3. sd for disaster dks 3
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3. sd for disaster dks 3 Document Transcript

  • 1. k|sf]k Go"gLs/0fsf nflu lbuf] ljsf;÷1
  • 2. k|sf]k–1fgdfnf–# k|sf]k Go"gLs/0fsf nflu lbuf] ljsf; n]vs /fdrGb| Gof}kfg] k|sfzs ÷klx/f] lgoGq0fsf pkfo 2
  • 3. s[lt M k|sf]k go"gLs/0fsf nflu lbuf] ljsf; n]vs M /fdrGb| Gof}kfg] k|sfzs M jftfj/0f tyf afn ;/f]sf/ ;+:yf–g]kfn (ECO-Nepal) ;jf{lwsf/ M k|sfzsdf ;'/lIft ;+:s/0f M k|yd, ;fpg @)^$ ;ªVof M @,))) k|lt cfj/0f l8hfOg M /d]z bfxfn d'b|s M lszf]/ ckm;]6 k|; -k|f=_ ln=, kmf]g M $#%!)$$ ] d"No M ?= %)÷– ISBN : 978-99946-927-2-9 k|sf]ksf] hf]lvd Go"gLs/0f tyf k|sf]ksf] ;fdgf ug]{ ;fd'bflos Ifdtf clej[l4sf nflu ;r]tg cleofgcGtu{t k|sf]k–1fgdfnf k|sfzgdf cf+lzs ¿kdf cfly{s ;xof]u ug]{ lgDg ;fem]bf/ ;+:yfx¿k|lt Osf]–g]kfn xflb{s cfef/ JoQm ub{5 M PS;gP8 g]kfn cS;kmfd hLaL g]kfn kf]= a= g+= ^@%&, sf7df8f}+, g]kfn kf]= a= g+= @%)), sf7df8f}+, g]kfn kmf]gM $$#^$&& kmf]gM %%@)%*^ kmofS;M (&&–!–$$!(&!* kmofS;M (&&–!–%%@#!(& j]e;fO6M www.actionaid.org/nepal j]e;fO6M www.oxfam.org.uk k|sf]k Go"gLs/0fsf nflu lbuf] ljsf;÷3
  • 4. k|sfzssf] egfO ljsf; Hofb} w]/} k|of]u x'g] t/ cToGt} hl6n zAb xf] . o; zAbn] dflg;sf] zf/Ll/sb]lv dfgl;s ljsf;, cfly{s, k|fljlws tyf z}lIfs ljsf;nfO{ ;d]t ;d]6]sf] 5 . o;sf ;fy} ;dosf] ult;Fu} ljsf;sf] jf:tljs cy{ klg kl/dflh{t x'g] qmddf /x]sf] 5 . ljsf;sf ljleGg l;4fGtsf] JofVof ug'{ Hofb} hl6n ljifo ePsfn] k|sf]k 1ffgdfnfsf] o; t];|f] v08df k|sf]ksf ljifonfO{ lnP/ ;fd'bflos ljsf;df hf]8 lbg] k|oTg u/]/ n]vsn] 7"nf] u'g nufpg' ePsf] 5 . k|sf]k 1ffgdfnfn] ljz]ifu/L k|sf]k–s]lGb|t ljifonfO{ dfq ;d]6]sf] x'Fbf o;df ljsf;sf cGo kIfsf] ljj]rgf ug'{ ;fGble{s klg x'g ;Sb}g . 1ffgdfnfn] ;d'bfo–s]lGb|t ljsf; sfo{stf{nfO{ k|sf]ksf] hf]lvd Go"gLs/0fsf ;Gbe{df 1ffg lbg] k|of; ul/Psf sf/0f ljsf; zAbn] ;d]6]sf cGo ljifonfO{ oxfF pNn]v ug'{ ;Dej klg lyPg . g]kfnh:tf ljsf;zLn d'n'sdf lbuf] ljsf;sf sfo{ lgs} r'gf}tLk"0f{ x'g] oyfy{nfO{ la;{g ;lsFb}g . ljZjJofkL ?kdf ;x>ffAbL ljsf; nIo xfl;n ug]{ nx/ rln/x]sf] jt{dfg cj:yfdf k|sf]ksf] hf]lvd Go"gLs/0fsf sfo{nfO{ k|fyldstf lbg' h?/L ePsf] / lbuf] ljsf;sf] cjwf/0ffnfO{ ;d'bfo;Dd k'¥ofpg' h?/L ePs} sf/0f lbuf] ljsf;sf cjwf/0ffsf] ljZn]if0f klg h?/L 7flgPsf] xf] . k|sf]ksf] kL8f :yfgLo txdf a9L kg]{ / o;n] clwsf+z ;LdfGt gful/ssf] b}lgs hLjgk4ltdf ljrng Nofpg] sf/0fn] ljsf;sf] jf:tljs sfo{ tNnf] txaf6} ;~rfng ug'{ h?/L x'G5 . To;}n] k|sf]k 1ffgdfnfsf] o; z[ªvnfdf :yfgLo 1ffg, ;Lk / k|ljlwsf] pkof]u u/L k|sf]ksf] hf]lvd Go"gLs/0f ug]{ ljlwsf] ljj]rgf ul/Psf] xf] . k|sf]k 1ffgdfnfsf] o; z[ªvnfdf klg cGo z[ªvnfdfh:t} ;/n efiff / k|:t'lt lbP/ n]vs Gof}kfg]n] cfkmgf] ljåtfsf] kl/ro lbg' ePsf] 5 . o;sf ;fy} 1ffgdfnf k|sfzg ug{ k|]/0ff k|bfg ug]{ PS;gP8 g]kfnsf l;lgo/ lydln8/ Zofd;'Gb/ 1fjfnL / cS;kmfd hLaL g]kfnsf sfo{qmd ;+of]hs lji0f'k|;fb v/]n ;lxt o;sf] z'4fz'l4 / ;fh;Hhfdf ;xof]u ug]{ Osf]–g]kfnsf ;a} ;xofqLk|lt wGojfb JoQm ub{5f}F . Osf]–g]kfn ECO-Nepal 4÷klx/f] lgoGq0fsf pkfo
  • 5. ljifo;"rL lbuf] ljsf; / o;sf cfwf/ %–!@ ljifok|jz ] % ljsf;sf] kl/ro ^ lbuf] ljsf; * lbuf] ljsf;sf ;+jbgzLn kIf ] ( lbuf] ljsf;sf cfwf/e"t dfGotf !) ljsf;df ljsf;f]Gd'v d'nssf ;d:of ' !) ljsf; / k|sf]ksf] cGt;{DaGw !#–@) ljsf;n] k|sf]ksf] hf]lvd a9fpg] sf/0f !# k|sf]kn] ljsf;sf] cj;/ lbG5 !^ ljsf;n] k|sf]khGo Iflt Go"g u5{ !& k|sf]ksf] hf]lvd / ;x>fAbL ljsf; nIo @!–@$ ljZjJofkLs/0fn] k|sf]ksf] hf]lvd a9fp“5 @! ljsf; of]hgfdf k|sf]khGo hf]lvdsf] ;Daf]wg @@ k|sf]k hf]lvd Go"gLs/0fsf tLg 36s @@ k|sf]kdf cGt/f{li6«o ¿k/]vf @# k|sf]k hf]lvd Go"g ug]{ ljsf;sf tŒj @$ /fli6«o ljsf; gLltdf kl/jt{g @$ ljsf;sf] dfWodaf6 hf]lvd Go"gLs/0f @%–#) cfof]hgf:ynsf] 5gf]6 @^ lbuf] ljsf; / nfut–nfe ljZn]if0f @( k|sf]k Joj:yfkg / ljsf; Ps;fy cl3 === #! pk;+xf/ #@ k|sf]k Go"gLs/0fsf nflu lbuf] ljsf;÷5
  • 6. lbuf] ljsf; / o;sf cfwf/ ljifok|j]z ljsf; a[xt ljifoj:t' ;d]6g] zAb xf] . x/]s ljifo / If]qdf x'g] kl/jt{gsf] ;sf/fTds kIfnfO{ ljsf;sf ¿kdf lng] ul/Psf] 5 . To;}u/L ljsf; zAbn] s'g} klg d'nssf] cu|ufdL dfu{nfO{ ;ªst u/]sf] x'G5 eg] s'g} d'nssf nflu ' ] ' jt{dfg cfly{s, ;fdflhs ;+/rgfdf ?kfGt/0f u/L ;d[4 aGg] k|lqmofnfO{ hgfpF5 . ljsf;zLn d'nssf nflu eg] ul/aL lgjf/0f, cfwf/e"t lzIff jf ' ;fIf/tfsf] k|ltztdf j[l4 / hg:jf:Yodf ul/a ju{sf] kx'rnfO{ ljsf;sf F ¿kdf lnOg] ul/Psf] 5 . g]kfn / ljZjsf ljsf;zLn d'nssf] ;Gbe{df ' ul/aL lgjf/0f, ;fgf tyf demf}nf :t/sf pBf]usf] :yfkgf, s[lif ;8ssf] lgdf{0f, hnljB't cof]hgf ljsf;sf] k|fylds ;"rLdf kg]{ u/]sf 5g eg] ljsl;t d'nssf nflu ljZjahf/df cfˆgf] kx'r k'¥ofpg', ljB'tLo /]nsf] ' F ult cem tLj| agfpg', cGt/LIfdf e"pku|x / /s]6 k|If]k0f ug',{ cf0fljs pmhf{sf] pTkfbg a9fpg', cfly{s ;d[l4nfO{ cem pRr agfP/ ljZjahf/df cfˆgf] zlQm prf] b]vfpg' ljsf;sf] kIfdf lng] ul/Psf] 5 . gsf/fTds ljifosf] lj:tf/ x'g] k|lqmofnfO{ klg af]nLrfnLdf ljsf; g} eGg] ul/G5 . c/fhgLlts lqmofsnfksf] ljsf; eof], cfk/flws ultljlwsf] ljsf;n] k|>o kfof], rf]/L–8s}tLsf] ljsf;n] c;'/Iffsf] ljsf; u¥of] cflb cflb . jf:tljs cy{df ljsf; zAbnfO{ ;sf/fTds kl/jt{gsf] ;+jfxssf ¿kdf lng'kg]{ x'G5 . o;n] dflg;sf] cfly{s, k|fljlws, ;fdflhs, /fhgLlts, z}lIfs / :jf:Yosf If]qdf x'g] ;sf/fTds kl/jt{gsf] k|ltlglwTj u5{ . ljsf; dfgjLo sfo{sf] kl/0ffd ePaf6 klg dfgjLo lqmofsnfkaf6 pTkGg x'g] k|lts"n k|efjn] ljleGg k|sf/sf hf]lvd pTkGg ug]{ x'G5 . dflg;n] u/]sf] kl5Nnf] cf}Bf]lus pGgltn] tLj| ¿kdf cfly{s ljsf;sf] ;fy;fy} 8/nfUbf] jftfj/0fLo ;d:of klg pTkGg u/]sf] 5 . ef}lts ;+/rgf lgdf{0f / cfly{s ljsf;df ePsf] k|lt:kwf{sf] kl/0ffd:j¿k k|fs[lts sf/0faf6 x'g] k|sf]ksf ÷klx/f] lgoGq0fsf pkfo 6
  • 7. 36gfsf] k|ToIf k|efj dlg;df kg{ yfNof] . af9Lklx/f], e'Orfnf], cfunfuL, F cfFwLa]x/L, dxfdf/Lh:tf k|sf]ksf 36gfn] dflg;sf b}lgs hLjgk4ltdf ;d]t kl/jt{g Nofpg yfn]sf] 5 . ljz]ifu/L jftfj/0fLo ;d:ofsf sf/0f k|sf]ksf 36gfdf j[l4 ePsf] dflgPsf] 5 . To;}n] kl5Nnf] 36gfdf lbuf] ljsf;sf] cjwf/0ffn] ljZjdf kbfk{0f u/]sf] 5 . o; cjwf/0ffn] dfgjhLjgsf x/]s kIfnfO{ hf]lvd/lxt agfpg hf]8 lbPsf] 5 . k|sf]k 1fgdfnfsf] o; v08df xfdLn] s:tf] ljsf;n] k|sf]ksf] hf]lvd a9fpF5 / s:tf] ljsf;n] k|sf]ksf] ;fdgf ug{ ;S5 eGg] ljifodf 5f]6f] ¿kdf rrf{ ug]{ k|of; u/]sf 5f}F . ljsf;sf] kl/ro ;fdflhs, ;f+:s[lts, cfly{s, k|fljlws tyf :jf:Yosf If]qdf x'g] ;sf/fTds kl/jt{g tyf ;'wf/nfO{ ljsf; elgG5 . ;do, sfn, kl/l:yltcg';f/ ljsf;sf] lrgf/Ldf klg kl/jt{g x'b} cfPsf] 5 . krf; jif{cl3 cfly{s ;d[l4nfO{ g} F ljsf; elgGYof] eg] kl5Nnf] ;dodf dfgj ;+:ffwg / hLjg:t/sf] ;'wf/nfO{ klg ljsf;sf] bfo/fleq /fVg yflnof] . k|fs[lts ;|ftsf] a'l4dQfk"0f{ pkof]u, ] :yfgLo 1fg, k|ljlw, ;Lksf] pRrtd pkof]uåf/f :yfgLo ;d'bfosf] kx'r F agfpg] cfwf/ ;lxtsf] ;'wf/sf] sfo{nfO{ ljsf;sf] ¿kdf lng yflnof] . jt{dfg ;dodf t ;fdflhs ;dfj]zLs/0f, n}ªl us ;dfgtf, :jfoQ zf;gk|0ffnLnfO{ klg ljsf;sf] 3]/fleq ;d]l6Psf] 5 . ljsf;n] dflg;sf] hLjgnfO{ ;'vdo tyf ;d[4 agfpg] x'bf cfly{s, k|fljlws, ;fdflhs, F ;f+:s[lts, z}lIfs tyf :jf:Yo hLjgk4ltpk/ ;Dk"0f{ gful/s ;dfhsf] ;j{;ne kx'r x'g' cfjZos x'G5 . ' F ;g !(^) eGbf klxn] cfly{s pGgltnfO{ ljsf; eg]/ kl/eflift ul/Psf] lyof] eg] clxn] cfly{s pGglt;Fu} :jR5 jftfj/0f / u'0f:t/Lo hLjgsf nflu cfjZos ;a} k|sf/sf ;'ljwfsf] ;Gt'ngnfO{ ljsf;sf] ;"rssf ¿kdf lnOPsf] 5 . dflg;sf] hLjgk4ltdf x'g] ;sf/fTds kl/jt{g g} ljsf; xf] h;n] cfly{s, k|fljlws, ;fdflhs, z}lIfs, / ;f+:s[lts If]qdf hghflt, blnt, ul/a tyf lk5l8Psf ju{, dlxnf, k'?if ;a}sf] ;xh kx'r ePsf] k'li6 u5{ / F /fHodf ;'zf;g / gful/s clwsf/sf] k|Tofe"lt ePsf] oyfy{nfO{ Oªlut u5{ . k|sf]k Go"gLs/0fsf nflu lbuf] ljsf;÷7
  • 8. ljsf;nfO{ ;dofg'sn kl/jt{gsf] ;fdfGo cj:yfsf] ljZn]if0faf6 ;lhn} " a'‰g / hfGg ;lsG5 . ljsf;;Fu ;DalGwt ;sf/fTds kl/jt{gsf lgDg pbfx/0fn] ljsf;sf] jf:tljs cy{ lbg ;S5 M zf/Ll/s ljsf; M dflg; hlGdFbf aRrf] x'G5 . lj:tf/} a9]/ afns, o'jf / jo:s x'b} j[4 x'G5 . dflg; tyf hLjdf x'g] o; k|sf/sf] zf/Ll/s F kl/j{tgsf] k|lqmof zf/Ll/s ljsf;sf] ;"rs xf] . 1fg M afnsn] 3/ kl/jf/af6 lzIff k|fKt u5{, ljBfyL{sf ¿kdf ljBfno hfG5, x/]s jif{ >]0fL pSnG5 / pRr lzIffdf cfˆgf] kx'r agfpF5 . F lzIffdf x'g] o; kl/jt{gnfO{ klg ljsf;sf] ¿kdf g} lnOG5 . cyf]kfh{g M dflg;n] hLjg lgjf{xsf nflu d]xgt u5{ . hLljsf]kfh{gsf { nflu dflg;nfO{ vfBfGg, sk8f / cfjf; rflxG5 . dflg;n] v]tLkftL, pBf]u tyf Jofkf/ u/]/ jf gf]s/L u/]/ vfBfGg, sk8f / a;f]af;sf] Joj:yf u5{ . /fd|f] cfDbfgL ug{;Sg] dflg;n] dL7f] vfgf vfG5, /fd|f] n'uf nufpF5 / /fd|f] 3/df a:5 . sd cfDbfgL x'gsf] vfgf, sk8f / a:g] 7fpF ] ;fdfGo x'G5 . To;}n] x/]s dflg;n] cfgf] cfDbfgL a9fpg] k|of; u5{ . o:tf] k|of; ubf{ cfly{s :t/ dfly p7b} hfg] k|lqmofnfO{ cfly{s ljsf; elgG5 . ;'ljwfsf] pkef]u M dflg;sf] cfDbfgLsf] cg'kftdf p;n] pkef]u ug]{ ;'ljwfsf ;fwgdf j[l4 x'G5 . ;Gtfgn] /fd|f] ljBfnodf k9g kfpF5g jf pRr lzIff k|fKt ug{ ;S5g . To;}u/L cfly{s ljsf;df x'g] kl/jt{g ;sf/fTds eO/x]df ;'v ;'ljwfsf ;fwgdf j[l4 x'g] qmd rln/xG5 . o:tf] kl/jt{gnfO{ klg cfly{s ljsf;s} ¿kdf lnOG5 . ljsf; ;DaGwL plNnlvt JofVofaf6 dfq ljsf;sf] ;xL cy{ nfUg ;Sb}g . casf] ;dodf ljsf;nfO{ ;–lj:tf/ a'‰g ;g !((@ df a|flhnsf] /fhwfgL l/of] b] h]gl] /of]df ;+oQm /fi6«;ª3sf] cfof]hgfdf ePsf] ljZj lzv/ ;Dd]ngåf/f ' kfl/t lbuf] ljsf;af/] cWoog ug'{ cfjZos x'G5 . lbuf] ljsf; cfly{s ljsf;sf nflu ul/g] s'g} klg sfdsf] k|lts"n k|efj dfgjhLjgsf cGo If]qdf kg'{ x'bg eGg] dfGotf lbuf] ljsf;sf] cjwf/0ffn] cªlusf/ u/]sf] F} 8÷klx/f] lgoGq0fsf pkfo
  • 9. 5 . jt{dfg ;dodf b]lvPsf] ;sf/fTds kl/jt{gnfO{ eljiodf s'g} k|sf/af6 xflg k'Ug' x'bg jf ljsf; lgdf{0fsf lqmofsnfkåf/f k|fs[lts ;|ftdfly cgk]lIft F} ] cltqmd0f jf bafa lbg] sfd ul/g'xGg eGg] dfGotf lbuf] ljsf;sf] /x]sf] 5 . ' s'g} :yfgdf ;~rfng x'g] ;fdflhs ljsf;;Fu ;DalGwt sfo{qmd, ;+/If0f sfo{qmd jf ljsf;–lgdf{0fsf sfo{n] lg/Gt/tf kfpg'kg]{ z'lglZrttfsf ;fy} To;n] jftfj/0fsf cGo kIfdf k|lts"n c;/ kfg'{ x'bg eGg] s'/fsf] ;d]t F} k|Tofe"lt lbg'k5{ . To;}n] ;8s, k'n l56} elTsg', ;8s lgdf{0fsf sf/0f klx/f] hfg', ;d'bfodf cfocfh{gsf nflu lbOg] tflndsf] ;b'kof]u gx'g,' /f]lkPsf la?jf dg',{ afn'jf tyf u]uØfgL;d]t aUg] lsl;dn] l;FrfOsf nflu gx/ jf | s'nf] lgdf{0f x'g' / o:tf sfo{ ubf{ k|bif0f j[l4 eP/ jftfj/0fsf] u'0f:t/df " x|f; cfpg] cj:yf pTkGg x'gnfO{ lbuf] ljsf; dfGg ;lsFbg . ' } jftfj/0f k|bif0f / cksif{0fsf sf/0f dflg;sf] hLjg hf]lvddo aGg] qmd " al9/x]sf] 5 . jfo'kbif0fn] hg:jf:Yodf tTsfnLg k|efj t kf5{ g}, jfo'd08nsf] |" ;+/rgfdf kl/jt{g eP/ k[YjLsf] tfkqmd j[l4 x'g] qmd klg a9bf] cj:yfdf 5 . o;af6 ljZjn] hnjfo' kl/jt{g;DaGwL ;d:ofsf] ;fdgf ug'{ kl//x]sf] 5 . cf}Bf]lus ljsf; / cfw'lgs k|ljlwo'Qm dflgg] s[lifk|0ffnLn] ;d]t jfo', hn / e"lddf x'g] k|bif0fnfO{ tLj| agfPsf] 5 . k|fs[lts ;|ftdfly dflg;sf] " ] cltqmd0f tyf rfk a9]/ ltgLx¿sf] k'g?Tkfbg Ifdtfdf Jofks x|f; cfPsf] 5 . of] cj:yf /x];Dd :jR5 jftfj/0f / u'0f:t/Lo hLjgsf] ;f]r k"/f x'bg F} / dfgjhLjg vt/fd'Qm x'g ;Sb}g . oxL oyfy{nfO{ cfTd;ft u/]/ g} lbuf] ljsf;sf] cjwf/0ff cufl8 cfPsf] xf] . ljgfzsf/L lqmofsnfkdf ;+nUg dfgjLo ultljlwnfO{ lglZrt bfo/fleq /fv]/ ljsf; k|lqmofnfO{ cufl8 a9fpg ;s]df dfq jt{dfg ;dosf xfd|f cfjZostf k"/f x'b} eljiosf nflu F klg ;|ftsf] lbuf] ;+/If0f x'g5 . ] ] o;} oyfy{nfO{ dgg ub}{ ;+oQm /fi6«;ª3Lo ljsf; tyf jftfj/0f cfof]un] ' lbuf] ljsf;nfO{ lgDgcg';f/ kl/eflift u/]sf] 5– ælbuf] ljsf;n] efjL k':tfsf nflu cfjZos kg]{ k|fs[lts ;|ftsf] pTkfbgzLn Ifdtfdf s'g} ;Demf}tf ] gul/sg jt{dfg cfjZostfsf] k"lt{ u5{ .Æ k|fs[lts jftfj/0fsf] ljgfz tyf k|fs[lts ;|ftsf] k'g?Tkfbg Ifdtfdf x|f; ] x'g glbO efjL ;Gtltsf lgldQ gf;f]sf] ¿kdf ;|ftsf] ;+/If0f ub}{ a'l4dQfk"0f{ ] pkof]uåf/f ;dfhsf ;Dk"0f{ ju{n] k|fKt ug]{ hLjglgjf{xsf] u'0f:t/ g} lbuf] k|sf]k Go"gLs/0fsf nflu lbuf] ljsf;÷9
  • 10. ljsf;sf] ;"rs xf] . lbuf] ljsf;sf] cfwf/ lgdf{0fdf ;fdflhs ;dfj]zLs/0f, ;fj{hlgs lghL If]qaLr ;dembf/L, JolQmut tyf ;+:yfut rfnrngdf ;'wf/, Ifdtf clej[l4h:tf ljifon] ;fwgsf] ¿kdf sfo{ u/]sf] x'G5 . /fHosf ;Dk"0f{ tx tyf ;d'bfodf kl/jt{gzLn gLlt sfof{Gjog, /fli6«o tyf :yfgLo txdf clwsf/ / bfloTjsf] x:tfGt/0f ljs]Gb|Ls[t ¿kdf ePsf] x'G5 . lbuf] ljsf;sf ;+j]bgzLn kIf lbuf] ljsf; PSsfO;f}F ztfAbLsf] d"n d'2f xf], h;nfO{ jftfj/0f / k|fs[lts ;|ftsf] a'l4dQfk"0f{ pkof]u tyf :jR5 pmhf{ / k|ljlwsf] ljsf;sf] cfwf/e"t ] l;4fGtsf] ¿kdf klg lng ;lsG5 . cfly{s, ;fdflhs / jftfj/0fLo nfesf lqkIfLo ;dfgtfsf cwf/df ;sf/fTds kl/jt{gsf] k|Tofe"lt lbg ;lsPdf lbuf] ljsf;sf] cjwf/0fn] jf:tljs dfgjljsf;sf] k|ltlglwTj ug]5 . o;sf { nflu dflg;n] lgDg ljifodf Wofg lbg' cfjZos x'G5 M ef}uf]lns, ;fdflhs, cfly{s, k|fljlws, cj:yfcg'¿k lbuf] ljsf;sf sfo{qmdsf] klxrfg / ljZn]if0f, ul/aLsf] /]vfd'lg /x]sf jf lk5l8Psf hghflt, blnt, czQm / dlxnf ;d'bfodf ljsf;–lgdf{0faf6 kg]{ k|efj / nfesf] ljt/0fsf] cg'kftsf] ljZn]if0f, ljsf;åf/f x'g] kl/jt{gsf] k|efjsf] ;dfgf ug{;Sg] jftfj/0fLo cj:yfsf] klxrfg tyf dflg;sf] hLjgk4ltdf cfpg] ;fdflhs, cfly{s / k|fljlws kl/jt{gnfO{ cj;/ tyf r'gf}tLsf] ¿kdf u|x0f ug]{ Ifdtfsf] ljZn]if0f, ;|ftsf] a'l4dQfk"0f{ pkof]u, :yfgLo 1fg, k|ljlw / ;Lksf] ljsf;, ] ;+/If0f r]tgf tyf ;fdflhs kx'rsf] jt{dfg cj:yf / eljiodf F b]lvg;Sg] glthfsf] k|If]k0f, ljsf;n] Nofpg] kl/jt{g tyf k|efjsf] ;fdgf ug]{ jf wfGg;Sg] Ifdtf tyf :jLsf/ ug]{ jf gug]{ cj:yfsf] ljZn]if0f . lbuf] ljsf;sf cfwf/e"t dfGotf jt{dfg tyf efjL k':tfsf k|To]s dflg;sf nflu u'0f:t/Lo hLjgsf] k|Tofe"lt 10÷klx/f] lgoGq0fsf pkfo
  • 11. g} lbuf] ljsf;sf] d"n cfwf/ xf], h;n] lgDg s'/fdf hf]8 lbG5 M k|To]s JolQmsf nflu dfGo x'g] tyf ;dfgtfdf cfwfl/t ;fdflhs ljsf;, k|fs[lts ;|ftsf] a'l4dQfk"0f{ pkof]u / k|efjsf/L ;+/If0f, ] k|bif0fsf/L lqmofsnfkdf lgoGq0f tyf Joj:yfkg " ljsf;sf] k|ltkmnsf] ljZjJofkL ¿kdf ;dfg'kflts ljt/0f, / pRr / l:y/ cfly{s ljsf; tyf /f]huf/Lsf cj;/x¿sf] lg/Gt/tf . o; k|sf/ lbuf] ljsf;n] :jR5 jftfj/0f / u'0f:t/Lo hLjgsf] k|Tofe"lt ub{5 . o;n] ;fdflhs, ;f+:s[lts, k|fljlws, cfly{s If]qdf x'g] ljsf;sf ;fy} dfgj;+;fwgsf] bIftf clej[l4, k|sf]ksf 36gfaf6 x'g] hgwgsf] Iflt Go"gLs/0f ub}{ ckslif{t tyf k|bl" ift jftfj/0fsf] k'gM:yfkgdf hf]8 lbG5 . lbuf] ljsf;n] ;'vb eljiosf] pRrtd rfxgfnfO{ k|ltglwTj ug]{ dfq xf]Og, efjL k':tfsf] nflu pko'Qm k|fs[lts jftfj/0f / ;|ftsf] x:tfGt/0fnfO{ ;d]t ;'lglZrt ] u/]sf] x'G5 . ljsf;df ljsf;f]Gd'v d'n'ssf ;d:of k|sf]ksf] cGt/f{li6«o k|jl[ Q / Ifltsf] ljZn]if0f ug]{ xf] eg] ljsl;t d'nssf] ' t'ngfdf ljsf;f]Gd'v d'n'sdf hgwgsf] Iflt w]/} x'g] u/]sf] 5 . cTolws hg;+Vof j[l4 tyf k|fs[lts ;|f]tdfly cltqmd0f, cj}1flgs e"–pkof]u, ul/aL, clzIff, r] t gfsf] cefj, ljsf; cfof] h gfsf] 5gf] 6 df cb"/blz{tfh:tf sf/0fn] ljsf; / k|sf]k Joj:yfkgnfO{ ljsf;zLn d'n'sn] ;+j]bgzLn eP/ cFufNg ;s]sf] kfOFb}g . oL d'n'sn] ljsf;nfO{ k|sf]klj?4 k|lt/IffTds agfpg g;Sg'sf k|d'v sf/0f / ;'wf/sf kIfsf] ;+lIfKt cWoog ug'{ k|f;lËs x'g]5 M sfg'gL Joj:yf sfg'gL Joj:yfnfO{ b"/ufdL agfpg g;Sbf ;dofg'sn sfdsf/afxLdf sl7gfO " cfpg ;Sb5 . kl/0ffd:j¿k P]glgod tyf sfg'g k|To'Tkfbs klg x'g ;Sb5g . Jofjxfl/s¿kdf cK7of/f P]g, lgodsf sf/0f ;dodf sfd x'g g;Sg] dfq xf]Og, ljsf;lgdf{0fsf sfddf cj/f]w pTkGg eO{ nufgLsf] lbuf] k|ltkmn k|sf]k Go"gLs/0fsf nflu lbuf] ljsf;÷11
  • 12. k|fKt gx'g] cj:yf klg cfpg ;Sb5 . /fHon] ljsf;nfO{ lbuf] ¿k lbg / sfo{ut sl7gfO x6fpg df}hbf sfg'gdf ;do;fk]If kl/dfh{g tyf ;'wf/ ub}{ ' hfg'kg]{ x'G5 . k'hLut nfut a9g] 8/ “ ljsf; cfof]hgfnfO{ lbuf] agfpg tyf k|sf]k k|lt/f]wfTds agfpg ;fdfGo lgdf{0fsf] t'ngfdf k'hLut nfut j[l4 x'g] s'/fnfO{ c:jLsf/ ug{ ;lsFbg . F } o; cj:yfdf of]hgfsf/x¿n] k|sf]k /f]syfdsf] nfut a]xf]g{ g;lsg] 7x/ u/]sf] v08df nfut / k|ltkmnsf] lx;fa (Cost Benefit Calcualtion) c:jLsfo{ x'g hfG5 / ljsf; sfo{ cj¿4 x'G5 . ;fdflhs jf P]ltxfl;s ghL/ JolQm, kl/jf/ / ;dfhdf k|sf]ksf] kL8f ga]xf]/;Dd …s]xL x'bgÚ eGg] dfgl;stf ] F} sfod /xg' k|sf]k lgoGq0f / Iflt Go"gLs/0fsf] If]qdf lj8Dagf ag]sf] 5 . k/]kl5 dfq r]tgf hfu[lt x'g] dfgjLo dfgl;stfsf sf/0f klg ljsf;df k|sf]ksf] Iflt w]/} x'g] ;Defjgf /xG5 . xfn;Dd sf7df8f}df ljWj+;sf/L + cfunfuL gePsf]n] oxfFsf ejgdf cfunfuL;DaGwL cfrf/;+lxtf cem} nfu" x'g g;Sg' o;sf] HjnGt pbfx/0f xf] . /fHon] ;x/L / u|fdL0f If]qdf 3/ lgdf{0f ubf{ k"/f ug'kg]{ Go"gtd dfkb08 lgwf{/0f u/L sfof{Gjog u/]df { eljiodf x'g;Sg] ljgf; lgolGqt x'g ;S5 . r]tgfsf] cefj k|sf]ksf c;/af6 aRg ;lsG5 eGg] r]tgf Jofks x'g g;s] k|sf]k /f]syfdsf pkfo klg ;kmtfk"js cjnDag x'g] ;Defjgf Go"g /xG5 . Pslt/ d'nssf] { ' ef}uf]lns cj:yf / k|sf]ksf ;Defljt If]qdf :yfgcg';f/ k|sf]k Joj:yfkg tyf Iflt Go"gLs/0fsf sfo{ ePsf 5}gg eg] csf]l{ t/ JolQmut, kfl/jfl/s Pjd ;fd'bflos r]tgf clej[l4 sfo{ /fd|/L x'g ;s]sf] 5}g . o; ;Gbe{df, l;sdL{, 8sdL{ / 7]sbf/x¿nfO{ e'Orfnf]kl| t/f]wL 3/ agfpg' kb{5 eGg] 1fg ] F gx'gnfO{ pbfx/0fsf] ¿kdf lng ;lsG5 . To;}u/L :ynut lg/LIf0f ug]x¿, ' { jf:t'snfljb / of]hgfsf/x¿nfO{ klg k|sf]k /f]syfdsf ;Dk"0f{ pkfo yfxf gx'g ;Sb5 . o:tf] ;d:of xn ug{ pgLx¿nfO{ tflnd lbg' kb{5 / ejg lgdf{0f;DaGwL cfrf/;+lxtf (Building Codes) s8fOsf ;fy nfu" u/fOg'k5{ . 12÷klx/f] lgoGq0fsf pkfo
  • 13. ljsf;sf cj;/ k|fs[lts k|sf]ksf] c;/n] hgwgsf] Jofks Iflt x'ghfg] eP klg k|sf]kkl5 ul/g] k'glg{df{0fn] ljsf;sf] 9f]sf eg] v'Nb5 ("Disaster often precipitate major changes in both the economic and political life of a country" (Cuny, 1983) . k|sf]knfO{ ljWj+;sf/L tŒjsf ¿kdf kl/eflift ul/g] eP klg k|sf]kkl5 ul/g] of]hgfa4 ljsf;lgdf{0fsf lqmofsnfkaf6 eg] eljiodf x'g] Ifltsf] ;DefjgfnfO{ Go"g ub{5 . c;'/lIft ejg Pjd ef}lts ;+/rgfsf] Ifltn] ;'/lIft lgdf{0f jf c;'/lIft :yfgdf a;]sf dflg; / ag]sf jf aGg] ef}lts ;+/rgfsf] :yfgfGt/0f ug{ k|]l/t u5{ . 7"nf–7"nf k|sf]ksf sf/0f j}b]lzs ;xfotf klg kof{Kt dfqfdf lelqg ;Sb5, h'g ;fdfGo cj:yfdf lelqg] ;Defjgf x'Fb}g . ljsf;n] ljklQ lgDTofp“5 ;x/Ls/0f Pjd cf}Bf]uLs/0fsf] k|lqmofaf6 3gfa:tL Pj+ hg;ªVofsf] lj:tf/ x'G5 . 3gf cfjfbL ePsf ;x/df e'Orfnf]sf] k|sf]k cfPdf cfjf;If]q eTsg], F gi6 x'g] / w]/} dflg; k|efljt x'g] x'bf p4f/ sfo{ hl6n aGb5 . e'Orfnf]sf F F sf/0f cfunfuL x'g,] dxfdf/L km}ng] / clgsfn nfUg] ;Defjgf Jofks x'G5 . ctM cf}Bf]lus If]q / ;x/sf] lj:tf/ / ljsf; of]hgfa4 9ªun] ul/g'k5{ / k|sf]k k|lt/f]wfTds Ifdtfdf klg clej[l4 ul/g'k5{ . lbuf] ljsf;åf/f k|sf]k /f]syfd ug{ ;lsG5 k|sf]k /f]syfdnfO{ x/]s ljsf; sfo{qmddf cleGg cªusf] ¿kdf ;dfj]z ug'k5{ . cfof]hgfsf] ;DefJotf cWoogb]lv sfof{Gjog tx;Dd vt/f / { k|sf]ksf x/]s kIfdf Wofg lbg'k5{ . oL ljleGg kIfdf Wofg lbPdf ljsf;df lbuf]kg cfpg] / kmn:j¿k k|sf]ksf] /f]syfddf ;xof]u k'U5 . k|sf]k Go"gLs/0fsf nflu lbuf] ljsf;÷13
  • 14. ljsf; / k|sf]ksf] cGt;{DaGw ljsf; / k|sf]kaLrsf] ;DaGwaf/] w]/df låljwf pTkGg x'g] u/]sf] 5 . ljsf;n] } k|sf]ksf] hf]lvd 36fpF5 eGg] PstkmL{ wf/0ffsf] ljsf; k|foM ;a} d'nssf' gful/sdf ePsf] x'G5 / Tof] :Jffefljs klg xf] . ljsf;sf ;+/rgf alnof] ePdf To;n] k|sf]ksf] k|ltsf/ u5{ jf k|sf]ksf] hf]lvdnfO{ Go"gLs/0f u5{ . t/ ljsf;n] g} k|sf]ksf] hf]lvd a9fpg] sfd u/]sf] x'G5 . o;k|sf/ ljsf;n] k|sf]ksf] hf]lvd a9fpg] tyf 36fpg] b'j} sfd u5{ eGg] oyfy{ :ki6 x'G5 . k|sf]ksf] hf]lvd Go"gLs/0fsf nflu lbuf] ljsf;sf] cjwf/0ffnfO{ cfTd;ft ug{ ;lsof] eg] To;n] k|sf]kaf6 x'g] Iflt 36fpg ;xof]u u5{ t/ sdhf]/ ljsf;sf ;+/rgfn] k|sf]ksf] hf]lvd 36fpg'sf] ;f6f] a9fpg] ePsfn] ljsf; g} clezfk aGg] ;Defjgf /xG5 . To;}n] ljsf; / k|sf]kaLrsf] ;DaGwsf] klxrfg ug{ o;sf ljleGg kIfsf] ljZn]if0f ug'{ ;fGble{s x'g5 . ] ljsf;n] k|sf]ksf] hf]lvd a9fpg] sf/0f cfly{s ljsf;sf] xf]8df nfu]sf] dflg;n] ;+/rgfsf] y'kf| nfO{ dfq ljsf;sf] ] ¿kdf x]g{] k|of; u¥of] . clxn];Dd klg d'bf| df k|ToIf d"Nofªg ug{ ;lsg] j:t'nfO{ ;DklQsf] d]?b08 dflgPsf] 5 . k|fs[lt ;|ftsf] pkof]u hlt u/] klg ] To;n] s]xL km/s kfb}g eGg] wf/0f clxn] klg /x]sf] kfOG5 . k|sf]ksf { 36gfnfO{ b}jLzlQmsf] OR5f ePsfn] dflg;n] o;af6 aRg hlt k|of; u/] klg ;Dej 5}g eGg] wf/0f ;dfhaf6 x6g ;s]sf] 5}g . To;}n] 3/ agfpFbf, ;8s, k'n, jf cGo ;fj{hlgsf lgdf{0fsf sfd ubf{ To;af6 eljiodf kg]{ k|efj jf Ifltaf/] rf;f] lng] ul/Psf] 5}g . ;d'bfo;Fu 1fgsf] cefj, ljsf;lgdf{0f sfo{df ;d'bfonfO{ ;xefuL gagfOFbf jf ufpFsf kx'rjfnf dflg;nfO{ dfq ;xefuL u/fOFbf o:tf ;d:of pTkGg F ePsf 5g . ;+/rgfsf] lgdf{0fnfO{ ljsf;sf] kl/efiffleq /fVg ;lsG5 . t/ To;sf] :t/ sdhf]/ x'bf k|sf]khGo Iflt j[l4 ePsf] x'G5 / ljsf;nfO{ kl5 F 14÷klx/f] lgoGq0fsf pkfo
  • 15. ws]N5 . ljsf;sf gfddf sdhf]/ ;+/rgfsf] lgdf{0f eof] eg] To;n] k|sf]ksf] hf]lvd a9fpg] tYonfO{ lgDg cg';f/ lng ;lsG5 M a;f]af; hLljsf]kfh{g tyf cfly{s ljsf;nfO{ pRr agfpg gbLlsgf/ / eL/sf] km]bsf] d}bfg jf a];Ldf a;f]af; ug]{ k|rng lgs} a9]sf] 5 . ;x/L If]qdf F gbLlsgf/ k"/} ldr]/ ;8s, ejg, 9n cflb lgdf{0f x'g] u/]sf 5g . o;n] klx/f] / af9Lh:tf 36gfaf6 wghgsf] Iflt a9fpg ;xof]u u5{ . af9Ln] e]6g ;Sg] gbLlsgf/ jf xf]rf] e"lddf /x]sf] cfjf; If]q jf lgdf{0f ul/Psf ;+/rgf ;ªs6fled'v x'G5g . o;/L gbLlsgf/df a;f]af; ubf{ wgdfn dfq xf]Og, Hofg hfg;Sg] ;Defjgf klg a9L x'G5 . To;}u/L klx/f] hfg;Sg] le/fnf] kfvf] If]qdf a;f]af; ug'{ klg k|sf]ksf b[li6n] hf]lvdk"0f{ x'G5 . hf]lvdsf] ljZn]if0f gul/sg a;f]af;, v]tLkftL, pBf]uwGbf ;~rfng ubf{ ef}lts ¿kdf ljsf; ePsf] b]lvP klg k|sf]ksf ;fdfGo 36gfaf6 klg lgs} 7"nf] Iflt x'g] ;Defjgf /xG5 / o:tf] ljsf;n] k|sf]ksf] hf]lvd a9fPsf] x'G5 . cfjf; lgdf{0f cfjf; lgdf{0fsf b[li6n] g]kfnsf u|fdL0f ejgsf t'ngfdf ;x/L If]qsf ejg a9L hf]lvdo'Qm /x]sf 5g . ljZjsf b'O{ ;o d'nsdWo] g]kfn e"sDkLo ' hf]lvdsf] !! cf}F :yfgdf /x]sf] 5 . cem sf7df8f}F t ljZjs} hf]lvdk"0f{ ;x/sf] ;"rLdf k/]sf] 5 . o;sf cltl/Qm tLj| ;x/Ls/0f;Fu} a9]sf] ejg lgdf{0f k|lqmofn] e"sDkLo hf]lvd a9fpg] sfd u/]sf] 5 . ;:tf] d"Nodf 3/ agfpg] k'/fg} rngn] lgs} pRr b]lvPsf] ef}lts ljsf; e"sDkLo hf]lvdsf lx;fan] sdhf]/ /x]sf 5g . o:tf] ljsf;n] klg k|sf]ksf] hf]lvdnfO{ pRr agfPsf] 5 . u|fdL0f If]qdf klg kSsL 3/ agfpg] k|rng w]/} a9]sf] 5 . sdhf]/ lgdf{0f ;fdu|L / cbIf sfnLu9sf] k|of]un] k|sf]ksf] hf]lvd a9fPsf] b]Vg kfOG5 . u|fdL0f k'n tyf sNe6{ xfd|f ufpF3/df aGg] k'n–k'n;fnfO{ o;sf] HjnGt pbfx/0fsf ¿kdf lng ] k|sf]k Go"gLs/0fsf nflu lbuf] ljsf;÷15
  • 16. ;lsG5 . u|fdL0f If]qsf vf]nfdf cfjthfjt ;j{;ne agfpg lgdf{0f x'g] ' clwsf+z k'n / sNe6{ agfPs} jif{ af9Ln] aufPsf] jf eTsfPsf] x'G5 . k'nsf] bfofFafofF s6fg u/L vf]nf] au]/ sNe6{ k|of]uxLg ag]sf] 36gf t/fO{sf u|fdL0f If]qdf k|z:t b]Vg ;lsG5 . Tof] ufpF ljsf; ;ldlt;Fu jf ;/sf/;Fu ah]6sf] cefj ePsf sf/0f jf sd ePsf] gfddf 7]sbf/af6 sdhf]/ ;+/rgf ] lgdf{0fsf] glthf xf] . o:tf sdhf]/ ;+/rgfn] k|sf]kaf6 x'g] Iflt a9fpF5 . ;fj{hlgs ljsf;lgdf{0f g]kfndf ;/sf/sf s]Gb|Lo / :yfgLo lgsfoaf6 x'g] ljsf;lgdf{0fsf sfo{n] k|sf]khGo hf]lvd lgs} a9fPsf] 5 . ;x/L / u|fdL0f If]qdf lj:tf/ eO/x]sf] ljB't k|;f/0fÙ 6]lnkmf]g, s]an 6]lnlehg lj:tf/ ubf{ ckgfOPsf] sdhf]/ ' ;+/rgflgdf{0f ;a}eGbf hf]lvdo'Qm /x]sf 5g . ;8s, k'nlgdf{0f tyf dd{tsf sfo{df klg lgs} sdL sdhf]/L /x]sf] 5 . ;/sf/n] cg'dfg u/]sf] nfutsf t'ngfdf af]nsaf]ndf 7]sbf/n] k]z ug]{ nfut ljj/0faLr b]lvg] Go"gtfn] ] klg ;fj{hlgs lgdf{0fsf] u'0f:t/ slt sdhf]/ xf]nf eg]/ ;lhn} cg'dfg ug{ ;lsG5 . d'nssf ljleGg If]qdf lgdf{0f ePsf sfof{no ejg, k'n, ;8ssf] ' lgdf{0f ;DkGg x'gf;fy Ifltu|:t x'b} uPsf pbfx/0fn] klg o;sf] k'li6 u5{ . F o; k|sf/sf] ljsf;lgdf{0fn] k|sf]khGo IfltnfO{ pRr agfpF5 . z}lIfs If]qsf] ljsf; z}lIfs ljsf;sf] tLj|tfn] klg k|sf]ksf] hf]lvd a9fPsf] 5 . d'nssf clwsf+z ' lghL tyf ;fj{hlgs ljBfnosf ejgsf] lgdf{0f pko'Qm dfkb08sf] bfo/feGbf aflx/ 5g . cem u|fdL0f If]qsf ljBfnox¿ af9Lklx/f]sf] hf]lvddf /x]sf hUufhldgdf lgdf{0f x'g] / lgdf{0f ;fdu|Lsf] u'0f:t/df Ps¿ktf gx'bf F k|sf]ksf ;fdfGo 36gfaf6} klg Ifltu|:t x'g;Sg] ;Defjgf /x]sf] 5 . sdhf]/ ljBfno ejgsf sf/0f ljBfyL{x¿ ljZjd} Hofb} hf]lvddf /x]sf dflgG5g . ljsf;n] k|sf]kaf6 x'g] IfltnfO{ dfq a9fpFbg, k|sf]ksf 36gfdf j[l4 klg } u5{ . To;}n] ljsf; ePdf k|sf]k x'bg eGg] dfGotf unt ;flat eO;s]sf] F} 5 . ljsf;sf] k|lqmofnfO{ cl3 a9fpFbf To;af6 eljiodf kg{ ;Sg] k|efjsf] d"Nofªsg ug]{ k/Dk/f ga;]sf sf/0f klg o:tf] cj:yf pTkGg ePsf] x'G5 . 16÷klx/f] lgoGq0fsf pkfo
  • 17. o:tf kIfdf Wofg gk'¥ofO{ ljsf; ul/Psf cjf; If]q, ;8s, k'n, ljB'tux, [ vfg]kfgL, lah'nL ljt/0fk|0ffnL, ;fj{hlgs tyf lghL ejg ;b}j k|sf]ksf] hf]lvddf /x]sf x'G5g . vf;u/L lgDg cj:yfdf ljsf;sf ;+/rgf k|sf]ksf] hf]lvdpGd'v /x]sf] x'G5 M k|fs[lts tyf ef}uf]lns cj:yfsf] ljZn]if0f gul/sg lgdf{0f ul/Pdf . k|sf]ksf] hf]lvd tyf ;ªs6fled'vtfsf] ljZn]if0f gul/Pdf . jftfj/0f k|bif0f tyf k|fs[lts ;|ftdfly cltqmd0f a9]/ jftfj/0f " ] cksif{0f a9]df . jftfj/0f k|efj d"Nofªsg / k|sf]ksf] hf]lvd ljZn]if0f gul/Pdf jf ul/P klg tYo n'sfP/ ljsf; lgdf{0fsf sfd u/]df . cf}Bf]lus If]qdf q'l6k"0f{ k|ljlwsf] k|of]u ePdf . hf]lvd Go"gLs/0f gul/Psf cjf; If]qsf] lj:tf/ ePdf jf clgof]lht ¿kdf sdhf]/ ;+/rgf lgdf{0f ePdf . ljsf; lgdf{0fsf sfo{df JolQmut :jfy{ tyf e|i6frf/ xfjL ePdf . k|sf]kn] ljsf;sf] cj;/ lbG5 k|sf]kaf6 ljZjdf x/]s jif{ nfvf}F dflg;sf] Hofg hfG5, xhf/f}F dflg; x/fpF5g, nfvf}F kl/jf/ 3/af/ljxLg x'G5g / c/af}F ?k}ofFa/fa/sf] wg;DklQ gi6 x'G5 . ;g @))% sf] clGtddf Pl;of tyf k|zfGt If]qdf cfPsf] ;'gfdLn] k'¥ofPsf] Iflt / To;n] kf/]sf] ljZjJofkL k|efjsf] d"Nofªsg ubf{ k|sf]kn] ljsf;sf] cj;/ klg pknAw u/fpg] JofVof ug'{ xf:of:kbh:tf] nfUg ;S5 . ;g @))) df cd]l/sfl:yt ljZjJofkf/ s]Gb|df ePsf] cfqmd0fsf] glthfn] klg k|sf]kn] ljsf;sf] cj;/af6 dfgj;dfhnfO{ jl~rt g} ug]{ b]vfPsf] 5 . s'g} klg ljifonfO{ ;sf/fTds / gsf/fTds b'j} kIfaf6 cWoog tyf ljZn]if0f ug'{ ;fGble{s x'G5 . To;f] ul/Pdf g/fd|f kIfsf] pko'Qm pkrf/ ug{ dflg;nfO{ ;xof]u ldNg] x'G5 . k|sf]k Go"gLs/0fsf nflu lbuf] ljsf;÷17
  • 18. pRr k|ljlw, 1fg / ;Lksf] k|of]u gePsf lgld{t ;+/rgf s'g} sf/0faf6 Ifltu|:t geP;Dd To;sf] dd{t tyf ;Def/ ug]{ jf To;nfO{ eTsfP/ k'gM lgdf{0f ug]{ k/Dk/f xfdLsxfF a;]sf] 5}g . To;}n] sdhf]/ 3/ ;fgf] e'Orfnf] F cfP/ 3/ elTsof] eg] x'g] Ifltsf] cg'dfg ug{ ;lsFbg . k'/fgf] ejg t } elTsG5 g} ToxfF a;f]af; ug]{ s}of}F dflg; dg]{ / 3fOt] x'g] ;Defjgf klg TolQs} /xG5 . t/ ejg elTsPkl5 ToxfF e"sDkk|lt/f]wL ejg aGg] af6f] v'nf x'ghfG5 . o;}nfO{ k|sf]kn] ljsf;sf] cj;/ k|bfg ug]{ pbfx/0f dfGg ;lsG5 . ljutdf dfcf]jfbL cfGbf]ngn] ljleGg lhNnfdf k'¥ofPsf] hgwgsf] IfltnfO{ dfgjs[t k|sf]ksf] >]0fLdf /fVg ;lsG5 . dfcf]jfbL cfqmd0faf6 ;/sf/sf k'/fgf tyf yf]qf sfof{no ejg Ifltu|:t eP . ;/sf/n] tL sfof{no ejg gofF / k|sf]kk|lt/f]wL agfpg ;Sof] eg] To;nfO{ klg k|sf]kaf6 ljsf;sf nflu k|fKt cj;/sf] ¿kdf lng ;lsG5 . ljz]ifu/L t/fO{ If]qsf ;fj{hlgs ljBfnosf 5fgf x'/Latf;af6 jif]gL Ifltu|:t { x'g yfn]kl5 9nfg u/L kSsL 5fgf nufpg k|fyldstf lbOPsf] 5 . x'/Latf;af6 5fgf Ifltu|:t gePsf eP tL ljBfnodf cWoog ug]{ ljBfyL{n] h:tfkftfsf] tftf] ;x]/ klg lzIff k|fKt ug'kg]{ cj:yf h:tfsf] t:t} /xGYof] eg] s'g} klg { ;do rNg] x'08/Ln] 5fgf p8fP/ Iflt ug]{ ;Defjgf /lx/xGYof] . ;'wf/o'Qm ljsf;sf nflu k|sf]kaf6 cj;/ k|fKt ePsf] dfGg ;lsG5 . oBlk kSsL 5fgf] nufOPsf :s"n e"sDkLo hf]lvd axg ug{;Sg] 5g of 5}gg eGg]tkm{ klg Wofg lbg' h?/L 5 . ljsf;n] k|sf]khGo Iflt Go"g u5{ ljsf;sf d"Vo cfwf/ dflgg] ef}lts ;+/rgfsf] lgdf{0f lbuf], e/kbf]{ / u'0f:t/Lo agfpg ;s]df k|sf]ksf] hf]lvd Go"g x'G5 . lgoldt ¿kdf x'g] k|sf]ksf 36gfsf] P]ltxfl;s cWoog u/]/ To:tf] hf]lvdsf] ;fdgf ug{;Sg] Ifdtfsf ;+/rgf lgdf{0f u/]df k|sf]kaf6 kg]{ k|efj sd x'G5 / Iflt lgoGq0f x'G5 . o;sf nflu hf]lvdsf] gS;fªsg, k|sf]k k|efj d"Nofªsg, hg;xeflutf clej[l4 ug'k5{ . oltdfq ug{ ;lsof] eg] ljz]if k|sf/sf] k|sf]khGo 36gfnfO{ { 5f]8/ lgoldt x'g] k|sf]kaf6 aRg / ;dfhnfO{ arfpg w]/} d2t ldN5 . ] 18÷klx/f] lgoGq0fsf pkfo
  • 19. k|sf]khGo hf]lvd Go"gLs/0fsf nflu ;fd'bflos ;xeflutfdf vt/f / hf]lvdsf] klxrfg tyf ljZn]if0f u/L ;ªs6fled'tf ljZn]if0f ug]{ kl/kf6L w]/} xb;Dd ljsl;t eO;s]sf] 5 . oBlk d'nssf (% k|ltzt k|sf]k k|efljt If]qdf ' o:tf] kl/kf6Lsf] lj:tf/ x'g ;s]sf] 5}g . casf] ;dodf k|sf]ksf] hf]lvd Go"gLs/0f ub}{ ;fdflhs, cfly{s, k|fljlws ljsf;df tLj|tf lbg' h?/L 5 . o;sf nflu lbuf] ljsf;sf lgDg k|of; ul/P dfq klg hgwgsf] Ifltsf] cfFs8fdf pNn]Vo ¿kn] sdL cfpg;Sg] ck]Iff ug{ ;lsG5 M a;f]af;sf] Joj:yf ;s];Dd ;'/lIft :yfgdf u/]/, k|sf]k;DaGwL tYout ljifodf hgr]tgf clej[l4 u/]/, of]hgfa4 ¿kdf ;x/ tyf ufpFdf alnof 3/ agfpg] k|of; u/]/, k|sf]ksf] vt/f sd ug]{ lgdf{0fk4lt cjnDag u/]/, k|fs[lts ;|f]tsf] lbuf] tyf a'l4dtfk"0f{ k|of]u u/]/, dfgjLo cfjZostfsf j:t'sf] plrt Joj:yfkg u/]/, jg / s[life"ldsf] pkof]u / ef}uf]lns cj:yfcg'¿k ljsf; sfo{qmd ;~rfng u/]/ . g]kfnh:tf ljsf;zLn d'n'sx¿df k|sf]kaf6 x'g] Iflt 36fpg] k|of; ul/aLsf sf/0f g} r'gf}tLk"0f{ ag]sf] 5 . hg;ªVof lg/Gt/ a9]sf] 5 / ljsf;lgdf{0fsf If]q ylkFb} uPsf 5g . jt{dfg cj:yfdf ljZjsf w]/} ul/a d'n'sn] cfˆgf gful/ssf] afFRg kfpg] clwsf/sf] /Iff;Dd ug{ g;Sg] cj:yf b]lvPsf] 5 . o; cj:yfdf ;'wf/ Nofpg zflGt, ;dembf/L, ;f}xfb|{tf / lbuf] ljsf;sf cfwf/e"t dfGotfk|lt k|lta4tf x'g'k5{ . lbuf] ljsf;sf] cjwf/0ffn] alnof ef}lts ;+/rgfsf] lgdf{0f, k|fs[lts ;|f]tsf] a'l4dQfk"0f{ pkof]u, :jR5 pmhf{ / jftfj/0f d}qL cf}Bf]lus ljsf;nfO{ k|fyldstf lbPsf] 5 . ljsf;sf k|To]s kIf :yfgLo ;d'bfosf] Ifdtf, bIftf / cfly{s tyf k|fljlws ¿kn] u|x0fof]Uo x'g' kg]{ kIfnfO{ o; cjwf/0ffn] ;d]6]sf] 5 . ;fdflhs ;dfj]zLs/0f, blnt, hghflt / lk5l8Psf ju{sf] lg0f{o k|lqmofdf ;d]t k|ToIf ;xeflutf x'g'kg]{ tYonfO{ ;d]t oxfF la;{g ;lsFb}g . k|sf]k Go"gLs/0fsf nflu lbuf] ljsf;÷19
  • 20. k|sf]ksf] ;dodf To;sf] ;fdgf ug]{ Ifdtf h'g ;d'bfodf x'Fb}g, To:tf] ;d'bfo g} k|sf]ksf b[li6n] ;ªs6fled'v /x]sf] x'G5 . hLljsf]kfh{gsf] lbuf] cfwf/ k|fKt ug{ c;dy{ / :jf:Yosf] ;d:ofaf6 kLl8t /x]sf] ;d'bfo k|sf]ksf ;fgf 36gfaf6 g} kLl8t x'G5g . ;d'bfodf k|sf]kk"j{ ePsf k"j{tof/L tyf ;du| k|sf]k Joj:yfkgsf ljifodf ePsf sfo{nfO{ lbuf] ljsf;sf] cjwf/0ffcg'¿k ePsf] jf gePsf] k/LIf0f x'g' h?/L x'G5 . o:tf] k/LIf0f k|sf]ks} ;dodf ug'{ cem k|efjsf/L x'g]5 . o:tf] k/LIf0f / tyf ljZn]if0fnfO{ ;d'bfosf] Ifdtf tyf ;ªs6fled'vtf ljZn]if0f klg elgG5 . o;sf] ljZn]if0f o;/L ug'{ ;fGble{s x'g]5 M Ifdtf tyf ;ªs6fled'vtf ljZn]if0f ljifo ;ªs6fled'vtf Ifdtf ef}lts sf/s ef}uf]lns k|sf]k -af9L, e"sDk_ pTkfbsTj Ifdtf cfly{s sl7gfO -;'Vvf_ pTkfbfgsf ;|ftdf kx'r ] '“ -e"ld, jg, ;d'b, k"hL_ | “ ul/aL -ckof{Kt ;|ft_ ] k|ljlw -s[lif jgk|0ffnL, lbuf] e"Joj:yfkg_ k"jf{wf/sf] cefj kof{Kt k"jf{wf/ sdhf]/ hg:jf:Yo /fd|f] :jf:Yo ;fdflhs ;ªu7g ;dGjoljxLg ;ªu7g ;dGjo / ;xsfo{ d f k|lta4tf 5l/Psf ;fdflhs ;+/rgf d]nldnfk / ;d:of ;dfwfgdf s]lGb|t hftLo c;dfgtf ;dfgtf / ;dfj]zLs/0fo'Qm ;dfh ul/a / wgLaLr vf8n ljsf;sf] k|ltkmnsf] ;dfg'kflts ljt/0f b[li6sf]0f k/Dk/fut ;fdflhs wf/0ff tYok|lt ;+jbgzLn / ] 20÷klx/f] lgoGq0fsf pkfo
  • 21. j}1flgs wf/0ffsf] ljsf; ;fdflhs lje]bsf] cg';/0f ;dfgtfk|lt k|lta4tf ;lxtsf] ;r]t b[li6sf]0f ;fdflhs åGå, u[xsnx zflGt / ljsf;k|lt k|lta4 r]tgzLn /fhgLlt pk/f]Qm ljj]rgfsf cfwf/df Ifdtfsf] ljsf;sf nflu ;fdflhs ;+/rgfsf] :j¿kn] g} ;Dk"0f{ If]qdf k|efj kf/]sf] x'G5 . o; oyfy{nfO{ lgDg cg';f/ ljZn]if0f ug'{ ;fGble{s x'g]5 . ef}lts sf/s M vt/fsf] ;fdgfsf ;Gbe{df b]vf kg]{ e"pkof]u, jftfj/0fLo cj:yf, :jf:Yo;DaGwL Joj:yf, >d tyf ;Lk / k|ljlwsf] pkof]u, ef}lts ;+/rgf / ljsf;sf k"jf{wf/sf] cj:yf, ;ªs6sf ;dodf cfjZos kg]{ vfBfGg, cfjf; u[x / ;d'bfoåf/f ePsf] nufgLsf] k|ltkmnh:tf If]qdf ;d'bfosf] kx'r / Ifdtfsf] pknAwtfsf] cj:yf s:tf] 5 < eGg] tkm{ Wofg F k'¥ofpg'k5{ . ;fdflhs ;ªu7g M ;d'bfosf] ;DaGw ;d'bfosf ;b:o / cGo ;/f]sf/jfnf ;+:yfaLr s:tf] /x]sf] 5 eg]/ klxrfg x'G5 . o:tf ;+:yfdf /fhgLlts :j¿k / o;;Fu ;DalGwt ;ªu7gx¿, lg0f{o ug]{ cf}krfl/s lgsfo, g]tTjbfoL [ Ifdtf / ;d'bfosf ;fdflhscfly{s lqmofsnfksf] ljZn]if0f o;sf] pbfx/0f dfGg ;lsG5 . b[li6sf]0f M k|sf]ksf] ;fdgf ug]{ ;d'bfosf] b[li6sf]0fdf s:tf] ljsf; ePsf] 5 / ltgLx¿sf] b[li6sf]0f jf ;f]r s:tf] 5 eg]/ x]gk5{ . ;d'bfosf Ifdtf {' / sdhf]/ kIfaLrsf] b"/L / Ifdtf clej[l4sf nflu ;fd'bflos ;+:yfx¿sf] rfxgf, kLl8tk|ltsf] wf/0ffaf/] klg ljZn]if0f ug'k5{ . { k|sf]k Go"gLs/0fsf nflu lbuf] ljsf;÷21
  • 22. k|sf]ksf] hf]lvd / ;x>fAbL ljsf;–nIo k|sf]kaf6 a9b} uPsf] Ifltn] ljZjsf w]/} d'nssf] ;x>fAbL ljsf; nIo k"/f ' x'g] ;Defjgf sd b]lvPsf] 5 . ul/aLdf j[l4 / hLljsf]kfh{gsf] ;d:ofn] k|sf]khGo 36gfaf6 ljsf;sf cfwf/e"t ;+/rgfdf x'g] Ifltsf] kl/0ffd wfGg g;lsg] cj:yf pTkGg eO;s]sf] 5 . k|sf]kaf6 x'g] Ifltsf] k|efj z[ªvnfa4 ¿kdf k|fljlws, cfly{s, /fhgLlts, ;fdflhs, ;f+:s[lts, jftfj/0f / hg:jf:Yoh:tf x/]s If]qdf k5{ . ljsf;df ul/Psf ;a} k|sf/sf nufgLdf k|ToIf tyf ck|ToIf ¿kdf k|sf]kn] k|efj kfg'sf ;fy} lzIff, :jf:Yo;]jf, { vfg]kfgL tyf ;/;kmfOsf ljljw If]qdf k|efj lj:tf/ x'G5 . o:tf ;d:ofn] tTsfn /fHosf] Wofg cfslif{t u/]/ ljsf;lgdf{0fsf sfo{df cj/f]w pTkGg t u/fpF5 g}, ljsf;zLn d'nssf] cfly{s ljsf;sf] ult cj?4 kf/]/ ul/aL ' lgjf/0fsf sfo{qmddfly g} cf3ft k'¥ofpF5 . ;x;|fAbL ljsf; nIosf] 3f]if0ffdf klg k|sf]ksf] hf]lvdsf ljifodf sfo{ ug{ kof{Kt ;xof]u k|bfg ug'kg]{ x'G5 . { ljsf; of]hgfsf k|To]s k|fylds nIon] k|sf]k hf]lvd;Fu cGtlq{mof u/]sf] 5 / k|fs[lts ljkb;u dflg;sf] ;ªs6fled"vtfsf] ;Sbf] ;Daf]wg ug]{ k|of; F u/]sf] 5 . t}klg k|To]s nIo k|fKt ug]{ k|lqmof s;/L ckgfOPsf] 5 eGg] s'/fn] k|sf]ksf] hf]lvd s'g xb;Dd Go"g ePsf] 5 eg]/ lgwf{/0f u5{ . t;y{ ljsf; of]hgfsf] b'O{ k|sf/sf] ;DaGw /x]sf] x'G5, Pp6f ;x;|fAbLsf] ljsf; nIodf cu|;/ x'g] / csf]{ k|sf]ksf] hf]lvdnfO{ ;Daf]wg ub}{ ljsf;sf k|lqmof cl3 a9fpg] . ;x;|fAbL nIo xfl;n ug]{ k|dv bfloTj k|To]s /fi6«df g} /x]sf] x'G5 . ' dfgjLo tyf ljsf;nfO{ ;d'bfoaLr ;fd~h:o x'g] u/L sfo{ u/]df dfq k|sf]ksf] hf]lvd Go"gLs/0f ug{ ;lsG5 . ljZjJofkLs/0fn] k|sf]ksf] hf]lvd a9fp“5 cfly{s ljsf; tyf ;fdflhs ;'wf/n] gofF k|sf/sf] k|sf]ksf] hf]lvd a9fpg] ;Defjgfk|lt klg lrGtg cfjZos /x]sf] 5 . tLj| ;x/Ls/0fsf sf/0f x'g] cJojl:yt a;f]af;, e'mk|f a:tL, cGt/f{li6«o a;fOF;/fO jf cfGtl/s a;fOF;/fOn] 22÷klx/f] lgoGq0fsf pkfo
  • 23. cl:y/ a;f]af;sf] jftfj/0f l;h{gf u5{ . ;fF3/f] If]q, le/fnf] hldg, af9Ln] ' b'Mv lbg] If]q, cf}wf]lus jf kf/jxg ;'ljwfsf sf/0fn] a;f]af;sf nflu vt/fo'Qm If]qdf k|foM a;f]af; x'g] u/]sf] kfOG5 . hnjfo' kl/jt{g jf jftfj/0fLo cksif{0fsf :yfgLo k|efjn] u|fdL0f hLljsf]kfh{g hf]lvddf /xg] x'bf ljZjJofkLs/0f aGb} uPsf] cy{tGq;Fu k|lt:kwf{ ug'kg]{ cfjZostf j[l4 F { x'G5 . o;n] :yfgLo 1fg, ;Lk / k|ljlwo'Qm Ifdtfsf] Ifdtfsf] cjd"Nog x'G5 / lbuf]ljsf;sf] nIonfO{ ;ªs6fkGg kf5{ h;n] k|sf]ksf] hf]lvd a9fpg ;xof]u u5{ . ljsf; of]hgfdf k|sf]khGo hf]lvdsf] ;Daf]wg k|sf]ksf] kL8f ef]lu/x]sf /fi6«n] ljsf;sf] of]hgf agfpFbf k|sf]ksf] hf]lvd Go"gLs/0fdf ljz]if dxTj lbg'k5{ . of]hgf b'O{ k|sf/sf k|sf]k hf]lvd Joj:yfkgdf ljeQm x'gk5{ . pko'Qm k|sf]k hf]lvd Joj:yfkgnfO{ eljiodf ' x'g;Sg] hf]lvd sd ug]{ vfnsf] lbuf]ljsf;sf sfo{ of]hgfdf x'gk5{ . ljsf; ' sfo{qmd tyf kl/of]hgfnfO{ ;ªs6fled"vtf / hf]lvd Go"gLs/0fsf] nflu k'g/fjnf]sg ug'k5{ . To;}u/L Ifltk"lt{ x'g] k|sf/sf] k|sf]k hf]lvd Joj:yfkgsf] { sfo{nfO{ of]hgfdf ;d]z ug'{ h?/L x'G5 . o;f] ubf{ k|sf]k k"jtof/L / ] { k|ltsf/sf sfo{ klg of]hgfa4 ¿kdf cufl8 a9fpg ;lsG5 . ljsf;sf] of]hgfdf k|sf]k Joj:yfkgnfO{ ;dfj]z ubf{ ljBdfg ;ªs6fled"vtfsf] l:yltdf ;'wf/ eP/ clwsf+z ljsf; sfo{qmd hf]lvd Go"gLs/0fdf s]lGb|t x'G5 . o;/L /fHo, :yfgLo ;/sf/ / ;d'bfon] cf–cfkmgf ljsf; sfo{qmddf hf]lvd Joj:yfkgsf] ;Daf]wg ug'{ ;fGble{s x'g5 . ] k|sf]k hf]lvd Go"gLs/0fsf tLg 36s lbuf] ljsf;åf/f k|sf]ksf] hf]lvd Go"g ug{ lgDg tLg dfGotfnfO{ cfTd;ft ug'kg]{ x'G5 M { k|sf]k hf]lvdsf cfwf/e"t tYofªssf] ;ªsng tyf of]hgf ;+oGqsf] ljsf; u/L ljsf; gLlt / k|sf]k hf]lvdaLrsf] ;DaGw klxNofpg] . ljsf; of]hgf tyf gLltdf pQd cEof;sf] ;ªsng tyf lj:tf/ u/L k|sf]k hf]lvd Go"gLs/0f ug]{ . k|sf]k Go"gLs/0fsf nflu lbuf] ljsf;÷23
  • 24. ljsf; tyf k|sf]k Joj:yfkgsf] ljifonfO{ Jojxfl/s agfpg /fhgLlts OR5f zlQm ;zQm kfg]{ . k|sf]kdf cGt/f{li6«o ?k/]vf ;+oQm /fi6«;ª3Lo ljsf; sfo{qmdn] ljsf; / k|sf]ksf] hf]lvdaLrsf] ;DaGwsf] ' a'emfOdf kl/jt{g ug{ k|sf]k hf]lvd ;"rsfªssf] ljsf; u/]sf] 5 . o; ;"rsfªs kl/of]hgfn] ljleGg /fi6«x¿aLr vt/f, ;ªs6fled"vtf tyf hf]lvd pGd'v x'g;Sg] ef}lts cj:yfsf] ;fk]lIfs :t/sf] dfkg tyf t'ngf u/L ;ªs6fled"v ;"rsfªssf] klxrfg ug{ ;kmn agfPsf] 5 . e"sDk, cfFwL, af9L / v8]/Lh:tf rf/ k|sf/sf k|sf]kaf6 dfq dg]{ dflg;sf] ;ªVof ($ k|ltzt /x]sf] 5 . dfgjLo Ifltdf dfkg x'g] ;"rsfªs eg]sf] dfgj d[To' g} xf] . t/ ;du| cfly{s tYofªs x]g{] xf] eg] ljsf;sf ;+/rgfdf ePsf] Iflt tyf dfgj kL8fsf] Hofb} guGo b]lvG5 . ljZjJofkL ¿kdf k|To]s tLg xhf/ d/]sf dflg;df Pshgf k|sf]kaf6 d/]sf] x'G5 . dflysf rf/ k|dv k|sf]kn] Hofbf ' cfly{s ljsf; ePsf] /fi6«dfeGbf sd cfly{s ljsf; ePsf] d'nsdf Hofbf' hf]lvd k}bf u/]sf] x'G5 . pRr cfly{s Ifdtf ePsf /fi6«sf] hg;ªVofn] k|sf]kdf kg]{ ;du| ljZj hg;ªVofsf] !% k|ltzt k|ltlglwTj u/]sf] x'G5 t/ d[To' eg] !=* k|ltztn] dfq k|ltlglwTj u/]sf] x'G5 . e"sDk M e"sDksf]] hf]lvddf k|To]s jif{ !# s/f]8 dflg; /x]sf x'G5g . cf“wL÷t'kmfg M k|To]s jif{ !! s/f]8 () nfv dflg; o;sf] hf]lvddf kg]{ u/]sf 5g . af9L M () eGbf a9L /fi6«sf sl/a !( s/f]8 ^) nfv dflg; k|To]s jif{ af9Lsf] hf]lvdaf6 u'lh|G5g . v8]/L M @ s/f]8 dflg; v8]/Lsf sf/0f kLl8t x'g] u/]sf 5g . o;sf] ;jf{lws ;ªs6df clk|msL ;d'bfo /x]sf 5g . v8]/Lsf sf/0f clgsfn a9]kl5 ;dfhdf lx+;f, åGå, cfGtl/s lj:yfkg, PrcfOeL P8; / /f]uhGo dxfdf/Ln] cfly{s ;ªs6nfO{ a9fO/x]sf] x'G5 . h;n] k|zf;gnfO{ klg sdhf]/ agfpF5 . 24÷klx/f] lgoGq0fsf pkfo
  • 25. k|sf]k hf]lvd Go"gug]{ ljsf;sf tŒj cfly{s ;fdflhs ;+/rgfdf k|sf]ksf] k|efj k/]sf] x'G5 . o:tf] k|efjsf] ljZn]if0fn] k|sf]ksf] hf]lvd;Fu ljsf;sf] cj:yf tyf k|lqmofsf] ;DaGwnfO{ b]vfpg ;lhnf] agfpF5 . h:t} M e"sDk M sdhf]/ t/ pRr ef}lts ;+/rgf ePsf /fi6«x¿ e"sDksf] pRr hf]lvddf /x]sf x'G5g . cf“wL÷t'kmfg M pRr k|ltztdf s[lif e"ld /x]sf], ;d'bL lsgf/df ef}lts | ljsf; ePsf /fi6«x¿ Hofbf hf]lvd x'G5g . af9L M Go"g s'n ufx{:y pTkfbg, Go"g k|ltJolQm cfo, Go"g:t/sf] hg3gTj tyf Hofbf ef}lts ljsf; ePsf /fi6« Hofbf hf]lvddf /x]sf] 5g . /fli6«o ljsf; gLltdf kl/jt{g hf]lvd Go"gLs/0fdf sfo{ ug]{ x/]s kIfn] :yfgLo :t/df ePsf k|sf]ksf] hf]lvdsf tYofªs ;ªsngdf k|of;/t /xg'k5{ . o;n] /fli6«o :t/sf] lg/LIf0f tyf :yfgLo :t/sf] ;dfwfgsf pkfosf] k|To'Tkfbg;lxt tYofªssf] cfwf/ tyf ;"rssf] lgdf{0fdf ;3fp k'¥ofpF5 . k|sf]ksf/L 36gfn] ;fgf:t/sf ] k|sf]k klg a9fpF5 . :yfgLo :t/sf] k|sf]ksf] hfgsf/Ln] ljsf; gLltdf k|sf]k hf]lvdsf tTjx¿nfO{ ;dfg'kflts¿kdf ;dfj]z ug{ ;xof]u u5{ . o;n] k|fs[lts / dfgjs[t hf]lvdsf] cGtlq{mof s;/L x'b5 eGg] klg b]vfpF5 . F} To;}u/L k|To]s k|sf]k;Fu ;DalGwt cfly{s tyf ;fdflhs 36sx¿af6 ax'ljkbsf] gd"gf agfpg ;lsG5 . of] ;"rs hf]lvd s]lGb|t ljZn]if0faf6 yfxf kfpg ;lsg] cnUu} gjl;h{gfTds klxrfg ljlw xf] . ;ªs6fled"v 36s / k|sf]ksf k|jl[ tnfO{ PsLs[t u/]/ ;"rssf] gd"gf tof/ ug'k5{ . { hf]lvd Go"gLs/0fsf /fli6«o gLltdf klg o; gLltsf] k|sf]k hf]lvddf /x]sf] k|efjsf] cfsngnfO{ ;dflxt ug'k5{ . ljZjJofkL k|sf]k hf]lvd ;"rsfªsn] { k|sf]ksf / cfly{s tyf ;fdflhs ¿kdf 5l/P/ /x]sf hfgsf/LnfO{ PsLs[t ul/Psf] /fli6«o:t/sf] cWoogsf] nflu dfu{kz:t ug]5 . | { k|sf]k Go"gLs/0fsf nflu lbuf] ljsf;÷25
  • 26. ljsf;sf] dfWodaf6 hf]lvd Go"gLs/0f w]/} dflg;sf ljrf/df ljsf;n] hf]lvdnfO{ ;Daf]wg ug{ ;s]sf] 5}g . k|sf]ksf] a9bf] ;ªVof / o;sf] k|jl[ Qn] ;ªs6 kSs} cufl8 v8f 5 eGg] yk k'li6 u/]sf] 5 . k|sf]k hf]lvd ;"rsfªs cg';f/ k|sf]k hf]lvddf ;x/L tyf u|fdL0f hLljsf]kfh{gsf ¿kdf b'O{ 36s /x]sf 5g . s'g} dxŒjk"0f{ ultzLn bafan] oL 36ssf] ljz]iftfdf kl/jt{g klg ug{ ;S5 . ;x/Ls/0f;Fu} ljZjJofkLs/0f aGb} uPsf] cfly{s gLltsf] ljZn]if0f ;x/L If]qsf] cWoogdf ul/g]5 eg] u|fdL0f hLljsf]kfh{gdf ljZjJofkL hnjfo' kl/jt{gsf] ljZn]if0f ug'k5{ . { o;sf cltl/Qm s]xL dTjk"0f{ ljsf;sf bafa, lx+;f tyf xftxltof/ ;lxtsf] åGå, dxfdf/Lsf] kl/jt{gLo :j¿k, k|zf;lgs ;+oGq tyf ;fdflhs k"hLsf] F d"Nofªsg k|sf]k hf]lvd ;"rsfªssf] u0fgfsf] ;dodf ;+nUg ug'k5{ h;n] { u'0ffTds ljZn]if0fdf ;xof]u k'¥ofpF5 . ljZjsf !)) ;x/df ;g !(%) /x]sf] @! nfv hg;ªVof !(() ;Ddf %! nfv k'usf] lyof] . o; hg3gTjsf] hl6ntfn] hf]lvd tyf hf]lvd u/fpg] ] tTjdf gofF em'sfj l;h{gf ePsf] 5 . ;fgf tyf dWod :t/sf ;x/df hg3gTj a9L kfOG5 . ;fgf ;x/n] ljZj hnjfo' kl/jt{gdf sd k|bif0f " u5{g t/ pRr :t/sf] cfGtl/s jftfj/0fLo k|bif0f tyf hf]lvdsf] l;h{gf " u5{g . of]hgfa4 ;x/Ls/0f tyf cfwf/e"t cfjZostfsf] k|aGwn] s'g} k|sf/sf] k|sf]ksf] hf]lvd l;h{gf gu/L ljsf;sf cj;/ k|bfg ug]{ ahf/sf] Ifdtfsf] ljsf; u5{ eGg] 7fGg' plrt x'g5 . lsgeg] ;x/Ls/0f x'bdf k|sf]ksf] ] F} hf]lvd a9bg . plrt Joj:yfkg;lxtsf] ;x/Ls/0fn] hf]lvd Go"gLs/0fdf } ;xof]u g} u5{ . ;x/L If]qdf hf]lvdsf] :j¿k lgwf{/0f ug{ of]ubfg ug]{ w]/} tTj 5g . o:tf tTjaf/] yfxf kfpg ;x/ s;/L :yfkgf eof] / vt/fsf] :yfgsf] ¿kdf s;/L lj:tf/ eof] eg]/ d"Nofªsg ug'{ h?/L 5 . hf]lvdpGd"v If]qdf ;x/Ls/0fn] s;/L hg3gTj a9fof] / ;x/leqsf hf]lvdsf :yfgdf s;/L a;f]af; ug{ ÷klx/f] lgoGq0fsf pkfo 26
  • 27. afWo agfof] eg]/ klg x]g{' h?/L 5 . ;x/L lgsfo tyf lghL If]qsf] ejg lgdf{0f, cfwf/e"t k"jf{wf/ pknAw ug]{ Ifdtf / tLj| ultdf ePsf] hg;ªVof j[l4n] NofPsf ;d:ofsf kl/0ffdn] eg] hf]lvd a9fPsf] 5 . ;x/sf ul/aju{ hf]lvdsf ;DaGwdf k|foM sl7g lg0f{o lng afWo x'G5g . sfdsf] pknAwtf tyf d"Nofªsgsf lx;fan] ul/a ;d'bfo hf]lvdo'Qm :yfg 5gf]6 ug{ afWo x'G5g . ;x/Ls/0fn] ljkbsf :j¿knfO{ klg kl/jt{g u5{ . lsgls clgof]lht ;x/L lj:tf/sf k|lqmofn] j[xt If]qdf hf]lvdsf] lj:tf/ ub}{ jftfj/0fdf klg kl/jt{g u/]/ gofF hf]lvd pTkGg u5{ . kfgLsf ;|ft tyf cfwf/nfO{ kl/jt{g ] u/L ef}uf]lns :j¿knfO{ cl:y/ agfpF5 / af9L tyf klx/f]sf] hf]lvd a9fpF5 . P]ltxfl;s ejgx¿sf] Iflt eP/ ;f+:s[lts d"NodfGotfsf] x«f; x'G5 . ljZjJofkLs/0f / ljZj ;dfhsf] a9bf] cGt/;DaGwn] Ps:yfgsf] ljkbn] csf]:yfg hLjg tyf ;fj{hlgs gLltdf k|efljt ub}{ gofF cfly{s ;DaGw / { ;Fu;Fu} cfpg] ef}uf]lns hf]lvd klg lgwf{/0f u5{ . oL cj:yfsf sf/0f /fli6«o tyf cGt/f{li6«o :t/df ;Defljt k|efj If]qsf] s'g} lj:t[t hfgsf/L tyf tYofªsljgf ljBdfg hf]lvd :j¿knfO{ lnP/ cl3 a9g sl7g x'G5 . cfly{s ljZjJofkLs/0fn] hLljsf]kfh{gsf] lj:tf/ tyf hLljsf]kfh{gsf] u'0f:t/df j[l4 u5{ . cfly{s ljZjJofkLs/0fsf sf/0f gofF nufgLaf6 kmfObf x'g] ePtfklg nufgLaf6 pTkGg x'g] 7"nf] c;dfgtf /f]Sg tyf hf]lvddf kg]{ / gkg]aLr { w'jLs/0f x'g glbg ljZjJofkLs/0fsf] kmfObf tyf cj;/nfO{ j[xt¿kdf | afF8kmfF8 x'g] Joj:yf ldnfpg'k5{ . ul/aL Go"gLs/0f /0fgLltsf] k|of]u u/L ul/a ;d'bfodf ;dGofosf] k|Tofe"lt tyf ;ªs6fled"vtf Go"gLs/0f ub}{ ljsf;sf sfo{ cl3 a9fpg' k5{ . oL ;a}sf] nflu ;zQm k|zf;lgs ;+oGqsf] h?/L x'G5 . o;sf nflu lgDg ljifodf Wofg s]lGb|t ug'{ h?/L 5 M cfof]hgf:ynsf] 5gf]6 ljsf;lgdf{0fsf sfo{ k|f/De ug'kj{ To:tf ljsf;lgdf{0fnfO{ lbuf] agfpg { " kl/of]hgf ;'? ug{ nfluPsf] 7fpFsf] ef}ule{s / ef}uf]lns cj:yfsf] cWoog ul/g'k5{ . pQm If]q k|fs[lts k|sf]kaf6 k|efljt eO;s]sf] jf x'g;Sg] xf]– xf]Og, olsg u/]/ dfq ljsf; cfof]hgfsf] sfo{ k|f/De ug'k5{ . lgdf{0f tyf { k|sf]k Go"gLs/0fsf nflu lbuf] ljsf;÷27
  • 28. ljsf; ul/Psf ef}lts ;+/rgfnfO{ nfdf] ;do;Dd k|sf]kaf6 ;'/lIft /fVg lgDg s'/fk|lt ;r]t x'gkb{5 M ' s= k|sf]ksf] c;/ klxrfg M ljsf; cfof]hgfsf] k|f¿k tof/ kfbf{bl] v sfof{Gjog ubf{;Dd k|fs[lts k|sf]kn] kfg{;Sg] c;/sf] klxrfg u/L ltgLx¿sf] /f]syfd ug'kg]{ x'G5 . To;f] gu/]df ljsf; cfof]hgf { tx;gx; x'g;S5 / /fHon] w]/} 7"nf] gf]S;fgL a]xf]gkg]{ x'G5 . {' v= ljsf;sf] k|f¿k tof/L M k|fs[lts k|sf]ksf] c;/af6 ljsf; cfof]hgf k"0f{ jf cf+lzs¿kdf Wj:t x'g ;S5 . To;f] ePdf To;sf] k'glg{df{0fdf y'kf] wg/fzL vr{ ug'kg]{ x'G5 . o;af6 cGoq | { nufgL ug{ ;lsg] k'hLnfO{ Ifltu|:t cfof]hgfsf] dd{t;Def/ tyf F k'glg{df{0fdf nufpg'kg]{ x'G5 . o:tf] cj:yf cfpg glbg lgDg kIfdf Wofg k'¥ofpg'k5{ M c_ k|fs[lts k|sf]k / ljsf; cfof]hgfaLrsf] cGt/;DaGwsf] cWoog ug],{ cf_ ljsf;nfO{ lbuf] agfpg k|sf]k Joj:yfkgsf nflu PsLs[t cfof]hgfsf] k|f¿k tof/ kfg]{ . u= Ifltsf] cfj[lQsf] cWoog M ljsf; cfof]hgfnfO{ lbuf] agfpg g;s] jf ;Defljt k|sf]ksf] :j¿k / k|jl[ Qsf] klxrfg ug{ g;lsP k|sf]kaf6 w]/} 7"nf] Iflt x'g ;S5 . o;/L k|sf]kaf6 pTkGg x'g] Ifltsf] k|jl[ Q / cfj[lQdf klg lj:tf/ x'G5 . pbfx/0fsf nflu le/fnf] hldgdf jf To;eGbf tn a:tL a;fn]df x'g;Sg] Ifltsf] cj:yfnfO{ lng ;lsG5, h;sf] ;fdflhs / cfly{s k|efjnfO{ lgDgfg';f/ k|:t't ug{ ;lsG5 M k|sf]kaf6 x'g] Ifltsf] k|jl[ Q / cfj[lQ b'j} ef}ule{s Pjd ef}uf]lns :j¿k / k|sf]ksf] k|sf/ tyf :t/af6 lgwf{l/t x'G5 . klx/f] hfg;Sg] le/fnf] hldgdf a;f]af; u/fPdf x'g;Sg] Ifltsf] k|jl[ Q / cfj[lQsf] t'ngfdf ;dy/ e"efusf] cfjf; If]qdf cfpg] af9Ln] kfg]{ k|efjdf w]/} cGt/ x'g ;S5 . o:tf ljifodf k|fljlws 1fgsf] pkof]u, :yfgLo ;|ftsf] lbuf] pkof]u, cfly{s ;|ftsf] lbuf] ] ] Joj:yfkg / ;Ifd Joj:yfksLo kIfsf] ljsf;df Wofg lbg' cfjZos x'G5 . 28÷klx/f] lgoGq0fsf pkfo
  • 29. hLjg hLljsf ;fdflhs ljz[ªvntf nufgLsf] Iflt Hofg hf]lvd k'glg{df{0f nfut :yfgfGt/ ug'kg]{ { cfly{s lqmofsnfkdf c;/ ;kmn ljsf; cfof]hgfdf lglxt tŒj s'g} klg ljsf; cfof]hgf cfkm}F k"0f{ / lbuf] x'bg . ljsf; cfof]hgf ;~rfng F} ubf{ cfjZos kg]{ k|fljlws ;'ema'em / sfof{Gjog Ifdtfn] cfof]hgf lgdf{0f / To;sf] lbuf]kgdf dxŒjk"0f{ e"ldsf lgjf{x ub{5 . s'g} klg cfof]hgfnfO{ ;kmn agfpg lgDg tŒjx¿n] cxd e"ldsf lgjf{x u5{g M ;DefJotf cWoog M k|sf]kaf6 kg]{ k|efj, lbuf]kgsf] ;Defjgf / k|ltkmnsf] d"Nofªsg, ljsNksf] vf]hL M k|sf]k clglZrt¿kdf cfpg] ;ªs6 ePsfn] o;af6 x'g;Sg] Iflt Go"gLs/0f ug]{ tyf cfof]hgfsf] lbuf] lgdf{0fsf j}slNks ;|ftsf] vf]hL, ] cfof]hgfsf] k|f¿k M Pstkm{ ljsf;n] k|ltkmn lbg], csf]tkm{ k|sf]k { lgDTofpg] cj:yf cfpg glbg / ljsf; cfof]hgfnfO{ lbuf] agfpg PsLs[t ljsf; cjwf/0ffcGtu{t cfof]hgfsf] k|f¿k tof/L, cfof]hgf sfof{Gjog M eljiodf cfpg;Sg] k|sf]kaf6 ljsf;nfO{ ;'/lIft /fVg] k"jf{wf/ tof/ x'gu/L lgwf{l/t dfkb08df /x]/ cfof]hgf ] sfof{Gjog ug]{ . ;+nUgtf tyf bfloTj k|:tfljt ljsf; cfof]hgfdf ;Defljt k|fs[lts k|sf]kaf6 kg{;Sg] c;/sf] Vofn gu/Lsg sfof{Gjog ul/Pdf cfof]hgfn] ljklQ lgDTofpg] ;Defjgf /xG5 . To:tf] cj:yf cfpg glbg / cfof]hgfnfO{ k|sf]k k|lt/f]wfTds agfP/ ;Defljt Iflt sd ug{ ljsf; cfof]hgf;Fu k|ToIf jf ck|ToIf tj/n] ;DaGw /fVg] lgsfo tyf ltgsf kbflwsf/LnfO{ ;xefuL u/fpg' pko'Qm x'G5 . ;DalGwt kbflwsf/Ln] cf–cfˆgf] If]qdf cWoog u/L k|fljlws, cfly{s, ;fdflhs, ;f+:s[lts, k|fs[lts tyf ef}ule{s / ef}uf]lns cj:yfcg'¿k k|sf]k Go"gLs/0fsf nflu lbuf] ljsf;÷29
  • 30. b"/ufdL ;f]r /fvL cfof]hgfsf] ;DefJotf cWoogsf] cj:yfb]lv ;dflKt;Dd cfˆgf] pQ/bfloTj lgjf{x ug'k5{ . ;fdfGotof, ljsf; cfof]hgfsf ljleGg { r/0fdf lgDg lgsfo Pjd kbflwsf/Lx¿ ;+nUg ePsf] x'g' kb{5 M != ;/sf/ -:yfgLo÷s]Gb|Lo_ @= k|zf;g #= e"ue{ljb ÷OlGhlgo/ $= jf:t'snfljb %= ljlwj]Qf÷sfg'gljb ^= ;e]{o/ &= lg/LIfs *= 7]s]bf/ (= pkef]Qmf ljsf; cfof]hgfnfO{ kmnbfoL tyf k|ltkmnd'vL agfpg dfly pNn]v ePsf lgsfo Pjd kbflwsf/Lafx]s :yfgLo pkef]Qmf tyf ;d'bfo / cGo :yfgLo ;ª3;+:yfnufotsf ;/f]sf/jfnf / ltgsf kbflwsf/LnfO{ klg ;dfj]z ug{ pko'Qm x'G5 . lbuf] ljsf; / nfut–nfe ljZn]if0f ljsf; cfof]hgfdf k|sf]k Joj:yfkg / Iflt Go"gLs/0fsf] sfo{qmdnfO{ ;dflxt ubf{ cfof]hgfsf] nfut j[l4 x'G5 g} . t/ tTsfn s]xL j[l4 ePsf] nufgLsf] k|ltkmn bL3{sfn;Dd sfod /xg] / ljsf; cfof]hgf lbuf] aGg]x'Fbf k|sf]k /f]syfdsf nflu k"j{tof/L:j¿k ul/g] Go"gtd nufgLn] sfnfGt/df k|sf]kn] k'¥ofpg] cyfx IfltnfO{ 36fpF5 . t;y{, k|sf]kn] k'¥ofpg] Jofks Ifltsf] t'ngfdf k"j{tof/L / k|sf]k /f]syfdsf nflu ul/g] vr{ gu0o x'G5 . nuft / nfenfO{ ;Gt'lnt t'Nofpg ljsf; cfof]hgf ;~rfngsf ljleGg kIfdfly Wofg lbg'kg]{ x'G5 . tL kIf tyf tŒjn] nfut Go"g ug{ / ljsf;nfO{ lbuf] agfpg ;xof]uLsf] e"ldsf lgjf{x ub{5g, h;nfO{ lgDgfg';f/ lng ;lsG5 M cfly{s M lj1x¿nfO{ lbg'kg]{ kfl/>lds, k|lt/f]wfTds k|ljlw tyf lgwf{l/t dfkb08cg'¿k lgdf{0f vr{ . k|fljlws M k|ljlwsf] klxrfg, cWoog / :jLs[lt . /fhgLlt M /fhgLlts k|lta4tf / g]tTj Ifdtf . [ 30÷klx/f] lgoGq0fsf pkfo
  • 31. Joj:yfkg M lhDd]jf/ kbflwsf/Lx¿sf] e"ldsf, sfo{kefjsfl/tf, lgoldt | cg'udg tyf d"NofÍg . *= k|sf]k /f]syfdsf pkfo g]kfndf klg ljsf; cfof]hgfsf] ;kmntfsf nflu jftfj/0fLo k|efj d"Nofªsg ug]{ k|rng k|f/De eO;s]sf] 5 . :yfgLo tyf /fli6«o:t/df k|fs[lts jftfj/0fnfO{ arfpg ul/g] jftfj/0f k|efj d"NofÍgsf] Ps cleGg cªusf ¿kdf k|sf]k lgoGq0f tyf Iflt Go"gLs/0fsf pkfosf] klg cWoog ul/g' cfjZos x'G5 . ljsf; sfo{df k|sf]k Joj:yfkg tyf Iflt Go"gLs/0fsf nflu lgDg ljifodf Wofg lbg;s] k|sf]k /f]syfdsf sfo{ k|efjsf/L x'g5g . ] ejg lgdf{0f cfrf/;+lxtf / sfg'g . k|fljlws hfgsf/L . vt/fo'Qm :yfgdf ul/g] lgdf{0f sfo{df /f]s . k"j;rgf, cg'udg / k"jtof/Lsf] Joj:yf . { " { 3gf a:tL / cJojl:yt ;x/Ls/0fnfO{ lg?T;flxt ug]{ . lgodsfg'g k|efjsf/L 9ªun] nfu" ug]{ . lgdf{0fdf ;+nUg 7]sbf/ / Jofj;foLnfO{ tflnd lbg] . ] afnsb]lv j[4;DdnfO{ k|sf]kaf/] ;r]t agfpg] . ;"rgf ;ªsng u/L tYofªlst ug]{ / k|of]uof]Uo k|If]k0f ug]{ . ejg lgdf{0f Joj;foL, jf:t'snfljb, of]hgfsf/, l;len OlGhlgo/ cflbnfO{ k|ljlw / of]hgf;DaGwL ;}4flGts 1fg lbg] . vf;u/L ljsf;f]Gd'v d'nsdf k|sf]k /f]syfdsf pkfonfO{ a]jf:tf ul/G5 . ' s'g} klg 7"nf] k|sf]kkZrft dfq /fhgLlts k|lta4tf / nufgLdf pNn]Vo lj:tf/ u/L k|sf]k /f]syfdsf nflu sfo{ yflnG5 . k|sf]kk"j{ g} o:tf] pTk|/0ff k|fKt x'g] cj:yf tof/ ug{;s] k|sf]kaf6 k'Ug] Iflt w]/} xb;Dd ] Go"g dfq x'bg, k|sfk Joj:yfkgsf] nfut klg 36b5 . F} ] k|sf]k Go"gLs/0fsf nflu lbuf] ljsf;÷31
  • 32. k|sf]k Joj:yfkg / ljsf; Ps;fy cl3 a9fpg' k5{ g]kfndf s'nhg;ªVofsf] cg'kftdf k|sf]kdf k/]/ x/]s jif{ dg]x¿sf] ;ªVof { ;fs{ If]qsf cGo b]zsf] t'ngfdf Hofb} a9L 5 . To:t} k|sf]kaf6 x'g] ef}lts Pjd cfly{s Iflt klg a9bf]qmddf /x]sf] 5 . t;y{ cfufdL lbgdf k|sf]k Joj:yfkgnfO{ ljsf;sf] Ps cleGg cªusf] ¿kdf ;dflxt u/]/ n}hfg' h?/L 5 . lbuf] ljsf;sf nIo Pj+ k|of;nfO{ x/]s jif{ x'g] k|sf]kn]] dfgjLo, cfly{s Pjd jftfj/0fLo Iflt k'¥ofP/ r'gf}tL lbO/x]sf] 5 . olb k|sf]k Joj:yfkg / ljsf;nfO{ Pp6f l;Ssfsf b'O{ kf6fsf ¿kdf cfTd;ft gug]{ xf] eg] d'nsn] df}hbf ef}lts, dfgjLo / jftfj/0fLo ' ' ;|ft x/]s jif{ u'dfO/xg' kg]5 / eljiodf ljsf;sf k|of; klg ] { layf]lnO/xg]5g . k|sf]kkZrft ul/g] p4f/ / /fxt sfo{qmdaf6 eGbf k|sf]k Go"gLs/0fsf] k"jtof/L jf ;Ifd Joj:yfkgaf6 p4f/ / /fxtsf] ;f]xL sfo{ Ps { rf}yfO sd vr{df ;DkGg ug{ ;lsg] tYo ljleGg cWoogaf6 k|:6 eO;s]sf] 5 . ctM xfd|fh:tf] k|sf]k bf]xf]l/O/xg] / ;Lldt cfly{s ] ;|ftdf ljsf; sfo{nfO{ cu|tf lbg'kg]{ afWotf /x]sf] ljsf;f]Gd'v ] b]zdf k|sf]kk"j{ yf]/} vr{ u/]/ ;|ft art ug'{ a9L ;fGble{s b]lvG5 . ] To;}n] klg k|sf]k Joj:yfkg / ljsf; ;Fu;Fu} n}hfg' h?/L 5 . clxn];Ddsf k|sf]k Joj:yfkg / lbuf] ljsf;sf k|of;df k|sf]ksf c;/nfO{ dfq dWogh/ u/]/ Joj:yfkgsf sfdn] k|fyldstf kfPsf 5g . t/ jf:tjdf lbuf] k|sf]k Joj:yfkgsf k|of;n] ;kmntf k|fKt ug{ k|sf]ksf c;/df geO{ sf/0fd} s]lGb|t x'gk5{ . t;y{{ lbuf] ljsf; ' / lbuf] k|sf]k Joj:yfkgnfO{ ;fy;fy} n}hfg' ckl/xfo{ 5 . 32÷klx/f] lgoGq0fsf pkfo
  • 33. ljsl;t b]zsf] bfFhf]df ljsf;f]Gd'v d'nssf hgtf k|sf]ksf] df/df ' a9L k/]sf] b]lvG5 . To;}n] ubf{ klg ljsf;f]Gd'v b]zdf k|sf]k Joj:yfkgnfO{ ljsf;sf] cleGg cªusf ¿kdf ;+of]hg ug'{ cToGt h?/L 5 . pk;+xf/ g]kfndf k|sf]ksf] hf]lvd cToGt w]/} /x]sf] tYo o; k':tssf ljleGg efudf ul/Psf ljj]rgfaf6 :ki6 x'G5 . w]/} k|sf/sf hf]lvdn] d'nssf] ' cfly{s, ;fdflhs, ;f+:s[lts tyf k|fljlws kIfnfO{ sdhf]/ agfpFb} nu]sf] 5 . ljz]ifu/L /fhgLlts cl:y/tfn] klg hf]lvd pTkGg ug{ of]ubfg ul//x]sf] 5. d'ns clxn] cfGtl/s ;fdflhs åGåaf6 aflx/ cfPsf] eP klg d'nsdf yk ' ' cl:y/tfsf ;ªst b]lvO/x]sf 5g . ljsf;sf cfwf/e"t ;+/rgfdfly eO/x]sf] ] dfgjLo cltqmd0f;Fu} k|fs[lts sf/0faf6 x'g] k|sf]ksf 36gfn] ljsf;dfly r'gf}tL v8f ul/lbPsf] 5 . d'nsn] ;x>fAbL ljsf; nIo k|fKt ug{ o; ' cj:yfaf6 d'lQm kfpg} kg]{ x'G5 . oBlk ;fd'bflos ;xeflutfsf cfwf/df ul/g] k|sf]k Joj:yfkg sfo{n] ljsf;sf ;+/rgfsf] ;'b9Ls/0fdf s]xL ;xof]u [ k'Ug ;S5, t/ /fli6«o ljsf;sf] nIonfO{ To;n] dfq k"/f ug{ ;Sb}g . g]kfnn] cfˆgf ckf/ k|fs[lts ;|ftsf] lbuf] Joj:yfkg / a'l4dQfk"0f{ pkof]usf ] dfWodaf6 ljsf; k|of;nfO{ k|sf]k Joj:yfkg;Fu ;DalGwt gagfO cufl8 a9g' c;Dejh:t} x'G5 . d'nssf] jt{dfg kl/j]zdf k|sf]ksf] hf]lvdsf ' ljleGg kIfnfO{ ljsf;sf k|of;;Fu ;d]6g' cfjZos 5 . ljsf; k|of;sf] Ps cleGg cªusf ¿kdf k|sf]k Joj:yfkgnfO{ g;d]6g] xf] eg] k"jf{wf/ ljgfz x'b} hfG5g, hgtf k|tfl8t alg/xG5g, d'ns k|sf]ksf] df/df kl//xG5 F ' / ljsf; ;w}F sf]/f sNkgfd} ;Lldt /xG5 . k|sf]k Go"gLs/0fsf nflu lbuf] ljsf;÷33
  • 34. ÷klx/f] lgoGq0fsf pkfo 34