . r/fr'?ªuL, sL6ktªu, hLj0f'x¿ jftfj/0fsf ;hLj tŒj x'g . jftfj/0f k|bif0f / k|sf]k " ÷10
  11. 11. jftfj/0f k|bif0f " kl/ro jftfj/0fsf s'g} klg tŒjaLr /x]sf] k|fs[lts ;Gt'ngdf ljleGg sf/0fn] kl/jt{g cfpF5 . hg;ªVof j[l4 / cf}Bf]lus ljsf;sf sf/0f k|fs[lts ;|ftdfly bafa, vBfGg pTkfbg a9fpg pkof]u x'g] /f;folgs dn, sL6gfzs ] ljiffbL, kmf]xf]/d}nfsf] cTolws pT;h{gn] e"ld, hn / jfo'd08n Ps};fy k|bl" ift eO/x]sf] 5 . jftfj/0f k|bif0fsf] k|efj o;sf] s'g} Ps tŒjdf dfq kb}g . jfo' k|bif0f x'bf " { " F jfo'df ldl;Psf] k|bifs jiff{sf dfWodaf6 df6f]df ldl;G5 / To;sf] k|jfx " ;txL / e"ldut kfgLdf x'G5 . v]taf/Ldf k|of]u x'g] sL6gfzs jf /f;folgs kbfy{ df6f] / e"ldut kfgLsf] ;|ft x'b} km}lnG5 . k|bl" ift kfgL jfikLs/0f x'bf ] F F To;df /x]sf] k|bifs cfsfzdf k'U5 / jiff{sf dfWodaf6 k'gM k[YjLdf cfpF5 . " df6f], hn / jfo' pkef]Uo j:t'sf d"n cfwf/ ePsfn] To:tf] j:t'sf] pkef]u ubf{ k|f0fL tyf jg:kltsf] :jf:Yodf k|lts"n c;/ k5{ h;n] dxfdf/Lsf] ¿kd wf/0f ug{ ;S5 . o;k|sf/ jftfj/0f k|bif0f ljZjsf] To:tf] h6Ln " ;d:of xf] h;sf] ;dfwfg k"0f{ ¿kdf ug{ ;lsFbg / o;sf] z[ªvnfa4 } k|efjsf] ;fdgf ;a}eGbf a9L dflg;n] g} ug'{ kg]{ x'G5 . kl/efiff jftfj/0fsf] s'g} Ps tŒjdf kg]{ k|lts"n k|efjnfO{ jftfj/0f k|bif0f elgG5 . " gbLdf 9n ldl;P/ gbLsf] kfgL k|bl" ift x'g,' 3/ jf pBf]uaf6 pT;lh{t kmf]xf]/ ;8s jf rf]sdf y'lk|bf b'uGw pTkGg x'g,' t/sf/L afnLdf sL6gfzs cf}iflw 5bf{ F { To;sf] c;/ df6f] tyf e"ldut kfgLdf kg'{ jf t/sf/L vfFbf hg:jf:Yodf k|lts"n c;/ kg]{ l:ylt k}bf x'g,' pBf]uaf6 lg:sg] kmf]xf]/ / /;fog ldl;Psf] 9n v'nf 7fpF jf vf]nfgfnfdf ldl;g', pBf]u tyf oftfoftsf ;fwgaf6 lg:sg] k|bl" ift Uof;n] jfo'kbif0f a9g' jftfj/0f k|bif0fsf s]xL pbfx/0f x'g . |" " jftfj/0fsf] s'g} Ps tŒjdf k|lts"n k|efj kfg]{ csf]{ tŒj ldl;Pdf d"n tŒjsf] ef}lts, /f;folgs, h}ljs tyf df}lns u'0fdf cfpg] c:jefljs kl/jt{g g} k|bif0f xf] . To:tf] k|bl" ift tŒj pkef]usf nflu cg'ko'Qm jf " xflgsf/s x'G5 . jftfj/0fsf 36snfO{ b"lift ug]{ tŒjnfO{ k|bifs elgG5 . " jftfj/0f k|bif0f / k|sf]k " ÷11
  12. 12. jftfj/0f k|bif0faf6 pTkGg ;d:ofnfO{ ljleGg kIfaf6 cnu cnu tl/sfåf/f " x]g{] k|rng a9b} cfPsf] 5 . e"uf]nljbx¿ o;nfO{{ ;fdfGo ¿kdf x]5g, { jftfj/0fLo e"uf]nljb jftfj/0fLo ;d:ofs} ¿kdf x]b5g, ;dfhzf:qLx¿ { ;fdflhs ;d:ofsf ¿kdf lnG5g, cy{zf:qLx¿ cfly{s ;d:ofsf ¿kdf lnG5g, kl/l:yltsLljbx¿ kl/l:yltsLo ;d:ofsf ¿kdf x]5g eg] :jf:Yo { ljz]if1x¿ hg:jf:Yosf b[lisf]0faf6 k|bif0fsf] lrgf/L lbG5g . " k|sl[ tn] wfGg ;Sg]eGbf a9L k|bifssf] pT;h{g / lj;h{gn] jftfj/0fLo " k|0ffnLdf k|lts"n kl/jt{g NofpF5 . o:tf] k|lts"n kl/jt{gn] hg:jf:Yodf ;d:of pTkGg u5{ . kl/0ffd:j¿k ef}uf]lns, cfly{s, ;fdflhs, ;f+:s[lts tyf /fhg}lts If]qdf k|lts"n k|efj k5{, h;nfO{ jftfj/0f k|bif0fsf ¿kdf " lng ;lsG5 . cd]l/sfsf] …Dof;fRo';6 OlG:6Ro'6 ckm 6]Sgf]nf]hLÚ n] jftfj/0f k|bif0fnfO{ ] " kl/eflift ub}{ eg]sf] 5 æj:t'sf] pTkfbg tyf pkef]usf k|To]s r/0fdf sfd gnfUg] jf kmf]xf]/ kbfy{sf] lj;h{g eO/xG5 . o:tf kmf]xf]/ kbfy{ To; ;dodf k|bifs of jftfj/0fLo ;d:of aG5g, ha To;n] jfo'd08nLo, dxf;fu/Lo " / kfly{j jftf/j/0fdfly xflgsf/s k|efj kf/]sf] x'G5 .Æ ef/tLo jftfj/0fljb s]= ;L= cu|jfnn] eg]sf 5g …xfjf, kfgL tyf hldgsf] k|fs[lts jf df}lns cj:yfdf c:jfefljs ¿kn] cfpg] To:tf] ef}lts, /f;folgs cyjf h}ljs kl/jt{gnfO{ jftfj/0f k|bif0f elgG5, h;n] k|f0fLsf] " :jf:Yo, ;'/Iff tyf sNof0fdf xflg k'¥ofP/ vt/f pTkGg u5{ . o;k|sf/ ækl/l:yltsLo k|0ffnL jf k|fs[lts jftfj/0fn] ;xg ug{ g;Sg]u/L dflg;sf OlR5t tyf clglR5t lqmofsnfkåf/f kl/l:yltsLo k|0ffnLdf kg]{ k|lts"n k|efj tyf To;sf] u'0f:t/ v:sg uO{ jftfj/0fsf k|To]s 36sdf z[ªvnfa4 k|efj k/]/ dfgj ;d'bfosf nflu cNksfnLg tyf bL3{sfnLg ¿kdf xflg k'Ug] ;Defjgfsf] j[l4 g} jftfj/0fsf] k|bif0f xf] .Æ " o; JofVofcg';f/ jftfj/0fLo k|bif0fsf tLgj6f cfwf/ b]lvG5g M " dflg;åf/f kmf]xf]/ jf cjlzi6 kbfy{sf] pTkflbt / lj;h{g, kmf]xf]/d}nfsf] lj;h{gaf6 pTkGg x'g] xflg tyf Iflt, / To; Ifltaf6 dflg;df kg]{ k|lts"n k|efj . jftfj/0fsf k|b"ifs k|fs[lts jftfj/0f tyf kl/l:yltsLo k|0ffnLdf c;Gt'ng k}bf ug]{ tyf k|bif0f pTkGg ug]{ kbfy{, pmhf{ jf /;fogsf s'g} klg ¿knfO{ jftfj/0fsf " k|bifs elgG5 . jftfj/0f k|bif0fdf k|bifs tŒjsf] e"ldsf ltgLx¿sf] :j¿k, " " " jftfj/0f k|bif0f / k|sf]k " ÷12
  13. 13. sfo{k0ffnL jf k|ltlqmofTds Ifdtfsf cfwf/df leGg leGg x'G5 . To;}u/L | jftfj/0f k|bif0fsf If]q klg km/s x'G5g . To;}sf cfwf/df jftfj/0f k|bifssf] " " juL{s/0f ul/Psf] 5 . != k|fs[lts k|bifs " k|fs[lts ¿kdf x'g] clwsf+z k|bif0f jftfj/0fsf tŒjn] ;xg ug{ ;Sg] " :t/df /x]sf] x'G5 . cyjf k|sl[ tdf :jo+ pTkGg x'g] k|bifs tŒjnfO{ lgd{nLs/0f " ug]{ Ifdtf k|sl[ tleq} /x]sf] x'G5 . ¿vaf6 em/]/ s'lxPsf kftsf] b'uGw { jgleqs} cGtlqm{ofaf6 lgd{nLs/0f x'g' o;sf] Ps pbfx/0f xf] . @= dfgjl;lh{t k|bifs " dflg;åf/f jftfj/0f k|bifsx¿sf] pTkfbg / lj;h{g b'j} x'g] u/]sf] 5 . " jftfj/0f ljgfz tyf k|bif0fsf ljleGg kIfsf] cWoogsf cfwf/df jftfj/0f " k|bifssf ¿kdf dflg; g} cufl8 /x]sf] 5 . dflg;åf/f pTkflbt / pT;lh{t " xflgsf/s kbfy{n] k|fs[lts ;Gt'ngdf Jojwfg k'¥ofO/x]sf] 5 . o;af6 jftfj/0fsf] k|dv k|bifs dflg; g} /x]sf] tYo :ki6 x'G5 . ' " jftfj/0f k|bif0fsf ljleGg k|sl[ t cyjf :j¿k 5g . xfjf, kfgL, df6f], Wjlg " cflb k|bif0fsf k|sl[ t x'g . o; >]0fLsf k|bifs lgDgcg';f/ 5g M " " s= s0fLo k|bifs M hnjfikdf ldl;P/ jfo'd08ndf km}lng] w"nf], pBf]uaf6 " pTkGg x'g] l;;f / wft'sf] w"nf] s0fLo k|bifs x'g . s0fLo k|bif0fn] vf;u/L " " jfo'd08ndf w"nf]sf] pkl:yltnfO{ hgfpF5 tfklg o;sf] k|efj hnd08n / :ynd08ndf ;d]t k5{ . jfo'd08ndf k'usf w"nf]sf s0f ljleGg jiff{, ] x'/Latf; jf cGo dfWodaf6 k'gM k[YjLdf cfpFbf To;sf] k|efj ;Dk"0f{ hLjd08ndf k5{ . v= Uof;Lo k|bif0f M dflg;åf/f 3/fo;L sfo{ ubf{, snsf/vfgf tyf pBf]u " rnfpFbf pTkGg x'g] Uof; klg jftfj/0fsf] k|dv k|bifs xf] . Snf]/f]ˆn'/f] ' " sfa{g, gfO6«fhg / sfa{g 8fOcS;fO8, ;Nkm/ 8fOcS;fO8h:tf cS;fO8x¿ ] / ldy]g cflb Uof;n] jfo'd08nnfO{ k|bl" ift u5{g . u= t/n k|bifs M vlgh t]n pTkfbg s]Gb|, sRrf kbfy{ k|zf]wg ug]{ pBf]u, " vlgh t]n cf];f/k;f/ ug]{ kfgLhxfhaf6 pT;h{g x'g] jf r'lxg] t]n / t]ndf ldl>t cj:yfdf /x]sf vlgh kbfy{, cdf]lgof, o'l/of, Snf]/fO8, ˆnf]/fO8, sfaf]g6;, sL6gfzs tyf /f]ulg/f]ws /;fog cflb t/n k|bifs x'g . o:tf { ] " tŒjn] kfgLdf 3f]lnP/ jf hldgdf 5l/P/ jftfj/0fsf h}ljs tyf ch}ljs tŒjdf k|lts"n k|efj kfb{5g . jftfj/0f k|bif0f / k|sf]k " ÷13
  14. 14. jftfj/0f cksif{0f kl/ro s'g} klg b]z, If]q jf k|bzsf] ef}lts jftfj/0fsf] s'g} klg PSnf] jf ;fd"lxs ] 36sdf pTkGg jftfj/0fLo x|f;sf] cj:yfnfO{ jftfj/0f cksif{0f tyf ljgfz elgG5 . kxf8sf] s'g} efudf uPsf] klx/f]n] ToxfFsf] h}ljs / ch}ljs b'j} j:t'sf] ljgfz u5{ . xl/of] jg If]qdf cfunfuL ePdf ToxfF /x]sf hLjx¿ hn]/ gi6 x'G5g . xl/of] jg g} ;dfKt ePkl5 Tof] If]q phf8 x'G5 . e'Orfnf] cfPdf F k[YjLsf ljleGg efux¿ rL/f k/]/, klx/f] uP/, kxf8–kj{tx¿ n8]/ tyf dfgjLo ;+/rgfx¿ elTsP/ k|fs[lts tyf dfgjåf/f lgld{t jftfj/0f g} gi6 x'G5 . k|fs[lts sf/0faf6 x'g] k|sf]khGo 36gfaf6 ePsf] jftfj/0fLo IfltnfO{ k|sl[ tn] lglZrt cjlwdf cfk}mF k'gM:yfkg u5{ eGg] ljz]if1x¿sf] dt /x]sf] kfOG5 . dflg;sf lqmofsnfkaf6 x'g] k|bif0f k|sl[ tn] ;xg ug]{ " IfdtfeGbf aflx/ ePdf jftfj/0fLo cj:yfdf cgk]lIft kl/jt{g b]vf k5{ / h}ljs tyf ch}ljs tŒjaLrsf] ;Gt'ngdf vnn k}bf x'G5 . hLjd08nsf] kl/l:yltsLo k|0ffnLsf] ;Gt'ng ef}lts tyf h}ljs tŒjaLrsf] cGtlqm{ofåf/f sfod /x]sf] x'G5 . oL s'g} klg 36s jf cªudf s'g} vf; ;dodf kl/jt{g x'G5 eg] To;sf] k|efj cGo 36sdf klg :jtM kg{ hfG5 . kl/0ffd:j¿k jftfj/0fdf s'g} kl/jt{g eOxfn]df To;af6 kg]{ xflgsf] Ifltk"lt{ cGo k|fs[lts 36gfaf6 x'g] u5{ eGg] dfGotf /x]sf] 5 . jftfj/0fdf x'g] k|fs[lts k|ltlqmofn] hLjnfO{ plrt af;:yfgsf] lgdf{0f ub{5 . k[YjLdf hLjgsf] pTklQsfnb]lv g} x/]s hLjn] ef}lts jftfj/0fsf] ljleGg tŒjdf cfPsf] kl/jt{gnfO{ ;xg ub}{ cfPsf 5g . ;g !*^) sf] bzsdf ePsf] cf}Bf]lus qmflGtn] dflg;nfO{ cfw'lgs k|ljlwdf k"0f{tf lbg] sfo{ u¥of] / jftfj/0fsf] of] 36s k|sl[ tsf] ;j{zlQmdfg k|f0fLsf ¿kdf :yflkt eof] . kl/0ffd:j¿k dflg;df ef}lts jftfj/0fdf kl/jt{g ug{ ;Sg] Ifdtfdf b]vf k¥of] . jftfj/0f k|bif0f / k|sf]k " ÷14
  15. 15. cf}Bf]lus ljsf;sf sf/0f dflg; jftfj/0fsf] ef}lts 36saf6 aflx/ cfP/ cfly{s tyf k|fljlws dfgj alg;s]sf] 5 . dflg;åf/f ;~rflnt lqmofsnfksf sf/0f jftfj/0fdf x'g] Ifltk"lt{sf] :jkf]lift Ifdtfdf ;d]t x|f; ePsf] 5 . kl/0ffd:j¿k jftfj/0fdf lg/Gt/ x'g] kl/jt{gdf tLj|tf cfP/ hLjd08ndf k|lts"n k|efj k/]sf] 5 . ef}lts jftfj/0fdf o;/L cfpg] k|lts"n kl/jt{gnfO{ jftfj/0f cksif{0f (environment degradation) elgG5 . jftfj/0fljb ;laGb| l;+xsf cg';f/ æjftfj/0fsf ef}lts 36sdf jftfj/0fsf] :jkf]lift ¿kn] k"lt{ x'g g;Sg] dfgjLo lqmofsnfksf sf/0f jf h}ljs k|lqmofåf/f cfpg] x|f; cyjf cltqmldt cj:yf g} jftfj/0f cksif{0f xf] .Æ o;k|sf/ k|fs[lts 36gfqmd / dfgjLo lqmofsnfksf sf/0f jftfj/0fsf ljleGg tŒjx¿df kg]{ k|lts"n k|efjsf sf/0f jftfj/0fLo u'0f:t/df tTsfn jf nfdf] ;dokl5 b]lvg] x|f;nfO{ jftfj/0f cksif{0f eGg ;lsG5 . jftfj/0f cksif{0fsf ljz]iftfsf] hfgsf/Ln] o;nfO{ cem :ki6 kf5{ M jftfj/0fsf] u'0f:t/nfO{ dfgjLo lqmofsnfkn] k|sl[ tn] ;xg ug{ jf k'gM:yfkg ug{ g;Sg]u/L x|f;f]Gd'v agfpF5 . jftfj/0fsf s'g} Ps ef}lts tŒjdf kg]{ k|lts"n k|efjsf] c;/ cGo tŒjdf k5{ . k|bif0faf6 jftfj/0fsf] k|fs[lts u'0fdf k|lts"n kl/jt{g cfPsf] x'G5 . " jftfj/0fsf] u'0f:t/df cfPsf] x|f;n] kl/l:yltsLo k|0ffnLdf c;Gt'ng k}bf u5{ . kl/jlt{t cj:yfdf cfk"mnfO{ ;dflxt ug{ g;Sg] hLj ;ªs6fkGg aG5g / sltkosf] cl:tTj g} ;dfKt x'g ;S5 . k|fs[lts sf/0faf6 ;d]t jftfj/0f cksif{0f x'g] eP klg o;df dfgjLo lqmofsnfkn] g]tTj lnPsf] x'G5 . [ jftfj/0f k|bif0f / cksif{0faLr leGgtf " ;fdfGotof jftfj/0f k|bif0f / cksif{0f b'j} cj:yfn] jftfj/0fsf] ljgfznfO{ " g} hgfpF5 . oL b'O{ ljifodf s] leGgtf 5 eg]/ ;lhn} 7Dofpg sl7g x'G5 . cksif{0f / k|bif0f b'j} ljifosf] k|sl[ t / To;af6 pTkGg x'g] tfTsflns tyf " bL3{sfnLg kl/0ffdsf] cWoogaf6 oL b'O{ cj:yfaLrsf] leGgtfnfO{ s]nfpg ;slG5 . jftfj/0f k|bif0f / k|sf]k " ÷15
  16. 16. leGgtf M jftfj/0f k|bif0f dfgjLo lqmofsnfkaf6 x'G5 t/ cksif{0f k|fs[lts " sf/0faf6 klg x'G5 . jftfj/0fLo k|bif0fn] jftfj/0fsf] :yfgLo :t/df x|f; NofpF5 t/ " F cksif{0fsf] kl/0ffd ljZjJofkL ¿kdf km}lnG5 . jftfj/0f k|bif0fn] jftfj/0fsf ef}lts tŒjx¿sf] u'0f:t/df :yfgLo " :t/df tTsfn} k|efj kf5{ t/ jftfj/0f cksif{0fn] bL3{sfnLg kl/0ffd b]vf kf5{ . cyf{t cksif{0fsf] k|efj :yfgLo :t/af6 cufl8 a9]/ kl/l:yltsLo k|0ffnLsf] k|fb]lzs tyf ljZjJofkL aG5 . jftfj/0f k|bif0fsf] ;jf{lws k|efj :yfgLo jftfj/0f / dfgj ;d'bfodf " g} k5{ eg] jftfj/0f cksif{0fsf] c;/ dflg;sf cltl/Qm jftfj/0fsf ;d:t ef}lts 36sdf km}lnG5 . jftfj/0f k|bif0f dfgjLo q'6Lsf] pkh xf] . o;n] cksif{0fsf] :t/nfO{ " a9fpF5 . t/ jftfj/0f cksif{0f To:tf] Jofks zAb xf], hf] dfgjLo lqmofsnfksf cltl/Qm k|fs[lts sf/0faf6 pTkGg eP/ ;fj{ef}lds jftfj/0fdf c;Gt'ng k}bf u5{ . jftfj/0f k|bif0f :yfgLo txaf6 lj:tf/ x'g ;do nfU5 / o;n] " lglZrt If]qleq dfq a9L c;/ kfb{5 eg] jftfj/0f cksif{0fsf] ult dGb x'G5 / o;sf] s'g} ;Ldf x'bg . To;}n] jftfj/0f cksif{0f F } k|bif0fsf] clGtd kl/0ffd jf ;Ldf xf] . " jftfj/0f k|b"if0f / cksif{0fsf sf/0f jftfj/0f k|bif0f tyf cksif{0f k|fs[lts / dfgjLo b'j} sf/0faf6 x'G5 . xfd|f] " ;Gbe{df b]lvPsf k|dv sf/0fnfO{ 5f]6s/Ldf lgDg cg';f/ lng ;lsG5 M ' != k|fs[lts sf/0faf6 pTkGg k|sf]k k|fs[lts sf/0faf6 pTkGg lgDg k|sf]kn] jftfj/0f k|bif0f / cksif{0fdf " of]ubfg lbG5 M s= ef}uf]lns tyf ef}ule{s k|sf]k k[YjLsf] ef}ule{s tyf ef}uf]lns agf]6 cg';f/ w]/} k|sf/sf k|sf]khGo 36gf x'g] u5{g . Hjfnfd'vL ljikmf]6, e'Orfnf] tyf ;'gfdL ef}ule{s k|sf]k x'g eg] F e"Ifo / klx/f] ef}uf]lns k|sf]ksf pbfx/0f x'g . jftfj/0f k|bif0f / k|sf]k " ÷16
  17. 17. Hjfnfd'vL ljikmf]6g x'bf lg:sg] nfef, tfkLo pmhf{, w"nf] / w"jfFn] jftfj/0fdf F k|bif0f tyf cksif{0f u/fpF5 . To;}u/L e'Orfnf]n] k[YjLsf] afXo ;txdf Iflt " F k'¥ofpg] x'bf dflg;nufot ;Dk"0f{ hLjd08n k|efljt x'G5 . e'Orfnf] / F F Hjfnfd'vLsf sf/0f cfunfuL x'g,] klx/f] hfg], af9L cfpg] tyf cGo k|sf]k klg ylkP/ hgwgsf] Iflt dfq x'bg, oL b'j} 36gfsf sf/0f jfo'd08ndf F } w"nf], w"jfF, ljiffQm Uof; lj;h{g x'G5 / jfo'd08n k|bl" ift x'G5 . v= hnpTkGg k|sf]k kfgLsf sf/0f pTkGg x'g] k|sf]khGo 36gfnfO{ hnpTkGg k|sf]k elgG5 . cltj[li6, af9L, klx/f], lxdtfn ljikmf]6g, v08j[li6, cgfj[li6 tyf v8]/L, emf8fkvfnf / dxfdf/Lh:tf 36gfnfO{ o; >]0fLdf /fVg ;lsG5 . cltj[li6sf sf/0f x'g] af9L / klx/f]n] :yfgLo jftfj/0fdf Jofks kl/jt{g NofpF5 . kxf8LIf]qdf klx/f]n] jg, v]tLof]Uo e"ld dfgj cfjf;If]q k'// ToxfFsf] jftfj/0fLo ] u'0f:t/df x|f; NofpF5 eg] af9Ln] gbLlsgf/ / ljz]ifu/L t/fO{nfO{ tx;gx; kf5{ . af9Lklx/f]kl5 dxfdf/Lsf] cj:yf klg pTkGg x'G5 . af9Lklx/f]af6 lj:yflkt ;d'bfon] cfˆgf] a;f]af; / hLljsf]kfh{gsf nflu cGo k|fs[lts ;|ftdfly cfl>t /xg' kg]{ cj:yf eP/ jftfj/0f ljgfz tLj| x'G5 . ] u= jfojLo k|sf]k jfo'd08ndf ljleGg of}lusaLr rNg] cGtlq{mofaf6 hLjd08n k|efljt eO/x]sf] x'G5 . jfo' hLjgsf] k|dv cfwf/ ePsf]n] o;df ;fdfGo pynk'yn ' eP/ pTkGg x'g] c;xh kl/l:yltn] k|sf]khGo hf]lvd a9fpF5 . n", zLtnx/, x'/Latf;, cfFwL, t'kmfg, r6ofª, cltj[li6, cgfj[li6, v08j[li6sf] cj:yf jfo'd08nLo ;+/rgfdf cfpg] kl/jt{gsf pbfx/0f x'g . ljZjJofkL tfkqmd j[l4sf sf/0f hnjfo' kl/jt{g eP/ o:tf 36gfdf j[l4 eO/x]sf] 5 . 3= cGo k|fs[lts sf/0f jftfj/0fdf k|bif0f a9fP/ cksif{0fnfO{ cem tLj| agfpg ljleGg k|fs[lts " sf/0f ;lqmo /x]sf x'G5g . pNsflk08 k[YjLdf v;]/ ljgfz x'g,' u|x¿aLrsf] u'?Tjfsif{0fsf] k|efjaf6 ;d'bdf Hjf/ef6f pTkGg x'g,' k[YjLsf] pi0fLs/0fsf | sf/0f hnjfikLs/0f a9gh:tf k|fs[lts sf/0f o;sf ;fdfGo pbfx/0f x'g . ' @= dfgjLo sf/0f jftfj/0f k|bif0f / cksif{0f a9fpg dflg;sf] k|dv xft /x]sf] 5 h;nfO{ " ' lgDg cg';f/ lng ;lsG5 M jftfj/0f k|bif0f / k|sf]k " ÷17
  18. 18. s= dfgjl;lh{t k|sf]k a]nfotdf !& cf}F ztfAbLdf ePsf] cf}Bf]lus qmflGtkl5 tLj| ePsf] k|ljlwsf] ljsf; / lj:tf/sf sf/0f k|fs[lts ;|ftdfly clgolGqt ¿kdf cltqmd0f ] eO/Xof] . jfo'kbifs Uof;sf] pT;h{gdf s'g} ;Ldf lgwf{/0f ePg . dflg;n] | " cfly{s ljsf;nfO{ k|dv nIo agfPsf sf/0f k|fs[lts jftfj/0fdf kg{;Sg] ' k|lts"n k|efjk|lt p;sf] Wofg k'Ug g} ;s]g . kl/0ffd:j¿k jftfj/0f ljgfzn] tLj|tf kfO/Xof] / k|sf]khGo 36gfdf j[l4 x'b} uof] . jftfj/0fsf F ljleGg 36sdf xflgsf/s k|efj k/]sf] tYo phfu/ x'g nfUof] . jgljgfzsf sf/0f af9L, klx/f], cltj[li6, cgfj[li6, ;'Vvf v8]/L, v08j[li6, ef]sd/L / s'kf]if0fh:tf k|sf]khGo 36gfdf j[l4 ePsf 5g / hgwgsf] Ifltn] lj:tfl/t x'g] cj;/ kfPsf] 5 . v= /f;folgs tyf cf0fljs ljikmf]6 /f;folgs sf/vfgfaf6 pTkfbg x'g] ljiffn' Uof;sf] r'xfj6, cf0fljs e§Laf6 lg:sg] ljsL/0f tyf To:tf e§Lsf] ljikmf]6g jf o'4df /;fogsf] k|of]uaf6 pTkGg x'g] k|sf]khGo 36gfaf6 pT;lh{t k|bifsn] jftfj/0f k|bif0f / " " cksif{0f a9fO/x]sf] x'G5 . u= k|bif0f " jftfj/0f k|foM dfgjLo sf/0faf6 g} k|bl" ift x'G5 . dfgjLo sf/0faf6 x'g] jftfj/0f k|bif0f / cksif{0fnfO{ lgDg cg';f/ lng ;lsG5 M " jfo'kbif0f M cfly{s / k|fljlws ljsf;sf sf/0f pTkGg ljleGg k|bifs Uof; |" " tyf /;fogaf6 jfo'd08n lg/Gt/ k|bl" ift eO/x]sf] 5 . sfa{g 8fOcS;fO8, sfa{g df]gf]cS;fO8, xf]nf] sfa{g, ldy]g, hnjfik, Snf]/f]ˆn'/f] sfa{g cflb Uof; jfo'kbifssf s]xL pbfx/0f x'g . o;k|sf/sf] k|bif0fn] cf]hf]g txsf] | " " Iflt, xl/tu[x k|efj / To;af6 rqmLo ¿kdf kg]{ k|lts"n k|efjsf sf/0f jftfj/0f cksif{0f x'G5 . hnk|bif0f M hnk|bif0f ljZjsf] ;jf{lws ljgfzsf/L jftfj/0fLo ;d:of " " ag]sf] 5 . :jR5 lkpg] kfgL / ;kmfOsf] cefjsf sf/0f *) k|ltzt /f]u kfgL;Fu ;DalGwt /x]sf] tYofªs ;+oQm /fi6«;ª3Lo jftfj/0f sfo{qmdn] ' ;fj{hlgs u/]sf] 5 . kmf]xf]/d}nf Joj:yfkgsf] cefj / cf}Bf]lus tyf 3/fo;L 9n k|zf]wgljgf gbLdf ld;fpg] k|jl[ Q, v]taf/Ldf /f;folgs dn tyf sL6gfzssf] k|of]uh:tf jftfj/0f k|bif0f / k|sf]k " ÷18
  19. 19. sf/0fn] ;txL tyf e"ldut kfgL k|bl" ift x'b} uPsf] 5 . hnk|bif0fsf] k|efj F " jftfj/0fsf h}ljs tyf ch}ljs ;a} tŒjdf kg]{ ePsfn] jftfj/0f cksif{0f tLj| ag]sf] 5 . e"–k|bif0f M jgljgfz, vf]l/of v]tL, clgof]lht e"pkof]u, ef}lts ;+/rgfsf] " lgdf{0faf6 x'g] e"Ifo, sL6gf;s /;fogsf] k|of]uh:tf sf/0fn] e"ldsf] u'0f:t/ x|f; x'G5 . o;af6 jg:kltsf] k'g?Tkfbg Ifdtfdf x|f; cfP/ jftfj/0fsf x/]s tŒjdf k|ToIf k|efj k/]/ jftfj/0fLo cksif{0f eO/x]sf] 5 . ljZjdf a9b} uPsf] d?e"dLs/0fsf] ;d:ofsf] w]/} sf/0fdWo] e"cksif{0f klg Ps xf] . hg;ªVof j[l4 M tLj| hg;ªVof j[l4 jftfj/0f k|bif0f tyf cksif{0fsf] " k|dv sf/0f xf] . a9bf] hg;ªVofsf] nflu rflxg] cfjf;, vfgf, n'ufkmf6f], ' lzIff, :jf:Yoh:tf cfjZostf k"lt{ ug{ k|fs[lts ;|ftsf] pkof]u a9]sfn] ] jftfj/0f ljgfzdf 7"nf] ;xof]u ldn]sf] 5 . pknAw tYofªscg';f/ k[YjLdf *))) O;fk"jdf 3'dGt] cj:yfdf /x]sf] { dflg;sf] ;ªVof %) nfvsf] cf;kf; ePsf] cg'dfg ul/Psf] 5 . ;f] hg;ªVof O;fk"j{ #))) df sl/a #) s/f]8 k'usf] / ;g !^%) lt/ %% ] s/f]8 k'usf] lyof] . o;/L sl/a !)) u'0ff hg;ªVof j[l4 x'g !) xhf/ jif{ ] nfu]sf] b]lvG5 . t/ dWoo'ub]lv hg;ªVof j[l4df tLj|tf cfPsf] kfOG5 . !^%) kl5sf] $%) jif{d} k[YjLsf] hg;ªVof #%) u'0ff j[l4 eP/ & ca{ gfl3;s]sf] 5 -;+oQm /fi6«;ª3, cfly{s tyf ;fdflhs sfo{ ljefu, hg;ªVof ' zfvf, !(%# / cGo ;|ft_ . ] hg;ªVof;Fu ;DalGwt jftfj/0fLo ;d:of lgDgcg';f/ /x]sf 5g M ;x/Ls/0fsf] lj:tf/ / hg3gTj j[l4 x'G5 . ljsl;t / cljsl;t d'nssf] hg3gTjdf c;dfgtf . ' cfly{s ljsf;df cj/f]w tyf ul/aLdf j[l4 . ;fdflhs cg'zf;g, cdgr}gdf vnn, ;fdflhs åGå, o'4sf] pTklQ . cfjf;, vfBfGg, :jf:Yo, lzIff, z'4 vfg]kfgL / ;/;kmfOsf] cefjn] ;fdflhs ;'/Iffdf hf]lvdsf] pTklQ . k|fs[lts ;|ftdfly cltqmd0f, e"pkof]udf clgoldttf / kl/l:yltsLo ] k|0ffnLdfly bafa . jftfj/0f k|bif0f / k|sf]k " ÷19
  20. 20. cfly{s c;dfgtf M Pstkm{ ljsl;t d'nssf dflg;n] cfly{s ljsf;sf] ' r/d ;Ldf kf/ ul/;s]sf 5g eg] t];f] ljZjsf sl/a &) k|ltzt gful/s | b}lgs hLjgsf nflu cfjZos kg]{ cfwf/e"t j:t'dflysf] kx'raf6 lj:yflkt F eO/x]sf 5g . ljsf;f]Gd'v d'nsdf klg wgL / ul/aaLrsf] vf8n emg} 7"nf] ' eO/x]sf] 5 . sl/a @^) nfv hg;ªVof ePsf] g]kfnsf] @$ jif{sf] ;/sf/L ah]6 a/fa/sf] ;DklQ Pp6} JolQm;Fu x'g' cfly{s c;dfgtfsf] HjnGt pbfx/0f xf] . o;k|sf/sf] cfly{s c;dfgtfn] jftfj/0f ;+/If0f / ;|ftsf] a'l4dQfk"0f{ ] pkof]usf] cjwf/0ff tyf lbuf] ljsf;sf] ljZjJofkL dfGotfnfO{ w/f;foL agfPsf] 5 . 3= jgljgfz jftfj/0f cksif{0fsf] csf]{ dfgjLo sf/0f jgljgfz xf] . jgljgfzsf sf/0f k|fs[lts kl/l:yltsLo k|0ffnL / h}ljs–jf;:yfg dfq ;ªs6fkGg ePsf] 5}g, e"Ifo, klx/f] / af9Lh:tf k|sf]ksf 36gfx¿df klg lg/Gt/ j[l4 eO/x]sf] 5 . ljZjdf x/]s lbg xhf/f}F x]S6/ jgljgfz x'g] u/]sf] 5 . r/d cf}Bf]lus ljsf; / jgljgfzn] jfo'd08ndf xl/tu[x Uof;sf] pT;h{g / ;~ro a9]sf sf/0f k[YjLsf] tfkqmd klg a9b} uPsf] 5 . o;af6 jftfj/0fsf cGo tŒjdfly k|efj kg]{ / k|sf]khGo 36gfdf ;d]t j[l4 x'G5 . ª= s[life"ldsf] lj:tf/ cfjf; / v]tLof]Uo e"ldsf] lj:tf/ ubf{ jgdfly g} bafa k5{ . v]tLof]Uo e"ldsf] k|flKtsf nflu ljZjdf x/]s lbg nfvf}F x]S6/ e"ldsf] jg kmF8fgL x'g] u5{ . k|z:t vfBfGg pTkfbg x'g] pi0fk|bzLo If]qsf] dfq jgkmF8fgL geP/, ] ;dl;tf]i0f / l;tf]i0f k|bzsf] jg;d]t kmF8fgL eO/x]sf] 5 . Ps tYofªs ] cg';f/ ljZjdf k|ltjif{ @) xhf/ ju{dfOn If]qkmnsf] jg kmF8fgL x'g] u/]sf] 5 . ;f]leot ?;sf] :6]kL, pQ/ cd]l/sfsf] k|o/L, blIf0f cd]l/sfsf] kDkfh, ] blIf0f clk|msfsf] j]N8 / Go"hLNof08sf] 8fpG; If]qsf ljzfn 3fF;d}bfg s[life"lddf kl/0ft eO;s]sf 5g . o;}u/L blIf0fL tyf blIf0fk"jL{ Pl;ofnL d'nssf jg klg tLj|ultdf kmF8fgL eO/x]sf] 5 . ' g]kfndf /fli6«o jgsf clwsf+z If]q ;d'bfonfO{ g} x:tfGt/0f ug{ yflnPkl5 jftfj/0f k|bif0f / k|sf]k " ÷20
  21. 21. jgljgfzdf lgs} sdL cfPsf] cg'ej ul/Psf] 5 . oBlk /fli6«o jgdfly kl//x]sf] rfk eg] 36]sf] 5}g . nfdf] ;do;Dd rn]sf] åGåkl5 klg /fhgLlts ;ªqmd0fsfnsf] kmfObf lnP/ t:s/x¿ jgkmF8fgL u/L sf7sf] cj}w Jofkf/ ug{ tNnLg 5g . r= 3'dGt] v]tL blIf0f tyf blIf0fk"jL{ Pl;ofnL d'nsdf 3'dGt] v]tL ug]{ k|rng 5 . kxf8L ' If]qsf afl;Gbf jgkmF8fgL u/]/ vf]l/of v]tLdf lge{/ 5g . sltko ls;fg cem} klg 3'dGt] hLjg lgjf{x u5{g . s]xL jif{ Ps :yfgdf v]tL ubf{ df6f]sf] pa{/fzlQmdf x|f; cfP kl5 csf]{ If]qdf ;b{5g / jg kmfF8/ e"ldnfO{ ] v]tLof]Uo agfpF5g . l5d]sL d'ns ef/tdf 3'dGt] s[lifk|0ffnL Jofks ¿kdf ' rNg] u/]sf] 5 . ef/tsf ljleGg !@ /fHodf @$ nfv (^ xhf/ 3'dGt] s[ifsn] jflif{s ( xhf/ * ;o (^ ju{lsnf]ld6/ jgIf]q kmF8fgL u/L v]tL ug]{ u/]sf] ef/tLo jg ;e]{ k|ltj]bgdf pNn]v 5 . of] k/Dk/f >Lnªsf, aªunfb]z / kfls:tfgdf klg 5 . g]kfnsf pRr lxdfnL If]qdf klg 3'dGt] v]tLsf] k|yf 5 . o;/L pknAw e"ldsf] pa{/sTj a9fpg 5f]8/ jg kmF8fgL u/L v]tL ug]{ ] k/Dk/fn] jftfj/0f cksif{0f a9bf] qmddf 5 . 5= cltr/g ;dl;tf]i0f If]qsf] a'6ofg tyf 3fF;] d}bfg kz'kfngsf nflu pQd dflgG5 . Joj;flos kz'kfngsf] sfo{n] kz'sf] ;ªVofTds j[l4 eP/ rl/r/gsf] If]qkmn a9b} uPsf] 5 . 3fF;] d}bfgn] dfq rl/r/gsf] dfu k"/f gePkl5 ;– ;fgf a'6ofgL jg x'b} 3gf jglt/ klg kz'kfns cfslif{t x'b} uPsf 5g . F F o;/L jgljgfz t eO/x]sf] 5 g} e"Ifo / d?e"dLs/0fsf] k|lqmof klg tLj| ag]sf] 5 . ljsf;f]Gd'v b]zdf b"wfn' kz'sf] ;ªVof w]/} eP klg ltgsf] pTkfbsTj sd x'gfn] kz'sf] ;ªVof a9fpg]tkm{ hf]8 lbOPsf] kfOG5 . o;/L kz'sf] ;ªVofdf lg/Gt/ j[l4 x'bf rl/r/gsf nflu w]/} jg If]qsf] k|of]u x'g] F u/]sf] 5 . l;tf]i0f hnjfo' If]qdf pg / df;'sf] nflu e]8fkfng Joj;fon] ;d]t jgljgfzdf of]ubfg k'¥ofPsf] 5 . h= cfunfuL k|fs[lts tyf dfgjLo sf/0faf6 jgdf cfunfuLsf 36gf k|z:t x'G5g . 7"nf] jgIf]qdf cfunfuL x'bf jfg:klts ;|ft dfq geP/ ;Dk"0f{ h}ljs F ] ljljwtf gi6 x'G5 . cfunfuL x'bf sfa{g 8fOcS;fO8 / cGo Uof; pT;h{g F jftfj/0f k|bif0f / k|sf]k " ÷21
  22. 22. eP/ jfo'kbif0f a95 . cfunfuLdf jfo'd08nLo lah'nL jf r6ofªsf] e"ldsf | " /x]sf] x'G5 eg] vf]l/of v]tL / jg 89]df df6f] dlnnf] eP/ 3fF; pld|G5 eGg] e|dn] klg of] cj:yf sfod 5 . em= 3/fo;L k|of]hg jgljgfzsf] csf]{ k|dv sf/0f 3/fo;L cfjZostf k"/f ug{ jgaf6 3fF;, ' bfp/f / sf7kft lgsflnG5 . 3/kfn'jf kz'sf nflu rflxg] 3fF; / b}lgs k|of]hgsf nflu cfjZos pmhf{sf nflu cfjZos kg]{ bfp/f lgsfNgsf lgldQ jgdfly g} ;d'bfo cfl>t /x]sf] x'G5 . ljsf;f]Gd'v d'nssf ul/a ' ;d'bfon] hLjgofkgsf nflu j}slNks ;|ft k|fKt ug{ g;Sbf jgaf6 cj}w ] ¿kdf sf7 / bfp/f lgsfn]/ :yfgLo ahf/df laqmL u/L hLjg lgjf{x ug'{ kl//x]sf] 5 . 3/fo;L k|of]hgsf nflu sf7, bfp/f / 3fF;sf nflu e"dWo/]vLo ;bfaxf/ jg dfq k|ltjif{ @ s/f]8 x]S6/sf b/n] kmF8fgL eO/x]sf] 5 . `= cf}Bf]lus tyf Jofkfl/s k|of]hg cf}Bf]lusLs/0f / ;x/Ls/0fn] jg / cGo k|fs[lts ;|ftdfly cltqmd0f ] a9]sf] 5 . ef}lts ;+/rgfsf] lgdf{0fsf nflu rflxg] sf7sf] cfk"lt{ jgaf6} x'G5 . pBf]u rnfpg rflxg] sRrfkbfy{sf nflu jgkmF8fgL x'g] u/]sf] 5 . /f0ff zf;gsf] ;dodf t/fO{If]qaf6 ;v'jf hftsf sf7sf] lgsf;L ef/tdf x'g] u/]sf] lyof] . o;af6 t/fO{sf] ljzfn jg ;dfKt eP/ xfn ;a}eGbf a9L cfjfbof]Uo ag]sf] 5 . ljZjsf sltko ljsf;zLn d'nsn] cfˆgf gful/ssf] ' hLljsf]kfh{gs} nflu ljsl;t d'nsnfO{ cfˆgf jgsf ax'dNo sf7 ;'Dkg' ' " kl//x]sf] 5 . o;n] jgdflysf] cltqmd0fnfO{ cem tLj| agfPsf] 5 . 6= af“w lgdf{0f vfg]kfgLsf] cfk"lt{, l;FrfO{ / hnljB't pTkfbgsf nflu gbLdf ljzfn afFw lgdf{0f x'g] u/]sf 5g . afFw lgdf{0f x'bf hnLo kl/l:yltsLo k|0ffnLdf F ljv08g cfpF5 . afFwn] dflyNnf] If]qdf hnfzosf] lgdf{0f eP/ 8'afg x'G5 eg] tNnf] t6Lo If]qdf hnk|jfx sd x'G5 . kl/0ffd:j¿k tNnf] If]qdf km/s k|sf/sf] jftfj/0fLo kl/l:yltsLsf] pTklQ x'G5, h;n] jftfj/0fsf] k|fs[lts ¿kdf cksif{0f x'G5 . 7= ;x/Ls/0f ljsf;sf] s]Gb|laGb'sf ¿kdf cl3 al9/x]sf] ;x/Ls/0fn] cfly{s lqmofsnfknfO{ jftfj/0f k|bif0f / k|sf]k " ÷22
  23. 23. klg ;x/–s]lGb|t ub}{ cfPsf] 5 . :yfgLo, If]qLo, b]zLo, cGtb]zLo tyf { cGt/f{li6«o cfly{s ultljlwsf] ;~hfn ;x/d} /xg] / ;'v ;'ljwf klg ToxL pknAw x'g] x'bf ;x/tkm{ g} a;fO;/fOF a9b} cfPsf] 5 . zflGt ;'/Iffsf] F k|Toe"lt ;x/d} x'g,] cf}Bf]lus ljsf; / ljsf;sf cGo sfo{ ;x/d} w]/} x'gfn] /f]huf/Lsf] cj;/ klg ToxLF pknAw x'G5 . a9b} uPsf] ;x/Ls/0fsf] o; tYofªsn] k[YjLsf] ef}uf]lns w/ftnsf] k|f¿k s'g xb;Dd kl/jt{g x'G5 eg]/ cg'dfg ug{ ;lsg] cj:yf 5}g . ;x/Ls/0fsf] k|dv sf/s cf}Bf]lus ljsf; xf] eg] ;x/L If]qdf pknAw ;'ljwfn] klg ' dflg;nfO{ o;tkm{ cfslif{t u/]sf] 5 . cfjfbLsf] j[l4;Fu} ;x/L If]qdf ef}lts ;+/rgfsf] lgdf{0fdf klg TolQ g} j[l4 x'G5 . vf;u/L ;x/Ls/0f / To;af6 kg]{ k|efjnfO{ lgDg cg';f/ lng ;lsG5 M ;jf/L;fwg tyf pBf]u rnfpg k|of]u x'g] vlgh OGwg aNbf lg:sg] ljiffQm Uof; tyf /;fogn] jftfj/0f k|bif0f a9fpF5 . " h}ljs, ch}ljs / /f;folgs kmf]xf]/af6 pTkGg b'uGwn] ;x/L jfo' k|bl" ift { x'g,] kmf]xf]/ ;8]/ 9ndf ldl;g] / 9n kf]v/L, vf]nf jf gbLdf ldl;gfn] ;x/L If]qsf] hnLo kl/l:yltsL ckslif{t x'G5 . sf7df8f}F pkTosfsf] ;Eotfsf k|lts dflgg] afudtL / lji0f'dlt gbL o;sf] HjnGt pbfx/0f xf] . vf;u/L ;g !(*) sf] bzsaf6 k|bl" ift x'g yfn]sf oL b'O{ gbL clxn] 9ndf ¿kfGt/0f ePsf 5g . dfgjLo Hjfnfd'vLsf ¿kdf cf}Bf]lus lrDgLaf6 lg:sg] ljiffQm Uof; / w"jfFn] jfo'kbif0fsf] :t/ hg:jf:Yosf b[li6n] hf]lvdk"0f{ ag]sf] 5 . | " jfo'kbif0fs} sf/0f k[YjLsf] tfkqmd j[l4 eP/ hnjfo'df kl/jt{g cfO/x]sf] | " tYo ;fj{hlgs ePsf 5g . OGwgsf] hng / cGo sf/0faf6 pTkGg tfk klg jfo'd08ndf g} lj;h{g x'G5 . o;af6 jfo'd08nLo tfkdfg c;Gt'lnt x'G5 . ;x/df kfgLsf] cfk"lt{sf nflu glhssf gbL, tnfp, em/gf tyf e"ldut kfgLsf] ;d]t pkof]u u/]/ lkpg] kfgL ljt/0f ul/Psf] x'G5 . t/ clwst/ ;x/L If]qdf 3/, ;8s, uNnL kSsL agfOPsf]] x'G5 . o;n] ubf{ jiff{sf] kfgL hldgn] ;f]:g ;Sb}g / hnaxfjdf j[l4 x'G5 . To;}u/L e"ldut hnsf] clgolGqt pkof]un] e"ldut hn:t/ tn em/]/ hldg ;'Vvf x'G5 . ;x/Ls/0f jftfj/0f ljgfzsf] Ps cxd sf/s ag]sf] 5 . ;x/Ls/0fsf jftfj/0f k|bif0f / k|sf]k " ÷23
  24. 24. sf/0f e"ldsf] pkof]udf x'g] kl/jt{g, kmf]xf]/d}nfsf] lgisf;g, cf}Bf]lus ljsf;, oftfoftsf] lj:tf/ / ef}lts ;+/rgfsf] clgolGqt lgdf{0faf6 tof/ ePsf] s[lqd kl/l:yltsLo k|0ffnLn] k|fs[lts jftfj/0fsf x/]s 36sdf >[ªvnfa4 ¿kdf k|lts"n k|efj kfl//x]sf] x'G5 . 8= jftfj/0f cd}qL k|ljlw cTofw'lgs dflgPsf cf}Bf]lus k|ljlwn] cfly{s ljsf;df ct'ngLo of]ubfg lbPsf] 5 . kfiff0f o'ub]lv cfh;Ddsf] dfgj ljsf;df k|ljlwn] cx+ e"ldsf v]n]sf] 5 . t/ c7f/f}F ztfAbLkl5 ePsf] k|ljlwsf] ljsf;n] k|fs[lts jftfj/0fnfO{ k|lts"n c;/ kf/]sf] 5 . k|ljlwsf] k|of]usf] d"n nIo cfly{s / ;fdflhs ljsf; eP klg To;n] pTkGg ug{ ;Sg] jftfj/0fLo ;d:oftkm{ dflg;sf] Wofg hfg ;s]g . vf;u/L bf];f] / k|yd ljZjo'4df k|of]u ePsf cf0fljs xltof/ / To;kl5 | ljZjJofkL ¿kdf af?b, c>'Uof; tyf cem ljsl;t cf0fljs tyf h}ljs xltof/n] jftfj/0f cksif{0fdf ljz]if of]ubfg lbPsf] 5 . ljZjsf zlQmzfnL d'nsn] dfq geP/ ljsf;f]Gd'v d'nsdf ;d]t o:tf xltof/sf] k|of]u / ' ' k/LIf0fn] jftfj/0fdf g/fd|f] k|efj kf/]sf] 5 . jftfj/0fdf k|lts"n k|efj kfg]{ k|fljlws ljsf;sf s]xL pbfx/0f k|:t't ug'{ ;fGble{s x'g5 M ] v]taf/Ldf vghf]t, l;FrfO tyf s6fOsf nflu ljsl;t k|ljlw, /f;folgs dn / sL6gf;ssf] pTkfbg / k|of]u . sDKo'6/, df]afOn kmf]g, >Job[io lrqsf] lgdf{0f, k"0f{ :jrflnt d]l;g, tLj| ultsf :yn–hn / xjfO oftfoftsf ;fwg, ljleGg If]qdf pGgt tyf cTofw'lgs Pj+ Ifdtfjfg oGq tyf pks/0f . k|f0f3fts c0f' tyf xfO8«fhg ad, o'4s ld;fOn, cf0fljs tyf ] h}ljs xltof/ . /]lk|mh]/6/, jftfg'sng oGq, x]o/8«fo/, :k|] ug]{ oGq, ;fa'g, ;f}Gbo{sf ] ' k|;fwg . v8]/L k/]sf] ;dodf ljsl;t ePsf] s[lqd jiff{ u/fpg] k|ljlw . gbLdf 7"nf–7"nf afFwsf] lgdf{0f . xflgsf/s /;fogsf] pTkfbg / k|of]u . jftfj/0f k|bif0f / k|sf]k " ÷24
  25. 25. jftfj/0f ljgfz / k|sf]khGo hf]lvd kl/ro :jR5 jftfj/0f k|To]s k|f0fL tyf jg:kltsf] u'0f:t/Lo hLjgsf nflu cfjZos x'G5 . k|sl[ tsf] :jR5 / ;'Gb/ 5ljdf dflg; dfq xf]Og ;Dk"0f{ k|f0fL /d]sf] x'G5 . cfly{s ljsf;sf] r/d r'nLdf k'usf] dfgj;d]t :jR5 jftfj/0f ] / ;'Gb/ k|sl[ tsf] /;f:jfbgsf nflu nfnlot x'g yfn]sf] 5 . ljZjdf kof{j/0fLo ko{6gsf] hGd jftfj/0f ljgfzsf] kL8fdf afFRg afWo hLjgk4lt klg Ps sf/0f dflgPsf] 5 . jftfj/0f k|bif0f, ljgfz tyf cksif{0fsf] k|efj :ynd08n, hnd08n / " jfo'd08ndf >[ªvnfa4 ¿kdf k5{ . o;af6 jftfj/0fsf ef}lt / cef}lts x/]s j:t' tyf kbfy{sf] u'0fdf x|f; cfpF5 . o;af6 k|fs[lts jftfj/0fsf ljleGg 36sx¿sf] cl:tTj g} ;ªs6fkGg ePsf] 5 . To;}n] ljsf;sf gfddf ;~rflnt dfgjLo lqmofsnfkn] dflg;s} hLjgk4ltdf kl/jt{g Nofpg ;Sg] ;Defjgf a9]sf] 5 . jftfj/0fLo kl/jt{gaf6 pTkGg x'g] k|sf]khGo hf]lvdsf] ;fdgf ug]{ Ifdtfsf] ljsf; ug{ dflg;n] lju|bf] jftfj/0fLo F cj:yfdf ;'wf/ Nofpg] k|of; ug'{ cfjZos eO;s]sf] 5 . jftfj/0f k|bif0f " ljgfz tyf cksif{0f tLj|¿kdf eO/x]df ;d:t hLjd08nsf] cl:tTjdfly k|ZglrGx nfUg] ePsfn] o;tkm{ rgfvf] x'g' h?/L b]lvPsf] 5 . jftfj/0f cksif{0fsf sf/0f k|sf]ksf ljleGg 36gfdf j[l4 x'G5 . xfdLn] x/]s lbg ef]lu/x]sf k|sf]khGo 36gfn] g} o;sf] k'li6 u5{ . jftfj/0f ljgfzsf ljljw sf/0fn] g} hnjfo' kl/jt{g, af9L, klx/f], dxfdf/L, clgsfnh:tf k|sf]kn] dfgj ;dfhnfO{ z[ªvnfa4 ¿kdf kL8f lbg] sfd u/]sf] 5 . o:tf k|efjsf] pTklQsf] sf/s k|sl[ t eP klg dfgjLo sf/0fn] *) k|ltzteGbf a9L e"ldsf v]nsf] 5 . o;af6 :ki6 x'G5– jftfj/0f ljgfzsf] hf]lvd ] dflg;n] g} pTkGg ub}5 / To;sf] ;fdgf klg k|ToIf ¿kdf dflg;n] g} ug'{ { kl//x]sf] 5 . o; ;Gbe{df kL8s / kLl8t b'asf] e"ldsf dflg;n] v]ln/x]sf] 5 . } jftfj/0f k|bif0f / k|sf]k " ÷25
  26. 26. dflg; jftfj/0fsf] cleGg cªu eP/ klg p;n] jftfj/0fsf ;Dk"0f{ tŒjnfO{ k|efljt kf/]sf] 5 . o;n] ljleGg k|sf/sf hf]lvd a9fPsf] 5 / ltgn] k|sf]ksf] ¿k wf/0f ug]{ l:ylt k}bf ePsf] 5 . jftfj/0f ljgfzaf6 pTkGg x'g] k|sf]khGo hf]lvdsf] af/]df ;fdfGo rrf{ ug'{ ;fGble{s x'g5 . ] hf]lvdsf] z[ªvnf :jR5 jftfj/0f eGg' g} k|sl[ tsf] ;Gt'lnt :j¿k xf] . xfdLn] b]lv/x]sf] k|fs[lts ;f}Gbo{nfO{ jftfj/0fsf] k|dv cªu dflgG5 . s[lqd cj:yfsf] ' jftfj/0fsf ¿kdf dfgjlgld{t ;+/rgf tyf ef}lts ;fwg k5{g . o:tf ;+/rgfsf] lgdf{0f ubf{ k|fs[lts ;|ftsf] cfsf/, k|sf/ / u'0fdf kl/jt{g ] cfpg] x'bf jftfj/0fsf cGo 36sdf klg k|lts"n k|efj k/]sf] x'G5 . F jftfj/0f ljgfzaf6 kg]{ To:tf] k|efj / To;af6 pTkGg x'g] hf]lvdsf] cGt;{DaGwnfO{ g} oxfF hf]lvdsf] z[ªvnfsf ¿kdf lnOPsf] 5 . s= jfo'd08ndf pTkGg x'g] hf]lvd jftfj/0f k|bif0fsf] k|efjsf sf/0f jfo'sf] u'0f:t/df lg/Gt/ x|f; cfO/x]sf] " 5 . sfa{g 8fOcS;fO8, sfa{g df]gf]cS;fO8, gfO6«fhg cS;fO8, ;Nkm]6, ] Snf]/f]ˆn'/f] sfa{g, xfO8«fhg cS;fO8, w"nf], w"jfF, ljiffQm /;fog cflb Uof; ] tyf tŒjx¿sf] j[l4n] jfo'd08nsf] u'0f:t/df Jofks x|f; cfPsf] 5 . jfo'kbif0fåf/f cf]hf]g txsf] ljgfz, tfkqmd j[l4 / hnjfo' kl/jt{gsf | " sf/0f cltj[li6, cgfj[li6, ;'Vvf jf v8]/L, jfo'd08nLo cfFwL, t'kmfg, Hjf/ef6f cflbsf] pTklQ, lxdgbL kUng], lxdtfn ljikmf]6 x'g,] af9Lsf] ¿kdf kl/jt{g cfpg] 36gfdf j[l4 x'G5 . jfo'sf] u'0f:t/df x|f; cfpFbf k|fs[lts jiff{;d]t k|bl" ift eP/ kfgLsf] ;|ft b"lift x'G5 . ] jfo'kbif0fn] k|fs[lts z[ªvnfnfO{ ljgfzsf/L agfpg] x'bf :jR5 pmhf{sf] | " F pkof]u ug'{ pQd x'g] b]lvG5 . ljZjJofkL ;d:of ag]sf] xl/tu[x Uof;sf] pT;h{gdf s6f}tL ub}{ @ ;o jif{ klxn]sf] jfo'sf] u'0f:t/ sfod ug{ ;s] k|sf]khGo hf]lvd sd ug{ ;lsG5 . jfo'kbif0f / k|sf]ksf] hf]lvd Go"gLs/0fsf | " nflu ug'{ kg]{ sfo{af/] k|sf]k 1fgdfnf– % af6 hfgsf/L k|fKt ug{ ;lsg]5 . v= hnd08ndf pTkGg x'g] hf]lvd jftfj/0fLo k|bif0fn] hnk|bif0fnfO{ cnUu} /fVb}g . k|bif0f / jftfj/0f cksif{0fsf] " " " ;jf{lws k|efj hnLo If]qdf g} k5{ . jL;f}F ztfAbLsf] k|f/De;Dd k|zf]wg g} jftfj/0f k|bif0f / k|sf]k " ÷26
  27. 27. gul/sg lkpg k|of]u ul/Psf] kfgL clxn] k|bif0f j[l4sf sf/0f k|zf]wg u/]/ " / pdfn]/ dfq lkpg' kl//x]sf] 5 . jftfj/0f k|bifs dflgPsf] Knfl:6ssf " af]tndf e/]/ ahf/df ljtl/t kfgL lkpg' kg]{ cj:yf /x]sf] 5 . jgljgfz, kfgLsf] d"xfgdfly cltqmd0f, kmf]xf]/d}nf lj;h{g, gbLdf 9n ld;fpg]h:tf sf/0fn] hnk|bif0f Jofks ag]sf] 5 . sL6gfzs tyf /;fogsf] " ld>0fn] ;txL / e"ldut kfgL k|bl" ift x'b} uPsf] 5 . ;fy} jfo'kbif0fsf sf/0f F | " x'g] cDnLo / b"lift jiff{n] hnk|bif0fnfO{ z[ªvnfa4 agfPsf] 5 . " cf}Bf]lus kmf]xf]/ / To;df ldl;P/ jf 3'n/ hfg] tŒjx¿, dflg; tyf k|f0fLsf] ] dnd'q tyf dflg;åf/f b}lgs k|of]u x'g] cf}Bf]lus pTkfbgdf ePsf xflgsf/s tŒjx¿ kfgLdf 3'n/ hfg] x'bf kfgLsf] u'0f:t/df x|f; cfpF5 . o;sf ] F cltl/Qm k|fs[lts ¿kdf cfpg] jiff{, af9Lklx/f] cflb sf/0faf6 pT;lh{t kmf]xf]/ ldl;P/ klg kfgLsf] jf:tljs u'0fdf kl/jt{g x'G5 . o;/L jfo', df6f], gbL, tnfp tyf cGo ;txL kfgLdf dfgjLo lqmofsnfkaf6 pT;lh{t kmf]xf]/sf] ld>0f x'bf kfgLsf] u'0f:t/ x|f; x'G5 . F u= e"d08ndf pTkGg x'g] hf]lvd jftfj/0f ljgfzn] kl/l:yltsLo k|0ffnLdf k|lts"n k|efj kf/]sf] 5 . jfo' / hnk|bif0fsf] z[ªvnfa4 k|efj e"lddf klg k5{ . l;FrfOsf nflu k|of]u x'g] " b"lift kfgL, sL6gfzs / /f;folgs dnsf] k|of]un] kfgL / jfo';u} e"ldsf] F pa{/sTjdf x|f; cfPsf] 5 . jgljgfz / kfgLsf] ;|ft ;'ssf sf/0f d?e"dLs/0f ] ] a9]/ v]tLof]Uo hldg v'Drg] / pa{/sTjdf x|f; cfpg] k|lqmof rln/x]sf] 5 . hg;ªVof j[l4, cf}Bf]lusLs/0f, ;x/Ls/0f tyf dfgjLo k|of]usf ljleGg If]qn] e"ldsf] k|fs[lts cj:yfdf kl/jt{g dfq u/fPsf] 5}g, df6f]sf] u'0f:t/ jf pTkfbsTjdf ;d]t gsf/fTds k|efj kf/]sf] 5 . jftfj/0f ljgfzaf6 pTkGg k|sf]khGo 36gf jftfj/0f ljgfzn] x/]s If]qdf hf]lvd a9fPsf] 5 . jfo', hn, e"ld k|bif0fsf] " z[ªvnfn] k[YjLsf x/]s ;|ftdf k|lts"n k|efj kf/]sf] x'bf g} k|f0fL, jg:klt ] F / dflg; :jo+ k|sf]ksf ljleGg 36gfaf6 kLl8t aGb}5 . jftfj/0f ljgfz g} k|sf]ksf] hf]lvd a9fpg] k|dv sf/s ag]sf] 5 . jftfj/0f ljgfzsf sf/0f ' pTkGg x'g] k|dv k|sf]khGo 36gfnfO{ lgDg cg';f/ lng ;lsG5 M ' af9L M k[YjLsf] pi0fLs/0f / jgljgfzsf sf/0f lxdgbL klUng], lxdtfn jftfj/0f k|bif0f / k|sf]k " ÷27
  28. 28. ljikmf]6 x'g,] cltj[li6, v08j[li6 tyf e"Ifo a9]/ af9Lsf] k|sf]kdf j[l4 x'G5 . klx/f] M clgof]lht e"pkof]u / jgljgfzn] e"Ifo a9fpF5 / cltj[li6n] klx/f]sf] hf]lvd a9fpF5 . dxfdf/L M kmf]xf]/d}nfsf] Joj:yfkg gx'bf, kfgLsf ;|ft k|bl" ift x'bf / af9L, F ] F klx/f], clgsfn, e'Orfnf]h:tf k|sf]ksf 36gf j[l4 x'bf dxfdf/L a95 . F F v8]/L tyf vfB c;'/Iff M v8]/L, hnk|bif0f, jgljgfzh:tf sf/0fn] " d?e"dLs/0f a9g,] e"ldsf] pa{/sTjdf x|f; cfpg] x'bf vfBfGg pTkfbg 36]/ F clgsfn nfU5 . o;af6 ef]sd/L / s'kf]if0fsf] hf]lvd a95 . x'/Latf; M jfo'kbif0f / hnjfo' kl/jt{gsf lqmofk|ltlqmofn] k[YjLsf] | " pi0fLs/0f;Fu} jfo'sf] ;+/rgf tyf axfj ultdf kl/jt{g cfP/ x'/Latf;, cfFwLsf 36gfdf j[l4 x'G5 h;n]] ljgfzsf/L ¿k wf/0f u5{ . zLtnx/ / n" M jfo'sf] ;+/rgf / ultdf cfpg] kl/jt{gn] zLtnx/ / tftf] nx/ -n"_ sf] k|sf]k lg/Gt/ a9b} uPsf] 5 . jftfj/0f ljgfzsf k|efj k|sf]ksf o:tf y'k}| 36gfnfO{ ef}uf]lns :j¿k, hnjfo'sf] ljt/0f, e"ld, hn tyf cGo k|fs[lts ;|ftsf] pkof]uh:tf sf/0fn] k|efljt kf/]sf] x'G5 . o:tf ] 36gfaf6 hgwgsf] Iflt x'g] / ljsf;sf] ult k5fl8 ws]lng] oyfy{n] k|sf]khGo hf]lvd a9fpg jftfj/0f k|bif0f jf cksif{0f jf ljgfzn] w]/} 7"nf] " e"ldsf lgjf{x u/]sf] 5 . != jg:klthutdf k|efj k|To]s hLjsf] hLjgrqm jftfj/0fsf ch}ljs tŒjsf] u'0f:t/df cfwfl/t /x]sf] x'G5 . x'g t jg:klt jftfj/0fsf] To:tf] h}ljs tŒj xf] h;n] jftfj/0fsf ch}ljs tŒjx¿– jfo', hn / e"ldsf] k|bif0fnfO{ ;f];/ :jR5 " ] jftfj/0f lgdf{0fdf ;xof]u u5{ . tyflk, jfo', e"ld / hn k|bif0f tyf ltgsf] " u'0f:t/df x|f; cfpFbf jg:kltsf] k|fs[lts j[l4b/ / k'g?Tkfbg Ifdtfdf k|lts"n c;/ k5{ . jfo'kbif0fdf cTolws j[l4 ePdf ljiffQm Uof; tyf | " /;fog, kfgLsf] u'0f:t/ tyf To;df x'g] xflgsf/s tŒjx¿sf] zf]if0f, df6f]sf] pa{/fzlQmdf cfpg] x|f;, jfo'd08ndf j[l4 x'g] pmhf{ c;Gt'ngsf sf/0f k|sfz ;+Zn]if0f k|lqmofdf pTkGg x'g] cj/f]w cflb sf/0fn] jg:kltsf] k'g?Tkfbg Ifdtfdf x|f; cfpF5 . jftfj/0f ljgfzs} sf/0f jg:kltsf xhf/f}F jftfj/0f k|bif0f / k|sf]k " ÷28
  29. 29. k|hflt kl/jlt{t jftfj/0fdf cfk"mnfO{ ;dfof]hg ug{ g;s]/ nf]k eO;s]sf 5g eg] w]/} k|hflt b'ne / ;ªs6fkGg ag]sf 5g . { kxf8L If]qdf klx/f] uPdf s[life"ld ;lxt jg / h}ljs ljljwtf gi6 x'G5 . t/fO{df af9Ln] To:t} c;/ kf5{ / jghGo kl/l:yltsLo k|0ffnLdf lju|x pTkGg x'G5 . o;af6 cGo k|sf]ksf 36gfdf j[l4 x'g] / hgwgsf] Iflt x'g] oyfy{nfO{ c:jLsf/ ug{ ;lsFbg .} @= k|f0fLhutdf kg]{ k|efj jftfj/0f ljgfzaf6 pTkGg hf]lvdn] ;Dk"0f{ k|f0fLhutnfO{ k|lts"n k|efj kf5{ . xfjf, kfgL, df6f] / jg:kltsf ;Dk"0f{ kIfdf kg]{ k|efjn] k|f0fLsf] u'0f:t/Lo hLjgk4ltnfO{ cf]/fnf] nufpF5 . jfo'sf] u'0f:t/ x|f; ePdf :jf;k|Zjf;dfkm{t ljiffQm tŒjx¿ z/L/leq k|jz u5{g . To;}u/L k|bl" ift ] tyf u'0f:t/xLg kfgLsf] pkef]usf] kl/0ffd klg xflgsf/s x'G5 . df6f]sf] k|b"if0fn] e"ldsf] k|fs[lts cj:yf / u'0fdf x|f; cfpF5 / af;:yfgsf] ljv08g / vfBfGg pTkfbgdf x|f; cfpF5 . csf]tkm{ jgljgfzn] jGohGt' ;ªs6fkGg aGg] / To;sf] k|efj 3/kfn'jf { hgfj/ ;lxt dflg;df k5{ . o:t} k|efj hnLo jg:klt / k|f0fLdf klg k5{ . hnk|bif0fsf sf/0f clwsf+z hnLo jg:kltsf] cl:tTj ;ªs6df kg]{ / " To;sf] k|ToIf jf k/f]If k|efj cGo h}ljs ;|ftdf k5{ . o;/L jftfj/0fsf] ] Ps tŒjsf] u'0f:t/df k|efj kbf{ csf]{ tŒjdf klg k|efj kg]{ x'G5 . #= dflg;df kg]{ k|efj jftfj/0fnfO{ cfˆgf] hLjglgjf{x, cfly{s, ;fdflhs, /fhgLlts ljsf;df k"0f{ ¿kdf pkof]u ug{ ;Ifd dflg; jftfj/0f ljgfzaf6 pTkGg x'g] hf]lvdaf6 cfkm}F c;'/lIft 5 . jftfj/0f ljgfzsf sf/0f a9g] k|sf]khGo 36gfaf6 hgwgsf] Ifltsf] ;Ldf lgwf{/0f ug'{ c;Dej g} x'G5 . x/]s ;do gofF–gofF ;d:of pTkGg eP/ ljZjnfO{ cftªlst agfO/x]sf] jftfj/0fLo ;d:of jt{dfg ljZjsf] ;jf{lws rf;f]sf] d'2f klg xf] . jftfj/0f ljgfz tyf cksif{0faf6 dflg;df kg]{ k|efjnfO{ lgDg cg';f/ lng ;lsG5 M s= ul/aLdf j[l4 hg;ªVof j[l4 / jftfj/0f cksif{0fn] jftfj/0fLo z/0ffyL{sf] ;ªVof nuftf/ a9g5 . o;af6 ljZjsf] hg;ªVofsf] 7"nf] lx:;f ul/aLdf afFRg afWo ] jftfj/0f k|bif0f / k|sf]k " ÷29
  30. 30. x'g5 . jt{dfg ;dodf ul/Psf ul/aL lgjf/0fsf k|of; ckof{Kt x'g] dfq ] xf]Og, a9bf] hg;ªVofsf] rfknfO{ wfGg g;s]/ ;dfhdf ljs[lt l;h{gf x'g ;Sg]5 . hnjfo' kl/jt{gsf sf/0f pTkGg x'g;Sg] v8]/L, d?e"dLs/0faf6 vfBfGgsf] pTkfbg 36]/ ul/aL / ef]sd/Lsf] kL8f ef]Ug afWo ;'8fgsf] cj:yf ljZjsf cGo d'nsdf gxf]nf eGg ;lsFbg . jftfj/0fLo ljgfzsf] ' } jt{dfg :t/ sfod} /xg] xf] eg] ljZjJofkL ¿kdf ul/aLsf] ;ªVof a9g] 5 . of] cj:yf s]jn jftfj/0fLo sf/0faf6 pTkGg x'g] geP/ ljsf;sf] k|ltkmnsf] ;dfg ljt/0f x'g g;s]/ klg l;h{gf x'g5 . clxn] g} /fli6«o / cGt/f{li6«o ] :t/df ul/a / wgLaLrsf] vf8n lgs} 7"nf] eO;s]sf] 5 . ul/aLsf sf/0f ;dfhdf lgDg c;/ b]vf kg]5g M { ul/a / wgLaLr åGå pTkGg eP/ ;dfhdf ljrng k}bf x'g ;S5 . a;f]af; / /f]huf/sf] cefj, cfocfh{gsf ;|ft gx'bf dfUg] dflg; ] F (acquisitive) sf] eL8 a9g5 . ] b}lgs ;d:ofaf6 d'Qm x'g g;Sgfn] dflg;sf] 7"nf] ;d"x cfqmfds ag]/ df/kL6, cftªs, bªuf cflbdf ;lDdlnt x'g ;Sg]5 . dflg; cfˆgf b}lgs cfjZostfsf ;|f]tsf] vf]hLdf b]z–ljb]z ef}tfl/g'kbf{ cfk|jf;L ;d:of a9g5 . F ] ;'sDaf;L / cfly{s z/0ffyL{sf] ;d:of b]vf kg]5 . ' { ul/aLsf] j[l4nfO{ lgDg sf/0fn] k>o ldNg] oyfy{ klg xfd|f] ;fd' /x]sf] 5 M cfly{s c;dfgtf M jftfj/0f ljgfzsf] kl/0ffd:j¿k e"ldsf] pTkfbg Ifdtf / k|fs[lts ;|ftsf] k'g?Tkfbg Ifdtfdf x|f; cfpg] s'/f o; cl3 g} ] pNn]v eO;s]sf] 5 . jfo'kbif0fsf] kl/0ffd:j¿k ljleGg xflgsf/s tŒjn] | " dfgjz/L/df c;/ kfg]{ s'/f Ps 7fpFdf 5 eg] k|fs[lts jftfj/0fsf cGo kIfx¿df kfg]{ k|lts"n k|efjn] hn, :yn, jg:klt / k|f0fLdf kg]{ gsf/fTds k|efjåf/f pTkGg uDeL/ ;ªs6sf] ;fdgf klg dflg;n] g} ug'{ kg]{ x'G5 . k|fs[lts j:t' tyf ;|ftdfly dflg;sf] cTolws rfk / x|f;f]Gd'v jftfj/0fsf ] sf/0f ltgsf] k'g?Tkfbg Ifdtf Go"g x'bf dflg;sf b}lgs cfjZostfsf F j:t'sf] k"lt{ x'g ;Sb}g . jftfj/0f k|bif0f tyf cksif{0faf6 pTkGg k|sf]khGo " 36gfsf sf/0f dflg;n] lgDg ;d:ofsf] ;fdgf ug'{ k5{ M vfB;ªs6sf] j[l4 M kfgL df6f] / jfo'sf] u'0f:t/df x|f;sf sf/0f vfBfGg pTkfbg 365 . a9bf] vfBfGgsf] dfu k"/f ug{ pTkfbg a9fpg] b'O{ ljsNk dflg; ;dIf /x]sf] 5 . tL x'g /f;folgs dnsf] k|of]u tyf v]tLof]Uo jftfj/0f k|bif0f / k|sf]k " ÷30
  31. 31. e"ldsf] lj:tf/ . oL b'j} sfo{n] jftfj/0f ljgfzdf cx+ e"ldsf v]nsf] x'G5 . ] vfBfGg ;ªs6sf sf/0f clgsfn / s'kf]if0fn] hghLjg ;ªs6fkGg aG5 . cf}Bf]lus If]qdf ljrng M pBf]usf] ;~rfngsf nflu sRrfkbfy{, /;fog / OGwgsf] cfjZostf x'G5 . o:tf ;fwg k|sl[ tdf /x]sf] e08f/af6 g} k"lt{ x'G5 . sRrfkbfy{sf ¿kdf sf7, bfp/f, h8La'6L jf jfg:klts ;|ftsf] ] pkof]u x'G5 . jGohGt'sf /f},F xf8, 5fnf, df;' klg pBf]usf sRrfkbfy{ x'g . pBf]usf d]l;g rnfpg OGwgsf ¿kdf bfp/f, sf]Onf, vlgh t]n, Uof; cflbsf] pkof]u eO/x]sf] 5 . o:tf OGwgsf ;|ft k'g?Tkfbg gx'g] ] ePsfn] ltgsf] e08f/ ;lsFb5 eg] tL OGwg hNbf pT;h{g x'g] xflgsf/s } Uof;x¿n] jftfj/0f ljgfzdf 7"nf] e"ldsf v]nsf 5g . ] sfi7 / ;f];u ;DalGwt pBf]usf nflu cfjZos kg]{ sf7, cf}iflw pTkfbgsf F nflu rflxg] h8La'6L, sfuh pTkfbgsf nflu cfjZos kg]{ nf]Stf / cGo sRrfkbfy{, sk8f, /a/ / To:t} ljleGg j:t' pTkfbg ug{ cfjZos kg]{ sRrfkbfy{sf] clwsf+z dfusf] k"lt{ jgaf6 g} x'G5 . To;}u/L sf]Onf, vlgh t]n, cfnªsfl/s wft', pkef]Uo j:t' pTkfbg ug{ rflxg] kmnfd, h:tf, cfNd'lgod, tfFjfnufotsf cf}Bf]lus sRrfkbfy{sf] ;|ft klg k|sl[ t g} xf] . ] k[YjLsf] ue{af6 lg:sg] vlgh j:t'sf] e08f/ lg/Gt/ l/lQFb} hfFbf sfnfGt/df o;sf] pTkfbg /f]lsg]5 eg] jGo;Dkbf / k|fs[lts ;|ftdfly x'g] lg/Gt/ ] cltqmd0fn] ltgsf] pknAwtfdf klg x|f; cfpg] oyfy{nfO{ c:jLsf/ ug{ ;lsFbg . o;af6 sfnfGt/df cf}Bf]lus ljsf;sf] jt{dfg ult /f]lsg]5 . } o;af6 dflg;df cfly{s ;ªs6 pTkGg x'g5 . ] cfGtl/s tyf afxo Jofkf/df c;Gt'ng M cf}Bf]lusLs/0fsf] c;Lldt lj:tf/sf sf/0f t];f] ljZj cfly{s pklgj]zsf] rk]6fdf kg]{ ;Defjgf a9]sf] | 5 . cf}Bf]lus d'nsx¿n] k|fs[lts sRrfkbfy{ ljsf;zLn d'nsaf6 ;:tf] ' ' d"Nodf cfoft ug]{ k|of; ug{ yfn]sf 5g . pgLx¿n] sRrfkbfy{sf] k|zf]wgaf6 pTkflbt bf];f] u'0f:t/sf] j:t' k'gM ljsf;zLn d'nsdf lgof{t u5{g . | ' ax'/fli6«o sDkgLx¿n] cfˆgf pTkfbgsf] k|dv qm]tfsf ¿kdf cNkljsl;t ' d'nssf gful/snfO{ g} /f]hsf x'G5g . ' ] Pstkm{ ljsf;zLn d'nsaf6 cf}Bf]lus d'nsnx¿n] sRrfkbfy{ lgsfNg] ' ' qmddf ljsf;zLn d'nssf] k|fs[lts ;|ft ;dfKt x'b} hfg]5 eg] To;sf] ' ] F k|efj l;w} jftfj/0f ljgfzdf kg]5 . sfnfGt/df k|fs[lts ;|ft ;dfKt eP/ { ] cNkljsl;t d'ns g sRrfkbfy{ lgof{tnfO{ lgoldt ug{ ;S5g g t ' jftfj/0f k|bif0f / k|sf]k " ÷31
  32. 32. k|zf]lwt j:t' cfoft ug]{ Ifdtfdf /xG5g . u'0f:t/Lo jftfj/0fsf] cefjdf k|sl[ tdf kg]{ >[ªvnfa4 k|efjsf sf/0f x/]s If]qsf] pTkfbsTjdf x|f; cfpg] x'bf dflg;n] cfly{s ;ªs6sf] ;fdgf F ug'kg]{ cj:yf Pslt/ cfpg]5 eg] csf]tkm{ ;fdflhs k|bif0fn] ;fdflhs { { " ;+/rgfdf vnn k}bf ug]5 . cfh dflg;n] u/]sf] ;fdflhs, cfly{s, k|fljlws { tyf j}1flgs k|ultsf] Bf]tssf ¿kdf k|fs[lts ;|ft / ;fwgsf] k|r/ ] ' pknAwtf g} /x]sf] 5 . ha k|fs[lts ;|ftsf] k'g?Tkfbg Ifdtf Go"g x'G5, ] dflg;n] uj{;fy k|fKt u/]sf cf}Bf]lus ;kmntfdfly g} k|ZglrGx v8f x'g5 . cGtdf cfly{s sf/0faf6 pTkGg x'g yfn]sf] jt{dfg ;dosf] emu8fn] ] ljZjJofkL o'4nfO{ glgDTofpnf eGg ;lsFbg . } v= ;fdflhs k|efj k|fs[lts ;|ftsf] cefj, vfBfGg pTkfbgdf sdL, cf}Bf]lus / Jofkfl/s ] If]qdf c;Gt'ng k}bf x'g ;S5 . wgL emg} wgL / ul/a cem ul/a aGg] ;Defjgfn] ;|ftdfly ul/asf] kx'r sd eP/ ;fdflhs åGåsf] l:ylt pTkGg ] F x'g ;S5 . jt{dfg ;dodf ;d]t cfly{s ljsf;sf] k|lt:kwf{ rln g} /x]sf] 5 . sfnfGt/df jftfj/0f ljgfzaf6 pTkGg kl/l:yltsf] ;fdgf clxn] eO/x]sf] /fhgLlts n8fOFn] ug{ ;Sg] 5}g . To; cj:yfdf /fHoleqsf åGåsf t'ngfdf cGt/f{li6«o zlQmaLr n8fOF x'g5 . vf8L If]qsf] t]ne08f/dfly clwsf/ sfod ug{ / ] cGt/f{li6«o ;Ldf x'b} aUg] gbLsf] kfgLsf] afF8kmfF8sf] ljifonfO{ lnP/ k|f/De F ePsf ljjfb o;sf HjnGt pbfx/0f x'g . u= hg:jf:Yodf ;d:of jftfj/0f ljgfzsf sf/0f vfBfGg pTkfbgdf x|f; cfpg] / pTkflbt vfBfGg klg k|bif0fd'Qm gx'g] ;Defjgfn] hg:jf:Yosf] ;d:of xfdLn] jt{dfg ;dodf " ef]lu/x]sf] eGbf eoªs/ hf]lvdk"0f{ x'g5 . jftfj/0fsf] u'0f:t/ v:sFb} hfFbf ] / k|bif0fsf ;|ft a9b} hfFbf /f]usf gofF hLjf0f'sf] pTklQ x'g ;S5 . cf}nf] " ] lgoGq0fsf nflu pTkflbt 8L8L6LnfO{ nfdv'§n] krfOlbof] / hg:jf:Yodf ] bL3{sfnLg k|efj k¥of] . To:t} kl/0ffd cGo ljiffbLaf6 klg pTkGg x'g ;S5 . ljZjJofkL ¿kdf lrGtfsf] ljifo ag]sf] Ifo/f]usf] cf}iflwsf] cfjL:sf/ eO{ g;Sb} SofG;/sf] klxrfg x'g' / SofG;/sf] cf}iflw kQf gnfUb} P8;h:tf] dxfdf/L km}ng' jftfj/0f ljgfzs} sf/0f x'g ;S5g . jftfj/0f k|bif0f / k|sf]k " ÷32
  33. 33. z'4 xfjf / kfgLsf] cefjdf nfUg] emf8fkvfnf, 6fOkmfO8, sdnlkQ, cDnlkQ, kmf]S;f], d'6,' lbdfu cflb zf/Ll/s / dfgl;s /f]usf] j[l4 x'g] s'/fdf ljz]if1x¿ ;xdt eO;s]sf 5g . 3= cfjf; ;d:of k[YjLdf tLj| ultdf al9/x]sf] hg;ªVofsf nflu cfjf;sf] ;d:of klg jftfj/0f ljgfzaf6} pTkGg x'g5 . dflg;åf/f lgld{t 7"nf ;x/ / cfw'lgs ] tyf ;fwg;DkGg cfjf; If]qn] jftfj/0fLo u'0f:t/ sfod ug{ g;Sbf hLjg ;ª6do aGg]5 . ;x/L If]qsf] sf]nfxn / k|bl" ift jftfj/0faf6 dflg; k|fs[lts jftfj/0ftkm{ cfslif{t x'b} hfFbf jftfj/0fLo ljgfzdf cem lj:tf/ F x'g5 / cfjf; If]q kl/jt{gsf] qmd a9g5 . x/]s If]qdf x'g] ;x/Ls/0fn] ] ] kmf]xf]/d}nf, vfg]kfgLsf] ;d:of / cfwf/e"t cfjZostfsf ;fwgsf] ckof{Kttf g} cfjf;;DaGwL ;d:ofsf] sf/s aGg]5 . pk;+xf/ jftfj/0f k|bif0f, ljgfz jf cksif{0f h] eP klg o;sf] k|lts"n k|efj " cGtdf cfP/ dflg;df g} kg]{ s'/f o; cWoogaf6 :ki6 x'G5 . dflg; ;r]t / rt'/ k|f0fL ePsf gftfn] p;n] kl/jlt{t jftfj/0fdf cfk"mnfO{ ;dflxt ug{ ;Sg] Ifdtfsf] ljsf; t unf{, t/ p;sf nflu cfjZos kg]{ h}ljs tyf ef}lts ;|ft g} pknAw eOlbPgg jf ablnFbf] ] jftfj/0faf6 pTkGg x'g] gofF hLj jf jg:klt dfgjhLjg cg'sn eOlbPgg " eg] To; cj:yfdf s] ug]{ < k|Zg lgs} hl6n 5 . jftfj/0f ljgfz jf cksif{0fdf dfgjLo lqmofsnfk g} k|dv sf/s xf] eGg] ' ljifodf klg xfdLn] cWoog u¥of}F . t/, ;d:of;Fu} ;dfwfg klg cfpF5 eGg] s'/fnfO{ klg la;{g x'bg . jftfj/0f ljgfzsf] sf/s dflg; g} jftfj/0f F } ;+/If0fsf] sf/s aGg ;S5 / o;sf nflu aL;f}F ztfAbLsf] dWolt/af6 k|of; k|f/De ePsf] 5 . x'g t rfn' k|of;n] 7f]; pknlAw jf ;sf/fTds glthf b]vfpg ;s]sf] 5}g, tyflk xfdLn] ;d:ofsf] ;dfwfgsf] dfu{ klxrfg ug'{ h?/L 5 . jftfj/0f k|bif0f / k|sf]k " ÷33
  34. 34. jftfj/0f k|bif0f / k|sf]k " ÷34

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