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jftfj/0fLo   ;r]ttf   Û       xfd|f]   k|lta4tf   ÛÛ
                        /)f÷
                 kof{ j /)f ÷ 1
tLtf] –;To




 Xof“ kf6Ldf klx/f] uO;Sof], ;w}“ ;8sdf gf/fh'n; .         '
c“=========Û of] lalu|Psf] jftfj/0f ;'wfg{ r}“...
kf7ssf] cf“vfdf
           pTs[i6 k|ltlqmof k7fpgf];, Ps jif{sf] ;b:otf lgMz'Ns kfpgf];
;DkfbsHo",                        ...
sxf“ s] <
sf=lh=sf= b=g+= @).)$(.)%)
                                                                                     ...
cfkmgf] snd
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k|fs[lts ;Dkbf

aL       ;f} F ztfAbLsf] dflg;n] j} 1 flgs ljsf;df
         ce"tk"j{ ;kmntf xfl;n u/]sf] 5 . nueu b;
xhf/ ...
k|fs[lts ;Dkbf
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...
k|fs[lts ;Dkbf
/fd;f/ dxf;lGwn] lgwf{/0f u/]sf] kl/lwleq /xL :ki6        5 . t/, gLltcg'¿k lgodsf] th'{df, :yfgLo ;d'bfosf...
k|fs[lts ;Dkbf
lbg' ;/sf/sf] gfnfosL kg g} t xf]Og t/ g]kfnsf]              lhDd]jf/L k"/f ug{;Sg] cfˆgf sd{rf/L / :jb]zL ...
k|fs[lts ;Dkbf
jf bftfn] tf]s]sf dflg; dfq bIf x'G5g < afF;s}            ;d'bfodf sfd ug]{ gfddf cfpg] t/ cg'bfgsf] pkof]u...
k|fs[lts ;Dkbf
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l;F...
k|fs[lts ;Dkbf
/ lbuf] Joj:yfkgsf nflu pko' Q m sfo{ o f] h gf         u/fpg]tkm{ hf]8 lbg' cfjZos x'G5 . cfocfh{gsf
agfpg...
k|fs[lts ;Dkbf
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s}of}...
jftfj/0fLo r'gf}tL

lalu|Psf] jftfj/0f /
eujfg v8sf
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s'g} ;r]t kl/jf/df aRrf hlGdof] eg] To; kl/jf...
jftfj/0fLo r'gf}tL
agfPsf] 5 . ut ztfAbLsf] cGtlt/ ePsf] ;f]leot                 ljsf;sf sf/0f x'g] k|b"if0fsf] lhDd]jf/ l...
jfo'kbif0f
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      ...
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jfo'kbif0f
     | "
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jfo'kbif0f
     | "
lgoGq0f ug'{ cfjZos b]lvG5 .                                 C0f pknAw u/fpg]tkm{ sfo{ ug'{ kg]{df To;...
jfo'kbif0f
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jftfj/0fnfO{ x/]s kIfaf6 ;+/If0f ug]{ jg:kltn] klg jftfj/0fdf k|bif0f a9fpg] sfo{ ub{5g eGg] ;'Gbf
   ...
k|fs[lts k|sf]k


ljgf;sf/L e'Orfnf]
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      ...
k|fs[lts k|sf]k
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39 issue of paryawaran
39 issue of paryawaran
39 issue of paryawaran
39 issue of paryawaran
39 issue of paryawaran
39 issue of paryawaran
39 issue of paryawaran
39 issue of paryawaran
39 issue of paryawaran
39 issue of paryawaran
39 issue of paryawaran
39 issue of paryawaran
39 issue of paryawaran
39 issue of paryawaran
39 issue of paryawaran
39 issue of paryawaran
39 issue of paryawaran
39 issue of paryawaran
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39 issue of paryawaran

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Transcript of "39 issue of paryawaran"

  1. 1. jftfj/0fLo ;r]ttf Û xfd|f] k|lta4tf ÛÛ /)f÷ kof{ j /)f ÷ 1
  2. 2. tLtf] –;To Xof“ kf6Ldf klx/f] uO;Sof], ;w}“ ;8sdf gf/fh'n; . ' c“=========Û of] lalu|Psf] jftfj/0f ;'wfg{ r}“ t'?Gt /f]8Dofk tof/ x'b5 . clxn] Ao:t 5', k|bif0faf/] ;f]Rb} u/f}nf Û “ } " “ jftfj/0fLo ;r]ttf Û xfd|f] k|lta4tf ÛÛ /)f÷ kof{ j /)f ÷ 2
  3. 3. kf7ssf] cf“vfdf pTs[i6 k|ltlqmof k7fpgf];, Ps jif{sf] ;b:otf lgMz'Ns kfpgf]; ;DkfbsHo", lgoGq0f ug{ s'g} Ps JolQm jf ;+:yfsf] dfq k|of; kof{Kt kof{j/0fsf] cªs #* k9g kfPF . klqsfdf 5flkPsf ;a} x'Fb}g tfklg tkfO{+x¿sf] k|of; ;/fxgLo /x]sf] 5 . d / d]/f ;fdu|L ;do;fGble{s nfUof] . jt{dfg ;dodf lau|Fb} uPsf] s]xL ;fyLx¿n] kof{j/0f lgoldt¿kdf k9g] lg0f{o u/]sf jftfj/0f tyf nf]k x'Fb} uPsf / ;ªs6df k/]sf hLjhGt'sf 5f}F . cfzf 5, ahf/df lgoldt cfpg]5 . ;fy} jghªunsf] ;+/If0fsf nflu 1fgj4{s ;fdu|L ;dfj]z –;/f]h bfxfn, gf/fo0fk'/ uflj;–!, s}nfnL . x'g' o; klqsfsf] pTs[i6 ljz]iftf /x]sf] b]lvof] . jg / jftfj/0f hf]ufpg j}slNks tyf gjLs/0fLo pmhf{sf] k|of]udf /fhgLlt / dgf]/GhgfTds UNodf/o'Qm klqsfsf] eL8df hf]8 lbP/ klqsfn] u|fdL0f If]qsf] ljsf;sf nflu /fd|f] ;Gb]z kof{j/0f em'G8]sf] b]lvof] . jftfj/0fh:tf] ;+j]bgzLn lbPsf] 5 . o; klqsfnfO{ cem lj:tfl/t ¿kdf u|fdL0f ljifo ;d] l 6Psf] b] v ] / v' ; L nfUof] . ;fob If] q ;Dd k' ¥ ofpg] sfo{ eP jftfj/0f lzIffsf nflu jftfj/0f;DaGwL lgoldt lg:sg] g]kfns} klxnf] klqsf ;|f]tk'l:tsf g} aGg;Sg] b]lvPsf] 5 . xf]nf of] . o;df 5flkPsf ;fdu|Lsf] :t/cg';f/ 5kfO –s[i0fk|;fb bfxfn, eLd:yfg uflj;–@,, l;Gw'nL . ePg . t/ kf]:6/sf] :t/ /fd|f] 5 / 1fga4{s klg . kof{j/0f km]l/ ahf/df cfPsf] kfpFbf v';L nfUof] . b'O{ jif{ o:tf kf] : 6/ lgoldt eOlbP u| f dL0f If] q df lgs} cl3;Dd ahf/df cfPsf] g]kfns} Psdfq jftfj/0f;DaGwL nfebfoL x'g] cg'ej xfdLn] u/]sf 5f}F . klqsf PsfPs ahf/df gcfpFbf cfZro{ nfu]sf] lyof], t/ dgf]h ofbj, ;]dGt k/fh'nL tyf ;fyLx¿ klqsf o; e]usf ljBfnodf eg] cfO{ g} /x]sf] kfOof] . nIdLk'/ uflj;–&, s~rgk'/ . ljutsf] t'ngfdf cem uxlsnf ;fdu|L af]s]/ / k|fs[lts k| s f] k ;DaGwL hfgsf/L lbg] k] : 6/;d] t af] s ] / cfPsf] kof{j/0fsf ljljw ljifodf hfgsf/Ld"ns ;fdu|Lsf] kof{j/0fn] xfdLnfO{ w]/} s'/f lbPsf] 5 . klqsf lg/Gt/ k9g cem} cefj b]lvPsf] 5 . jftfj/0f ;+/If0fdf ePsf kfpg] ck]Iff u5f}F . k|of; / ljZjJofkL ultljlwnfO{ cem ;d]6bf /fd|f] –bLks a/fn, ;'dg >]i7, /f]zg vqL bds–!*, emfkf . xf]nf . k|sf]k lgoGq0f / Joj:yfkgsf] ljifonfO{ lnP/ d}n] kof{j/0f k9g yfn]sf] w]/} ePsf] 5}g . oxfFsf] ufpF ljsf; dWok[i7df /flvg] kf]:6/n] lg/Gt/tf kfP xfd|f u|fdL0f ;ldltdf hfFbf b'O{rf/j6f kof{j/0f b]v]sf] lyPF / cln–cln If]qdf k|sf]kaf6 x'g] Iflt sd ug]]{ 1fg ldNg]5 . k9]sf] klg lyP . t/ df3 dlxgfdf ahf/df klg b]v]/ lsGg] –;]dGt e§, cfsfz uf}rg,;"o{ b]jsf]6f df}sf kfPF . ;+;f/e/ lrGtfsf] ljifo ag]sf] jftfj/0f k|b"if0f bz/yrGb gu/kflnsf–@, a}t8L ;DkfbsHo", kof{j/0fLo ljgf;sf af/]df hgr]tgf hufpg o; klqsfn] tkfO{+x¿åf/f k|sflzt kof{j/0fsf] cªs #* k9g] df}sf kfPF . ;sf/fTds k|of; u/]sf] b]lvG5 . To;df k|sflzt cGo g]kfnleq k|sflzt ;of}F klqsfdWo] Pp6fh:t} t xf]nf lg ljifoj:t'sf ufDeLo{df klg s'g} sdL b]lvFb}g . hxfF;Dd eGg] nfu]sf] lyof], k9g'eGbf klxn] . t/, k9b}hfFbf of] Pp6f 5kfOsf] s'/f5, ljifoj:t' To;eGbf dxŒjk"0f{ x'G5h:tf] k[ys p2]Zo lnP/ k|sflzt klqsf /x]5 eGg] dx;'; eof] . nfu]sf] 5 / eljiodf 5kfOsf] u'0f:t/df ;'wf/ xf]nf eGg] x'g t s/f]8f}F 8n/ leqofP/ jftfj/0fsf gfddf sf/vfgf ck]Iff ub{5' . vf]Ng]x¿sf] dL7f] zAb e'mG8ofP/ df]6fpg]x¿n] ubf{ jftfj/0f jftfj/0f;Fu ljBfyL{x¿sf] k|ToIf ;/f]sf/ /x]sf] x'Fbf / If]q st} sdfOvfg] If]q dfq t xf]Og h:tf] dx;'; x'g yfn]sf] kof{j/0fdf k|sflzt ljifoj:t' x]bf{ o;nfO{ ljBfno– 5 . To;}n] klg xf]nf, jftfj/0fsf] gfpFdf s/f]8f}F lelqP klg ljBfno;Dd ljt/0f ug'{ cfjZos 5h:tf] nfu]sf] 5, o;tkm{ pkTosf eg] k|bl" ift g} 5 . oxfF x ¿sf] k| o f; ePs} xf] n f . o; cª s sf] pTs[ i 7 k| l tlqmof jftfj/0fsf ;}4flGts / Jofjxfl/s kof{ j /0fsf] cª s #* df 1fg k|fKt ljBfyL{ g} eljiosf ;Ifd gful/s x'g]5g . hg;/f]sf/sf af/]df ;r]t ug]{ p22]Zon] e"sDk;Fu ;DalGwt vf;u/L klqsfsf] dWok[i7df 5flkPsf] kf]:6/n] hgr]tgf ljljw ljifoj:t' ;dfj]z ul/Psf] /x]5 . jf:tjdf g]kfn e"– km}nfpg] sfo{df ljz]if e"ldsf lgjf{x ug]{ b]lvG5 . h] xf]; sDksf b[li6n] Hofb} ;Dj]bgzLn If]q ePsf] lj1x¿n];d]t kof{j/0fsf] k|of; ;sf/fTds 5 / o:tf] c;n p2]Zo lnP/ atfO/x]sf 5g . To;dfly nfvf}F hgtf a;f]af; ul//x]sf ;a}n] sfo{ ug'{ h?/L eO;s]sf] 5 . pkTosf t e"–sDksf b[li6n] clt g} hf]lvdk"0f{ If]qsf ¿kdf –/fh]Zj/ 8L= >]i7 /x]sf] atfOG5 . o:tf] ;+j]bgzLn / hf]lvdk"0f{ k|sf]k / sf7df8f}“ dxfgu/kflnsf–&, uf}/L3f6, jftfj/0fLo ;r]ttf Û xfd|f] k|lta4tf sf7df8f} “ . ÛÛ kof{ j /)f ÷ 3
  4. 4. sxf“ s] < sf=lh=sf= b=g+= @).)$(.)%) k[i7 M % dfl;s ljgf;sf/L e'OFrfnf];'/Iffsf pkfox¿ Paryawaran Monthly e" s DkLo Vol. 11, No.11, Feb/ Mar 2004 b[ l i6sf] 0 fdf jif{ !!, cªs !!, kmfu'g @)^) k"0ff{ªs #( ljZjs} ;Nnfxsf/ 8f= ljgfos eb|f hf] l vdk" 0 f{ 8f= sdn l/hfn ;x/ 8f= hgsnfn sdf{rfo{ k|f= 8f= /fdk|;fb rf}w/L e'O“rfnf] cfp“bf s] ug]{ -leQ]kf]:6/_ >L x]d/fh kf}8n ] k|wfg ;Dkfbs /fdrGb| Gof}kfg] l;d;f/ gLlt k[i7 M % ;Dkfbs uf]kfnk|;fb b'nfn sfg'gL ;Nnfxsf/ rGb| a:g]t ljz]if ;xof]uL ofbj yklnof ahf/ tyf ljt/0f /fdxl/ bfxfn sf6'g÷kf]:6/ lrq { sfof{Gjog / r'gf}tL /d]z bfxfn k|sfzs ■ l;d;f/ Joj:yfkgdf hg;xeflutf– ^ jftfj/0f tyf afn ;/f]sf/ ;+:yf–g]kfn ■ l;d;f/ gLltsf] ;f/ slt <– * sf7df8f}“ dxfgu/kflnsf– #!, wf]lawf/f ■ lalu|Psf] jftfj/0f / dfgj lrGtf !# kf]= a= g+= !(&@), sf7df8f}+ ■ r9bf] 708L7 a9bf] jfo'kbif0f | " !% kmf]g M $$$%#@) ■ kmnk"mn e08f/0f ug]{ :yfgLo k|ljlw M 3/]n' ;f}oe08f/0f { #! kmofS; M (&&–!–$@^%$%% ■ pmhf{ s f] e/kbf] { ;| f ] t xfjfsf] lah' n L 0f L0f ## E-mail: eco_nepal@hotmail.com http://www.econepal.org ■ u|fdL0f ko{6gsf] cfsif{s ynf] – vf]sgf #* d'bs| ■ ufp“–ufp“af6 M ;"of]bo 5fkfvfgf, wf]lawf/f, sf7df8f}+ { ● rt'/sf] rdTsf/ s'jfaf6 lah'nL ÷ ljZj arfp ;+:yf ;fdflhs ] kf]= a= g+= @)&$%, kmf]gM $#$(&! sfo{df cu|;/ ÷ ljZjs} b'ne ufO{ g]kfndf ÷ ul/aL k|rf/afhLh:t} { ■ o; k|sfzgdf k|sflzt n]v/rgfdf r'gf}tLk"0f{ 5}g ÷ z'Snfkmf“6f jGohGt' cf/Ifsf] If]q bf]Aa/ JoQm ljrf/ n]vssf lghL x'g . ltgdf k|o'Qm ljrf/n] o; ;+:yfsf] ■ ;fydf M cflwsfl/s b[li6sf]0fsf] k|ltlglwTj ● tLtf] ;To ub} { g . ● kf7ssf] cf“vfdf ■ kof{j/0fdf k|sflzt ;fdu|L ;|f]t ● cfkmgf] snd pNn]v u/L z}lIfs tyf hgr]tgf ● /f]rs 1fglj1fg clej[l4sf nflu k'gk|{sfzg ug{ ;lsg]5 . ● xf]; u/f}“ x} Û jg:kltn] klg jfo'kbif0f u5{ |" jftfj/0fLo ;r]ttf Û xfd|f] k|lta4tf ÛÛ /)f÷ kof{ j /)f ÷ 4
  5. 5. cfkmgf] snd 321 321 321 l;d;f/ ;+/If0f M sfdeGbf s'/f a9L 321 321 321 321 321 321 321 321 321 321 321 321 …;u/b]lv ;fu/;Ddsf l;d;f/ xfd|fnflu ;lqmo 5gÚ cf7f}F ljZj l;d;f/ lbj; @)^) sf] of] gf/fn] k[YjLdf /x]sf hLj–hutsfnflu ;a}vfn] ef}uf]lns cj:yfsf l;d;f/ ;Fw} lqmofzLn eO/x]sf] s'/ftkm{ dfgjhutnfO{ emsemSofpg] 321 321 321 321 321 321 321 321 321 Wo]o /fv]sf] 5 . l;d;f/n] lbg] j:t' / ljleGg k|sf/sf ;]jfaf6 dfgjhfltn] nfe}nfe dfq lnO/x]sf] 5 tfklg 321 321 321 321 321 of] If]q cem} sfd gnfUg] bnbnsf ¿kdf dflg;af6} pk]lIft /xFb} cfPsf] 5 . xfdLn] To; If]qaf6 k|fKt ul//x]sf ;]jf / pTkfbgaf/] cgle1 /xg' g} l;d;f/ If]q pk]lIft x'gsf] d"n sf/0f xf] . l;d;f/sf] ;+/If0f ug{ / o;sf] lbuf] ' 321 321 321 321 321 321 321 321 321 pkof]u ug{;s] o;n] dxŒjk"0f{ k|fs[lts kfl/l:ylts k|0ffnLsf] ;+/If0f ug]{ g} 5, ul/aL lgjf/0fdf ;d]t pNn]Vo 321 321 321 321 321 e"ldsf v]Ng;S5 . o;sf nflu :yfgLo ;d'bfosf] clwsf/sf] Uof/]06L ub}{ pgLx¿nfO{ g} l;d;f/ If]qsf] ;+/If0f / pkof]udf ;d]t ;lqmo u/fpg' cfjZos x'G5 . t/, /fd;f/ dxf;lGwsf] cg'df]bg u/]sf] 8]9 bzs lalt;Sbf 321 321 321 321 321 321 321 321 321 klg l;d;f/sf] ;+/If0fdf ;Da4 lgsfoaf6 To:tf] s'g} pNn]v ug{ nfos sfd ePsf] b]lvFbg . } 321 321 xfdL l;d;f/ ;+/If0fsf] s'/f ub}{ 5f}+ . oxLa]nf g]kfnsf klxrfg ePsf @ ;o $) l;d;f/n] dfgjLo cltqmd0fsf] 321 321 321 321 321 321 321 321 321 ljleGg k|sf/sf df/ vKb}5g / t/fO{sf ^# l;df;f/ x]nr]qmfO{sf sf/0f ;'Sb}5g . ;'Gb/gu/L kf]v/fsf] klxrfg } 321 321 321 321 321 af]ssf] km]jftfndf !)) l;l; kflgdf $! xhf/ & ;o %) sf]lnkmd{ AofS6]l/of kfOg] xk{g vfnfsf] k|bl" ift kfgL ] 321 321 321 321 321 ljgf cj/f]w ldl;Fb5 . }] 321 321 321 321 321 321 clxn] xfdL ljZjJofkL¿kdf cf7f}F l;d;f/ lbj; dgfpg] qmddf 5f}F . g]kfnsf] ;a}eGbf 7"nf] If]qkmnsf] klxnf] /fd;f/If]q sf]zL6Kk' jGohGt' cf/Ifdf lg/Gt/¿kdf 5f8f 5f]l8Fb} cfPsf 3/kfn'jf /fFuf–eF;L x6fpg] sfo{sf } 321 321 321 321 321 321 321 321 321 nflu xfdLn] oxL l;d;f/ lbj;nfO{ g} kv]/ a:5f}F eg] xfdLn] l;d;f/sf] s:tf] ;+/If0f ul//x]sf 5f}+ < 321 321 sf]zL6Kk'sf] dxQf d'Vo¿kdf hªunL e};L– …cgf{Ú ;Fu ufFl;Psf] 5 . :yfgLo ;d'bfo 3/kfn'jf hgfj/sf nflu F 321 321 321 321 321 321 321 321 321 r/gsf] cefj / 3/kfn'jf e};L cgf{df ldl;P /fd|f] hft lg:sg] k|nf]egn] cfˆgf kz' 5f8f 5f]8g] ub{5g . o; F 321 321 321 321 321 cj:yfdf 3/kfn'jf /fFuf;Fu kf]yL cgf{sf] ;xjf;af6 clxn] ToxfF ePsf elgPsf sl/a !$) j6f cgf{df cfˆgf] j+zf0f'ut ljz'4tf /lx/x]sf] xf]nf < 321 321 321 321 321 321 xfdLn] l;d;f/ lbj; dgfO/xFbf o;} jif{ dfq /fd;f/df ;"rLs[t aL;xhf/L tfnsf] cl:tTj ;ªs6fkGg 5 . 321 321 321 321 321 321 321 321 321 ToxfF y'lk|Psf] af9Lsf] n]bf] df6f]] / hns'DeL s'lxP/ tfn lg/Gt/ k'l/Fb} uPsf] 5 . :yfgLo ;d'bfo 321 321 321 321 321 t'ngfTds¿kdf ;r]t /x]sf] To; tfnIf]qsf afl;Gbf o;sf] ;+/If0fdf cu|;/ xF'bf;d]t lhDd]jf/ lgsfon] df}gj|t lnPsf] u'gf;f] ;'lgFb} cfPsf] 5 . 321 321 321 321 321 321 321 321 321 321 321 oL s]xL b[i6fGt dfq x'g . k|foM ;a} l;d;f/n] o:tf s'g} g s'g} cK7]/f] e]mln/x]sf 5g . oL cK7]/f xfdLn] ug]{ ;xl/of uf]i7Laf6 ;dfwfg klg x'bgg . of] t s]jn dfgf] krfpg] cg'i7fg dfq x'g;Sb5 . l;d;f/df cfOkg]{ ;a}vfn] F} 321 321 321 321 321 321 321 321 321 ;ªs6df]rg ta;Dd ;Dej 5}g, ha;Dd o;sf] ax'cfoflds pkfb]otfaf/] :yfgLo ;d'bfo g} ;r]t x'bg . } F} 321 321 321 321 321 321 rfx] ;/sf/n] hf/L u/]sf] /fli6«o l;d;f/ gLltsf] Jofjxfl/s sfof{Gjogsf nflu xf]; jf hfgsf/Ld}} gcfPsf 321 321 321 321 321 l;d;f/x¿sf] phfu/sf nflu, cyjf cl:tTj ;ªs6fkGg ePsf l;d;f/sf] ;+/If0f / ;Da4{gsf nflu g} lsg gxf];, l;d;f/;DaGwL hgr]tgf :yfgLo tj/df k'Ug}kb{5 . o;sf nflu ;/sf/L k|lta4tf t rflxG5 g}, l;d;f/ 321 321 321 321 321 321 321 321 321 ;+/If0fsf If]qdf sfd ug]{ elgPsf u}/;/sf/L ;+:yfx¿n] klg xf]xNnfsf e/df o;nfO{ b'xgf] ufO{ agfpg] k|jl[ Q ' 321 321 321 321 321 5f8]/ :yfgLo ;/f]sf/jfnf;Fd k'Ug], l;d;f/af6 k|fKt x'g] cyfx nfeaf/] r]tgf hufpg], pgLx¿sf] lxt/Iff ub}{ o;sf] lbuf] pkof]uaf6 lng ;lsg] cfly{snfesf ljleGg k"jf{wf/ ljsf;df ;l/s x'g] xf] eg] dfq l;d;f/ lbj; 321 321 321 321 321 321 321 321dgfpg'sf] ;fy{stf /xG5 . ✩ jftfj/0fLo ;r]ttf Û xfd|f] k|lta4tf ÛÛ /)f÷ kof{ j /)f ÷ 5
  6. 6. k|fs[lts ;Dkbf aL ;f} F ztfAbLsf] dflg;n] j} 1 flgs ljsf;df ce"tk"j{ ;kmntf xfl;n u/]sf] 5 . nueu b; xhf/ jif{sf] Oltxf; af]s]sf] dflg;n] cfˆgf] Ifdtfsf] o;eGbf km/s xf]nf eGg ;lsFb}g . o:tf hd36df cf}krfl/s–cgf}krfl/s¿kdf rNg] cfly{s ljlgdon]– e"ldsf v]n]sf] tLvf] uGw klg cg'e"t gePsf xf]Ogg . ;jf{lws k|of]u o;} ztfAbL;Dd cfOk'Ubf u¥of] / e"ldsf /xg] ;Gb]xk/s rrf{ klg rNg] ub{5g . Ps j}1flgs o'udf k|j]z ug{ ;kmn klg eof]] . o;} o'udf 5fs 6fg{ k|fs[lts ;|f]tdfly g} lge{/ /xg'kg]{ ;d'bfo ljsf;sf ljljw If]qdf k|fKt ;kmntfsf]] pGdfb r9]/ tyf :yfgLo ;/f]sf/jfnfsf] ljsf;sf nflu kfFrtf/] ljZjsf x/]s j:t'sf] k|flKtsf nflu /fhgLlts p7a; xf]6]ndf x'g] ax;n] slt nfe b]nf < 8n/sf] v]tLdf / bfpk]rk|lt dflg; cem ;zQm aGb} uPsf] 5 . /d] s f tL ;' 6 –6fOwf/Ln] ljkGg ;/] s f/jfnfsf] æ;fgf] df5fnfO{ 7"nf] df5fn] vfG5Æ – of] cfZro{hgs cfjZostfsf] cfjfhsf] k|ltlglwTj ug{ ;Snfg < s'/f] xf]Og . x'g t ljsf;sf ljleGg l;4fGtsf] k}/jL jf:tjdf o'uf}Fb]lv ToxL k|fs[lts ;|f]tsf] ;xf/fdf u/]/ cfˆgf] :jfy{df sfo{k|lqmofnfO{ k|of]u ug]{ k/Dk/f afFRg]x¿sf] clwsf/ o;/L ;+/lIft x'g;Snf < jf ;|f]tsf gofF xf] O g . ljZjsf] Oltxf; zlQm;ª 3 if{ a f6 g} jf:tljs wgLx¿ cfˆgf] clwsf/af6 ljd'v x'g] x'g < n]lvPsf] 5, tfklg j}1flgs o'udf k|j]z u/]sf] dflg;n] o;tkm{ ;f]Rg' cfjZos 5 ls 5}g < o;sf] hjfkm lbg] cfˆgf] af}l4s IfdtfnfO{ cfˆg} clxt / lje]bsf nflu lxDdt s;}n] unf{ < pkof]u ug'{nfO{ eg] b'ef{Uok"0f{ dfGg}kb{5 . ul/a / wgL ;/sf/, bftf / ltgsf dWo:ystf{x¿aLr x'g] u/]sf l;d;f/ gLlt sfof{Gjog / r'gf}tL /fdrGb| Gof}kfg]÷uf]kfnk|;fb b'nfn b]zaLr rn]sf ljleGg k|s[ltsf åGådWo] k|fs[lts ;|f]t ljjfb, of]hgf tof/Ld} x'g] vr{sf] cfsfl;Fbf] :j¿k, ;+/If0f / lbuf] ljsf;sf gfddf To;sf] k|ltkmn xft bfg jf ;xof]u /sdsf] kl/rfngdf bftfsf] k|ToIf kfg{ lg/Gt/ rn]sf] åGånfO{ klg pbfx/0fsf] ¿kdf lng x:tIf]k, ;xof]udf ;~rflnt sfo{qmdsf ljleGg r/0fdf ;lsG5 . o;} l;nl;nfdf jftfj/0f tyf k|fs[lts ;|ft ] cfpg] cfGtl/s bafa cflb ljifosf] ljZn]if0f ug]{ xf] ;+/If0fsf nflu :yflkt s]xL cGt/f{li6«o u}/;/sf/L eg] c¿ If]qdf h:t} g]kfndf l;d;f/ ;+/If0f / lbuf] ;+:yfx¿n] ul/a d'nsdf a;]/ 8n/] hflu/ ksfpg' klg ' pkof] u sf sfo{ q mdx¿df klg lvrftfgL al9/x] s f] o;}sf] Pp6f kf6f] xf] eGg' cltzof]lQm x'g5g . ] } cg'ej ug{ ;lsG5 . oL ljifodf sxfF–sxfF s;/L x}sd nfbg] k|oTg x'G5g eGg] s'/f g ;/sf/ v'n:t ug{ jt{dfg ;dodf dfgjLo :jfy{sf nflu clwsf/ / rfxG5 g t bftf kf/bzL{ x'g vf]Hb5 . s'n rfln; bfloTjsf] s'/f, ;fd'bflos ljsf; / ;dfgtfsf s'/f, s/f]8 vr{df ;DkGg x'g] % jif]{ of]hgf tof/ ubf{ g} b'O{ k| f s[ l ts ;| f ] t dfly :yfgLo ;/f] s f/jfnfx¿sf] s/f]8 nufgL ug{ lxDdt ug]{ ;/sf/ / bftf tyf Tof] clwsf/sf] s'/f / o:t}–o:t} w]/} s'/fdf lbgxF'h;f] wg/fzL s'DNofpg] of]hgfsf/af6 ;d'bfon] s:tf] cfzf kfFrtf/] xf]6]ndf 6fO{–;'6wf/Lsf] hd36df ax; x'g] /fVg]] < To;df klg $) s/f]8af6 36fP/ sfof{Gjogsf] ;+:s[ltsf] ljsf; ePsf] 5 . g]kfndf dfq xf]Og, ah]6 @# s/f]8df emfl/Fbf kl/0ffd s:tf] xf]nf < k|Zg ljZjJofkL¿kd} clwsfª z ul/a d' n ' s sf] cj:yf lgs} uDeL/ x'g;S5 . g]kfndf a;]/ k|fs[lts ;|f]tsf] jftfj/0fLo ;r]ttf Û xfd|f] k|lta4tf ÛÛ /)f÷ kof{ j /)f ÷ 6
  7. 7. k|fs[lts ;Dkbf ;+ / If0fsf nflu ljb] z L:t/af6 tof/ ul/g] o:tf] xf]6ndf ukm ug]{ k|j[lQ lg?T;flxt geP;Dd ;+/If0f / of]hgfsf nflu sfd ug]{ of]hgfsf/n] cd]l/sf jf lbuf] ljsf;sf] ;kgf s;}n] b]V5 eg] To;nfO{ o; hfkfgsf] cfly{s:t/sf] ;]jfz'Ns lnP/ of]hgf th'{df o'usf] l;v08L gfds/0f ul/lbP x'G5 . ug'{ slt pko'Qm xf]nf < oxfFsf] j:t'l:ylt cg's"n / lbuf]¿kdf k|efjsf/L pknlAw lbg;Sg] xf] < hn;|f]tdf oL k|Zgx¿ g]kfndf l;d;f/ gLlt sfof{Gjog ug]{ ljZjsf] bf];|f] wgL d'n's eP/ ;jf{lws dxFuf] d"No ljifo;Fu ;DalGwt 5g . ut jif{sf] cGTolt/ g]kfnsf] lt/]/ hnljB'tsf] pkef]u ug]{ afWo x'g'k/]h:t} l;d;f/ /fli6«o l;d;f/ gLlt, @)%( nfu" eof] . gLltn] l;d;f/ If]q Joj:yfkg;DaGwL o:tf of]hgfaf6 pkef]Qmfn] If] q sf] ;+ / If0f, lbuf] ljsf;, pkof] u / :yfgLo s:tf] df/ ;xg'knf{ < cfly{s ;xof]u / nfe k|fKt ;d'bfosf] ;xeflutfdfly hf]8 lbg' lgs} /fd|f] kIf xf] . gxf] n f eGg] 8/ tyf k| n f] e gaf6 k| ] l /t ;/sf/ / /fd;f/ dxf;lGwdf x:tfIf/ ug]{ kIf/fi6«sf x}l;otn] sd{rf/LtGqsf] sf]kefhgdf lg/Lx hgtf lkl;g] kl/kf6L cfˆgf] d'n'sdf ePsf l;d;f/sf] Joj:yfkg / cfly{s slxn] cGt xf]nf < jf:tjdf ;d'bfosf] gfddf kfFrtf/] If]qdf ltgsf] k|of]u ug{ ;a} kIf/fi6« tyf ;/sf/n] l;d;f/ zAb hglha|f]df rNg yfn]sf] w]/} jif{ ePsf] 5}g . x'g t g]kfnn] l;d;f/ If]qsf] ;+/If0f / ;Dj4{g ug]{ k|lta4tf cfheGbf ## jif{klxn] -;g !(&!_ cGt/f{li6«o ;lGw -/fd;f/ dxf;lGw_ df kIfw/ eP/ hfx]/ u/]sf] xf] . To; k|lta4tfsf] nueu #@ jif{kl5 ut jif{ dfq /fli6«o l;d;f/ gLlt, @)%( ;fj{hlgs x'g;Sof] . x'g t /fd;f/ dxf;lGwdf k|j]z ug'{eGbf Ps bzsklxn] g} g]kfnn] hnr/ ;+/If0f P]g, @)!& nfu" u/]sf] xf] . ;+/If0fnfO{ dWogh/ /fv]/ ag]sf] of] klxnf] P]g x'g'k5{ t/ of] P]g kof{Kt / k|efjsf/L ePg jf sfof{Gjog ePg . h] elgP tfklg of] P]g hLljt 5 eGg] s'/fnfO{ la;{g ldNb}g . cGt/f{li6«o dxf;lGw ;g !(&! n] hnkG5Lsf] af;:yfg ;+/If0f ug]{ nIonfO{ cl3;f/]sf] 5 eg] g]kfnsf] hnr/ ;+/If0f P]gn] df5fnfO{ cfˆgf] k|d'v ljifo agfPsf] 5 . lagfdf5fsf] l;d;f/ kG5Lsf] nflu pko'Qm x'Fb}g eGg] ;a}nfO{ yfxf 5 . To;}n] l;d;f/ gLltsf] sfof{Gjog ubf{ p7g] d"n d'2fdf df5fsf] ljz]if e"ldsf /xG5 . df5f, dfemL, hfn / tfnnfO{ ;jf] { k /L :yfg lbP/dfq l;d;f/ gLlt cl3 a9g;S5 eGg' d f cTo' l Qm gxf] n f . l;d;f/ gLlt @)%( sf] l;d;f/ Joj:yfkgdf k| d ' v p2]Zo g} l;d;f/sf] Joj:yfkgdf :yfgLo hgtfnfO{ ;xefuL agfpg' xf] . cfhsf] g]kfndf ;aeGbf Kof/f] zAb g} hg;xeflutf aGg k'u]sf] 5 . Joj:yfkg kIf egf}F jf ;/sf/L kIf, ;a}n] cfˆgf]] gLlt, of]hgf, sfo{of]hgf jf sfo{qmd ;a} b:tfj]hdf :yfgLo hgtfnfO{ ;xefuL agfOPsf] bfaL ;xh ¿kdf ul/Psf] x'G5 . t/ :yfgLo hg;d'bfosf] kIfaf6 eg] To;sf] ljk/Lt, yfx} ePg eg]/ cfjfh p7fOG5 . :yfgLo /fhgLltsf] kIf / ljkIfsf sf/0fn] klg of] ;d:of a9g] u/]sf b[i6fGt kof{Kt kfOG5g . yfx} glbO{sg of] lsg u/]sf], s;/L eof] / s;n] cfb]z lbof] egL s'n{g] k|zf;sx¿ gePsf klg 5}gg . o; ljifosf s]xL /f]rs pbfx/0fx¿ klg 5g . o;} jif{ cGt/f{li6«o dxŒjsf l;d;f/ egL 7x/ ePsf # j6f :yn– -!_ 3f]8f3f]8L tfn -s}nfnL_, -!_ hubLzk'/ hnfzo -slknj:t'_ /f -#_ aL;xhf/L tfn -lrtjg_ nfO{ ljZj;"rL /fd;f/ If]qsf] dfGotf k|fKt eof] . o; k|flKtsf nflu >L % sf] ;/sf/, jg tyf e";+/If0f dGqfnonfO{ ljZj ;+/If0f ;ª3n] k|fljlws 6]jf lbFb} cfPsf] lyof] . 3f]8f3f]8L tfnsf] cWoog / ToxfF hgr]tgf km}nfpg g]r'/n lx:6«L ;f];fO6L (Natural History Society) sf] /fdk'/ zfvf sfo{/t lyof] . :yfgLo hgtf;Fu ldn]/ To; tfnsf] k|j]z:yfgdf 3f]8f3f]8L tfn arfcf}F eGg] r]tgfd"ns Ps ;"rgfkf6L 6fF:g] sfd ePsf] /x]5 . ;f]xL af6f] u/L Ps lbg jg tyf e";+/If0f dGqfnosf tTsfnLg ;lrj e|d0fdf hfFbf] /x]5 . ;"rgfkf6Ldf gh/ kgf{;fy df]6/ /f]s]/ cfˆg} xftn] Tof] kf6L 78ofOPsf] sf7sf] 3f]rf] pv]n]/ x'¥of{OlbP5g, s;sf] cfb]zn] ;"rgf 78ofPsf] eg]/ . cfh ;f]xL :yn /fd;f/ ;"rLdf kg{ jftfj/0fLo ;r]ttf Û xfd|f] k|lta4tf ÛÛ kof{ j /)f ÷ 7
  8. 8. k|fs[lts ;Dkbf /fd;f/ dxf;lGwn] lgwf{/0f u/]sf] kl/lwleq /xL :ki6 5 . t/, gLltcg'¿k lgodsf] th'{df, :yfgLo ;d'bfosf] gLlt tof/ ug'{kg]{ ePs} sf/0f g]kfnn] klg l;d;f/ ;xeflutf / To;af6 k|fKt nfesf] afF8kmfF8h:tf gLlt tof/ u/] s f] b] l vG5 . l;d;f/ If] q sf] lbuf] ;jfndf ljjfb l;h{gf gxf]nf eGg klg ;lsFb}g . ljsf;sf nflu ;f] gLltn] Jofks If]q to u/]sf] l;d;f/ gLltsf] sfof{Gjogsf nflu tof/ ePsf] kfFrjif]{ s'/fnfO{ c:jLsf/ ug{ klg ;lsFb}g . sfo{ q mdsf ljifodf pTkGg gofF ;jfnn] xfd| f ] l;d;f/ dxf;lGwn] lbPsf] kl/efiff / juL{s/0fnfO{ x]bf{ sfo{k|lqmof / To;af6 k|fKt x'g;Sg] k|ltkmndf ;d]t g]kfnsf] t/fO{sf] clwsfªz If]q l;d;f/df ;dflxt k|ZglrGx t]:of{Psf] 5 . bftfn] /fVg] ;t{ut bafas} x'g;S5 eg] kxf8L tyf lxdfnL If]qdf ;d]t klxrfg sf/0f ;/sf/ ljjz eP/ cfˆgf gful/s;Fu Jofkf/ x' g g;s] s f xhf/f} F l;d;f/ 5g . ctM g] k fnn] ug]{ b':k|of; ub{5 eg] ;/sf/af6 s:tf] ck]Iff /fVg l;d;f/sf] ;+/If0f / Joj:yfkgdf rf;f] /fVg' clgjfo{ ;lsPnf < cGt/f{ l i6« o u} / ;/sf/L ;+ : yfx¿ g} ;t{ klg xf] . l;d;f/ gLltn] oL s'/fnfO{ /fd|/L ;d]6]sf] ljz]if1x¿sf] ynf] xf] eg]/ ltg}nfO{ o:tf] sfd lhDdf uPsf] 5 / /fli6«o l;d;f/ gLlt, @)%( sf] bkmf * df r]tgf clej[l4;DaGwL gLlt cl3;fl/Psf] 5 . :yfgLo ;d'bfonfO{ ;r]t u/fpg] w]/} s'/f To;df ;dfj]z 5g t/ clwsf/n] dflQPsf k|zf;sx¿sf] r]tgf clej[l4;DaGwL gLlt eg] hgtfn] g} to ug'{kg]{ x'G5 . /fli6«o l;d;f/ gLlt, @)%( n] hg;xeflutfnfO{ cfˆgf] d"n s8Lsf ¿kdf k|:t't u/]sf] 5 . o;;Fu ;DalGwt !) pkbkmfx¿n] hglxtsf w]/} s'/f cf}FNofPsf 5g . ltgnfO{ ;fy{s agfpg hg;xeflutfaf/] Ps lglb{i6 lgb]{lzsfsf] th'{df ug'{kg]{ b]lvG5 . hgtfdf uP/ ToxfF cfk"m ;xefuL x'g' hg;xeflutfsf] d"n s8L x'G5 . Ps lbg uP/ hg;d"xdf s]xL s'/f /fVb}df jf s]xL JolQmnfO{ sfo{qmddf ;dfj]z ub}{df hg;xeflutfn] k"0f{¿k lng ;Sb}g . o; ljifosf] Pp6f cg'ej o:tf] klg 5 . dgf:n' lxdfnsf] sfvdf Nxf] ufpFsf afl;GbfnfO{ kof{ ko{6gsf (Ecotourism) ljifo cWoogdf ;xefuL agfpg xfdLn] ufpF ljsf; ;ldltsf s]xL JolQm / c¿ pknAw :yfgLo k|efjzfnL JolQmnfO{ lgDtfof}F . hg;xeflutf b"w / lrgLsf] lrofsf ;fy ;xefuL ;fyLx¿af6 w]/} s'/f hflgof], l;lsof] . To;sf] csf]{ jif{ km]l/ ToxL –8f= tLy{axfb'/ >]i7 ufpFdf k'Uof}F . :yfgLo s]xL ;fyLn] 3/df af]nfP . o;k6s xfd|f] ;fd'Gg] g'glrof lyof] . xfdLn] Tof] lkpg ;s]gf}F . s]xL ldqn] ha/h:tL lkO{ klg xfn] . dgdg} nfUof], h;sf] Ps Kofnf lrofdf ;xeflutf hgfpg ;s]gf},F ltgsf] ;d:ofdf s] ;xefuL x'g ;sf}nf < F cfh l;d;f/ gLlt sfof{Gjog ug]{ k|;ªudf hg;xeflutfsf s'/f l;d, wfk, bnbn, gbLgfnf / tfnsf af]6], dfemL, yf¿, lwdfnnufot cg]sf}F hghflt;Fu sfFw ldnfpg ;S5f}F jf ;Sb}gf}F eGg] x]SsfnfO{ d"n ljifo agfP/ hg;xeflutf ljifodf bl/nf] lbUbz{g agfpg plrt x'g]5 . l;d;f/sf] juL{s/0f / Joj:yfkg gLltcg';f/ l;d;f/nfO{ tLg k|sf/df 5'6ofOPsf] 5 . klxnf] ju{df /flvPsf] ;+/lIft If]q / dWojtL{ If]qleqsf l;d;f/sf] Joj:yfkg ubf{ ;dGoflos cj;/ s;/L k'¥ofpg] eGg]af/] :ki6 sfo{of]hgf x'gkg]{ b]lvG5 . /fli6«o lgs'~hleqsf l;d;f/sf] Joj:yfkgdf hgtfnfO{ s;/L ;l/s agfpg] eGg] ' k|Zgsf] l5gf]kmfgf] x'gk5{ . dWojtL{ If]qdf kg]{ lghL l;d;f/df ;/sf/L s;/L ;+nUg x'g] eGg] s'/fsf] klg ' ;dodf g} lgSof]n x'gk5{ . lghL If]qsf] l;d;f/df b'ne k|f0fL jf jg:kltsf] af;:yfg kg{ uof] eg] l;d;f/wgLsf] { ' { bfloTj s;/L lgwf{/0f ug]{ eGg] k|Zg klg p7g] x'G5 . dT:okfngsf hnfzodf b'ne kG5Lsf] a;f]af; 5 eg] { ltgsf] Joj:yfkg s;/L ug]{ cflb k|Zgsf] lg/fs/0faf/] ;dodf g} Wofg k'¥ofOPg eg] l;d;f/sf] Joj:yfkg /fd|f] x'bg . To;}n] /fli6«o l;d;f/ gLltsf] sfof{Gjog ug{ k|ydtM /fli6«o dxŒjsf l;d;f/sf] cflwsfl/s klxrfg / F } ;"rLs/0f inventory x'g' cfjZos kb{5 . To;sf ;fy} Joj:yfkgdf hg;xeflutfsf k|lqmof / nfesf] ;dGoflos afF8kmfF8sf] Joj:yf s;/L ;'lglZrt ug]{ eGg] k|ZgnfO{ la;{gxbg . ✪ ' F' } jftfj/0fLo ;r]ttf Û xfd|f] k|lta4tf ÛÛ /)f÷ kof{ j /)f ÷ 8
  9. 9. k|fs[lts ;Dkbf lbg' ;/sf/sf] gfnfosL kg g} t xf]Og t/ g]kfnsf] lhDd]jf/L k"/f ug{;Sg] cfˆgf sd{rf/L / :jb]zL k|a'4 cfly{ s :t/df k6Ss} d] n gvfg] ;' l jwf pknAw ljz]if1nfO{ sfd glbP/ ljsl;t d'n'ss}h:tf] cfly{s u/fpg' r flxF l;d;f/sf] ;Gbe{ d f 8n/sf] bnbndf ;'ljwf lbP/ of]hgf tof/ u/fpg'sf] s'g} cf}lrTo kmF;]sf] cfefif ldNb5 . cGoyf Go"gtd vr{df cfˆgf] b]lvFb}g . s] g]kfnL ljz]if1n] sfd} ug{ ;Sb}gg < ljb]zL l; d;f/ ;DaGwL cGt/f{li6«o 3f]if0ff /fd;f/ dxf;lGw !(&! nfO{ cg'df]bg u/]sf] 8]9 bzskl5 g]kfnn] /fli6«o l;d;f/ gLlt, @)%( xfn} k|sfzdf NofPsf] 5 . l;d;f/ gLltsf] k|:t't /fli6«o gLlt to ug{ s] slt ;do vlr{of], Tof] t l;d;f/sf] dxQf eg]sf] jf:tjdf k|sl[ tdf ltgn] lgjf{x To;df pNn]v ul/Psf] 5}g, t/ sl/a $ xhf/ zAbn] ug]{ kl/j[QLo (Ecological) e"ldsf xf] . l;d;f/n] vf;u/L u'lylPsf] ;f] gLltdf /fhwfgLsf ;+/If0f uf]i7Lx¿df k|oQm ' peor/ / ;l/;[k ju{sf k|f0fLx¿sf] hLjg–rqm k"/f ug{ x'g] k|foM ;a} zAbfjnL c6fpg] e/dUb'/ k|oTg ul/Psf] cgGo cfjZostf k"lt{ ub{5 . l;d;f/ gxFbf] xf] t tL ' 5 . 5'6sf] Pp6f zAbfjnL ;fob æul/aL lgjf/0fÆ xf]nf . ] k|f0fLx¿sf] cl:tTj g} /xg] lyPg . hnr/sf nflu w]/} ljifoj:t' / ljljw ljrf/x¿nfO{ ;+ufNg vf]Hbf of] l;d;f/ lgoltsf] af;:yfg x'G5 eg] c¿ y'ksf nflu }| gLlt sltko 7fp“df cfk}mF cNdlng k'usf] 5 eg] sltko ] Tof] ;ªs6sf] a]nf cf>o:yn x'G5 . l;d;f/sf] h}ljs “ ltgsf a'bfx¿ lj/f]wfefifk"0f{ /xL ;+/If0f zAbfnªsf/df ljljwtf eg]sf] o;sf] cfˆg} kl/j]zLo u'0fn] ubf{ ToxfF clNemPsf] 5 . ljsl;t /}yfg] (Endemic) k|hfltx¿ x'g, h}ljs ljljwtfsf] k[i7e"ldsf] ljz]iftf k|r/tf Toxf“ gx'g klg ;S5 . l;d;f/sf] csf]{ ;an ' k|:t't /fli6«o l;d;f/ gLlt k[i7e"ldaf6 k|f/De eO{ kIf eg] s f] hn / ynsf] kof{ j /0fLo cGt/df] x 8f (Interface) xf] . oL s'/f eg]sf l;d;f/sf cfwf/e"t l;d;f/sf] ;+/If0f / Joj:yfkgsf efjL sfo{x¿df k'u/ ] u'0fx¿ x'g, h'g l;d;f/;DaGwL g]kfnsf] /fli6«o gLltdf cGt ePsf] 5 . s'n !$ j6f pk–zLif{sx¿ ;dflji6 uf}0f aGg k'usf 5g . ] pQm gLltleq cf7j6f yk gLltx¿ -pkgLlt <_ klg 5g– gLltleq gLltx¿ x'g' o; gLltsf] cfˆgf]kgf x'g g]kfnnfO{ l;d;f/sf] /fli6«o gLlt lsg cfjZos k¥of] ;S5 . gLltsf] yk ljz]iftf s] b]lvG5 eg] o;n] ;a}h;f] t < o; ;DaGwdf k|:t't l;d;f/ gLltsf] k[i7e"ldsf] pkgLlt / sfo{qmd sfof{Gjogdf æ:yfgLo ;d'bfoÆ nfO{ bf];|f] cg'R5]bn] ;g !((^ df ePsf] kIf/fi6«x¿sf] g} s]Gb|laGb' agfP/ gLltsf] JofVofdf ´08} #) k6s ;Dd]ngn] hf/L u/]sf] lgb]{zgnfO{ ;sf/fTds¿kdf Tof] zAbfjnL pkof]u ePsf] 5 . t/, gLltlgdf{0fdf Tof] Olªut u/]sf] 5 eg] k[i7e"lds} t];f] cg'R5]bn] g]kfnsf | s] G b| l aGb' n fO{ slt xb;Dd ;xefuL u/fOof] < o; ljBdfg P]gsfg'gsf] ck"0f{tfnfO{ gsf/fTds cf}FNofPsf] ljifodf eg] gLltn] k"0f{tof df}gtf ;fFw]sf] 5 . gLlt 5 . /fHon] k|ltkflbt ug]{ Pp6f gof“ gLltn] cl3Nnf th'{df s;/L eof] < o;sf] k|lqmofut ljifodf k|:t't gLlt jf sfg'gx¿sf] abVjfO{+ ub}g, a¿ ltgsf] cf8df { gLltdf s'g} s'/f pNn]v ePsf] 5}g . cfjZostfg';f/ gofFsfg'gx¿ to ub{5 . ctM g]kfnsf] slyt /fli6«o l;d;f/ gLlt k|fof]lht ePsf] b]lvG5, l;d;f/sf] k|fljlws a'emfOsf af/]df k|:t't /fli6«o l;d;f/ /fi6«sf] gLlt o;/L k|fof]lht x'g'x'Fb}g . gLltsf] klxnf] jfSof+z g} ck"0f{ / e|fds 5 . To;df pNn]v ePe}m+ l;d;f/ æs[lif pTkfbgsf] b[li6n] pa{/ e"ldÆ kl/efiffsf] s;/t / nIo÷p2]Zo xf]Og, g, t Tof] æh}ljs ljljwtfsf b[li6n] cGoGt} wgLÆ k|sfzdf cfPsf] g]kfnsf] l;d;f/ gLltdf v'a} s;/t g} x'gk5{ eGg] 5}g . /;'jfsf] uf];fO{+s08 s;/L s[lifof]Uo ' ' ul/Psf] kIf l;d;f/sf] kl/efiff xf] . /fd;f/ dxf;lGwd} xf]nf, cyjf v'Da'If]qsf lxdtfnx¿df slt g} hLjx¿ ha ljlwjt x:tfIf/ eO;s] s f] 5 eg] /fd;f/ a:nfg / tL h}ljs ljljwtfn] wgL xf]nfg < t/fO{h:tf] ;Dd] n gåf/f kl/eflift l;d;f/sf] k' g k{ l /efiff lsg Gofgf] xfjfkfgL If]qsf l;d;f/n] h}ljs ljljwtfsf] cfjZos k¥of] < a'‰g sl7g 5 . /fd;f/ ;Dd]ngaf6 s'/fnfO{ s]xL k'li6 unf{, t/ t/fO{sf s]xL l;d;f/n] :jLs[ t kl/efiffnfO{ klg g] k fnsf] l;d;f/ gLltn] g]kfnsf] ;du| l;d;f/x¿sf] k|ltlglwTj eg] ub}g . g]kfnL { kG5fPsf] 5 . jf:tjdf l;d;f/ kl/eflift eO;s]sf] l;d;f/x¿sf] ljz]iftf o; b]zsf] ef}uf]lns psfnL– kl/j[QLo zAbfjnL xf] . k|:t't gLlts} efiffdf æljZjdf cf]/fnLhlQs} ljljw dflgG5g . xfn;Dd l;d;f/sf sl/a %) y/Lsf kl/efiffÆ ljBdfg jftfj/0fLo ;r]ttf Û xfd|f] k|lta4tf ÛÛ /)f÷ kof{ j /)f ÷ 9
  10. 10. k|fs[lts ;Dkbf jf bftfn] tf]s]sf dflg; dfq bIf x'G5g < afF;s} ;d'bfodf sfd ug]{ gfddf cfpg] t/ cg'bfgsf] pkof]u ljifodf ljBfjfl/wL ug{ s'g} ;do g]kfndf afF;v]tLsf] cGo If]q jf To;sf] k|ltkmn ;DalGwt;d'bfo aflx/ ljsf;sf] axfgfdf cfPsf o'/f]k]nL ljz]if1sf] syfsf] pkof]u ug{ bafa cfpg] k|sf/sf cg'bfg lng'sf] s'g} k'g/fj[lQ ePdf ;/sf/n] s] ug]{ < :k:6 zAbdf eGg'kbf{ cy{ x'Fb}g / To:tf] cg'bfgnfO{ c:jLsf/ ug]{ lxDdt 5 < hg;d'bfos} ;Gbe{df gLltsf] p2]Zo $=@ n] ltgdf ;f/ slt < –8f= lbg]z/fh e'h" * ;l~rt l;d;f/;DaGwL 1fg, ;Lk, cEof; / cfljisf/sf] ;/fxgf u/]sf] 5 t/ $=^ df ltg} hg;fwf/0fdf l;d;f/ 5g . s] ca xfdLn] %! cf}+ kl/efiffsf] cfljisf/ u¥of}+ If]qaf/] hfgsf/L lbg] s'/f pNn]v ub{5 . t < w]/} kl/efiffdf kl/efiff yKb} hfFbf kl/efiffn] dlxnf ;xeflutfsf ljifonfO{ klg k|:t't l;d;f/ gLltn] hg;fwf/0fdf yk e|ddfq k}bf u5{ . 5'6fPsf] 5}g . p2]Zosf] $=$ a'Fbfdf Tof] ;dflxt 5 . t/ k|:t't l;d;f/ gLltn] nIo -pk–zLif{s #_ / p2]Zo -pk– To;kl5sf s'g} klg sfof{Gjog a'“bfdf ltgaf/] pNn]v zLif{s $_ nfO{ gLltsf b'O{ 5'§f5'§} cjojsf ¿kdf ul/Psf] 5} g . o;/L gLltdf n} ª l us ;dfgtfsf] cl3;f/]sf] 5 . nIo / p2]ZoaLr s]xL ;" Id lje]b cf}krfl/stf ToxL p2]Zoleq} ljno ePsf] b]lvG5 . x'g;Snf, t/ tL b'jdf Ps} cy{sf jfSox¿ sf]l/lbP/ ltgsf] } l;d;f/ gLltsf afFsL kf7df cf7j6f gLltleqsf gLltx¿ b'O{ pkzLif{ssf] cfjZostfnfO{ k|:t't gLlt cfk}mn] d]6sf] F ] n]lvPsf 5g– :yfgLo ;xeflutfdf cfwfl/t l;d;f/ 5 . x'g s] ;SYof] eg] nIodf gLltsf] b[li6 / p2]Zodf Joj:yfkg gLlt -pk–zLif{s %_, l;d;f/sf] juL{s/0f / To; gLltsf ofqfx¿ a'Fbfut k|:t't ug{ ;lsGYof] . t/ Joj:yfkg gLlt -pk–zLif{s ^_, l;d;f/sf] a'l4dQfk"0f{ cªuhLsf] Aim / Objective sf] g]kfnL cg'jfbdf dfq ]| k|of]u ;DaGwL gLlt -pk–zLif{s &_, r]tgf clej[l4;DaGwL ;dfgfy{s zAbsf] rog x'g;Sof], zAbleqsf] dd{ To;df gLlt -pk–zLif{s *_, ldrfxf k|hfltnfO{ /f]syfd, lgoGq0f /x]g . / Joj:yfkg ug]{ -gLlt <, pk–zLif{s (_ l;d;f/ l;d;f/ gLltsf] nIo / p2]Zo b'j} pk–zLif{ssf sygdf Joj:yfkg;DaGwL ;+:yfut gLlt -pk–zLif{s !)_, l;d;f/ l;d;f/sf] ;+/If0f / Joj:yfkgsf s'/fx¿ p7fOPsf 5g . k|lts"n sfo{df /f]s nufpg] gLlt -pk–zLif{s !!_, / kl5Nnf j}1flgs cg';Gwfgx¿af6 s] yfxf nfu]sf] 5 eg] dfl;Psf Pjd dfl;g] vt/fdf k'u]sf l;d;f/;DaGwL PlSnFbf] cj:yfdf /xFbf 7"nf If]qkmn cf]u6g] ;+/lIft gLlt -pk–zLif{s !@_ tyf b'Oj6f sfo{ -pk–zLif{s !# / { If]qx¿;d]t ToxfF leq /x]sf jg:klt / hLjhGt'sf] !$_ ;DaGwL JofVofx¿ 5g . tL JofVofdf gf}nf] s'/feGbf bf]xf]/fkgf Hofbf e]l6G5 . ;+/If0flglDt kof{Kt x' “ b } g g . o;sf/0f, cnu–cnu cl:tTjdf /x]sf ;+/If0f If]qx¿aLr ;DaGw sfod u/fpg æa'l4dtfk"0f{ / lbuf] k|of]uÆ vflt/ k|:t't gLltn] l;d;f/nfO{ k|fs[lts dfu{ (Corridor) k|z:t u/fpg'kb{5 . o;af/]sf Joj:yfkgsf b[li6n] juL{s/0f u/]sf] 5 . t/ ;d:of s] 5 k|z:t tYox¿ k|sfzdf cfO;s]sf 5g / gofF ;+/If0f eg] l;d;f/nfO{ cfk"m s'g dGqfno jf ljefucGtu{t k5{ gLltx¿df tL qmdzM k|ltlalDat x'g yfn]sf 5g . ;f] s'/f yfxf x'bg, g t ToxfF /Dg] kz'kG5L / af]6la?jfnfO{ F} g]kfnsf] Terai Arc Landscape (TAL) cfof]hgf o;}sf] g} . pgLx¿nfO{ yfxf x'g] s'/f eg]sf] k|fs[lts jftfj/0f Pp6f kl5Nnf] b[i6fGt xf] . tyflk, l;d;f/sf] gLlt dfq} xf] h;sf] /fhgLlts l;dfªsg / k|zf;lgs OsfO ;+/If0f / Joj:yfkgsf oL gjLg k|of]ux¿af6 laNs'n} x'bg . ;+/If0fsf] d"ndGq lj1fgl;t /xG5, lj1fglagfsf] F} cgle1 b]lvG5 . k|zf;lgs Joj:yfkg lgodfg';f/sf tf]s cfb]z / l6Kk0fL ;b/sf sfuhdf ;Lldt x'g k'U5 . p2]Zosf af/]df plNnlvt gLltsf] p2]Zo -pk–zLif{s $_ cGtu{t $=! n] g]kfnsf k|To]s l;d;f/sf] lj:t[t cGtdf, Joj:yfkg of]hgf tof/ kfg]{ s'/f pNn]v u/]sf] 5 . o;k|sf/, k|sflzt g]kfnsf] /fli6«o l;d;f/ gLlt, @)%( ljZj;Dkbf ;ª3 cfO{o";LPgn] tof/ kf/]sf] g]kfnsf df pNn]v ul/Ph:t} ;+/If0f / ljsf;sf cfhef]ln k|rlnt l;d;f/x¿sf] k|f/lDes ;"rLd} @$) j6f l;d;f/ 5g, ;a} zAbx¿ ;dfj]z ug]{ k|lqmof k'u]sf] 5, t/ gjLg To;df c¿ sof} F ylkg] j fnf 5g . s] tL ;a} s f] ;f]rfOsf] cefjdf k|sflzt gLlt sfgf] dfdfl;jfo s]xL Joj:yfkg of]hgf tof/ kfg'{ ;Dej 5 < cyjf, ha aGg ;s]sf] 5}g . s] xfdL Tof] pvfgeGbf dfly slxNo} p2] Z osf] sygdf l;d;f/sf] lhDdf :yfgLo p7g} g;Sg] /x]5f+} t < hg;d'bfosf kf]N6fdf xflnG5 eg] s] of] ug'{ cfjZos * n]vs l/;f];; lxdfnosf] r'l/of–l;d;f/ cg';Gwfgdf ;+nUg x'gxG5 . {] '' jftfj/0fLo ;r]ttf Û xfd|f] k|lta4tf ÛÛ /)f÷ kof{ j /)f ÷ 10
  11. 11. k|fs[lts ;Dkbf ;/sf/n] lng' k b{ 5 . To;f] ePdf oxfF ;fF 9 ] eP/ ljefu;Fu ePsf] Go"g ah]6, l;d;f/;DaGwL sfg'gsf] l;F3f}/L v]Nb} a;]sf s]xL ;+:yfx¿n] kSs} klg kf7 cefjh:tf s'/fn] klg ;f] zfvfsf] sfo{If]q ;ªs'lrt l;Sg]5g . ePsf] b]lvG5 . ljZj ;+/If0f ;ª3 / ljZjjGohGt' ;/sf/sf] bfloTj ;d'bfonfO{ ;]jf pknAw u/fpg] / ;+/If0f sf]ifn] h}ljs ljljwtfsf] ;+/If0fsf ;Gbe{df To;sf] k|ltkmnsf] ;dfg'kflts ljt/0f ug]{ x'g'kb{5 . ;/sf/nfO{ ;xof]u u/]sf eP klg l;d;f/ If]qs} ;]jfk|bfg u/]afkt ;]jfu|fxLaf6 /fh:j jf s/ k|fKt ;+/If0f;DaGwL eg] Hofb} yf]/} dfq sfd ePsf 5g . ;f] ug'{ ;/sf/sf] clwsf/ xf] . t/, bftfsf] nx}nx}df zfvfn] ;/sf/L ah]6sf] cefjsf sf/0f tL ;+:yfaf6 nfu]/ jf nufgLsf] k|ToIf nfe lng] lgotn] ;/sf/n] k|fKt x'g] ;xof]udf ;~rflnt x'g'kg]{ cj:yf cfpg' g} Jofkf/ g} ug{ yfNof] eg] p;n] lbg] ;]jfsf] u'0f:t/ ;a}eGbf 7"nf] cK7]/f] x'g;Sb5 . o; cj:yfaf6 kf/ / Odfgbf/Lk|lt cfzªsf ug'{kg]{ x'G5 . TolQdfq xf]Og, kfpg ;/sf/n] l;d;f/ Joj:yfkg ljefu :yfkgf ug'{ l;d;f/ gLltn] lgwf{ / 0f u/] s f] :yfgLo cfjZos b]lvG5 . ;/f]sf/jfnfx¿sf] clwsf/ g} s'l07t x'g] s'/fnfO{ klg 7f]s'jf ug{ ;lsG5 . l;d;f/x¿sf] klxrfg M l;d;f/ gLltsf] k" 0 f{ sfof{Gjogsf nflu g]kfndf slt l;d;f/ If]q 5g eg]/ xfdLsxfF ljutdf ag]sf sfo{qmd, ah]6 ljlgof]hg, yfxf kfpg' cfjZos x'G5 . g]kfndf sf]zL6Kk' jGohGt' sfo{qmd sfof{Gjog cflb ljifonfO{ s]nfpg] xf] eg] cf/If, 3f]8f3f]8L tfn, hubLzk'/ tfn / la;xhf/Ltfn ljs[ltsf k|z:t gd'gf ge]l6g] xf]Ogg . t;y{, ljutdfdfq l;d;f/ If]q xf]Ogg . ljZj ;+/If0f ;ª3n] g]kfndf s;n] s] u¥of] eGg] ljifotkm{ nfUg'eGbf jt{dfg ;dosf] @$) j6f l;d;f/ If]q /x]sf] hgfPsf] eP klg g]kfndf cfjZostf / :yfgLo ;d'bfosf] cj:yfk|lt Wofg s]lGb|t xhf/f}F l;d;f/ If]q 5g, h;sf] klxrfg ul/Psf] 5}g jf x'gkb{5 . jif{df Pslbg l;d;f/ lbj; jf ljZj jftfj/0f ' ul/P klg ltgsf] gfd aflx/ Nofpg] k|of; g} ePsf] lbj; jf h}ljs ljljwtf lbj; dgfpFb}df / Psfw 5}g . jif]gL s/f]8f}F vr{ u/]/ o; If]qdf sfd ug]{ ;+:yfn] { sfo{kqdfly 5nkmn x'bdf :yfgLo ;d'bfo kl/rflnt F } o;;DaGwdf s'/f] rkfpg' lgs} b'vbkIf xf] . x'G5 eGg] ;f]Rg' unt dfq xf]Og, xf:of:kb klg x'G5 .g]kfndf slt l;d;f/ If]q 5g eGg] s'/fsf] k|f/lDes t/ klg o; k|jl[ Qdf ;'wf/sf nIf0f b]Vg kfOPsf] 5}g . cWoog g} ePsf] 5}g . ;Defljt If]qsf] :ynut ofqf leq k;]/ o:tf ljifo vf]tNg] g} xf] eg] lgs} nfdf] ug'{ klxn] g} pknAw tYo tyf ;fwgsf] pkof]u u/L >[ªvnf tof/ x'g;S5 . ;/sf/n] l;d;f/ gLlt nfu" To:tf If]qsf] klxrfg ug{ ;lsG5 . g]kfndf 6f]kf]u|flkms ul/;s]sf] cj:yfdf To;sf] ;xL sfof{Gjog x'g'kb{5 Dofk, l;g]8f Dofk / lkmg]8f Dofk;d]t tof/ eO;s]sf] eGg] s'/fdf ;a} kIfn] hf]8 lbg' hlt h?/L 5, :yfgLo cj:yfdf tL gS;fs} cWoogaf6 klg klxrfg x'g afFsL ;/f]sf/jfnfx¿nfO{ o; ljifodf k|ToIf¿kdf ;+nUg w]/} gofF l;d;f/sf] klxrfg ;Dej x'G5 . olQ sfd ug{ u/fP/ gLltsf] sfof{Gjog Jofjxfl/s¿kdf ug'{ klg TolQs'g} 7"nf] nufgL / vr{ klg nfUb}g . gS;f jf u|fkmsf] g} cfjZos 5 . l;d;f/ gLltsf] sfof{Gjogsf] ;Gbe{df cWoogaf6 If]q klxrfg ug{ Pshgf ljz]if1 / b'O{hgf lgDg ljifonfO{ cufl8 ;fl/g' cfjZos b]lvG5 M ;xof]uLnfO{ Ps jif{ g} nfu] klg t'ngfTds¿kdf w]/} cflwsfl/s lgsfosf] Joj:yf M g]kfndf l;d;f/ sd vr{ nfUb5 . k]ml/ g]kfns} ljz]if1 o; sfo{sf If]qsf] klxrfg / ;+/If0fsf nflu :jtGq t/ cflwsfl/s nflu k"0f{;Ifd ePsfn] o; sfo{sf nflu s'g} ljb]zL lgsfosf] cefj b]lvPsf] 5 . xfn;Dd ;/sf/L tj/af6 ljz]if1 g} rflxg] klg xf]Og . /fli6«o lgs'~h tyf jGohGt' ;+/If0f ljefusf] Pp6f ;/sf/n] l;d;f/ gLlt sfof{Gjog g} ug]{ xf] eg] zfvfn] o;;DaGwL] sfo{ ub}{cfPsf] 5 . ;f] zfvfn] l;d;f/ If]qsf] klxrfgsf nflu tbf¿stf b]vfpg'kb{5 ljefu / ;/sf/;Fu ;dGjo u/]/ sfo{ ul//x]sf] eP / klxrfg ePsf l;d;f/ If]qsf] cfly{s, ;fdflhs, klg l;d;f/ If] q sf] klxrfg, ;+ / If0f / lbuf] ;f+:s[lts / If]qkmnnfO{ cfwf/ dfg]/ ljleGg ju{df Joj:yfkgsf nflu k"0f{¿kdf sfd ug{ ;s]sf] 5}g . ljefhg ug'{kb{5 . o;/L juL{s[t l;d;f/sf] ;+/If0f jftfj/0fLo ;r]ttf Û xfd|f] k|lta4tf ÛÛ /)f÷ kof{ j /)f ÷ 11
  12. 12. k|fs[lts ;Dkbf / lbuf] Joj:yfkgsf nflu pko' Q m sfo{ o f] h gf u/fpg]tkm{ hf]8 lbg' cfjZos x'G5 . cfocfh{gsf agfpg ;lsG5 . gfddf b' O { – rf/ dlxgfsf] tflnd lbF b } d f To;af6 hgr]tgf clej[l4 M l;d;f/nfO{ sfd gnfUg], pAhf /f]huf/Lsf] l;h{gf x'g;Sb}g . tflndk|fKt ljifodf sfd ug{ ltgn] cfjZos k'FhL h'6fpg ;Sb5g jf ;Sb}gg gx'g], k|s[ltsf] cle;fk / v]/ uO/x]sf] e"ldsf ¿kdf eGg] k|Zg dxŒjk"0f{ x'G5 . a}ªsaf6 C0f pknAw lng] rng g]kfndf dfq xf]Og, ljZjsf w]/} :yfgdf u/fpFb}df klg ;d:of ;dfwfg x'Fb}g . C0fsf] ;b'kof]u, cem} k| r lnt 5 . o; kl/k| ] I odf l;d;f/ h} l js sfd ug]{ ljifosf] k|ljlw / pTkflbt j:t' jf ;]jfsf] ljljwtfsf] pko'Qm ynf] xf] / o;sf] ;xL 9ªuaf6 ahf/sf] klg klxrfg Pjd k|a4{g x'g' cfjZos x'G5 . pkof]u ug{ ;lsP k|z:t cfly{s nfe lng ;lsG5 eGg] ;8s oftfoft gePsf] b'u{d ufpFdf uP/ t/sf/L s'/fdf :yfgLo:t/df hgr]tgf clej[l4 ug'{ cfjZos v]tLsf] tflnd lbg'sf] s'g} cf}lrTo x'Fb}g . 5 . jt{ d fg ;dodf cfPsf] l;d;f/ gLltn] o; s' / fnfO{ klg :jLsf/] s f] b] l vG5 . o;sf] cy{ :yfgLo ;d'bfosf] clwsf/sf] /Iff M ;+/If0f, hg;xeflutf / ltgsf] r]tgf j[l4 gePdf l;d;f/ Joj:yfkg, lbuf] ljsf; tyf l;d;f/af6 x'g] pTkfbg gLltn] ;kmntf kfpg ;Sb} g eGg] cg' e j / ;] j fdfly :yfgLo ;d' b fo tyf ;/f] s f/jfnfsf] gLltlgdf{tfaf6 ePsf] b]lvG5 . t/, k|Zg a'emfO / gLlt clwsf/ slt x'g] xf], To;sf] lgwf{/0f x'g' h?/L 5 . th'{df u/fOdf dfq ;Lldt x'Fb}g . d"n s'/f o;sf] :yfgLo ufpFn]nfO{ o:tf ljifodf /fd|f] hfgsf/L x'Fb}g . sfof{ G jog xf] . gLltn] pNn] v u/] s f] hgr] t gf lzIff / r]tgfsf] cefjdf /x]sf :yfgLo ;d'bfon] clej[ l 4sf] ljifonfO{ ;/sf/n] :yfgLo ;d' b fodf l;d;f/sf ljifodf hfgsf/L kfP eg] / ;/sf/n] Kofs]h sfo{qmd lnP/ hfg' cfjZos 5 . To:tf] Kofs]h ltgsf] clwsf/ /Iffsf] lhDdf lnof] eg] kf] jf:tljs sfo{qmdn] ;d'bfosf ;a} ;b:onfO{ ;d]6g ;Sg'kb{5 . ljsf;sf] k|f/De x'g;Sb5, cGoyf nufgL / k|of; b'j} j}slNks ;|f]tsf] Joj:yf M sf]zL6Kk' jGohGt' cf/If lg:kmn aGg;Sb5g . ;/f]sf/jfnsf] clwsf/ / ltgn] Joxf]g'{kg]{ bflwTjsf ;DaGwdf ;/sf/n] cfk"m :jod / g]kfnsf] ;a}eGbf 7"nf] / ljZjd} kl/lrt ;/sf/åf/f ;/f]sf/jfnfx¿nfO{ k"0f{¿kdf ;';"lrt u/fpg'kb{5 . ;+/lIft l;d;f/ xf] . ljZjd} gkfOg] b'n{e r/f / cgf{ :yfgLo ;d'bfonfO{ ;d]t To:tf] If]qsf] ;+/If0f ug]{ kfOg' o;sf] uf}/jdo kIf klg xf] . ut ;ftf dfq ;d" x df ;dfj] z u/fP/ ltgx¿sf] cfjZostfsf] g]kfnsf] r/f dxf]T;j dgfOPsf] sf]zL6Kk'sf] jf:tljs ufyf eg] km/s / kL8fbfoL 5 . sf]zL6Kk' cf/If klxrfg ug]{, lg0fo{k|lqmofdf ltgnfO{ ;xefuL u/fpg], cf;kf;sf ufpFn]n] To;af6 s] nfe k|fKt u/]sf 5g / pgLx¿sf] ljifonfO{ k|fyldstf lbg] / To:tf If]qaf6 ToxfF ltgaf6 x'g] cltqmd0f lgoGq0f ug{ s:tf] /0fgLlt k|fKt nfesf] lglZrt efu :yfgLo ;d'bfosf] clwsf/ clVtof/ ul/Psf] 5 eg]/ 3f]lTng'kg]{ cj:yf klg Ho"F /Iff tyf cfocfh{gsf sfo{df nufpg] u/L ljz]if sf To"F 5 . To; If]qnfO{ dWojtL{ If]qsf ¿kdf lnP/ sf] i fsf] :yfkgf ug] { h :tf k| o f; ul/Pdf kl/0ffd :yfgLo ;d'bfosf] cfjZostf k"lt{ ug]{ k|of; ePsf] ;sf/fTds g} x'g]5 . 5 . tyflk, h'g :t/df vr{ ul/Psf] 5, To;}:t/df l;d;f/ h}ljs ljljwtfsf] ;ªudynf] dfq geP/ b'n{e ;d'bfonfO{ j}slNks ;|f]t pknAw u/fpg] sfo{ eg] hLj / jg:kltsf] ;+/If0fs]Gb| klg xf] . o; If]qaf6 x'g] ePsf] 5}g . ltgn] cfˆgf kz'nfO{ 3fF; v'jfpg gkfpg] ef} l ts tyf cef} l ts nfenfO{ ;dfg¿kdf /fv] / cj:yf l;h{gf eof] eg] s[lifsf w]/} If]qdf To;sf] k|ToIf Joj:yfkg of] h gf tof/ u/] d f k| f s[ l ts ;| f ] t c;/ kb{5 . bfp/f ;ªsng ug{ gkfP OGwgsf nflu Joj:yfkgn] ;d:of lg¿k0fsf] gofF ¿k k|fKt ug]{5 . t8lkg'kg]{ x'G5 . o:tf w]/} ljifo :yfgLo cfjZostfsf ctM l;d;f/ Joj:yfkgaf6 k|fKt x'g] k|ToIf nfenfO{ ;/f]sf/sf ljifo aGb5g . ctM To:tf If]qdf lghL dfq df}lb|s d"Nodf cfFsng ug]{ xf] eg] o:tf s'/fdf jgsf] ljsf;, 3fF ; v] t L, gjLs/0fLo pmhf{ d f ;do vr{ ug'{ g} a]sf/ x'G5 . lsgeg] l;d;f/ k|ToIf cg' b fgh:tf ljifodf :yfgLo ;d' b fonfO{ ;+ n Ug nfesf t'ngfdf ck|ToIf nfe g} a9L k|fKt x'G5 . jftfj/0fLo ;r]ttf Û xfd|f] k|lta4tf ÛÛ /)f÷ kof{ j /)f ÷ 12
  13. 13. k|fs[lts ;Dkbf :d/0fLo 5, o:tf] ck|ToIf nfe, k|ToIf nfesf] t'ngfdf uP/ o;nfO{ Jofjxfl/s ¿kdf sfof{Gjog ug{ w]/} s}of}F u'0ffa9L d"Nojfg x'G5 . ctM l;d;f/af6 k|fKt lsl;dsf r' g f} t Lsf] ;fdgf ug' { k g] { x' g ;Sb5 . x'g] pTkfbg / ;a} ;]jfnfO{ d"Nodf ¿kfGt/0f u/L o; ;/sf/n] To:tf r'gf}tLsf] ;fdgf ug]{ ;fx; h'6fP/ If]qsf] Joj:yfkg sfo{qmdsf] ¿k/]vf th'{df u/] a9L o; If]qdf cufl8 a9g' >]o:s/ x'g]5 . l;d;f/sf] k|efjsf/L x'g]5 . Joj:yfkg / ;+/If0f sfo{k|ult :ynuteGbf sfuhL– l;d;f/ gLlt sfof{Gjogsf oL ljifoj:t' em§ x]bf{ 7]nLd} lrQ a'emfpg] cj:yf cfof] eg] Tof] ;a}sf lgs} ;lhnf / ;/n b]lvG5g . t/, :yfgLo txdf nflu b':s/ ;fljt x'g]5 . ✪ ljZj arfp ;+:yf ;fdflhs sfo{df cu|;/ ljZj arfp ;+:yfsf] cfly{s ;xof]u tyf ;lqmotfdf u/fpg] p2]Zon] ;f]xL uflj;l:yt k|l;4 af}4Zj/ dlGb/sf] ] sf7df8f} F lhNnfsf] b' u { d ufpF ;F U nf ufpF ljsf; cf;kf;df jgef]h sfo{qmdsf] cfof]hgf;d]t ul/Psf] ;ldltl:yt s7]/L k|fylds yfxf x'g cfPsf] 5 . ljBfnosf] k| f ª u 0fdf zflGtsf] :yfkgf, dfgj– vfg]kfgLsf] wf/f lgdf{0f sfo{ clwsf/ ;+ / If0f, ;DkGg ePsf] 5 . cfly{s cfocfh{ g sf ljleGg ;|f]tsf] cefjdf /x]sf] ;f] sfo{qmd;d]t ;~rfng ub}{ ljBfnosf] lgoldt cfPsf] ;f] ;+:yfn] ul/a / k7gkf7gsf nflu h] x ] G bf/ 5fq5fqfnfO{ ;xof] u :j¿k Ps 5fqj[ l Q;d] t k| b fg ub} { lzlIfsf;d] t pknAw cfPsf] 5 . ;+:yfsf cWoIf u/fPsf] ;f] ;+:yfn] lgdf{0f lzj >]i7sf cg';f/ xfn ul/lbPsf] vfg] k fgLsf] emf]/ dxfªsfn ufpF ljsf; wf/faf6 ljBfnosf ljBfyL{, ;ldltl:yt af}4]Zj/ dfWolds ljBfnodf cWoog/t !$ lzIfs;d]t :yfgLo afl;Gbfn] klg nfe k|fKt ug]{ s'/f hgf ul/a tyf h]x]Gbf/ ljBfyL{nfO{ ljut # jif{b]lv atfOPsf] 5 . ;+:yfsf cWoIf lzj >]i7n] ;+:yfsf 5fqj[ l Q k| b fg ub} { cfPsf] 5 . ;+ : yfn] xfn;Dd kblwsf/L, :yfgLo a'l4hLjL, ;dfh;]jL, lzIfs tyf clw/fHosf ^% hgf 5fq5fqfnfO{ 5fqj[ l Q k| b fg ljBfyL{x¿sf] pkl:yltdf ljz]if sfo{qmdsf ;fy lgld{t ul/;s] s f] yfxf ePsf] 5 . ;+ : yfn] ;do–;dodf wf/fsf] pb 3 f6g ug' { e Psf] lyof] . wf/f pb 3 f6g lgMz' N s :jf:Yo lzlj/;d] t ;~rfng ub} { cfPsf] sfo{qmd;Fu} u|fdL0f hgtfdf ;dfh;]jfsf] efjgf hfu[t hgfOPsf] 5 . –kof{j/0f ;Dafbbftf ;fOsnsf] rSsfaf6 rvf{ agfO{ 8fF8fem]/L ufpF ljsf; dfWodaf6 %) ld6/ tn NofP/ ToxfF lah'nLsf] ;fdfGo ;ldlt j8f g+= & /fdsf]6df Ps jif{cl3 6]lnlehg pks/0f hf]8/ ufpFsf tLg 3/df lah'nL aQL afNg] Joj:yf ] ;~rfng u/L ;a} n fO{ cfZro{ d f ldnfPsf 5g . ;xof]u kfP glhs} kf/] s f gjnk/f;L lhNnf 5/5/] rt'/]sf] csf]{ rdTsf/ /x]sf] ;fFbfvf]nfsf] kfgL3f6df lgs6 ufpFsf rgaxfb'/ ;f¿ rt'/]n] s'jfsf] kfgLaf6 lah'nL eljiodf g} lah'nL lgsfn]/ a'lnª6f/ / 8fF8fem]/L ufpF lgsfn]/ km]l/ Psk6s ;a}nfO{ cfZro{df kf/]sf 5g . ljsf; ;ldltsf ;of}F kl/jf/nfO{ ;]jf k'¥ofpg;Sg] bfaL cfˆg} k| o f] u x¿df ;w} F tNnLg /xg] rt' / ] n ] cf}krfl/s¿kdf dflyNnf] txsf] s'g} lzIff k|fKt u/]sf pT;fxL rgaxfb'/n] u/]sf 5g . pgn] u/]sf] sfo{sf] 5}gg . pgL rt'/] ;fdfGo n]vk9 dfq ug{ hfGb5g . k|rf/k|;f/ ePkl5 pgnfO{ lgs} dflg;x¿n] ;xof]u u/]sf] lyP . ;fdfGo s[ifs rt'/n] u/]sf o; pbfx/0fLo sfo{af6 ] Psjif{ klxn] ;fOsnsf] rSsf k|of]u u/L rvf{ agfP/ pmhf{ pTkfbg u/L pgn] ufpFel/ 6]lnlehg x]g{] OR5fnfO{ ;dfhdf ;sf/fTds k|efj kg]{ / ;dfhn] g} ;'v kfpg] ;fsf/ kf/]sf lyP . pgn] 8fF8fem]/L ufpF ljsf; ;ldlt x'bf 5/5/]sf afl;Gbf bªu k/]sf 5g . F j8f g+= * 5/5/]df ;fgf] s'jfdf /x]sf] kfgLnfO{ kfOksf] –/f}gs nfld5fg], 8fF8fem]/L jftfj/0fLo ;r]ttf Û xfd|f] k|lta4tf ÛÛ /)f÷ kof{ j /)f ÷ 13
  14. 14. jftfj/0fLo r'gf}tL lalu|Psf] jftfj/0f / eujfg v8sf dfgj lrGtf s'g} ;r]t kl/jf/df aRrf hlGdof] eg] To; kl/jf/n] j/k/sf] jftfj/0fk|lt lrGtf JoQm ug{ yfNb5 . …;ªut ;fyL;ªut dfq jftfj/0f xf]Og . jftfj/0fsf] kl/efiffn] u'gfsf] kmnÚ eGg] g]kfnL pvfgsf] k|rngn] u|fdL0f w] / } a[ x b If] q cf] u 6 b 5 . oxL Jofkstfsf sf/0f ;d' b fodf /x] s f] dfgjLo rfnrng, Jojxf/ / jftfj/0f clxn] ljZjsf nflu dxŒjk"0f{ / uDeL/ rf;f]sf] ultljlw;F u ;DalGwt jftfj/0fnfO{ hgfpF b 5 . ljifo ag] s f] 5 . x/] s dfgjsf lqmofsnfkn] o;}sf/0f gofF aRrfsf] ;fdflhs ;ªut, ldqx¿sf] jftfj/0fnfO{ k| l ts" n c;/ kfl//x] s f] 5 . dflg; Jojxf/h:tf ljifodf kl/jf/n] ;f]Rg] ub{5 . aRrfnfO{ jftfj/0fsf] Ps cleGg cª u eP klg p;sf ;fyL ;ªutsf] cfjZostf gx'Fbf;Dd p;sf cleefjs lqmofsnfk g} k[YjLdf lg/Gt/ ablnFbf] jftfj/0fsf] s]jn ;f]Rg] dfq unf{g t/ ha aRrf ;fyL;ªutdf sf/s klg ag]sf 5g . ctM jftfj/0f ljgf;sf] k|d'v nfUb5, cleefjs Tof] s:tf] ;ªut xf] eg]/ rgfvf] lhDd]jf/L klg p;}df hfG5 . x'g]ub{5 / v/fa ;ªutaf6 5'6fpg] k|oTg ub{5 . ljsf;sf b[li6sf]0f of] o'u lj1fg / k|ljlwsf] o'u xf] . afnaRrfsf nflu ;fyL;ªut d'Vo jftfj/0f xf] . lj1fgn / k| l jlwsf] ljsf; / lg/Gt/ gjLs/0fn] dflysf] pvfgcg';f/ klg h:tf] ;ªutdf aRrf x'Sof]{, dfgjhfltnfO{ cfw'lgs ;Eotfsf] prfOdf k'¥ofPsf] 5 . To;n] To:t} Jojxf/ u|x0f ub{5 . /fd|f] ;ªutdf aRrfn] t/ k|fs[lts jftfj/0fdf ljsf; / cf}Bf]lusLs/0faf6 rnv]n ug{ kfof] eg] To;sf] eljio Tot}lt/ 8f]xf]l/G5 . kl//x]sf] k|lts"n k|efj dfgjhLjgs} nflu cle;fklz4 g/fd|f] ;ªutdf nfUof] eg] p;n] ToxL Jojxf/ u|x0f x'g yfn]sf] 5 . Pstkm{ lj1fg / k|ljlwsf] ljsf;af6 u/]/ k|:t't x'G5 . k|fKt pknlAw xfd|f] nflu j/bfg;fljt ePsf] 5 eg] oxfF ljj]rgf ug{ vf]lhPsf] ljifo jftfj/0fn] dflg;nfO{ csf]{tkm{ jftfj/0fLo ljgf; / k|b"if0f cfˆg} v'§fdf s;/L k|efj kfb{5 eGg] xf] . dfgj aGr/f] xfg]h:tf] ePsf] 5 . lj1fg ;dfhdf jftfj/0fsf] dxŒj slt s'g} ;dosf] k/df0f'c:qdf / k| l jlwsf] ljsf;sf sf/0f x'G5 eGg] s'/fsf] ;fdfGo b[i6fGt zlQmzfnL /fi6« ?;nfO{ clxn] cfljisf/ ePsf ljleGg oGq / dfq xf] of] . jf:tjdf Pp6f ltgsf] ;~rfng ug{ k| o f] u x' g ] ltg} k/df0f' xltof/ s;/L ljleGg pmhf{hGo j:t'sf] hngaf6 dfgjn] k[YjLdf kfOnf 6]s]b]lv g} p;dfly jftfj/0fn] slt k|efj gi6 ug]{ eGg] lrGtfn] ;tfPsf] pTkGg x' g ] xflgsf/s tŒj, kfb{5 eGg] s'/fnfO{ a'emg aRrfsf] 5 . lgld{t / ;l~rt xltof/ pBf] u ;lh{ t kbfy{ , xftxltof/ / dgf]j[lQb]lv g} cWoog ul/g'k5{ . gi6 ug{ ?;nfO{ cfly{s ltgsf] k| o f] u af6 pT;h{ g x' g ] afnaRrfsf] nflu klxnf] jftfj/0f sf/0fn] klg 7"nf] r'gf}tL tŒjx¿n] k| f s[ l ts jftfj/0fnfO{ 3/sf cleefjs x'g eg] bf];|f] b]vfk/]sf] 5 . dxŒjk"0f{ s'/f lg/Gt/ k|b"lift agfO/x]sf] 5 . o;/L >]0fLdf p;sf ;fyL;ªut kb{5g . jt{ d fg ;dodf eO/x] s f] eg]sf] cf0fljs xltof/sf] jftfj/0fLo ljgf; tyf k| b " i f0f oL b' j } jftfj/0f c;n ePdf aRrfn] x's{g] qmddf g/fd|f] af6f] k|of]u jf gi6 ug{ h'g;'s} z}nL 36fpg] / u' 0 f:t/Lo jftfj/0fsf] lng] ;Defjgf w]/} Go"g x'G5 . k|of]u u/] klg To;n] lgdf{0f tyf ;+/If0f lj1fgsf nflu Pp6f aRrfn] x's{g] qmddf k|fKt jftfj/0fdfly gsf/fTds c;/ g} r'gf}tLsf] ljifo ag]sf] 5 . ug] { :jefjhGo jftfj/0fsf] kb{5 / cfly{s gf]S;fgL klg cf0fljs xltof/ tyf pmhf{ k| e fjnfO{ g} u| x 0f ub{ 5 t/, u/fp“ 5 . pTkfbgsf ljleGg k|ljlwsf] ljsf;n] ljj] r gf ul/Ph:t} 3/kl/jf/ / jftfj/0fLo k|b"if0fnfO{ cem ljs/fn jftfj/0fLo ;r]ttf Û xfd|f] k|lta4tf ÛÛ /)f÷ kof{ j /)f ÷ 14
  15. 15. jftfj/0fLo r'gf}tL agfPsf] 5 . ut ztfAbLsf] cGtlt/ ePsf] ;f]leot ljsf;sf sf/0f x'g] k|b"if0fsf] lhDd]jf/ ljsl;t /fi6«nfO{ ?;sf] r]gf]{ljn cf0fljs e§Lsf] r'xfj6 eP/ pTkGg dfq dflgGYof] eg] clxn] ljsf;f]Gd'v d'n's klg To;sf] ljls/0faf6 k/]sf] k|efjsf] sNkgfdfq} ug]{ xf] eg] klg efuLbf/ aGg yfn]sf 5g . gflesLo k|b"if0f slt vt/fo'Qm x'G5 eGg] :ki6 x'G5 . jftfj/0f k|b"if0f hxfFaf6, h;/L k|f/De ePsf] eP klg ljZjsf clt ljsl;t d'n'sx¿n] klg cf0fljs e§Lsf] of] ;d:of ljsl;t /fi6«df dfq ;Lldt 5}g . ljZjsf :yfkgf / cf0fljs xltof/sf] ljsf;df cfk"mnfO{ cu|;/ g]kfnh:tf cljsl;t tyf ljsf;f]Gd'v /fi6«df o;sf] u/fO/x]sf 5g . ljZjdf /x]sf] cf0fljs zlQmsf] xf]8n] ;d:of cem eofgs aGb} 5 . lzIff tyf hgr]tgfsf] k|fs[lts jftfj/0fdf lgZro g} k|lts"n k|efj kfb{5 . cefj, ul/aL tyf k| f s[ l ts ;| f ] t dflysf] cTolws cfw'lgs k|ljlwsf] ljsf; / ltgsf] k|of]un] ;Dk"0f{ hLjsf lge{/tf, a9bf] e|i6frf/ / jGo;|f]tsf] t:s/Lh:tf w]/} sf/0fn] ljsf;f] G d' v d' n ' s df jftfj/0f ;+ / If0f / nflu geO{ gx'g] k|f0fjfo' /x]sf] jfo'd08nnfO{ ;a}eGbf a9L ;Daw{gsf lqmofsnfk lgs} k5fl8 k/]sf 5g . k|bl" ift agfpg] sfd eO/x]sf] 5 . o;sf sf/0f k|fs[lts jftfj/0fsf k|To]s 36sdf k|bif0f >[ªvnfa4¿kdf a9b} " ljsf;f]Gd'v d'n'ssf nflu cfly{s ljsf; k|fylds r'gf}tL ePsf sf/0f ltgn] ub}cfPsf] cf}Bf]lusLs/0fdf { uPsf] 5 . o;/L jftfj/0fsf] ljZjJofkL k|bif0f a9fpg] " jftfj/0fLo Joj:yfkgn] k|fyldstf kfpg g;Sg' n ] sfddf cf}Bf]lusLs/0f, cJojl:yt ;x/Ls/0fh:tf s'/fn] jftfj/0fLo ljgf;sf] d'Vo ;|f]tsf] ¿kdf ul/a /fi6«x¿ d'Vo e"ldsf lgjf{x u/]sf 5g . g} b] v fkg{ yfn] s f 5g . jt{ d fg ;dodf k| b " i f0f x' g t jftfj/0f ljgf;sf ;DaGwdf xfn cfP/ Go"gLs/0fsf k|of;df s]xL rf;f] a9]sf] cg'ej ul/P klg ljZjJofkL¿kdf lrGtf ug{ yflnPsf] 5 . jf:tjdf To;n] Jofjxfl/s¿kdf k"0f{tf kfpg ;s]sf] 5}g . lalu|Psf] jftfj/0f ;'wf/ ug'{ 7"nf] r'gf}tLk"0f{ sfo{ klg g]kfns} ;Gbe{df eGg] xf] eg] sf7df8f}F pkTosfdf un}rf F xf] . cfkm}Fn] lgdf{0f u/]sf j}1flgs k|ljlw, xftxltof/, pBf]usf] clgolGqt ;~rfngn] hnk|b"if0fdf NofPsf] ljs/fn ;d:of ;dfwfg ug] { p2] Z on] w] / } un} F r f cf} B f] l us ljsf;, k| f s[ l ts ;| f ] t sf] clgof] l ht sf/vfgf sf7df8f}+ pkTosfaf6 x6fpg] lg0f{o ePsf] pkef]uh:tf sf/0fn] lgDTofPsf] jftfj/0fLo ;d:ofn] lyof], h'g sfof{Gjog x'g;s]g . jf:tjdf sf/vfgf g} ljZjnfO{ g} lk/f]n]sf] 5 . s'g} ;dosf] k/df0f' c:qdf lj:yfkg ug]{ jf :yfgfGt/0f ug]{ sfo{ jftfj/0fLo zlQmzfnL /fi6« ?;nfO{ clxn] ltg} k/df0f' xltof/ b[li6sf]0faf6 s]xL ;sf/fTds b]lvP klg Jojxfl/s ¿kdf s;/L gi6 ug]{ eGg] lrGtfn] ;tfPsf] 5 . 7"nf] dfqfdf Tof] cg'lrt cyjf kl/df0ffTds ¿kdf sdL Nofpg] lgld{t / ;l~rt xltof/ gi6 ug{ ?;n] cfly{s sf/0fn] pkfo dfq lyof] . un}rf sf/vfgf rnfpFbf To;af6 kg]{ F k|lts"n k|efj tyf lg/fs/0f k|b"if0f Go"g ug{ cGo klg TolQs} 7"nf] r'gf}tL Joxf]g'k/]sf] 5 . dxŒjk"0f{ s'/f pkfox¿sf] klxrfg u/L ltgsf] sfof{Gjog ug'{ lxts/ eg]sf] cf0fljs xltof/sf] k|of]u jf gi6 ug{ h'g;'s} x'gtkm{ s;}sf] Wofg uPsf] b]lvPg . sf7df8f}+ pkTosfdf ] z}nL k|of]u u/] klg To;n] jftfj/0fdfly gsf/fTds s]lGb|t un}+rf sf/vfgfx¿ sf7df8f}+aflx/ k7fpFb}df c;/ kb{5 / cfly{s gf]S;fgL klg u/fpF5 . jftfj/0f k| b " i f0f x' F b } g eGg] 5} g . Tof] ;d:of sf7df8f}aflx/ ;g]{ dfq g xf] . F jftfj/0fsf] csf]{ b'Zdg cf}Bf]lus ljsf; klg xf] . g]kfnsf] kl/j]zdf eGg'kbf{ a9bf] ;x/Ls/0f / clgolGqt pBf]uaf6 lg:s]sf] kmf]xf]/, w"jfF / k|b"lift /;fogn] ;du| a;f]af; Pjd ;jf/L;fwgsf] a9bf] rfkn] ubf{ jftfj/0f jftfj/0fnfO{ lg/Gt/ k| b " l ift agfO/x] s f] 5 . v' n f ljgf; eO/x]sf] 5 . sf7df8f}+ pkTosfnufotsf cGo xfjfdf Zjf; lng] :ynLo hLj dfq xf]Og, hnLo ;x/LIf]qdf Jojl:yt a;f]af;, pko'Qm af6f], au}Frf, k|f0fLn] ;d]t jftfj/0fLo k|b"if0fsf] k|efjsf] ;fdgf kmf]xf]/d}nf lgoGq0f cflbsf] Joj:yfsf] bL3{sfnLg ;f]r ug'{kl//x]sf] 5 . cf}Bf]lus k|b"if0fsf] ¿kdf lgl:sPsf] Pjd of] h gfsf] th' { d f ug{ ;/sf/sf] Wofg k'u]sf] b]lvFb}g . To;}u/L u|fdL0f jftfj/0f k|bif0fdf jg;Dkbfsf] " /;fog gbL, vf]nf / ;d'b|df ˆofFSg] k|j[lQn] hnk|b"if0f ljgf;, s[lifdf cTolws /f;folgs dn / sL6gf;s al9/x]sf] 5 . klZrdL d'n'saf6 k|f/De ePsf] cf}Bf]lus cf}iflwsf] k|of]u / clzIffh:tf s'/fn] d'Vo e"ldsf lgjf{x ljsf; ljsf;f] G d' v tyf cljsl;t /fi6« d f km} n F b f ub{5g . ctM jftfj/0f k|bif0fsf] ;d:of ;x/ / u|fdL0f " To;sf] k|ljlwdf dfq xf]Og, jftfj/0fLo k|b"if0f klg b'j} If]qdf eP klg To;sf] sf/0f / cj:yf eg] km/s ;F u } km} n gk' U of] . s] x L bzsklxn] ; Dd cf} B f] l us /x]sf 5g . ★ jftfj/0fLo ;r]ttf Û xfd|f] k|lta4tf ÛÛ /)f÷ kof{ j /)f ÷ 15
  16. 16. jfo'kbif0f | " hf 8f]go]ufddf. ;x/L If]qdfb"ijfo'kQ|bm"if0fdf slgs}cTolws x' b{5 3gfa:tL, k| f0fo' kbfy{ f] j[l4 / ;8s afnaflnsfx¿ h] kfof], ToxL afn]/ cfuf] tfKg ljjz x' G 5g . hf8f] d f o;/L aflng] j:t' x ¿df lj;h{g, ltgsf] yfGsf] nufpg] plrt Joj:yfsf] cefj ˆofFlsPsf Knfl:6s, kmf]d, 6fo/ jf d'b|fdf ¿kfGtl/t / k| f s[ l ts¿kdf k| b " i f0f lgd{ n Ls/0fsf nflu gx'g] cGo aNg] j:t' kb{5g . oL j:t' afNbf afSnf] / jghªunsf] cefjh:tf sf/0fn] ;x/L If]qdf To;} klg sfnf] w"jfF dfq xf]Og, ljiffQm kbfy{x¿ jfo'd08ndf jfo'kbif0f a9bhfg] u/]sf] kfOG5 . To;df klg hf8f]ofddf |" } lj;h{g x'G5g / jfo'k|b"if0fsf] dfqfnfO{ a9fpFb5g . ;x/L If]qdf jfo'kbif0f emg j[l4 x'g] ub{5 . cflv/ lsg |" ;x/L If]qdf w]/} ;jf/L;fwg u'8g] ub{5g . o;/L u'8g] a9b5 ;x/L If]qdf jfo'kbif0f hf8f] ofddf < |" ;jf/L;fwg s}of}F jif{ k'/fgf / yf]qf /x]sf kfOG5g . != ul/aL;“usf] lr;f] M g]kfnsf sf7df8f}F, nlntk'/, o:tf yf]qf uf8L jf cGo ;jf/L;fwgn] cTolws w"jfF eQmk'/, jL/uGh, lj/f6gu/h:tf 7"nf ;x/df /f]huf/Lsf / xflgsf/s tŒj lj;h{g ug]{ t lglZrt g} 5, ltgsf] cj;/sf] vf] h Ldf u| f dL0f If] q sf ljkGg dflg;sf] dd{t;Def/sf nflu htftt} v'n]sf Uof/]hx¿df sfo{/t pkl:ylt klg TolQs} x'g]ub{5 . kmf]xf]/;Fu} kmflnPsf clwsfªz afndhb'/n] klg afNgnfO{ ;lhn} / lgMz'Ns r9bf] 708L Knfl:6s, af]tn jf cGo wft'hGo kbfy{ ;ªsng u/]/ a9bf] jfo'kbif0f | " cfˆgf] hLjg lgjf{x ul//x]sf dflg;x¿sf] ;ªVof klg ✍ uf]kfnk|;fb b'nfn ljz] i fu/L sf7df8f} F pkTosfdf yf] / } 5} g . af6f] – k|fKt x'g] 6fo/ g} k|of]u ub{5g . o;sf cltl/Qm un}Frf rf}af6f]df 6fo/sf] v/fgLdf n'6k'l6P/ a:g] ;8s afnaflnsf klg ;x/L If]qsf k]6Ld} cf>o lng]ub{5g . pBf]udf sfd ug]{ dhb'/ klg To:t} ljiffn'tŒj lg:sg] hf8f] t cflv/ hf8f] g} xf] Û o;n] ;DkGg–ljkGgaLr j:t' afn]/ cfuf] tfKg ljjz /x]sf 5g . ul/aLsf sf/0f a:gsf nflu Gofgf] 3/ / tftf] k|fKt ug{sf nflu s'g} lje]b klg t ub}{g . Gofgf] 3/ ePsf ;DkGg dflg; klg l;/sdf u'6d'l6P/ lx6/sf] /fk lnFb} ;'Tg' kg]{ k|b"if0f/lxt OGwg k|of]u ug{ g;Sg]h:tf ljljw sf/0fsf s7ofªu|g] hf8f]df ljkGg dflg;n] s] ug]{ < pgLx¿;Fu cltl/Qm hf8f]ofddf a9g] cTolws w"d|kfgsf sf/0f klg jfo'k|b"if0f j[l4 x'g] sfo{df ;xof]u k'lu/x]sf] x'G5 . g Gofgf n'uf 5g g t a:gnfO{ ;'/lIft 3/ g}, g afNgsf nflu pko'Qm OGwg . o:tf] kl/j]zdf ;x/L @= yf]qf ;jf/L;fwg / ltgsf] rfk M jfudtL If]qdf /x]sf 7"nf] ;ªVofsf kmf]xf]/df cfl>t ljkGgx¿ c~rndf btf{ ePsf ;fjf/L;fwgsf] ;ªVof clxn] jftfj/0fLo ;r]ttf Û xfd|f] k|lta4tf ÛÛ /)f÷ kof{ j /)f ÷ 16
  17. 17. jfo'kbif0f | " c9fO nfvsf] xf/fxf/Ldf k' l u;s] s f] 5 . pknAw g} pko' Q m x' G 5 . o;k| s f/ afnL leq o fpg] sfo{ tYofªscg';f/ o; c~rndf btf{ x'g] ;jf/L;fwgsf] ;lsPkl5 OF6fe§fsf] sfd k|f/De eP/ csf]{ jiff{bsf] ;ª V of jflif{ s !& k| l tztsf b/n] j[ l 4 eO/x] s f] df};d k|f/De x'g'cufl8;Dd OF6f kf]Ng] sfo{ lg/Gt/ b]lvG5 . t/ ;8ssf] lj:tf/ To;sf] t'ngfdf cfwf rNg]ub{5 . OF6fe§fsf] ;~rfng hf8f]ofdsf] k|f/Deaf6} klg j[l4 x'g;s]sf] 5}g . o; cj:yfdf oxfF lelqPsf x'g] ePsfn] lr;f] df};ddf jfo'k|b"if0f a9fpg logn] ;jf/L;fwgsf] Jojl:yt ;~rfng x'g g;Sg' s' g } 7" n f] e" l dsf lgjf{ x ub{ 5 g . hf8f] o fds} k| f /lDes cfZro{sf] s'/f xf]Og . o;sf cltl/Qm xfn;Dd btf{ lbgaf6 ejg lgdf{0fsf] k|lqmofn] klg c;fdfGo ult ePsf tL;f}F jif{ k'/fgf ;jf/L;fwgn] klg pkTosfsf lng]ub{5 . ;8sdf £of/{–£of/{ u/]/} eP klg bf}8g] cj;/ kfO/x]sf $= hnjfo'sf] cj:yf M jiff{ df};ddf jfo'df ePsf 5g . ;8sdf nfdf] nfd nfu]/ lg/Gt/ £of/{–£of/{ ug]{ k| b " i f0fsf s0f jf w" n f] n fO{ kfgLn] lg/Gt/¿kdf / sfnf] tyf ljiffQm w"jfFsf] d':nf] 5f8g] uf8Lsf] ;ªVof olsg ug{ klg g;lsg] cj:yfsf] 5 . o;n] ubf{ ;x/L kvfNg]ub{5 . o;sf cltl/Qm hf8f] df};dafx]ssf If]qdf jfo'k|b"if0f lg/Gt/ j[l4 eO/xg] k|lqmofsf ¿kdf df};ddf tfkqmd s]xL a9L x'g] ub{5 . tfkqmd a9L /x]sf] 5 . x'Fbf jfo' ultzLn /xg] tyf ;fk]lIfs cfb{|tf klg @)%% ;fnd} cTolws w"jfF kmfNg] l8h]naf6 rNg] t'ngfTds¿kdf 36g]ub{5 . o;f] x'Fbf jfo'k|b"if0fsf ljqmd6]Dkf]nfO{ sf7df8f}Faf6 lj:yfkg ug{sf nflu o'/f]– tŒj jf w"ns0f;d]t xn'sf eP/ jfo'd08nsf] dflyNnf] ! jf OlG8of– @))) dfkb08 k"/f u/]sf dfOqmf]a; txtkm{ lkmFlhG5g / To;sf] k|efj 365 . o;sf] ljk/Lt leq o fpg] lg0f{ o eP klg oxfF u' 8 g ] clwsfª z lr;f] df};ddf jiff{ sd x'g] x'Fbf jfo'df /x]sf k|b"ifstŒj ;jf/L;fwgn] k|b"if0f dfkb08 k"/f ub}{gg . jftfj/0fs} kvflng] ;Defjgf klg sd x'G5 . To;}u/L jfo'd08n b[ l i6n] pko' Q m dfg] / lr;f] x'g], jfo'sf] ult l:y/ leqofOPsf ltg} dfOqmf]a; jfo'k|b"if0fsf k|d'v c;/x¿ /xg], dflyNnf] txaf6 tNnf] klg yf] q f eO;s] s f 5g . • Zjf;k|Zjf;;DaGwL ;d:ofdf j[l4 . txtkm{ jfo'sf] rfk a9g], ;do–;dodf dd{ t ;Def/ ;fk]lIfs cfb{|tf klg clws gul/gfn] k'/fgf x'g jf gofF, • Zjf;k|Zjf;;DaGwL bL3{/f]uLsf] ;ªVofdf j[l4 . x' g ] / afSnf] s' l x/f] n ] tL uf8Ln] 7"nf] kl/df0fdf • d'6'sf /f]uLsf] ;ªVof j[l4 . k|b"if0fnfO{ ;d]6]/ /fVg] x'Fbf ljiffQm w"jfF pT;h{g ub{5g . • SofG;/ nfUg] ;Defjgfdf j[l4 . lr;f] df};ddf pkTosfsf] To;df klg hf8f] df};ddf o:tf afxgsf] OlGhg rfn' • /f]usf] pkrf/df nfUg] vr{ jf nufgLdf j[l4 . jfo' d 08n b" l ift w" j fF / -:6f6{_ x'g lgs} sl7g x'g] x'Fbf w"nf]n] emg k|b"if0fo'Qm x'G5 . OlGhg ttfpg w]/} nfdf] ;do £of/{–£of/{ kfg'{kg]{ x'G5 . %= ef}uf]lns cj:yf M jfo'k|b"if0f a9g'df ef}uflns o;/L hf8f]ofddf jfo'k|b"if0f cToflws j[l4 x'G5 . cj:yfn] klg dxŒjk"0f{ e"ldsf lgjf{x ub{5 . v'nf tyf #= O“6fe§fsf] pTkfbg df};d M sf7df8f}F pkTosfdf ;dy/ :yndf jfo'df /x]sf ljiffQm tyf k|b"lift s0f / ;x/Ls/0fsf] tLj| bf}8sf] dfu k"/f ug{ OF6fe§fsf] Uof;n] a[xt If]qdf km}lng kfpFb5g, t/ sf7df8f}F ;~rfngdf Jofks j[ l 4 eO/x] s f] 5 . pkTosfdf pkTosf rf/}lt/ r'lnPsf kxf8n] 3]/]/ srf}/f cfsf/df ;~rflnt sl/a @)) OF6fe§fn] k|b"if0f Go"gLs/0fsf /x]sf] sf/0f lr;f] df};ddf jfo'd08nsf] tNnf] ;txdf k| l jlw gckgfpgfn] ljiffQm w" j fF s f] sfnf] d' : nf] hDdf x'g] k|b"if0fn] km}ng] If]q kfpFb}g . o;/L pkTosfdf jfo'd08ndf lj;h{g eO/x]sf] 5 . hf8f] o fddf jfo' k | b " i f0fsf] 3gTj a9fpg oxfF s f] ef}uflns cj:yfn] klg ;xof]u k'¥ofpFb5 . sf7df8f}F pkTosfdf ;~rflnt clwsfªz OF6fe§fx¿ s[ l ife" l d df} ; dL 7] S sfdf lnP/ ;~rfng ePsf ^= jg:kltsf] sdL tyf Go"g k|sfz;+Zn]if0f k|lqmof M kfOG5g . jiff{bsf] ;dodf OF6f kf]Ng cg's"n jftfj/0f af]6la?jfn] jfo'rqmnfO{ sfod /fVg dxŒjk"0f{ e"ldsf gx'g] / s[life"lddf s[ifs cfk}mFn] wfgnufotsf afnL lgjf{x ub{5g . dflg;n] ;f; km]bf{ jf cGo ultljlwaf6 nufpg] x'Fbf OF6fe§fsf] ;~rfngsf nflu hf8f] df};d pT;lh{t sfa{g 8fOcS;fO8nfO{ lnP/ la?jfn] clS;hg jftfj/0fLo ;r]ttf Û xfd|f] k|lta4tf ÛÛ /)f÷ kof{ j /)f ÷ 17
  18. 18. jfo'kbif0f | " kmfNg] ub{5g . o;sf ;fy} jg:kltn] cfˆgf kftdf ;" I dw" n Ls0fx¿, gfO6« f ] h g 8fOcS;fO8, sfa{ g k|b"if0fsf s0fnfO{ ;f];]/ Psxb;Dd jfo'sf] z'4Ls/s df]gf]cS;fO8, cf]hf]g, l;;f, tLa|kl/jt{gzLn of}lusx¿ (purifier) sf ¿kdf sfd ub{5g . t/ ;x/L If]qdf (volatile compounds) tyf cGo ljifQm kbfy{n] oxfFsf] jfo' n fO{ k| b " l iftu/L hg:jf:Yodf k| l ts" n k| e fj >L % sf] ;/sf/sf] jfo'k|b"if0f;DaGwL dfkb08 kfl//x] s f] x' G 5 . cd] l /sf, o' / f] k , hfkfg tyf jfo'sf] :t/ lkPd !) -w"nf]_ sf] dfqf c:6«]lnofh:tf ljsl;t d'n'sdf kLPd !) sf] pkl:ylt k|lt3gld6/ jfo'df clwstd %) dfOqmf]u|fd;DdnfO{ /fd|f] ^) eGbf sd ;'/lIft dflgG5 . >L % sf] ;/sf/n] eg] o;sf] dfqf ;fdfGo ^! b]lv !@) !@) u|fd k|lt3gld6/nfO{ /fl6«o u'0f:t/ tf]s]sf] 5 . c:j:ys/ !@! b]lv #%) jf:tjdf jfo'df kLPd !) sf] h'g;'s} dfqfsf] pkl:ylt klg dfgj:jf :Yosf nflu xflgsf/s x'G5 . o;}sf/0f cToGt c:j:ys/ #%! b]lv $@% ljZj:jf:Yo ;ªu7gn] o;sf] u'0f:t/sf] s'g} dfkb08 eofjx $@% eGbf dfly lgwf{/0f ug{ gx'g] s'/fdf hf]8 lbPsf] 5 . ;|f]tM hg;ªVof tyf jftfj/0f dGqfno, g]kfn . sf7df8f}F dxfgu/ If]qdf kLPd !) sf s0fx¿sf] pkl:ylt df};dsf cfwf/df !@) dfOqmf]u|fdb]lv #!% jfg:klts pkl:ylt lg/Gt/ Go"g x'Fb} uPsf] 5 . clws dfOqmf]u|fd k|lt3gld6/aLr /xg] u/]sf] kfOPsf] 5 . lr;f] / ;f}o{ls/0f;d]t sd k|fKt x'g] x'Fbf la?jfsf] o:tf ljiffQm s0fx¿ :yfgljz]ifsf] jfo'df clws x'g] k|sfz;+Zn]if0f / cGo lqmofsnfk;d]t sd x'g]ub{5 . ub{5g . cWoogcg';f/ k'tnL;8s If]qsf] jfo' ;a}eGbf o;k|sf/ hf8f] df};ddf jfo' z'4Ls/0f ug]{ jfg:klts a9L k|b"lift /x]sf kfOPsf] 5 eg] dR5]ufpF If]q sd Ifdtf x|f; eP/ klg jfo'k|b"if0f a9g]ub{5 . k|b"lift b]lvPsf] 5 . >L % sf] ;/sf/n] 8]lg8fsf] pkTosfdf jfo'k|b"if0fsf] cj:yf M ;xof]udf pkTosfsf k'tnL;8s, dR5]ufpF, lqe'jg sf7df8f} F dxfgu/sf] jfo' k | b " i f0f ljZjsf sltko ljZjljBfno -sLlt{k'/_, eQmk'/, kf6g c:ktfn / dxfgu/sf] k|b"if0fnfO{ pl5Gg] cj:yftkm{ cu|;/ /x]sf] 7d]ndf jfo'k|b"if0fsf] :t/ b}lgs gfKg] / To;nfO{ 5 . oxfF ;~rfng x'g] ;jf/L;fwg, OF6fe§f, pBf]uwGbf ;fj{hlgs ug]{ sfo{ ul//x]sf] 5 . ;~rfng ug{ / 3/fo;L k|of]hgsf nflu OGwg aNbf plNnlvt tYofªssf cfwf/df pkTosfsf k|d'v tLg lg:sg] w"jfFaf6 ;Nkm/ 8fOcS;fO8 / …kLPd !)Ú elgg] ;x/sf] k|b"if0fsf] ljZn]if0f ubf{ jfo'k|b"if0fsf nflu ;"Id ljiffn' s0f jf kbfy{x¿ pT;h{g eP/ jfo'nfO{ sf7df8f}F ;x/LIf]q g} cufl8 /x]sf] 5 . nlntk'/ klg b"lift agfpFb5 . ;x/L If]qdf ;Nkm/ 8fOcS;fO8 / sf7df8f}FnfO{ k5ofpFb} o;}sf] xf/fxf/Ldf cfpg yfn]sf] o;sf of} l usx¿, w" j fF , w" n f] , kLPd !) h:tf 5 / eQmk'/ eg] ;a}eGbf sd k|b"lift /x]sf] 5 . pkTosfsf] jfo'k|"'if0fsf] ;/b/ dfl;s :t/ -;g @))#_ :yfg hgj/L km]ac/L '| dfr{ ck|n ] d] h'g h'nfO{ cu:t ;]K6]Da/ cS6'a/ gf]eDa/ l8;]Da/ ] k'tnL8;8s @(% @%@ @#() @%# @&) @@) !!^ !@% !@^ !#% !(! @(! dR5]ufpF %^ ^^ ^^ ** *^ ^( @# @@ @$ #@ %! $^ sLlt{k/ ' !@! !)@ !!% !@) !!^ *) @^ @( #@ $( &% *& eQmk'/ @#! @!! @)) !(! !&% !)! #^ #( $$ ^* !)! !%$ kf6gc :ktfn @%^ @@% @#( @#& !&( !@@ !!& !@& !!( !&$ @$# 7d]n @$# !(* !&* @)) !@@ ^@ ^% ^( !)^ !^! @@! ;|f]tM hg;ªVof tyf jftfj/0f dGqfno, g]kfn . jftfj/0fLo ;r]ttf Û xfd|f] k|lta4tf ÛÛ /)f÷ kof{ j /)f ÷ 18
  19. 19. jfo'kbif0f | " pkTosfsf] k';sf] hf8f]df jfo'k|b"if0fsf] ;/b/ :t/ -@)^) ;fn_ c f w f / d f jfo'k|b"if0fn] :yfg k'; !# b]lv !( k'; @) b]lv @^ k'; @& b]lv df3 $ df3 % b]lv !! ;/b/ p;nfO{ s:tf] / k'tnL;8s #)^=)) #!%=$@ @&^=*# @$@=$@ @*%=!^ slt c;/ ub{ 5 dR5]ufpF $$=!$ %)=%& %(=@* ^)+&! %#+^& eGg] x' G 5 . o;} c f w f / d f sLlt{k'/ ()=!$ !)^=@* !!@=*% !!%=@* !)^=!# k| b " i f0fo' Q m jfo' eQmk'/ !%!=@* !(@=&! !*$=)) !(#=%& !*)=#( /x]sf] If]qdf a:g] dfG5] d f 6fpsf] kf6gc:ktfn @!%=&! @^^=%& @#%=@* @@*+$@ @#^=$( b' V g] , cfF v f 7d]n @!(=$@ @##=@* @!(=&! !*)=@* @#*=!& lrnfpg] , vf] s L ;|f]tM hg;ªVof tyf jftfj/0f dGqfno, g]kfn . nfUg] jf 3fF 6 L v;v;fpg] , gfs jfo'k|b"if0faf6 x'g] ;d:of M aGb x'g] jf lrnfpg], ysfO nfUg], jfsjfsL nfUg]h:tf jfo'df /xg] kLPd !) / cGo k|b"if0fsf ljiffQm s0fx¿ cNksfnLg c;/ b]vfkb{5g eg] d'6' tyf kmf]S;f]sf] Psbd} dl;gf x'g] x'Fbf dflg;sf] kmf]S;f] / /utdf ;lhn} ;d:of, bd, SofG;/h:tf bL3{sfnLg /f]u j[l4 ub{5 . k'u]/ Zjf;k|Zjf;, d'6' Pjd :gfo'k|0ffnLdf c;/ k'¥ofpg] jfo' k | b " i f0fn] dflg;df dfq geP/ cGo k| f 0fL / pkTosfsf] jfo'k|b'if0fsf] b}lgs :t/ -df3 @)^)_ :yfg df3 !@ df3 !# df3 !$ df3 !% df3 !^ df3 !& df3 !* ;/b/ k'tnL8;8s #$# #)( #%$ @$* @($ @(& #!& dR5]ufpF #$ ^! %& %& *! ^^ &! lslt{k/ ' && *( *! !)^ !@^ !!# !^* eQmk'/ !%# !$( !$# !$( !&% !^& @$& kf6gc:ktfn @!& @^& @@( @^! @@) @#^ #)) 7d]n !() @## !&& @)* @!% @@& @%^ ;|f]tM hg;ªVof tyf jftfj/0f dGqfno, g]kfn . ub{ 5 g . cd] l /sL j} 1 flgsx¿sf] cWoogcg' ; f/ jg:kltdf klg o:t} uDeL/ c;/ k'¥ofpF5 . l8h]naf6 lg:sg] w"jfF k]6«f]naf6 lg:sg] w"jfFeGbf !)) ;dfwfgsf pkfo / ;/sf/L bfloTj M u'gf a9L xlgsf/s x'G5 . l8h]naf6 lg:sg] w"jfFdf pkTosfsf ;x/L Onfsfdf jfo'k|b"if0f a9g'df oxfF j[l4 SofG;/ /f]u j[l4 ug]{ xfO8«f]sfa{gsf] dfqf clws x'g] eO/x]sf] ;jf/L;fwgsf] rfk g} k|d'v /x]sf] 5 . oxfFsf] s' / f hfkfgL j} 1 fgsx¿sn] kQf nufPsf 5g . jfo' d f x' g ] $# k| l tzteGbf a9L ljiffQm s0fx¿ jf:tjdf kLPd !) sf] k|d'v ;|f]t l8h]n g} ePsf] x'Fbf ;jf/L;fwgaf6} pT;lh{t x'G5 . jfo'k|b"if0fsf] afFsL c+z hxfF l8h]naf6 rNg] ;jf/L;fwg / sf/vfgf tyf lgdf{0fsfo{ / OF6fe§faf6 lg:sg] w"jfF w"nf], 3/fo;L pBf] u x¿ 5g , ToxfF o;sf] dfqf a9L x' g ] u b{ 5 . k|of]hgsf nflu bfp/f, sf]Onf / cGo OGwg afNbf jfo'k|b"if0faf6 dfgj :j:Yodf kg]{ c;/ jfo'df /x]sf] lg:sg] w" j fF , cf} B f] l us k| l ti7fgx¿af6 lg:sg] k|b"if0fsf] k|sf/ / dfqfdf e/ kb{5 . o:tf] k|b"if0fo'Qm jfo'k|b"ifs w"jfF–w"nf], w"d|kfg ubf{ lg:sg] w"jfF / ltgdf jfo'df slt ;do;Dd dflg;n] ;f; km]b{5g < To;/L /x]sf xflgsf/s tTj jfo'df ldl;Fbf x'g] u/]sf] 5 . k|b"if0fo'Qm :yfgdf a:g] dfG5]sf] pd]/ / :jf:Yosf] ctM ;x/L If]qsf] jfo'k|b"if0f /f]Sg ;a}eGbf klxn] cj:yf s:tf] 5 < / pm s:tf] sfo{df ;+nUg 5 eGg] ;jf/L;fwgaf6 lg:sg] ljzfQm s0f ldl>t w" j fF jftfj/0fLo ;r]ttf Û xfd|f] k|lta4tf ÛÛ /)f÷ kof{ j /)f ÷ 19
  20. 20. jfo'kbif0f | " lgoGq0f ug'{ cfjZos b]lvG5 . C0f pknAw u/fpg]tkm{ sfo{ ug'{ kg]{df To;sf] ljkl/t :jR5 jftfj/0fdf afFRg kfpg' gful/s clwsf/ xf] . dfOqmf]a; cfoft ug{ lbg'nfO{ b'/ufdL ;f]r eGg ;x/df xf]; jf ufpFdf, gful/sn] :jR5 jfo'df ;f; ;lsFb}g . ;/sf/n] jftfj/0fsf ;fyL ;jf/L;fwgsf] km]g{ kfpg}kb{5 . ctM k| j ] z nfO{ k| f ] t ;flxt ;/sf/L kIfn] jfo'k|b"if0f lgoGq0f ug{ s] ug]{ < ug'{kg]{df s]xL jif{ kl5 jfo' k | b " i f0fsf b[ l i6n] • ;jf/L;fwgsf] rfk Go"g u/fpg lghL ;jf/L;fwgsf] g} jftfj/0fsf b' : dg Pp6f lglZrt dfkb08 k|of]unfO{ lg?T;flxt ug]{ . aGg;Sg] ;fwgsf] tof/ u/L To;sf] • ;x/L If]qdf pko'Qm k|sf/sf ;jf/L;fwgnfO{ dfq k|j]z cfoftdf ;'ljwf lbP/ sfof{ G jog s8fOsf ug{ lbg] . unt sfo{ u/] s f] 5 ;fy ug' { cfjZos • ;xfos dfu{sf] lj:tf/ ug]{ . eGg'kg]{ cj:yf b]lvPsf] eO;s] s f] 5 . xfn • ;fOsnh:tf OGwg/lxt ;fwgsf] k|of]unfO{ k|fyldstf lbg] . 5 . o;sf cltl/Qm eO/x] s f] oftfoft • k' / fgf ;jf/L;fwgnfO{ lgoldt k/LIf0fsf cfwf/df OF 6 fe§f, snsf/vfgf k| 0 ffnLnfO{ g} cflb ;~rfng ubf{ cF u fln/xg] xf] eg] qmlds¿kdf lj:yfkg ug]{ . pkTosfsf] jfo'k|b"if0f • ;jf/L;fwgsf] k|bif0f dfkb08nfO{ s8fOsf ;fy nfu" ug]{ . " k|b"if0f lgoGq0fsf nflu vf; k| l jlw cjnDag lg/Gt/ j[ l 4 eP/ • …jftfj/0fsf ;fyLÚ sf ¿kdf kl/lrt kl/jxgnfO{ eofjx cj:yf l;h{gf ;fj{hlgs If]qdf ;~rfng ug{ k|f]T;flxt ug]{ . ug'{ u/fpg' kb{5 . jfo' x'g] s'/fdf b'O{dt 5}g . • snsf/vfgf tyf pBf]udf k|b"if0f lgoGq0fsf pko'Qm jf cGo k| b " i f0f;d] t ctM oftfoft k|0ffnLdf k|ljlwsf] :yfkgf ug]{÷u/fpg] . lgoGq0f ug]{ zt{df dfq Jofks ;' w f/ ub} { • ul/aLdf afFRg ljjz gful/ssf] cfly{s pTyfg Pjd pBf] u ;~rfng ug{ ;xfos ;8sx¿sf] plrt a;f]af;sf] Joj:yf ug]{ / cfly{s lqmofsnfkdf cg'dlt lbg] / To;sf] lj:tf/ ug'{ klg h?/L cu|;/ u/fpg] . lg/Gt/ cg' u dg ug] { 5 . vf;–vf; k|sf/sf sfo{ ;/sf/sf] ;jf/L;fwgnfO{ dfq leqL ;x/L If]qdf k|j]z cg'dlt bfloTjleqsf] s'/f xf] . o;df ;/sf/ rgfvf], k|ltj4 lbP/ tTsfn} s]xL xb;Dd ;fjf/Lrfk sd ug{ ;lsG5 . / OdfGbf/ ePg eg] hlt;'s} k|of; ul/P klg To;n] cTolws jfo'k|b"if0f ug]{ ;jf/L;fwg, rfx] Tof] gofF g} k|ltkmng lbg;Sb}g . lsg gxf];, ltgsf] lgoldt k/LIf0f gu/L ;x/L If]qsf 6«flkms k|x/Laf6 oftfoft;fwgsf] k|b"if0f:t/ k/LIf0f ;8sdf u'8g gkfpg] Joj:yf ul/g'kb{5 . pkTosfdf ug]{ jt{dfg k|0ffnLdf ;'wf/ u/L o;sf] bfloTj oftfoft / cGo ;x/L If] q df ;d] t jif] { g L j[ l 4 eO/x] s f Joj:yf ljefun] lng' pko'Qm x'G5 . o;sf] sfof{Gjog ;jf/L;fwgsf] rfknfO{ lg?T;flxt ug{ lglZrt sfg'sL 6«flkms k|x/Laf6 s8fOsf ;fy ul/ jf 6«flkms k|x/L g} cfwf/ tof/ ug] { / ljB' t Lo ;jf/L;fwgnfO{ To; ljefucGtu{t /fvL sfof{GjogkIfnfO{ k|efjsf/L k|fyldstfsf ;fy ;~rfng ug'{ klg cfjZos x'G5 . agfpg]tkm{ ;/sf/L gLlt cu|;/ x'g'kb{5 . o;sf nflu 6«nLa;sf] ;]jfnfO{ lj:tf/ ug]{, ;kmf ul/aLdf afFRg ljj; gful/ssf] cfly{s pTyfg Pjd 6]Dkf]nfO{ cem k|efjsf/L ¿kdf lj:tf/ ug]{ / ltgsf] plrt Joj:yfkg ug'{ klg ;/sf/L bfloTjleq kg]{ s'/f Ifdtfsf] ljsf;sf nflu ljz]if sfo{qmd Nofpg]tkm{ xf] . ;/sf/n] k|ltj4 / OdfGbf/ eP/ o;tkm{ sfoqmd ;/sf/n] zL3| sfo{ ug'{kb{5 . xfn s]xL ;/sf/L tyf Nofpg' cfjZos x' G 5 . o;sf cltl/Qm ;d:of u}/;/sf/L lgsfoaf6 sf7df8f}Fsf] k|b"if0f 36fpgsf ;dfwfgsf pko'Qm k|ljlw, hgzlQmsf] ljsf;, r]tgf nflu k| b " i f0f/lxt ;jf/L;fwgsf] ljsf; / df} h ' b f clej[l4h:tf ljifodf Ifdtf clej[l4 ug{ ;/sf/n] kxn oftfoft k|0ffnLdf ;'wf/ ug{ eO/x]sf] k|of; k|z+;gLo ug'{ h?/L 5 . ★ t 5Fb}5, To; k|of;nfO{ ;a} kIfsf] ;xof]u x'g' klg h?/L 5 . ;/sf/n] l8h] n af6 rNg] 6] D kf] x ¿ sªuf?sf] aRrf hGd“bf b'O{ ;]lG6ld6/ dfq sf7df8f}Faf6 lj:yfkg ubf{ To;sf] ;§fdf Ps÷Ps nfdf] x'G5 eg] jo:s sªuf? ple“bf kf“r yfg ;kmf6]Dkf] ;~rfngsf nflu cg'bfg tyf lgAof{hL lkm6eGbf cUnf] x'G5 . jftfj/0fLo ;r]ttf Û xfd|f] k|lta4tf ÛÛ /)f÷ kof{ j /)f ÷ 20
  21. 21. jfo'kbif0f | " jftfj/0fnfO{ x/]s kIfaf6 ;+/If0f ug]{ jg:kltn] klg jftfj/0fdf k|bif0f a9fpg] sfo{ ub{5g eGg] ;'Gbf " w]/nfO{ cfZro{ nfUg;S5 . cem s'g}–s'g} la?jfn] k[YjLsf] ;txdf cf]hf]g pTkGg u/L xflgsf/s t'jfFnf]sf] } l;h{gf ug]{ s'/fn] cfZro{sf] ;LdfnfO{ cem a9fpg' c:jfefljs xf]Og . t/, la?jfn] klg jfo'kbif0f a9fpg] | " ljleGg xflgsf/s tŒj tyf /;fog pTkfbg u/]/ jftfj/0fLo x|f;nfO{ tLj| kfg{ ;xof]u ug]{ s'/f xfn} k|sfzdf cfPsf] cWoogn] k|dfl0ft u/]sf] 5 . a]nfotsf] n]gr]:6/ ljZjljBfnosf k|fkm];/ lgs x]lj6 / pgsf ;xof]uLn] xfn} u/]sf] cWoogcg';f/ vf; ] k|hfltsf jg:kltn] jfo'kbif0f ug]{ s'/f kQf nfu]sf] 5 . ;fdfGotof jg:kltn] k|bif0fsf s0fx¿ / sfa{g | " " 8fOcS;fO8h:tf Uof;nfO{ ;f];]/ jfo'kbif0fnfO{ 36fpg] tyf k|fs[lts jftfj/0fnfO{ ;Gt'lnt agfpg] ub{5g | " t/ vf; k|sf/sf jg:kltn] eg]+ k|ltlqmofzLn tTj tyf /;fogsf] pTkfbg u/L jfo'd08ndf lj;h{g klg ub{5g . la?jfsf] k|sfz;+Zn]if0f lqmofåf/f To:tf] k|bif0f ug]{ cToGt kl/jt{glzn h}ljs kbfy{ (Volatile " Organic Compounds) sf] lg:sfzg x'G5 . hªunLuGw lgd{nLs[t ug]{ o:t} h}ljs kbfy{sf] pkef]uaf6 :gfg ubf{ lkmFh lg:sg]] t/n ;fa'g -;]Dkmf]_ pTkfbgdf k|of]u x'g] ub{5 . x]lj6sf] 6f]nLn] ;x/L If]qdf /x]sf jg:kltsf] k|hflt, pd]/, cjyf, prfO{ / sf08sf] df]6fOsf] ljj/0f /fvL #@,))) ¿vx¿sf] cWoog u/]/ pQm /x:of]b3f6g u/]sf] xf] . o;/L la?jfn] pTkfbg ug]{ VOC sf] ;/b/ pTkfbgb/ ltgLx¿sf] kftsf] km/flsnf]kgdf cfwfl/t x'g] ub{5 . pbfx/0fsf nflu cf]ssf ¿vnfO{ lng xf]; u/f}F x} Û jg:kltn] klg jfo'k|b"if0f u5{ ;lsG5 . logn] ;x/L If]qdf xl/ofnL / ;f}Gbo{ sfod /fVg] sfo{df dxŒjk"0f{ e"ldsf v]Nb5g / xflgsf/s tŒj pT;h{g u/]/ cTolws jfo'kbif0f klg ul//x]sf x'G5g . t/ Slver birch jf cGo w]/} kft x'g] jg:kltn] eg] | " o:tf xflgsf/s VOC pTkfbg gug]{ s'/f cWoogn] b]vfPsf] 5 . jf:tjdf lj?jfaf6 pTkfbg x'g] VOC g} 7"nf] ;d:of xf]Og . ;d:of ta l;h{gf x'G5, hj o;sf] k|ltlqmof jfo'd0ndf ePsf cGo tŒj tyf /;fog;Fu x'G5 . VOC jfo'd08ndf lj;lh{t ePkl5 p;sf] cGo /;fog;Fu x'g] k|ltlqmofsf sf/0f ljiffn' / b"lift kbfy{sf] pT;h{g x'G5 . o;k|sf/sf] /f;folgs k|ltlqmofdf jfo'd08ndf /x]sf gfO6«fhg cS;fO8sf] k|dv xft /xG5 . VOC / gfO6«fhg cS;fO8aLr x'g] /f;folgs k|ltlqmofaf6 ] ' ] oL c0f' lj3l6t eP/ cf]hf]gsf c0f'x¿ pTkGg x'G5g / 3dfOnf] lbgdf klg t'jfFnf] nfUg]ub{5 jfo'd08nsf] dflyNnf] ;txdf /x]sf] cf]hf]gn] ;"oaf6 k[YjLdf cfpg] k/fj}hgL ljsL/0fnfO{ /f]s/ To;af6 { ] hLjd08nnfO{ arfpg] sfo{ ub{5, To;}sf/0f cf]hf]g txnfO{ k[YjLsf] /Iffsjr klg elgG5 . t/, k[YjLsf] ;tx / jfo'd08nsf] tNnf] ;txdf cf]hf]gsf] dfqf a9]df To;n] t'jfFnf] a9fpg] tyf ljleGg k|sf/sf k|bif0f " a9fpg] ub{5 . ;x/L If]qdf /f]lkg] l;Gb'/] ¿v (Oak) af6 pTkGg x'g] VOC / ;jf/L;fwgdf vlgh OGwg aNbf pT;h{g x'g] gfO6«fhg cS;fO8sf sf/0f jfo'kbif0f a9g] s'/f o;af6 :k:6 x'G5 . ] | " cg';Gwftfsf] egfOdf ;d:of TolQ uDeL/ eg] 5}g . lsgeg] s]xL vf; k|hfltsf la?jfn] dfq jftfj/0fdf k|lts"n k|efj kf/]sf] b]lvG5 . jf:tjd} eGg] xf] eg] ;x/L If]qdf jg:kltsf] pk:yltn] k|bif0f Go"g g} ub{5 . " t;y{ la?jf tyf jg:kltaf6 pTkGg x'g] s]xL xflgsf/s tŒjnfO{ bf]if lbg'eGbf To;;Fusf] /f;folgs k|ltlqmofåf/f cGo xflgsf/s tŒj tyf /;fog pTkfbg ug{ ;xof]u ug]{ gfO6«fhg cS;fO8h:tf Uof;sf] ] pTkfbgd} lgoGq0f ug]{ pkfosf] vf]hL ug'{ ;fGble{s x'g5 . ] –zfb'{n jftfj/0fLo ;r]ttf Û xfd|f] k|lta4tf ÛÛ /)f÷ kof{ j /)f ÷ 21
  22. 22. k|fs[lts k|sf]k ljgf;sf/L e'Orfnf] “ ;'/Iffsf pkfox¿ uf]kfnk|;fb b'nfn æs] ePsf] xf] eGg] yfx} ePg . y//{ == wtL{ sfFKof] Û pbok' / sf] d' s ' { R r] s ] G b| l aGb' eO{ uPsf] ljgf;sf/L leQfsf P]gfx¿ emg{ yfn] Û ;a} j:t' xNngyfn] Û s6s6 e'OFrfnf]nfO{ ef]u]sf w/fgsf Ps kLl8tsf] xf] . pgn] ub}{ 3/n] g} lkª v]n]h:tf] nfUof] . o:tf] a]nfdf gcfFlQg] To; e' O F r fnf] d f cfˆgf] 3/ dfq xf] O g, kl/jf/sf s'/} ePg . /fd Û /fd Û ====== eGbfeGb} lhGbuLe/ hf]xf] ;b:ox¿;d]t u'dfP . æcfk"meg] b}js} bof eP/ xf]nf u/]/ 6fpsf] n'sfpg agfPsf] 3/ If0fe/d} eUgfjz]ifdf afFlrof] . of] 5f]/L ev{/ # jif{sL lyO{ . o;sf] klg v'§f ablnof] . To;kl5 ;x/el/ lrTsf/} lrTsf/ Û st} efFlRrof] .Æ cfˆgf] ctLtsf] syf ;DemFbf vf6f] a;]sf] 3fOt]sf] lrTsf/ Û st} cfkmGtx¿ 3/df k'l/P/ lg:s]sf] 3fp k]ml/ alNemPsf] cg'e"t ub}{ pgL emg uDeL/ eP . lrTsf/ Û o:tf] qf;bLk"0f{ b[ioaLr cfˆgf] sxfnLnfUbf] ;f] e'OFrfnf]af6 hGd]sf] of] kL8fbfoL cg'ej pgL eljio ;DemFb} lg:s]sf] s;}sf] PSn} s f] dfq xf] O g . o:tf] j]bgfdoL lrTsf/ Û zfGt t cg'ej @)$% ;fndf w/fgsf s] j n e' O F r fnf] d f k/] / k| f 0f w] / } n ] u/] s f 5g / ;+ ; f/df Tofu ul/;s]sfx¿ lyP . zfGt e' O F r fnf] a f6 lagf; ePsf t kmut clGtd w' s w' s L al:tx¿sf] ;femf cg'ej o:t} afF l r/x] s fx¿ dfq lyP . x' g ] u 5{ . g] k fndf !(() e'OFrfnf]df elTsP/ nyflnªu ;fnkl5sf] of] ljgf;sf/L ag] s f 3/x¿ klg k] m l/ e' O F r fnf] n ] w/fgsf &#! cfpg;Sg] em6sfsf] k|tLIffdf hgfnfO{ Ps} I f0fdf sfnsf] czfGt g} lyP .Æ d'vdf lnP/ uPsf] lyof] . Tof] of] cg' e j @)$% ;fndf !(() ;fnsf] e'O“rfnf]af6 w/fgdf uPsf] klx/f] lbg ;DemFbf w/fgaf;L cem} jftfj/0fLo ;r]ttf Û xfd|f] k|lta4tf ÛÛ /)f÷ kof{ j /)f ÷ 22
  23. 23. k|fs[lts k|sf]k ql;t x'g]ub{5g . clxn] klg s'g} sf/0faf6 3/ ys]{sf] sd ug{ k"j{tof/L / p4f/sfo{sf ;DaGwdf klg ;dfh cfefif x'Fbf e'OFrfnf] cfof] ls eg]/ em:sg] ub{5g– qmlds¿kdf ;r] t aGb} uPsf] kfOG5 . o;k| s f/ w/fgaf;Lx¿ . lgoldt¿kdf cfpg] k|sf]k Joj:yfkgsf] /fd|f] of]hgf xfdLnfO{ e' m SofP/ e' O F r fnf] sfnf] la/fnf] h;/L x'g] xf] eg] tfTsflns p4f/ / k'g:yf{kgf klg ;dfhdf cfO/xG5 . s'ga]nf, sxfF, s;/L cfpF5, kQ} x'bg . s] F } TolQ sl7g x'Fb}g . e'OFrfnf] cfkm}F dfgj ;+xf/s g} xf] t < s] e'Orfnf] ærfx] klg kfOFbg Û kfP klg rflxFbg ÛÆ eg]h:t} e'Orfnf] } } F cfpg] s'/fsf] k"jcg'dfg ug{ ;lsPnf < xfdLn] e'Orfnf] { F To:tf] k|sf]k xf], hf] hlxn] klg cfpg;S5 . af9Lklx/f] /fSg} kf] ;S5f}F ls < e'Orfnf]af6 x'g] hgwgsf] Ifltdf F hfg, jiff{ / l;tnx/ rNg lxpFb nfUg'k5{, t/ e'Orfnf] F xfdL r}F slt lhDd]jf/ 5f}F < oL k|Zgx¿sf] hjfkm gvf]Hg] hf8f], udL{, jiff{b h'g;'s} df};ddf klg hfg;S5 . o;sf / ;'/Iffsf plrt pkfo cjnDag gug]{ xf] eg] xfdLn] nflu g v8]/L kg'k5{, g t x'/L–atf; g} rNg'k5{ . o;sf] { o:tf :d/0fx¿sf] ;Fw} k'g/fj[l[ Qdfq ul//xg'kg]{ x'G5 . /x:o eg] ;w}F k[YjLsf] ue{df n'ls/fv]sf] x'G5 . …s'df/L s]6Ln] cfˆgf] gfhfoh ;GtfgnfO{ uf]Ko¿kdf k]6df e'O“rfnf] s] xf] < M x'sf{Pem}F k[YjLn] o;sf] /x:onfO{ n'sfO/fv]sf] x'G5 . ha k[ Y jLdf /x] s f k| f 0fLn] lgoldt¿kdf y' k | } k| s f/sf k[YjL k|zj j]bgfn] 56kl6G5], elTsg yfN5g xfd|f 3/, k| f s[ l ts ljklQsf] ;fdgf ug' { k l//x] s f] 5 . o:tf clg ;'? x'G5 xfxfsf/ ÛÚ ljklQn] df};ddf cfwfl/t eP/ vf;–vf; :yfgdf x/]s k[YjLsf] leqL ;txdf tftf], n]bf] kbfy{ / ;fgf–7"nf y'k}| jif{ w] / yf] / Iflt k' ¥ ofO/x] s f x' g 5g . l;tnx/n] r§fgx¿ /x]sf 5g . k[YjLsf] ue{df /x]sf oL kbfy{x¿df hf8f] o fddf g] k fnsf] t/fO{ If] q x' F b } ef/t, ljleGg sf/0fn] ljrng k}bf x'G5 . o;/L ljrng k}bf aªunfb]z;DDfsf] ;dy/ If]qsf] hghLjgnfO{ k|efljt x'bf tL kbfy{x¿aLr w/flknf] cGt/fn jf c;xh:j¿k F kfb{5 . jiff{sf] df};ddf af9Ln] t/fO{ If]qs}} ;Dk"0f{ pTkGg x'G5 . ToxL w/flknf] cGt/fn jf c;xh cj:yf hghLjg cfqmfGt agfOlbG5 / ToxL ;dodf kxf8L ;fdfGo x'g] k|lqmofdf 7"nf] zlQm pTkGGf x'G5 / To;sf] k[YjLdf x/]sf jif{ slt e'O“rfnf] hfG5g < rfkn] e"–;txdf ;d]t sDkg k}bf x'G5 . sDkg slt 7"nf] -;g !(() b]lv !(() ;Ddsf] cWoogdf cfwfl/t_ x'g] xf] < To;n] slt If]qnfO{ k|efljt kfg]{ xf] < slt ;do sfod /xg] xf] < eGg] s'/f] ToxL ljrngaf6 l;lh{t :t/ dfk -/]S6/:s]n_ ;/b/ ;ªVof w/flknf] cj:yf / To;sf sf/0f pTkGg zlQmdf lge{/ ljgf;sf/L * eGbf dfly ! ub{5 . ctM k[YjLsf] e"ue{df pTkGg x'g] xnrnsf sf/0f 7"nf] & b]lv &=( !& aGg] c;xh cj:yfaf6 pTkGg zlQmsf sf/0f aflx/L ;txdf cfpg] 7"nf] jf ;fgf] sDkg jf ;tx xlNng] zlQmzfnL ^ b]lv ^=( !#$ k|lqmofnfO{ g} e'Orfnf] elgG5 . F xn'sf % b]lv %=( !#!( e'O“rfnf];DaGwL kf}/fl0fs syg M ;fgf] $ b]lv $=( !#,))) cfhsf] j}1flgs hutn] cGo ljifodf h:t} e'OFrfnf] ;fdfGo # b]lv #=( !#),))) hfg] j}1flgs sf/0f;DaGwL Jofks cWoog ul/;s]sf] clt ;fdfGo @ b]lv @=( !,#)),))) 5 . j}1flgs vf]hdf k|fKt pknlAw;Fu} k[YjL r]K6f] geO{ ;'Gtnfh:tf] uf]nf] cfsf/ ePsf] ;To w]/} klxn] k|dfl0ft If]qnfO{ klx/f]n] rk]6fdf kf/]/ hgwgsf] c;Lldt Iflt eO;s]sf] 5 . tyflk, cg';Gwfg / vf]hsf] c1fgtfj; ul/lbG5 . s'g}–s'g} :yfgdf t ;'Vvf df};ddf klg klx/f] clxn] klg xfd|f ?l9u|:t ufpF–;dfhdf …b]jLb]jtf hfg] ub{5 . o;sf cltl/Qm v8]/L, tftf] xfjf -n'_, l/;fP/ jf xfQLn] sfFw km]bf{ e'OFrfnf] cfpF5Ú eGg] /f]usf] dxfdf/L, ef]sd/Lh:tf ljleGg k|sf/sf k|sf]kn] dfGotf lj:yfkg x'g;s]sf] 5}g . …x]/ slnsf] nLnf Û x/]s jif{ lgoldt¿kdf hgwgsf] 7"nf] Iflt ub{5g . htftt} kfk}kfk dfq 5, clg cfpFb}g t e'OFrfnf] .Ú sl/a–sl/a lgoldt¿kdf cfpg] o:tf k|sf]ksf af/]df o:tf cGwljZjf;k"0f{ af]nL cem} klg ufpF3/df ;'lgg dflg;x¿ rgfvf] xF'b} uP/ o:tf k|sf]kaf6 x'g] Iflt 5f]8]sf] 5}g . jftfj/0fLo ;r]ttf Û xfd|f] k|lta4tf ÛÛ /)f÷ kof{ j /)f ÷ 23

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