k|sf]k M dfgjclwsf/ / sfg'g   ÷1
k|sf]k–1fgdfnf–@



      k|sf]k M sfg'g /
      dfgjclwsf/ /




               /fdrGb| Gof}kfg]




                    ...
s[lt          M   k|sf]k M dfgjclwsf/ / sfg'g
n]vs          M   /fdrGb| Gof}kfg]
efiff ;Dkfbg M    x]d/fh kf}8n ‘lxds/’
  ...
n]vssf] egfO
k|sf]k–k|efljt gful/ssf] g};lu{s clwsf/sf b[li6n] g]kfn w]/} k5fl8 /x]sf] 5 . d'nsdf
                        ...
ljifo;"rL
k[i7e"ld                                                     %
k|sf]k;DaGwL g]kfnsf] sfg'g                      ...
k|sf]k M
  dfgjclwsf/ / sfg'g

k[i7e"ld
g]kfn ljZjsf b'O{ ;o d'nsdWo] e'Orfnf]sf nflu P3f/f}+ hf]lvdk"0f{ :yfgdf
         ...
k|sf]kn] Iflt k'¥ofPsf If]qdf p4f/, /fxt, cfktsfnLg cfjf;, vfgf,
n'ufkmf6f], :jf:Yo;]jf tyf cf}ifwf]krf/h:tf cTofjZos j:t'...
k|sf]k;DaGwL g]kfnsf] sfg'g
k|sf]ksf]hGo 36gfaf6 pTkGg x'g;Sg] c;xh cj:yfdf sfd ug]{
Wo]on] tTsfnLg ;/sf/n] @)#( ;fndf b}j...
eO/x]sf]] tfkqmd j[l4åf/f b]vfk/]sf] hnjfo'–kl/jt{g klg k|sf]khGo 36gf
a9fpg] sf/s b]lvPsf] 5 . ljz]ifu/L jgljgfz, kfgLsf ...
b}jL k|sf]k p4f/ ;ldltsf] Joj:yf
b}jL k|sf]k -p4f/_ P]g, @)#( n] k|sf]ksf ;dodf ul/g] p4f/ / /fxtsf
nflu s]Gb|Lo :t/b]lv u...
p4f/ ;ldltÚ u7g ePsf] 5 . kfFr} ljsf; If]qsf If]qLo k|zf;g sfof{non]
lhNnf / s]Gb|;u ;dGjo u/L sfo{ ug]{ Joj:yf ;d]t o; cG...
pknAw u/fpg] . rfdn pknAw u/fpg g;lsg] cj:yf ePdf To;afkt
      !@% ?k}ofF k|ltJolQm pknAw u/fpg] . rfdn pknAw u/fPafktsf]...
sf]ifsf] klg Joj:yf ePsf] 5 . s]Gb|Lo ;xfotf sf]ifdf cy{ dGqfnoaf6
ljlgof]hg ePsf] /sd / :jb]zL tyf ljb]zL ;xof]usf] /sd ;...
k|sf]kk|lt ljZjsf] rf;f]
k|sf]ksf sf/0f ljZjdf x/]s jif{ hgwgsf] k|z:t Iflt eO/x]sf] 5 .
k|sf]kaf6 x'b} cfPsf] hgwgsf] Ifl...
k|sf]k Go"gLs/0f;DaGwL bf];f] ljZj;Dd]ng
                           |
;g @))% sf] hgj/L !* b]lv @@ ;Dd hfkfgsf] sf]a]df k|...
ug{] Ifdtfdf clej[l4 ug]{ .
#= 1fg, vf]h / lzIffsf] pkof]u u/]/ ;a} txdf ;'/IffTds ;+:s[lt /
   k|sf]ksf] ;fdgf ug]{ Ifdtf...
k'¥ofpg kof{Kt x'g] u/L cfjZostfcg';f/sf :yfgdf ;ªs6sfnLg
      sf]ifsf] :yfkgf ug]{ k|lqmofnfO{ k|>o lbg]] .
      k|sf]k...
k|sf]k / dfgjclwsf/
dfgj clwsf/
:jtGqtfk"js afFRg kfpg' k|To]s dflg;sf] k|sl[ tk|bQ clwsf/ xf] . bf];f]
          {       ...
To;f] eP klg ljZjdf dfgjaLrsf] lje]b ;dfKt x'g ;s]sf] 5}g . o;tkm{
;r]t eP/ g} cGt/f{li6«o jf /fli6«o :t/sf dfgjtfjfbL ;+:...
k|sf]ksf s'g} klg 36gfaf6 kLl8t ;d'bfon] tTsfn p4f/, /fxt / k'gM:yfkgsf
nflu ;/sf/nfO{ bjfj lbg] sfo{ klg dfgjclwsf/sf] /0...
ul/lbPsf] 5 . ;f] wf/fdf :ki6;Fu …k|To]s JolQm;Fu :jtGqtf tyf v';L /
cfgGbk"js afFRg kfpg] clwsf/ ;'/lIft /xG5 (Everyone h...
clwsf/d'vL cjwf/0ff
clwsf/d'vL cjwf/0ffsf] cy{
clwsf/d' v L cjwf/0ff dfgjclwsf/sf] dxŒjk" 0 f{ kf6f] xf] . o;
cjwf/0ffcGtu...
clwsf/d'vL cjwf/0ffsf] ljsf; lg/Gt/ rln/xg] k|lqmof xf] . dfgj;Eotf;Fu}
ljsl;t x'b} cfPsf] ;f]r / ;dtfd"ns l;4fGtn] o;df k...
clwsf/af6 aflx/ kfl/Psf ;d'bfonfO{ clwsf/ lbnfpg] k|of; x'G5 .
clwsf/d'vL cjwf/0ffsf d"ne"t dfGotfnfO{ lgDgfg';f/ lng ;lsG...
cjwf/0ffsf] dfGotf xf] .
   :jtGqtf
clwsf/d'vL cjwf/0ff cGtu{t k|sf]kkLl8tsf] ;xof]u ug]{ ;/sf/L, cw{;/sf/L
tyf u}/;/sf/L ...
cjwf/0ffaflx/ /x]sf] ;xof]u bfg jf leIffsf] ¿kdf x'g] ePsfn] /fHon]
To:tf] cj:yfsf] cGTo ub}{ k|sf]kkLl8t ;a}nfO{ ;dfg ¿kd...
dfgjLo ;xfotf kfpg] kLl8tsf] clwsf/
!= cfˆgf] /fHo jf lgolGqt If]qsf kLl8tnfO{ dfgjLo ;xfotf k|bfg ug'{
   /fHosf] st{Jo x...
:km]o/ kl/of]hgf

kl/ro
kLl8tnfO{ dfgjLo cjwf/0fcg'¿k ;xfotf ug]{ sfo{df ;+nUg ;+:yfsf
k|ltlglwx¿aLr ;g !((& df 5nkmn k|f/...
:km]o/ kl/of]hgfsf cfwf/e"t l;4fGt
k|sf]k tyf ;z:q åGåaf6 k|efljt JolQm tyf ;d'bfonfO{ dfgjLo ;xof]u
ug]{ ;fdflhs ;+:yfsf ...
/fxtsf If]qdf sfd ug]{ ;a}n] lgwf{l/t dfkb08 k"/f ug]{ k|lta4tf lng'k5{ .
kl/of]hgfn] lgwf{/0f u/]sf k|dv dfkb08 lgDgfg';f...
&= Ifdtf / lhDd]jf/L
;xfotf sfo{qmdsf] of]hgf tof/L / k|efjsf/L sfof{Gjogsf nflu
;xfotfsdL{df cfjZos of]Uotf, cg'ej / OdfG...
ljt/0f ul/g] kfgL hLjf0f'/lxt :jR5 / ;kmf x'gkb{5 .
                                                  '
  #= kfgLsf] ;~ro
...
;d:of pTkGg x'g;Sg] x'bf kmf]xf]/ Joj:yfkg tTsfn} ug'kb{5 .
                      F                             {
   != km...
k|sf]kk|efljt If]qdf vfBfGgsf] cefj tTsfnsf lgldQ dfq geP/ eljiosf
nflu klg /xg ;S5 . vfB;xof]usf Go"gtd dfkb08leq vfBkbfy...
!= ;fdfGo s'kf]if0f
     ;fdfGo s'kf]if0fsf] lg/fs/0f ug{ vfBfGgsf] :t/df kl/jt{g ug'kb{5 .
                              ...
!= cfxf/of]hgf
     ljt/0f x'g] vfBfGgn] ;d'bfo;Fu pknAw ;|f]t, vfBJojxf/ /
     cfjZostfaLrsf] vf8n k'gkb{5 .
           ...
lj:yflktsf nflu km/s–km/s cf>o:yn pknAw u/fpg g;lsg]
     cj:yfdf :yfgLo ;fd'bflos tyf ;/sf/L ejg, Aof/]s tyf :s'ndf
     ...
kLl8tnfO{ ef}uf]lns cj:yf / df};dcg'¿k cf]9g,] cf]5ofpg] /
                                                        
      ...
!= ;]jfsf] k|fyldsLs/0f
      cfktsfnLg cj:yfdf 3fOt] tyf /f]uLsf] pkrf/åf/f d[To'b/ Go"g ug]{
      k"jf{wf/ tof/ ug'k5{ ...
@= bfb'/f lgoGq0f
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     pkrf/– ;]jf lbg] .
  #= k/LIf0f /...
;ªs6sfnLg ;dodf
lzIffsf Go"gtd dfkb08
   k|fs[lts tyf dfgjLo sf/0fn] x'g] k|sf]kaf6 pTkGg ;ªs6sfndf klg
       k|sf]kkLl8t...
k|sf]kkLl8t ;d'bfosf] ;Ddfgsf ;fy hLjgofkg ug{ / lgjf{w ¿kdf lzIff
cfh{g ug{ kfpg] clwsf/nfO{ ;'lglZrt ug]{ k|of; u/]sf] 5...
lzIff ;~hfnsf k|ltlglwx¿sf] k/fdz{df tof/ o; dfkb08 afnclwsf/
dxf;lGw, 8fs/ ljZj lzIff kl/of]hgf, ljleGg dfgjclwsf/ dxf;lG...
sfof{Gjog, cg'udg, d"Nofªsg / lg0f{o k|lqmofdf :yfgLo ;|ftsf] cTolws
                                                     ...
ug'{ k5{ . sfo{qmdk|ltsf] rf;f] a9fpg, lg0f{o k|lqmofdf ;xefuL x'g;Sg]
Ifdtf j[l4 ug{ ;d'bfonfO{ ;zlQms/0f ug'{ k5{ . ;ªs6...
dfkb08– v08M !
             lzIffdf ;d'bfosf] ;xeflutf
;ªs6sfnLg ;dodf ;~rfng x'g] z}lIfs sfo{qmddf ;d'bfosf] k|ToIf
;xefl...
agfpg] ;+oGqsf] lgdf{0fdf klg ;xof]u u5{ .
@= z}lIfs sfo{qmddf ;fd'bflos k|ltlglwTj
lzIff ;ldltdf :yfgLo u}/;/sf/L ;+:yf, ...
%= :yfgLo z}lIfs sfo{of]hgf
;d'bfo / ;fd'bflos lzIff ;ldltn] lzIffsf lqmofsnfknfO{ k|sf]kk|efljt
tyf ;ªs6fled'v ;d"xsf] cf...
;fd'bflos ;xeflutf dfkb08 @ M ;|ft kl/rfng
                                 ]
           o; dfkb08n] ;ªs6sfnLg lzIffsf nfl...
%= :yfgLo Ifdtf M
;ªs6sfnLg ;dodf klg lzIffnfO{ lg/Gt/tf lbg;Sg] Ifdtf tyf ;ªs6;Fu
h'Wg ;Sg] ;fd'bflos Ifdtf clej[l4sf nfl...
tYofªnfO{ lqsf]0fLo k4ltdf ?kfGt/0f ug'{ k5{ . lqsf]0fLo tYofªssf]
:j¿k tYofªssf] bf]xf]/f] kg]{ jf vlK6g] l:yltnfO{ dfkg ...
sfo{qmd ljZn]if0f dfkb08 @ M /0fgLlts lhDd]jf/L
         z}lIfs sfo{qmdnfO{ hjfkmb]xL agfpg :ki6 ljj/0f ;lxt
         ;d:o...
2. d ks law and hs
2. d ks law and hs
2. d ks law and hs
2. d ks law and hs
2. d ks law and hs
2. d ks law and hs
2. d ks law and hs
2. d ks law and hs
2. d ks law and hs
2. d ks law and hs
2. d ks law and hs
2. d ks law and hs
2. d ks law and hs
2. d ks law and hs
2. d ks law and hs
2. d ks law and hs
2. d ks law and hs
2. d ks law and hs
2. d ks law and hs
2. d ks law and hs
2. d ks law and hs
2. d ks law and hs
2. d ks law and hs
2. d ks law and hs
2. d ks law and hs
2. d ks law and hs
2. d ks law and hs
2. d ks law and hs
2. d ks law and hs
2. d ks law and hs
2. d ks law and hs
2. d ks law and hs
2. d ks law and hs
2. d ks law and hs
2. d ks law and hs
2. d ks law and hs
2. d ks law and hs
2. d ks law and hs
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2. d ks law and hs

  1. 1. k|sf]k M dfgjclwsf/ / sfg'g ÷1
  2. 2. k|sf]k–1fgdfnf–@ k|sf]k M sfg'g / dfgjclwsf/ / /fdrGb| Gof}kfg] k|sf]k M dfgjclwsf/ / sfg'g ÷2
  3. 3. s[lt M k|sf]k M dfgjclwsf/ / sfg'g n]vs M /fdrGb| Gof}kfg] efiff ;Dkfbg M x]d/fh kf}8n ‘lxds/’ ] k|sfzs M jftfj/0f tyf afn ;/f]sf/ ;+:yf–g]kfn (ECO-Nepal) kf]i6aS; g+= !(&@), sf7df8f}, kmf]gM $$$%#@@, kmfS; M $$#%*$$ + ;jf{lwsf/ M k|sfzsdf ;'/lIft ;+:s/0f M k|yd, h]7 @, @)^$ ;ªVof M @,))) k|lt cfj/0f ;Hhf M /d]z bfxfn d'b|s M lszf]/ ckm;]6 k|; -k|f=_ ln=, kmf]g M $#%!)$$ ] d"No M ?=!))÷– ISBN : 99946-937-1-2 k|sf]ksf] hf]lvd Go"gLs/0f tyf k|sf]ksf] ;fdgf ug]{ ;fd'bflos Ifdtf clej[l4sf nflu ;r]tg cleofgcGtu{t k|sf]k–1fgdfnf k|sfzgdf cf+lzs ¿kdf cfly{s ;xof]u ug]{ lgDg ;fem]bf/ ;+:yfx¿k|lt Osf]–g]kdn xflb{s cfef/ JoQm ub{5 M PS;gP8 g]kfn cS;kmfd hLaL g]kfn kf]= a= g+= ^@%&, sf7df8f}+, g]kfn kf]= a= g+= @%)), sf7df8f}+, g]kfn kmf]gM $$#^$&& kmf]gM %%@)%*^ kmofS;M (&&–!–$$!(&!* kmofS;M (&&–!–%%@#!(& j]e;fO6M www.actionaid.org/nepal j]e;fO6M www.oxfam.org.uk k|sf]k M dfgjclwsf/ / sfg'g ÷3
  4. 4. n]vssf] egfO k|sf]k–k|efljt gful/ssf] g};lu{s clwsf/sf b[li6n] g]kfn w]/} k5fl8 /x]sf] 5 . d'nsdf ' af9L, klx/f], x'/Latf;, cfunfuL tyf dxfdf/Lh:tf k|sf]kdf k/L jif]gL Ps xhf/eGbf { a9L dflg;sf] Hofg uO/x]sf] 5 eg] xhf/f}F dflg; 3fOt] eO/x]sf 5g . k|sf]ks} sf/0f x/]s jif{ xhf/eGbf a9L kl/jf/ lj:yflkt x'G5g / !^ xhf/eGbf a9L kl/jf/ k"0f{ ¿kn] k|efljt x'G5g . k|sf]khGo 36gfdf lg/Gt/ eO/x]sf] j[l4 tyf hgwgsf] a9bf] Iflt 36fpg d2t ug]{ / p4f/ tyf /fxt sfo{nfO{ k|efjsf/L agfP/ k|efljt ;d'bfosf clwsf/sf] /Iff ug{ ;Sg] sfg'gL Joj:yf g]kfndf clxn];Dd x'g ;s]sf] 5}g . k|sf]k–Joj:yfkg;DaGwL sfg'g gePs} sf/0f :yfgLo txdf sfd ug]{ ;/sf/L tyf u}/;/sf/L lgsfon] cg]sf}+ ;d:ofsf] ;fdgf ug'{ kl//x]sf] 5 . cem k|sf]kaf6 k|efljt ;d'bfon] t p4f/ tyf /fxt kfpg] k|lqmofnfO{ bof nfu]/ s;}n] lbg] bfgsf ¿kdf :jLsf/ ug'{ kl//x]sf] 5 . /fHon] jf ;]jf k|bfg ug]{ s'g} klg lgsfon] kLl8tsf] clwsf/ s] xf] eGg] ga'em];Dd / kLl8tn] cfˆgf] clwsf/af/] hfgsf/L gkfP;Dd k|sf]k–Joj:yfkgsf ;a} sfo{ cw'/} /xG5g . p4f/ tyf /fxtsf qmddf dfgjLo clwsf/ / kLl8tsf] clwsf/af/] 1fg ePg eg] To;n] klg k"0f{tf kfpFbg . /fxtsf ;fdu|L, ;]jfsf] u'0f:t/ / ;xof]usf] k|lqmofdf q'l6 gxf]; eGgfsf nflu } klg dfgjLo sfg'gsf] 1fg x'g' cfjZos x'G5 . d'nsdf k|sf]k–Joj:yfkg;DaGwL sfg'gsf] ' cefj /xsf] jt{dfg cj:yfdf o; If]qdf sfo{/t ;a}nfO{ kLl8tsf clwsf/sf] /Iff ub]{ dfgjLo cjwf/0ffcg'¿k sfo{ ug{ ;xof]u k'Ug] ljZjf;;lxt k|sf]k–1fgdfnfcGtu{t …k|sf]k M sfg'g / dfgjclwsf/Ú ljifosf] k':ts k|:t't ul/Psf] 5 . k|sf]ksf] Joj:yfkg, kLl8tsf dfgjLo clwsf/sf] /Iff, p4f/ tyf /fxt / k'gM:yfkgsf If]q ;d]l6Psf] ;dofg'sn sfg'gL Joj:yfsf] cefj /x]sf] jt{dfg cj:yfdf klg o; " If]qdf sfo{/t JolQm, ;+:yf tyf ;d'bfonfO{ o; k':tsn] dfgjLo cjwf/0ffsf ljifodf yf]/} dfq 1fg lbg;Sof] eg] klg xfd|f] k|of; ;fy{s ePsf] 7fGg]5f}+ . k|sf]k 1fgdfnf k|sflzt ug{ k|/0ff k|bfg ug]{ PS;gP8 g]kfnsf l;lgo/ lydln8/ ] Zofd;'Gb/ 1jfnL / cS;kmfd hLaL g]kfnsf sfo{qmd ;+of]hs lji0f'k;fb v/]n / o;sf] | efiff ;Dkfbg u/L ;xof]u ug'xg] >L x]d/fh kf}8n …lxds/Ú k|lt cfef/ JoQm ub{5' . {' ] To;}u/L k|sf]k–1fgdfnfsf] k|sfzgsf nflu sfo{qmds} ¿kdf cfly{s ;fem]bf/L ug]{ PS;gP8 g]kfn / cS;kmfd hLaL g]kfnk|lt d]/f] JolQmut tyf k|sfzs ;+:yf …Osf]– g]kfnÚ sf tkm{af6 cfef/ JoQm ub{5' . – /fdrGb| Gof}kfg] k|sf]k M dfgjclwsf/ / sfg'g ÷4
  5. 5. ljifo;"rL k[i7e"ld % k|sf]k;DaGwL g]kfnsf] sfg'g &–!@ p4f/ tyf /fxt * b}jL k|sf]k p4f/ ;ldltsf] Joj:yf ( k|sf]kkLl8tnfO{ /fxt lbg] ;/sf/L dfkb08 !) cfly{s ;|f]t;DaGwL Joj:yf !@ dfgjclwsf/k|lt df}g / ck"0f{ !@ k|sf]kk|lt ljZjJofkL rf;f] !#–!^ xØf]uf] sfo{of]hgfsf] d"n lgisif{ !$ ljZj d~rdf g]kfnsf] ;xeflutf !^ k|sf]k / dfgjclwsf/ !&–!( dfgjclwsf/ !& k|sf]k / dfgjclwsf/aLr ;DaGw !* k|sf]k / cGt/f{li6«o dfgjclwsf/ sfg'g !( clwsf/d'vL cjwf/0ff @!–@^ clwsf/d'vL cjwf/0ffsf] cy{ @! clwsf/d'vL cjwf/0ffsf] ljsf; @! clwsf/d'vL cjwf/0ffsf d"n dfGotf @# k|sf]k–Joj:yfkg / clwsf/d'vL cjwf/0ff @% dfgjLo ;xfotf kfpg] kLl8tsf] clwsf/ @^ :km]o/ kl/of]hgf @&–$) kl/ro @& :km]o/ kl/of]hgfsf cfwf/e"t l;4fGt @* :km]o/ kl/of]hgfsf Go"gtd dfkb08 @* dfgjLo ;xfotfsf Go"gtd dfkb08 #) cfwf/e"t clwsf/ M ;ªs6sfnLg ;dodf lzIff $)–*^ kl/ro $) ;ªs6sfnLg ;dosf z}lIfs dfkb08 $) k|sf]k M dfgjclwsf/ / sfg'g ÷5
  6. 6. k|sf]k M dfgjclwsf/ / sfg'g k[i7e"ld g]kfn ljZjsf b'O{ ;o d'nsdWo] e'Orfnf]sf nflu P3f/f}+ hf]lvdk"0f{ :yfgdf ' F kb{5 eg] hnpTkGg k|sf]ksf lx;fan] tL;f}+ :yfgdf kb{5 . g]kfndf @)$) b]lv @)^) ;fn;Ddsf] @! jif{leq k|sf]kdf k/L @! xhf/ @ ;o $^ dflg;sf] d[To' ePsf] 5 . o; tYofªsnfO{ x]bf{ k|To]s jif{ ;fnfvfnf !,)!@ dflg;sf] d[To' ePsf] b]lvG5 . To:t} @)%@ b]lv @)^) ;fn;Ddsf] cfly{s Iflt @* ca{ (# s/f]8 &@ nfv ?k}ofFa/fa/ /x]sf] 5 . of] Iflt cf};tdf jflif{s # ca{ @! s/f]8 %@ nfveGbf a9L x'G5, h'g cfly{s jif{ @)^@÷^# sf] nflu ;/sf/n] ljlgof]hg u/]sf] sl/a ! va{ @^ ca{ ah]6sf] @=%% k|ltzt x'g cfpF5 . plNnlvt tYofªsn] g]kfndf k|sf]kaf6 x/]s jif{ 7"nf] dfqfdf hgwgsf] Iflt eO/x]sf] k|i6 kfb{5 . o;sf ;fy} xhf/f}F kl/jf/ cfˆgf] ;Dk"0f{ ;DklQ u'Dgfn] lj:yflkt x'g] ub{5g . 3/af/ljxLg cj:yfdf pgLx¿ km]l/ af9L cfpg ;Sg] vf]nf / klx/f] hfg ;Sg] eL/kfvfd} a:g afWo x'G5g . o;/L Psk6s k|sf]kdf k/]sf dflg; g} k'gM k|sf]ksf] kL8fdf kmF:b5g . k|sf]ksf] ;dodf kLl8tsf nflu p4f/ / /fxtsf] cfjZostf kb{5 . o:tf sfo{ ;/sf/ tyf ;xof]uLn] bofk"js lbOg] bfgsf ¿kdf ug'{ x'bg . s'g} klg { F } ;ªs6df k/]sf gful/ssf] /Iff / ;xof]u ug'{ ;/sf/ / l5d]sLsf] bfloTj xf] . ;ªs6df k/]sf x/]s gful/sn] /fHoaf6 ;Ddfgk"js vfgf, cfjf; / { cf}ifwf]krf/ kfpg' cfwf/e"t dfgjclwsf/ klg xf] . k|sf]k M dfgjclwsf/ / sfg'g ÷6
  7. 7. k|sf]kn] Iflt k'¥ofPsf If]qdf p4f/, /fxt, cfktsfnLg cfjf;, vfgf, n'ufkmf6f], :jf:Yo;]jf tyf cf}ifwf]krf/h:tf cTofjZos j:t'sf] Joj:yf ug'kb{5 . o;sf nflu ;d'bfo, ;dfh / ;/sf/;Fu cfjZos ;|ft tyf { ] ;fwgsf] cefj x'g;S5 . cfktsfnLg ;xof]usf nflu /]8qm;, u}/;/sf/L ;+:yfx¿, l5d]sL tyf ldq/fi6«x¿ ;xof]u ug{ ;b}j tTk/ x'G5g . o;/L k|fKt x'g] ;xof]usf] ;xL kl/rfng ug],{ unt a:t' / ;fwgsf] ljt/0f x'g glbg] tyf kLl8tsf] cfjZostfcg';f/ /fxt;fdu|L Jojl:yt ¿kdf ljt/0f ug{ sfg'g tyf Go"gtd dfkb08sf] cfjZostf kb{5 . k|sf]kkl5 3/af/ljxLg kl/jf/sf] a;f]af; / cfwf/e"t cfjZostf k"lt{sf] nflu klg sfg'gcg'¿k Joj:yf ug'kb{5, ;fy} k|sf]ksf] Iflt sd ug{ ul/g] { k"jtof/Lsf nflu gLltut Joj:yf ePdf ;dfhnfO{ p;sf bfloŒjsf] af]w { u/fpg ;lhnf] x'G5 . k|sf]ksf] ;Defjgf /x]sf 7fpFdf ;'/Iffsf pkfo cjnDag u/L k|sf]k ;fdgfsf nflu sfo{ ug{ cfwf/e"t sfg'gsf] e"ldsf dxŒjk"0f{ x'G5 . k|sf]k ePsf ;dodf p4f/ tyf /fxt sfo{nfO{ e]befj/lxt ¿kdf ;~rfng ug{, k|sf]kkl5 k'gM:yfkg, k'glg{df{0fh:tf sfo{ ug{ klg Go"gtd dfkb08;lxtsf] sfg'gL Joj:yf rflxG5 . To;}n] k|sf]ksf] Joj:yfkg, p4f/, /fxt / k'gM:yfkg tyf k'glg{df{0fh:tf sfo{nfO{ Jojl:yt ug{, dfu{bz{g lbg tyf unt sfo{nfO{ lgolGqt ug{ ;/sf/n] nfu" u/]sf] sfg'gnfO{ k|sf]k–Joj:yfkg sfg'g elgG5 . k|sf]k M dfgjclwsf/ / sfg'g ÷7
  8. 8. k|sf]k;DaGwL g]kfnsf] sfg'g k|sf]ksf]hGo 36gfaf6 pTkGg x'g;Sg] c;xh cj:yfdf sfd ug]{ Wo]on] tTsfnLg ;/sf/n] @)#( ;fndf b}jL k|sf]k -p4f/_ P]g agfPsf] lyof] . g]kfnsf] ToxL P]g k|sf]kkLl8tsf] p4f/ / /fxt tyf Joj:yfkg ug]{ Psdfq sfg'gL b:tfj]h xf] . k|sf]k;Fu ck|ToIf ¿kdf ;/f]sf/ /fVg] cGo s]xL P]g klg 5g, t/ tL P]g cg'¿k k|sf]ksf ;dodf ug'kg]{ p4f/, /fxt, { k"jtof/L / k'glg{df{0fsf s'g} klg sfo{ k|efljt ;d'bfosf] cfjZostfcg'¿k { x'g ;ls/x]sf 5}gg . b}jL k|sf]k -p4f/_ P]g, @)#( k|sf]k Joj:yfkg ug{ k"0f{ ¿kn] ;Ifd 5}g . of] P]g d"ntM cfktsfnLg p4f/ / /fxtsf sfo{df dfq ;Lldt 5 . k|sf]kk|efljt ePsf] jf x'g;Sg] If]qsf] ;Ldf lgwf{/0f u/]/ cfktsfnLg cj:yfsf] ;fdgf ug]{ Wo]on] ;ªs6u|:t If]q 3f]if0ff ug];Ddsf] clwsf/ P]gn] lbPsf] 5 . o; { sfg'gsf cfwf/df p4f/ tyf /fxtsf nflu ;/sf/n] cfjZostfcg';f/ ;/sf/sf s'g} klg lgsfo, /fli6«o tyf cGt/f{li6«o u}/;/sf/L ;+:yf tyf gful/s ;dfhnfO{ cfjZos cfb]z lbg;Sg] / o:tf] If]qdf ljb]zL gful/s jf ;+:yfn] k|jz ug{;d]t :jLs[lt lng'kg]{ Joj:yf u/]sf] 5 . o:tf sfo{ ug]{ ] clwsf/ sfg'gn] s]Gb|Lo :t/df u[xdGqfno / :yfgLo txdf lhNnf k|zf;g sfof{nonfO{ lbPsf] 5 . g]kfndf ljBdfg b}jL k|sf]k -p4f/_ P]g, @)#( cg'¿k ;/sf/n] s]Gb|bl] v ufpF;Dd k|sf]k p4f/ tyf /fxt ;ldlt u7g ug{ ;S5 . ;/sf/åf/f ul7t ;a} txsf k|sf]k p4f/ ;ldltn] cfˆgf If]qdf /x]sf] k|sf]ksf] cj:yf, ePsf] Iflt / tTsfn jf eljiodf x'g;Sg] Iflt sd ug{ sfd ug'kg]{ pNn]v u/]sf] { eP klg To;sf] sfo{ljlw lbg ;s]sf] 5}g . P]gn] lgwf{l/t u/]sf sfo{qmdsf] d"n p2]Zo cfktsfnLg p4f/ / /fxtsf] ljt/0fdf dfq s]lGb|t /x]sf] 5 . of] k"jtof/L, k'glg{df{0f / k'gM:yfkgh:tf k|sf]ksf] bL3{sfnLg Joj:yfkgtkm{ { df}g /x]sf] 5 . xfnsf jif{x¿df cltj[li6, af9L, klx/f], dxfdf/L, lxdtfn ljikmf]6 cflb 36gfdf j[l4;Fu} k|sf]ksf] vt/f klg a9b} cfPsf] 5 . ljZJofkL ¿kdf k|sf]k M dfgjclwsf/ / sfg'g ÷8
  9. 9. eO/x]sf]] tfkqmd j[l4åf/f b]vfk/]sf] hnjfo'–kl/jt{g klg k|sf]khGo 36gf a9fpg] sf/s b]lvPsf] 5 . ljz]ifu/L jgljgfz, kfgLsf ;|ft ;'Sg' jf b"lift ] x'g,' ;/;kmfOsf] cefj, clgof]lht ljsf;lgdf{0f, vlgh tyf h}ljs OGwgsf] cTolws pkef]u / jftfj/0fLo k|bif0fdf j[l4 k|sf]k lj:tf/ x'g] sf/0fsf " ¿kdf b]lvPsf 5g . dfgjLo sf/0faf6 pTkGg eO/x]sf k|sf]khGo 36gf lgoGq0f ug]{ ljifodf g]kfnsf] k|sf]k P]gn] rf;f] b]vfPsf] 5}g . jftfj/0f ;+/If0f, ul/aL lgjf/0f, k|fs[lts ;|ftsf] a'l4dQfk"0f{ pkof]u, of]hgfa4 sfo{, :yfgLo / s]Gb|Lo:t/sf ] of]hgfaLr ;+of]hg k|sf]k Joj:yfkgsf dxŒjk"0f{ kIf x'g . To;}u/L gful/s ;dfh / /fli6«o tyf cGt/f{li6«o u}/;/sf/L ;+:yfx¿sf] e"ldsfnfO{ k|efjsf/L agfpg ;+:yfut ;+/rgfsf] ljsf;, ;j{;'ne ;"rgfk|jfx, hgr]tgf clej[l4h:tf ljifo klg k|sf]khGo hf]lvd 36fpg] cfwf/ x'g . o:tf If]qdf sfd ug{ ;/sf/n] :ki6 sfg'gL Joj:yf u/]/ sfo{/t ;ª3;+:yfx¿aLr ;dGjostf{ tyf ;xhstf{sf ¿kdf cfk"mnfO{ k|:t't ug'{ cfjZos 5 . p4f/ tyf /fxt k|sf]khGo 36gfåf/f kLl8t JolQm, kl/jf/ tyf ;d'bfonfO{ ;a}n] cfjZos ;xof]u ug'kb{5 . o:tf] sfo{ 5/l5d]s, /]8qm;, k|x/L / ;]gf ;a}sf] bfloTjleq { kg{ cfpF5 . o;/L k|sf]ksf cj:yfdf kLl8tnfO{ tTsfn ;xof]u ug]{ sfo{nfO{ p4f/ elgG5 / cfktsfnLg af;, vfgf tyf pkrf/ ug]{ sfo{nfO{ /fxt elgG5 . g]kfnsf] lj= ;+= @)$( df bf];fk6s ;+zf]wg ePsf] …b}jL k|sf]k - |] p4f/_ P]g, @)#(Ú n] b}jL k|sf]k p4f/ sfo{ eGgfn] …b}jL k|sf]kaf6 c;/ k/]sf] jf kg{;Sg] If]qdf b}jL k|sf]ksf] lgoGq0f / /f]syfd tyf tt;DaGwL k"jtof/L / b}jL k|sf]kaf6 hgtfnfO{ k/]sf] kL/dsf{ tyf c;'ljwf x6fpgsf { nflu b}jL k|sf]kaf6 kLl8t hgtfsf] k'gM:yfkg tyf b}jL k|sf]kaf6 c;/ k/]sf If]qsf] k'glg{df{0f ug]{ sfo{nufot b}jL k|sf]kaf6 ;j{;fwf/0f hgtfsf] lhpwg / ;fj{hlgs ;DklQsf] ;'/Iffsf nflu ul/g] h'g;'s} p4f/ sfo{ ;Demg'k5{Ú egL b}jL k|sf]k p4f/ sfo{nfO{ kl/eflift u/]sf] 5 . o; kl/efiffn] k|sf]kaf6 p4f/ ul/Psf kLl8tsf] clwsf/sf ;DaGwdf ;fdfGo JofVof ug]{ k|of; u/]sf] eP klg / p4f/, /fxt, cfktsfnLg ;xof]udf hf]8 lbP klg o;n] k'gM:yfkgsf bL3{sfnLg sfo{qmd / dfgjclwsf/sf kIfnfO{ ;Daf]wg ug{ ;s]sf] 5}g . xfd|f] k/Dk/f / ;/sf/n] sfof{Gjog ul//x]sf] df}hbf sfg'gL ' Joj:yfcg';f/ k|sf]kkLl8tn] p4f/ kfpg' ltgsf] clwsf/ geP/ k/f]ksf/L sfo{ dfq ag]sf] 5 . k|sf]k M dfgjclwsf/ / sfg'g ÷9
  10. 10. b}jL k|sf]k p4f/ ;ldltsf] Joj:yf b}jL k|sf]k -p4f/_ P]g, @)#( n] k|sf]ksf ;dodf ul/g] p4f/ / /fxtsf nflu s]Gb|Lo :t/b]lv ufpF;Ddsf rf/ txdf b}jL k|sf]k p4f/ ;ldlt u7g ug]{ Joj:yf u/]sf] 5 . xfn;Dd s]Gb|, If]q / lhNnfdf k|sf]k p4f/ ;ldltsf] Joj:yf ePsf] 5Ù t/ ufpF:t/df x'g ;s]sf] 5}g . xfn ePsf ;ldltsf] cj:yf lgDgcg';f/ 5 M s]Gb|Lo b}jL k|sf]k p4f/ ;ldlt b}jL k|sf]k p4f/ sfo{;DaGwL gLltsf] th'{df ug{, sfo{qmd agfpg / sfof{Gjog tyf cfjZos sfd ug{–u/fpg ;/sf/n] u[xdGqLsf] cWoIftfdf s]Gb|Lo b}jL k|sf]k p4f/ ;ldlt u7g u/]sf] 5 . ;ldltdf k|sf]k–Joj:yfkg;Fu ;DalGwt pRrkb:y kbflwsf/L ;b:osf ¿kdf /xg] Joj:yf 5 . ;ldltn] k|sf]kaf6 k|efljt If]qdf ul/g] p4f/ tyf ljt/0f ul/g] /fxt /sd, nQfsk8f, cf}ifwf]krf/ / cGo cTofjZos ;fdu|L k7fpg], p4f/ tyf /fxtsf nflu sfd ug]{ u}/;/sf/L ;+:yf jf gful/s ;dfhaLr ;dGjo ug],{ If]qLo, lhNnf:t/Lo / :yfgLo ;ldltsf] kl/rfngsf nflu lgb]zg lbg]h:tf sfo{ { ub{5 . o;sf cltl/Qm k|sf]kk|efljt If]qnfO{ ;ªs6u|:t If]q 3f]if0ff ug{ ;/sf/nfO{ l;kmfl/; ug],{ k|sf]ksf] lgoGq0f tyf /f]syfd, k"jtof/L tyf { k|sf]kaf6 kLl8tsf] k'gM:yfkg / Ifltu|:t ;+/rgfsf] k'glg{df{0f;DaGwL /fli6«o gLltsf] th'df klg o;} ;ldltsf] sfo{If]qleq kb{5 . { k|sf]ksf] cj:yfdf s]Gb|Lo ;ldltnfO{ cfjZos ;Nnfx tyf gLltlgb]zg lbg { /sfof{Gjogdf ;3fpg ljleGg pk;ldlt u7g ug]{ clwsf/ klg s]Gb|Lo ;ldltn] kfPsf] 5 . k|sf]kkLl8tsf] p4f/ / /fxtnfO{ k|efjsf/L agfpg p4f/ tyf pkrf/ pk;ldlt / cfk"lt{, cf>o tyf k'gM:yfkg pk;ldlt ;d]t u7g ug]{ Joj:yf 5 . o:tf pk;ldltdWo] pkrf/ pk;ldltsf] ;+of]hsdf :jf:YodGqL, k'gM:yfkg pk;ldltsf] ;+of]hsdf ef}lts of]hgf tyf lgdf{0f dGqL / cfk"lt{ tyf cf>o pk;ldltsf] ;+of]hsdf pBf]u, jfl0fHo tyf cfk"lt{ dGqL /xg]] Joj:yf 5 . If]qLo b}jL k|sf]k p4f/ ;ldlt If]qLo k|zf;ssf] cWoIftfdf k|sf]ksf] ;dodf If]qLo tyf :yfgLo :t/df p4f/ tyf /fxtsf nflu rflxg] cfjZos ;|ft tyf ;fwgsf] d"Nofªsg ug{, ] :jo+;js 6f]nL u7g ug{ tyf cGo p4f/ sfo{;d]t ug{ …If]qLo b}jL k|sf]k ] k|sf]k M dfgjclwsf/ / sfg'g ÷10
  11. 11. p4f/ ;ldltÚ u7g ePsf] 5 . kfFr} ljsf; If]qsf If]qLo k|zf;g sfof{non] lhNnf / s]Gb|;u ;dGjo u/L sfo{ ug]{ Joj:yf ;d]t o; cGtu{t kb{5 . F lhNnf b}jL k|sf]k p4f/ ;ldlt k|sf]kkLl8t JolQm tyf ;d'bfonfO{ tTsfn p4f/ ug{, /fxt pknAw u/fpg, k|sf]ksf] 36gf /f]syfd ug{ tyf c:yfoL cf>osf] Joj:yf;d]t ug{–u/fpg k|dv lhNnf clwsf/Lsf] cWoIftfdf …lhNnf b}jL k|sf]k Joj:yfkg ;ldltÚ ' sfo{/t /xg] Joj:yf 5 . o; ;ldltdf k|dv lhNnf clwsf/Ln] k|sf]ksf ' If]qdf sfo{/t ;/sf/L tyf u}/;/sf/L ;+:yf / gful/s ;dfhsf k|ltlglw;d]t ;+nUg u/fpg ;Sg] Joj:yf P]gn] u/]sf] 5 . :yfgLo b}jL k|sf]k p4f/ ;ldlt ufpF ljsf; ;ldltcGtu{t :yfgLo b}jL k|sf]k p4f/ ;ldlt u7g x'g] Joj:yf P]gdf /x]sf] 5, t/ uflj; cWoIfsf] ;+of]hsTjdf u7g x'g ;Sg] :yfgLo ;ldlt eg] u7g x'g ;s]sf] 5}g . k|sf]kkLl8tnfO{ /fxt lbg] ;/sf/L dfkb08 b}jL k|sf]k -p4f/_ P]g, @)#( cg';f/ s]Gb|Lo b}jL k|sf]k p4f/ ;ldltn] k|sf]kkLl8t JolQm tyf kl/jf/nfO{ Iflt / k|efjsf cfwf/df tTsfn /fxt ;xof]u pknAw u/fpg] gLltut lg0f{o ug]{ ub{5 . o;/L pknAw u/fpg] cfly{s tyf ef}lts ;xof]usf] dfqfdf ;do–;dodf kl/jt{g x'G5 . s]Gb|Lo ;ldltn] kl5Nnf]k6s u/]sf] lg0f{ocg';f/ kLl8tnfO{ /fxt:j¿k lgDgcg';f/ ;xof]u x'g;S5 M != k|sf]kdf k/L s'g} JolQmsf] d[To' ePdf /fxt:j¿k k|ltd[ts !% xhf/ ?k}ofFsf b/n] d[tssf kl/jf/nfO{ ;xof]u pknAw u/fpg] . @= k|sf]kdf k/L 3fOt] ePsfnfO{ lhNnf b}jL k|sf]k p4f/ ;ldltn] cf}ifwf]krf/sf] Joj:yf ug]{ . #= b}jL k|sf]kaf6 3/ gi6 ePdf c:yfoL cf>osf nflu k|ltkl/jf/ $ xhf/ ?k}ofF;Dd pknAw u/fpg] . $= af9L, klx/f] jf e"sDkaf6 3/ k"0f{ ¿kn] gi6 geP klg ;Defljt vt/faf6 hf]lug cGoq ;g'kg]{ eP To:tf kLl8t kl/jf/nfO{ /fxt:j¿k { k|ltkl/jf/ b'O{ xhf/ ?k}ofF;Dd ;xof]u pknAw u/fpg] . %= k|sf]kaf6 3/ gi6 ePsf JolQmnfO{ k|ltJolQm & s]hLsf b/n] rfdn k|sf]k M dfgjclwsf/ / sfg'g ÷11
  12. 12. pknAw u/fpg] . rfdn pknAw u/fpg g;lsg] cj:yf ePdf To;afkt !@% ?k}ofF k|ltJolQm pknAw u/fpg] . rfdn pknAw u/fPafktsf] /sd lhNnf b}jL k|sf]k ;xfotf sf]ifaf6 e'QmfgL lbO{ ;f]sf] ljj/0f u[x dGqfno b}jL k|sf]k p4f/ zfvfdf k7fpg] . ^= k|sf]ksf 36gfaf6 3/ gi6 ePsf kLl8t kl/jf/nfO{ tTsfn cfjZos kg]{ nQfsk8f / efF8fs'8fsf] Joj:yf ug{sf nflu /fxt ;xof]u:j¿k F k|ltJolQm kfFr ;o ?k}ofFsf b/n] pknAw u/fpg] . &= k|sf]kdf k/L vfBfGgafnL tyf hUufhldg;d]t gf]S;fg eO{ tTsfn u'hf/fsf nflu vfBfGg;d]t gePsf kLl8t kl/jf/nfO{ k|ltkl/jf/ kfFr ;o ?k}ofF pknAw u/fpg] . *= k|sf]kkLl8tnfO{ k'gM:yfkg tyf k'glg{df{0fsf nflu k|rlnt gLltadf]lhd jg dGqfnocGtu{tsf] lhNnfl:yt tf]lsPsf] lgsfon] ;x'lnot b/df sf7 pknAw u/fpg] . (= k|sf]ksf] ;dodf kLl8t kl/jf/nfO{ ;'/lIft :yfgdf /fvL lzlj/ ;~rfng ug'kg]{ cj:yf ePdf lhNnf b}jL k|sf]k p4f/ ;ldltn] tTsfn u[xdGqfnodf { ;Dks{ /fvL cfjZos sfo{ ug]{ Joj:yf ldnfpg] . !)= k|sf]kdf k/L vfBfGg jf yk cfly{s ;xfotf pknAw u/fpg'kg]{ kl/jf/sf] ;b:o ;ªVof;d]t v'nsf] nut 36gf x'gl] alQs} u[x dGqfnodf k7fpg] . ] !!= kLl8tnfO{ /fxt ljt/0f ubf{ :yfgLo ;ldlt u7g ePsf] :yfgdf ;f] ;ldltdfkm{t / cGo 7fpFsf] xsdf lhNnf b}jL k|sf]k p4f/ ;ldltdfkm{t g} /fxt ;xof]u pknAw u/fpg] . !@= pko'Qmadf]lhdsf] ;xof]u e"sDk, af9L, klx/f], cfunfuL, cl;gfkfgL, { x'/Latf; / r6Øfªaf6 k|efljt kLl8tnfO{ dfq pknAw u/fpg] . !#= lgwf{l/t dfkb08adf]lhd /fxt ;xof]u pknAw u/fpFbf lhNnf b}jL k|sf]k p4f/ ;ldltn] 36gf ePsf] #) lbgleq ;"rgf k|fKt ePsf] 36gfsf nflu dfq /fxt ;xof]u pknAw u/fpg] . cfly{s ;|ft;DaGwL Joj:yf ] k|sf]ksf avt p4f/ tyf /fxtnfO{ rflxg] /sdsf] Joj:yf ug{ s]Gb|Lo b}jL k|sf]k p4f/ ;ldltcGtu{t ;~rfng x'gu/L Pp6f s]Gb|Lo b}jL k|sf]k ;xfotf ] sf]if /x]sf] 5 . o;sf cltl/Qm k|wfgdGqLsf] dftxtdf …k|wfgdGqL b}jL k|sf]k ;xfotf sf]ifÚ klg 5 . To;}u/L If]qLo / lhNnf b}jL k|sf]k ;xfotf k|sf]k M dfgjclwsf/ / sfg'g ÷12
  13. 13. sf]ifsf] klg Joj:yf ePsf] 5 . s]Gb|Lo ;xfotf sf]ifdf cy{ dGqfnoaf6 ljlgof]hg ePsf] /sd / :jb]zL tyf ljb]zL ;xof]usf] /sd ;d]t hDdf x'G5 . o;sf cltl/Qm JolQm, ;ª3;+:yf, sd{rf/L, Jofkf/L cflbaf6 k|wfgdGqL b}jL k|sf]k ;xfotf sf]ifdf hDdf ePsf] /sd cfjZostfcg';f/ s]Gb|Lo b}jL k|sf]k ;xfotf sf]ifdf :yfgfGt/0f x'G5 . s]Gb|Lo b}jL k|sf]k ;xfotf sf]ifsf] /sd cfjZostf / cf}lrTosf cfwf/df lgwf{l/t dfkb08cg';f/ kLl8tnfO{ /fxt pknAw u/fpg If]qLo ;xfotf sf]ifdfk{mt lhNnf b}jL k|sf]k ;xfotf sf]ifdf lgsf;f x'g] Joj:yf /x]sf] 5 . dfgjclwsf/k|lt df}g / ck"0f{ …b}jL k|sf]k -p4f/_ P]g, @)#(Ú tTsfnLg ;dosf nflu pko'Qm eP klg jt{dfg ;dosf nflu o;sf] cf}lrTo ;dfKtk|foM eO;s]sf] 5 . cGt/f{li6«o ;lGw;Demf}tf, k|sf]k–Go"gLs/0f /0fgLlt / dfkb08cg'¿k sfd ug]{ k|fjwfg o;df 5}g . kLl8tsf cfwf/e"t dfgjclwsf/sf] k|Tofe"lt gug',{ k"jtof/L { / k'gM:yfkg;DaGwL Joj:yf gx'g' o; sfg'sf] sdhf]/ kIf dflgPsf] 5 . p4f/ tyf /fxtsf kIfdf s]xL ug{ vf]hsf] eP klg ;xof]usf Go"gtd ] dfkb08 lgwf{/0f ug]{ k|lqmofsf] cefjdf clgjfo{ 7flgPsf sltko sfo{n] k|fyldstf kfpg ;s]sf 5}gg . sfg'gn] lgwf{/0f ug{ g;s]sf sltko sfo{ lhNnf b}jL k|sf]k p4f/ ;ldltn] cfk;L 5nkmnaf6 ug]{ u/]sf] kfOP klg k|sf]kaf6 lj:yflkt eP/ cfGtl/s ;'s'Daf;L aGg afWo gful/ssf] a;f]af; u/fpg] / pgLx¿sf] eljio ;'lglZrt ug]h:tf bL3{sfnLg sfo{qmd;DaGwL Joj:yfaf/] P]gdf pNn]v { gePsfn] kLl8t tyf lj:yflktsf] eljio ;w}F clglZrt /x]sf] 5 . o;sf ;fy} k|efljt If]qdf bL3{sfnLg k'gM:yfkg sfo{ ug{ rfxg] ;+:yf tyf ljsf;–sfo{stf{n] gLltut sl7gfOsf] ;fdgf ug'{ kl//x]sf] 5 . o:tf sl7gfOsf] lg/fs/0fsf nflu ;/sf/n] ;do;fk]If sfg'g Nofpg] / cfjZostfcg'¿k ;'wf/ tyf kl/dfh{g ub}{ hfg] k|lqmof ckgfpg' h?/L 5 . k|sf]k M dfgjclwsf/ / sfg'g ÷13
  14. 14. k|sf]kk|lt ljZjsf] rf;f] k|sf]ksf sf/0f ljZjdf x/]s jif{ hgwgsf] k|z:t Iflt eO/x]sf] 5 . k|sf]kaf6 x'b} cfPsf] hgwgsf] Iflt Go"g ug{ ;g !(() df ;+oQm /fi6«;ª3Lo F ' k|sf]k Go"gLs/0f ;lrjfnosf] :yfkgf eof] . ;+oQm /fi6«;ª3n] ' ;g !(*( df !(() sf] bzsnfO{ slxn] s] eof] < k|sf]k Go"gLs/0f bzs 3f]if0ff ;g !(*( M ;+oQm /fi6«;ª3åf/f ' u/]kl5 k|sf]k lj?4sf] ljZjJofkL ;g !(() b]lv !((( ;Dd k|fs[lts cleofg k|f/De ePsf] dflgG5 . k|sf]k Go"gLs/0f cGt/f{li6«o bzs " ;g !(() b]lv k|To]s jif{sf] dgfpg] lg0f{o . cS6f]a/ dlxgfsf] bf];|f] a'wjf/ ljZjJofkL ¿kdf k|sf]k Go"gLs/0f ;g !(($ M ‘;'/lIft ljZjsf nflu k| s f] k Go" g Ls/0f’ gf/f ;lxt lbj; klg dgfOG5 . hfkfgsf] of]sf]xfdfdf k|yd ljZj ;g !(($ df hfkfgsf] ;Dd]ng . ;Dd]ngåf/f ;fdflhs of]sf]xfdfdf ;'/lIft ljZjsf nflu tyf gful/s ;dfhk|lt pQ/bfoL klxnf] …ljZj k|sf]k Go"gLs/0f /xg] u/L klxnf] ‘k|sf]k Go"gLs/0f ;Dd] n gÚ ePkl5 ;+ o ' Q m gLlt’ tof/ . /fi6«;ª3sf] k|sf]k Joj:yfkg tyf ;g !((% M hfkfgsf] sf]a] ;x/df Go"gLs/0f;DaGwL k|of;n] yk ;DkGg Pl;ofnL /fi6x¿sf] k|fs[lts tLj|tf k|fKt u/]sf] 5 . k|sf]k Go"gLs/0f ;Dd]ng ;DkGg . ;Dd] n gåf/f Pl;ofnL k| s f] k ;g !((% df hfkfgsf] sf]adf ] Go"gLs/0f s]Gb| (Asian Disaster ;DkGg Pl;ofnL /fi6« x ¿sf] Reduction Center -ADRC) k| f s[ l ts k| s f] k Go" g Ls/0f :yfkgfsf] 3f]if0ff . ;Dd] n gaf6 Pl;ofnL k| s f] k ;g @))% M hfkfgsf] sf]a] ;x/df Go"gLs/0f s]Gb| (Asian Disas- k|sf]k Go"gLs/0f;DaGwL bf];f] ljZj | ter Reduction Center) sf] ;Dd] n g . ;g @)!% ;Dddf :yfkgf ePkl5 Pl;ofnufot ;d'bfosf] k|sf]k ;fdgf ug]{ Ifdtfdf g]kfndf klg k|sf]k Go"gLs/0fsf] clej[l4 ug{ xØf]uf] sfo{of]hgf sfo{n] k|fyldstf kfPsf] 5 . @))%–@)!% sf] 3f]if0ff . k|sf]k M dfgjclwsf/ / sfg'g ÷14
  15. 15. k|sf]k Go"gLs/0f;DaGwL bf];f] ljZj;Dd]ng | ;g @))% sf] hgj/L !* b]lv @@ ;Dd hfkfgsf] sf]a]df k|sf]k Go"gLs/0f;DaGwL ljZj ;Dd]ng ePsf] lyof] . ;Dd]ngdf ljZjsf !^* d'nssf ;/sf/L clwsf/L tyf u}/;/sf/L ;+:yf, ;+oQm /fi6«;ª3Lo ;+:yf ' ' Pj+ cGt/f{li6«o ;~rf/dfWodsf] 7"nf] ;xeflutf lyof] . ;Dd]ngn] ljsl;t d'nssf cg'ej / pRr k|ljlwaf6 cNkljsl;t d'nsn] / cNkljsl;t ' ' d'nssf :yfgLo k|ljlwaf6 ljsl;t d'nsn] ;do;'xfpFbf] nfe lng ;Sg'kg{] ' ' oyfy{kl| t hf]8 lbPsf] lyof] . ;Dd]ngsf] …lbuf] ljsf;sf nflu lzIffÚ ljifos ;qdf k|sf]k Joj:yfkg / hf]lvd Go"gLs/0fsf nflu hgr]tgf cleofg Jofks agfpg'kg]df ;a}n]{ P]Soa4tf hgfpg' o; ;Dd]ngsf] dxŒjk"0f{ pknlAw dflgPsf] 5 . k|sf]kk|efljt ;d'bfosf] ;'/lIft eljiosf nflu lj1fg / k|ljlwsf] pRrtd pkof]uaf6 k|sf]k Go"gLs/0f ug{ ;lsg] lgSof]n lgsfNb} ;Dd]ngn] ;+oQm /fi6«;ª3sf] { ' …;g @))% b]lv @)!% ;Dddf ;'/lIft eljiosf nflu lzIffÚ eGg] gf/f ;fy{s agfpg ;/sf/x¿nfO{ kf7Øqmddf cfjZos ;'wf/ ug{ klg cfXjfg u/]sf] 5 . ;Dd]ngåf/f hf/L 3f]if0ffkqdf cfufdL !) jif{sf nflu z}lIfs ljsf;åf/f k|sf]k ;fdfgf Ifdtf clej[l4sf nflu lgDgcg';f/sf sfo{ ug]{ k|lta4tf hgfOPsf] 5, h;nfO{ …xØf]uf] sfo{of]hgf– ;g @))%–@)!%Ú elgG5 . xØf]uf] sfo{of]hgfsf] d"n lgisif{ != /fli6«o tyf :yfgLo k|fyldstfcg';f/ ;+:yfut ;'b9Ls/0fsf cfwf/df k|sf]k [ hf]lvd Go"gLs/0fsf sfo{ ;~rfng ePsf] ;'lglZrt ug]{ . ;+:yfut ;'b9Ls/0fsf nflu /fli6«o 9fFrf, ;+:yfut 9fFrf tyf sfg'gL [ 9fFrf, ;|ftsf] lbuf] Joj:yfkg / ;fd'bflos ;xeflutfnfO{ ;zQm ] agfpg] . @= k|sf]ksf] hf]lvd klxrfg, d"Nofªsg / cg'udg ug]{ tyf k"jrtfjgL { ] k|0ffnLnfO{ k|efjsf/L agfpg] . :yfgLo, If]qLo / /fli6«o txsf] hf]lvd klxrfg, d"Nofªsg / cg'udg ug],{ k"jrtfjgL k|0ffnLsf] ljsf; ug]{ / ;Defljt hf]lvdsf] ;fdgf { ] k|sf]k M dfgjclwsf/ / sfg'g ÷15
  16. 16. ug{] Ifdtfdf clej[l4 ug]{ . #= 1fg, vf]h / lzIffsf] pkof]u u/]/ ;a} txdf ;'/IffTds ;+:s[lt / k|sf]ksf] ;fdgf ug]{ Ifdtfdf clej[l4 ug]{ . :yfgLo / /fli6«o txdf ;"rgf–Joj:yfkg tyf cfbfg–k|bfg, lzIff tyf tflnd / cg';Gwfg;lxt hgr]tgf clej[l4 u/]/ ;a} txdf ;'/IffTds ;+:s[ltsf] ljsf; tyf k|sf]ksf] ;fdgf ug]{ Ifdtfdf clej[l4 ug]{ . $= hf]lvdsf cfwf/e"t sf/s tŒjx¿df sdL Nofpg] . jftfj/0f tyf k|fs[lts ;|ft Joj:yfkg, ;fdflhs tyf cfly{s ljsf;sf ] cEof; / e"–pkof]u of]hgf tyf cGo k|fljlws pkfo ckgfP/ hf]lvdsf d"n sf/0fx¿nfO{ 36fpg] . %= ;a} txdf k|sf]ksf] k|efjsf/L k|ltsf/sf nflu ;zQm k"jtof/L ug]{ . { k|sf]k–Joj:yfkgsf nflu If]qLo, /fli6«o tyf :yfgLo :t/df ;DalGwt k|ljlw, tflnd Pj+ dfgj tyf ef}lts ;+;fwg ljsf; u/L gLltut, k|fljlws tyf ;+:yfut IfdtfnfO{ ;zQm agfpg] . k|sf]k;DaGwL hf]lvd Go"gLs/0fsf] k|of;nfO{ k|efjsf/L agfpg] p2]Zon] k"jrtfjgL, hf]lvd Go"gLs/0f, k|sf]k–;fdgf / ljsf;sf If]q;Fu { ] ;DalGwt ;a} txsf ;+:yf / lgsfoaLrsf] 5nkmn, ;"rgf cfbfg– k|bfg / ;dGjodf ;xof]u k'¥ofpg] Pj+ To;df clej[l4 ug]]{ . /fi6«sf] k|sf]k–;dgf ug]{ IfdtfnfO{ k|sf]kn] pl5Gg] cj:yfdf klg To;sf] k|efjsf/L ;Daf]wg ePsf] ;'lglZrt ug]{ tof/Lsf nflu If]qLo :t/df ;dGjofTds kxnsf] ljsf; Pj+ ;'b9Ls/0f, If]qLo gLltlgdf{0f [ jf ;'wf/ u/]/ sfo{;oGq, of]hgf tyf ;"rgfk|0ffnLsf] ljsf; ug]{ . + k|sf]ksf] clthf]lvdsf If]q / ;d"xnfO{ b[li6ut u/L ;a} txdf k"jtof/L { jf k'g/fjnf]sg / ;do;fk]If kl/dfh{g u/L pko'Qm of]hgf tyf gLlt agfpg] . k|sf]ksf cj:yfdf tLj| / k|efjsf/L ;Daf]wg ePsf] tyf :yfgLo cfjZostfcg'¿k plrt 9ªun] vfB tyf cGo cfjZos j:t'sf] ;xof]u k'usf] ;'lglZrt ug{ tyf k|sf]k–k|efljt :yfg vfnL ] u/fpg]h:tf k"jtof/Lsf lgoldt cEof;nfO{ a9fjf lbg] . { k|sf]ksf] ;fdgf, Ifltsf] e/y]u tyf k"jtof/Lsf pkfonfO{ ;xof]u { k|sf]k M dfgjclwsf/ / sfg'g ÷16
  17. 17. k'¥ofpg kof{Kt x'g] u/L cfjZostfcg';f/sf :yfgdf ;ªs6sfnLg sf]ifsf] :yfkgf ug]{ k|lqmofnfO{ k|>o lbg]] . k|sf]ksf] hf]lvd 36fpg, ljz]if u/L :jo+;jL efjgf a9fP/ ;lqmo ] ;xeflutfdf k|j4{g ug{ ;Sg] k|0ffnL tyf ;d'bfo / ;/f]sf/jfnfdf :jfldTjsf] efjgf ljsl;t ug]{ . :yfgLo / /fli6«o k|fyldstfsf] klxrfg u/L ;+:yfut ;'b9Ls/0f Pj+ [ sfof{Gjog ug]{ . k|sf]k–Go"gLs/0fsf If]qdf g]kfnsf] ;xeflutf g]kfnn] ;g !(($ sf]] d] dlxgfdf hfkfgsf] of]sf]xfdfdf ;DkGg klxnf] ljZj k|sf]k Go"gLs/0f ;Dd]ngdf ;lqmo ¿kdf efu lnPsf] lyof] . g]kfnn] Pl;ofnL k|sf]k–Go"gLs/0f s]Gb|sf] ;b:otf lnPs} sf/0f klg k|sf]ksf] Joj:yfkgsf If]qdf g]kfnsf] ljZjJofkL ;xeflutf ;lqmo /x]sf] cg'ej x'G5 . To;}u/L ;g !((% df hfkfgsf] sf]adf ePsf] Pl;ofnL k|fs[lts ] k|sf]k–Go"gLs/0f ;Dd]ng / ljleGg d'nsdf ePsf a}7sdf g]kfnsf] ;lqmo ' ;xeflutf /x]sf] kfOG5 . !^* d'nssf k|ltlglwsf] ;xeflutfdf ;g @))% ' sf] hgj/L !* b]lv @@ ;Dd hfkfgsf] sf]adf ePsf] k|sf]k–Go"gLs/0f;DaGwL ] bf];f] ljZj ;Dd]ngdf klg g]kfnsf] ;lqmo ;xeflutf /x]sf] lyof] . ;Dd]ngdf | k|sf]ksf] Joj:yfkg ljZjJofkL rf;f]sf] ljifo ePsfn] o;sf] Joj:yfkgdf ;3fpg k|sf]k Go"gLs/0fsf nflu ljZjsf]ifsf] :yfkgf ug]{ k|:tfj g]kfnn] /fv]sf] lyof] . ;Dd]ngn] o; ljifodf 7f]; lg0f{o gu/] klg ;xefuL /x]sf clwsf+z k|ltlglwn] o; k|:tfjnfO{ ;sf/fTds 7fg]sf lyP . ljZjdf ePsf ljleGg ;ef, ;Dd]ng, a}7s tyf sfo{qmdx¿df efu lnP/ k|fKt u/]sf] cg'ejsf cfwf/df g]kfn ;/sf/n] k|sf]k;DaGwL ;"rgf tyf tYofªs– ;ªsng, cWoog, ;"rgf k|jfx / k|sf]k–Go"gLs/0fsf sfo{ ug{ u[xdGqfnodf 5'§} dxfzfvfsf] Joj:yf u/]sf] lyof] . k|sf]ksf] lj:tf/ / k|efj a9b} uPsf] jt{dfg ;dodf eg] ;/sf/n] pQm dxfzfvfnfO{ zfvfdf dfq ;Lldt ug]{ sfo{ u/]sf] 5Ù oBlk hfkfgsf] sf]adf ;DkGg ljZj ] ;Dd]ngdf k|sf]ksf] Joj:yfkg;Fu ;DalGwt ;a} lgsfonfO{ ;d]6L ;do;fk]If ;+/rgfTds ;'wf/ ug]{ / lgs6 eljiod} k|sf]k–Go"gLs/0f Joj:yfkg Pj+ ;dGjo kl/ifb :yfkgf ug]{ k|lta4tf hgfO;s]sf] 5 . k|sf]k M dfgjclwsf/ / sfg'g ÷17
  18. 18. k|sf]k / dfgjclwsf/ dfgj clwsf/ :jtGqtfk"js afFRg kfpg' k|To]s dflg;sf] k|sl[ tk|bQ clwsf/ xf] . bf];f] { | JolQm jf ;d'bfosf] clwsf/dfly cltqmd0f gu/L cfˆgf b}lgs lqmofsnfk ;~rfng ug{, hLljsf]kfh{gsf ;|ft k|fKt ug{ / :jtGqtfk"js afFRg kfpg' ] { x/]s JolQmsf] dfgjclwsf/ xf] . ctM ;fdfGo cy{df eGg'kbf{ c? s;}sf] :jtGqtfdf x:tIf]k gu/L cfˆgf] :jtGqtfsf] pkef]u ug{ kfpg] g};lu{s clwsf/ g} dfgjclwsf/ xf] . hfthflt, efiff, wd{, ;+:s[lt tyf lnªusf cfwf/df s;}dfly e]befj gug'{ dfgjclwsf/sf] d"n dd{ klg xf] . jt{dfg ;dodf klg ljZjsf w]/} d'nsdf lg/ªsz tyf aa{/ zf;gk|0ffnL ' ' sfod} 5 . ul/a / wgL tyf uf]/f / sfnfaLr lje]b ;dfKt x'g ;s]sf] 5}g . /fli6«o ljsf;sf] d"nk|jfxaf6 aflx/ kf/]/ ul/aLdf afFRg / lg0ff{os :yfgdf k|ltlglwTj ug{af6 tNnf] ju{nfO{ jl~rt u/fOPsf] 5 . o:tf dfgjLo lje]bnfO{ clxn] klg hfthflt, prgLr jf sd{sf] k|ltkmn dfGg] ul/G5 . k|sf]ksf ;DaGwdf klg oxL e|dn] ;d'bfodf h/f uf8]sf] 5 . hLjgsf x/]s ;'v–b'MvnfO{ efUosf] kl/0ffd dfGg] cGwljZjf; ;dfhdf JofKt 5 . /fhgLlts, cfly{s, ;fdflhs, ;f+:s[lts / wfld{s If]qdf /x]sf o:tf lje]bsf] cGTo u/]/ ;Dk"0f{ gful/sn] ;dfg cj;/sf ;fy afFRg kfpg', :jljj]sn] sfd ug{ kfpg' tyf hLjglgjf{x ug{ kfpg'kg]{df dfgjclwsf/n] hf]8 lbG5 . dfgjclwsf/n] JolQm, ;d'bfo / /fHo;+/rgfleq s'g} k|sf/n] s;}dfly lje]b ug{ gx'gdf hf]8 lbG5 . ] dflg;aLr k|sl[ ts ¿kdf lje]b x'bg . xfjfkfgL, e"uf]n / >dsf] k|sl[ tcg'¿k F } dflg;sf] /ª, ¿k tyf ljj]sdf leGgtf x'g;S5 . t/, k|sl[ tn] dflg;aLr s'g} lsl;dsf] e]befj u/]sf] x'bg . To;}n] sf]xL dflns / sf]xL gf]s/ x'g] F } k|Zg g} p7bg . zf;s jf wgLn] h;/L hLjglgjf{x ub{5, To;}u/L ul/an] } klg cfˆgf] hLjg afFRg kfpg'kb{5 . To:t} /fli6«o ljsf;sf] k|ltkmn x/]s gful/sdf ;dfg ¿kdf ljt/0f x'gkg]{ dfGotf klg ljsl;t eO;s]sf] 5 . ' k|sf]k M dfgjclwsf/ / sfg'g ÷18
  19. 19. To;f] eP klg ljZjdf dfgjaLrsf] lje]b ;dfKt x'g ;s]sf] 5}g . o;tkm{ ;r]t eP/ g} cGt/f{li6«o jf /fli6«o :t/sf dfgjtfjfbL ;+:yfx¿n] clwsf/d'vL cjwf/0ffnfO{ ;dfhsf x/]s tx;Dd lj:tf/ ug{ / cfˆgf] clwsf/af/] ;r]t u/fpg ax;k}/jL ub}{ cfPsf 5g . dfgjaLr /x]sf] lje]b tyf c;dfgtflj?4sf o:t} d'2f cl3 ;fl/Pkl5 dfgjclwsf/ ljZjJofkL rf;f]sf] ljifo ag]sf] 5 . k|sf]k / dfgjclwsf/aLr ;DaGw dfgjclwsf/ / clwsf/d'vL cjwf/0ffn] k|sf]kkLl8tnfO{ dfq ;d]6bg . } o;n] ;'sDaf;L, z/0ffyL{, blnt, pTkLl8t / ckx]lnt ;d'bfosf] clwsf/– ' k|flKtnfO{ ;d]t d"n d'2fsf ¿kdf cufl8 a9fpF5 . clwsf/d'vL cjwf/0ffnfO{ dfgjtfjfbL b[li6sf]0faf6 klg x]g{] ul/G5 . k|sf]k–1fgdfnfsf] o; efudf ljz]ifu/L k|sf]kkLl8tsf] clwsf/ / /fHosf] bfloTj;DaGwdf ljj]rgf ul/g] ePsfn] clwsf/d'vL cjwf/0ffsf] rrf{ klg k|sf]ks} ;Gbe{df ul/Psf] 5 . k|sf]khGo 36gf ePkl5 ;ªs6 pTkGg x'G5 . To:tf] cj:yfdf cfktsfnLg p4f/ / /fxt kfpg' k|sf]kkLl8tsf] dfgjclwsf/ xf] . k|sf]ksf] kL8faf6 d'lQm / hLjglgjf{xsf cfwf/e"t cj;/ k|fKt ug'{ k|To]s kLl8tsf] g};lu{s clwsf/ xf] . k|sf]ksf sf/0f k"0f{ jf cf+lzs ;DklQ u'dfP/ kL8fk"0f{ hLjglgjf{x ul//x] s f, vfgf, n' u f, cfjf;, lzIff, :jf:Yonufotsf cfwf/e" t cfjZostfaf6 jl~rt ePsf k|To]s JolQmn] /fHoaf6 ;'ljwf / ;'/Iff kfpg'kb{5 . ljz]if u/L k|fs[lts / dfgjLo sf/0fn] x'g] k|sf]khGo 36gfaf6 kLl8t ;d'bfosf clwsf/sf] /Iff ug{ ljleGg If]qaf6 k|of; eO/x]sf] 5 . ToxL dfgjtfjfbL b[li6sf]0fsf sf/0f cGt/f{li6«o /]8qm;, :sfp6h:tf ;+:yfsf] pbo eof] . k|f/Dedf /]8qm; o'4df 3fOt] ePsf ;}lgs / ;j{;fwf/0fsf] ;]jfdf ;Lldt lyof] . jt{dfg ;dodf o;n] af9L, klx/f], e'Orfnf]h:tf F k|sf]kaf6 kLl8t ;d'bfonfO{ klg ;xof]u ug]{ u/]sf] 5 . To;}u/L ljleGg /fli6«o tyf cGt/f{li6«o ;+:yfx¿ klg o; k|of;df nfu]sf 5g . k|sf]kkLl8tsf] ;xof]u / k|sf]ksf] ;fdgf ug]{ Ifdtfdf clej[l4sf nflu dfgjLo ;xof]u sfo{qmdcGtu{t o'/f]knL ;ª3, ;+oQm /fi6«;ª3sf lgsfox¿, cS;kmfd, ] ' PS;gP8, s]o/ OG6/g]zgn, n'y/g jN8{ km]8/]zg, k|flS6sn PS;g, hfOsfh:tf ;+:yf sfo{/t 5g . ;fdflhs ljsf;sf If]qdf sfo{/t ;a}h;f] ;+:yfn] dfgjclwsf/ / clwsf/d'vL cjwf/0ffnfO{ g} cufl8 ;f/]sf 5g . k|sf]k M dfgjclwsf/ / sfg'g ÷19
  20. 20. k|sf]ksf s'g} klg 36gfaf6 kLl8t ;d'bfon] tTsfn p4f/, /fxt / k'gM:yfkgsf nflu ;/sf/nfO{ bjfj lbg] sfo{ klg dfgjclwsf/sf] /0fgLlts kIf xf] . To;}n] s'g} klg d'nssf] ;/sf/n] k|sf]kkLl8tsf clwsf/sf] k|Tofe"lt lbg ' ;Sg] cj:yf gb]lvPdf cGt/f{li6«o dfkb08cg';f/ sfo{ ug{ u}/;/sf/L ;+:yfx¿n] bafj lbg] ub{5g . To;}u/L /fHosf] k|sf]k–Joj:yfkg sfg'gnfO{ ;dofg'sn kl/dfh{g ug{ klg bafj / ;xof]u ug]{ u/]sf] kfOG5 . To;}n] " dfgjclwsf/sf] ;DaGw cGo If]qdf h:t} k|sf]ksf If]qdf klg cljlR5Gg /x]sf] :ki6 x'G5 . k|sf]k / cGt/f{li6«o dfgjclwsf/ sfg'g cGt/f{li6«o dfgjclwsf/ sfg'gn] k|sf]kkLl8tsf clwsf/sf] /Iffsf nflu k|ToIf Joj:yf u/]sf] gb]lvP klg dfgjclwsf/ sfg'gn] k/f]If ¿kdf :yflkt u/]sf dfgjLo l;4fGtn] k|sf]kk|efljt ;d'bfosf ;xof]usf] dfu{ k|z:t u/]sf] kfOG5 . cGt/f{li6«o /]8qm; / :km]o/ kl/of]hgfn] dfgjclwsf/ sfg'gn] k|ltkfbg u/]sf dfgjLo l;4fGtsf cfwf/df k|sf]kkLl8t JolQm tyf ;d'bfonfO{ k|sf]ksf] kL8faf6 d'Qm ug{ cfjZos dfkb08sf] ljsf; klg u/]sf 5g . k|sf]kkLl8tsf nflu ;d]t pkof]u ug{ ;lsg] dfgjLo l;4fGtsf] k|ltkfbgdf pNn]Vo of]ubfg lbg] lgDgfg';f/sf cGt/f{li6«o sfg'g g} dfgjclwsf/sf d"n sfg'g dflgG5g M a]nfotdf k|ltkflbt DofUgfsf6f{, ;g !@!% dfgjclwsf/sf] ljZjJofkL 3f]if0ffkq, ;g !($* gful/s tyf /fhgLlts clwsf/sf] cGt/f{li6«o cg'aGw, ;g !(^^ cfly{s, ;fdflhs tyf ;f+:s[lts clwsf/;DaGwL cGt/f{li6«o cg'aGw, ;g !(^^ . plNnlvt l;4fGt / cGt/f{li6«o sfg'gnfO{ dfgjclwsf/sf d"ndGq dflgG5 . To;}n] k|sf]ksf ;dodf k|Tofe"t x'gkg]{ clwsf/sf nflu klg log} 3f]if0ffkq ' / cg'aGwsf] pkof]u x'g] u5{ . /fHon] ljz]if kl/l:ylt l;h{gf ePsf cj:yfdf dfgjclwsf/;DaGwL sfg'gsf s]xL efunfO{ lglZrt cjlwsf nflu lgnDag ug{ ;S5 . /fHon] To:tf] ug{ ;Sg]] eP klg k|sf]k jf o'4u|:t cj:yfdf ;d]t lgnDag jf aGb]h ug{ gkfOg] ljifonfO{ dfgjclwsf/;DaGwL 3f]if0ffkq, !($* sf] wf/f ! n] :ki6 k|sf]k M dfgjclwsf/ / sfg'g ÷20
  21. 21. ul/lbPsf] 5 . ;f] wf/fdf :ki6;Fu …k|To]s JolQm;Fu :jtGqtf tyf v';L / cfgGbk"js afFRg kfpg] clwsf/ ;'/lIft /xG5 (Everyone has the right { to life, liberty and Persuit of happiness) elgPsf] 5 . o;af6 d'nsdf ' h:tf];s} ;ªs6sfnLg cj:yf pTkGg eP klg gful/sn] :jtGqtfk"js ' { hLjglgjf{x ug{ kfpg] l;4fGtsf] k|ltkfbg ePsf] 5 / /fHon] To;sf] k|Tofe"lt lbg ;Sg'kb{5 . k|sf]khGo cj:yfdf klg k|To]s gful/sn] cfˆgf] g};lu{s clwsf/ k|fKt ug{ kfpg] Joj:yf /fHon] ug'kb{5 eGg] b[li6sf]0f cGt/f{li6«o dfgjclwsf/ { sfg'gn] k|Tofe"t ul/lbPsf] 5 . o;cGtu{t k|To]s gful/s / ljz]if u/L kLl8tn] kfpg] clwsf/nfO{ lgDgcg';f/ ;'lgZrt ul/lbPsf] kfOG5 M x/]s gful/ssf] ;'/Iff ug'{ /fHosf] clgjfo{ st{Jo xf], /fHon] kLl8tsf cfwf/e"t cfjZostf k"lt{ ub}{ u'0f:t/Lo hLjglgjf{xsf] k|Tofe"lt lbg'kb{5, k|sf]khGo cj:yfdf kLl8tsf :jfledfgsf] cfb/ tyf ;+/If0f ug'kb{5 .{ /fli6«o / cGt/f{li6«o ;ª3;+:yfaLr ;dGjo sfod u/L k|sf]k– Go"gLs/0fsf nflu lgDg sfo{ ug'kb{5M { k|sf]k;DaGwL k"jtof/L, { hf]lvdo'Qm If]q vfnL u/fP/ ;'/lIft :yfgdf :yfgfGt/0f ug],{ k|sf]kaf6 ;a}eGbf a9L kLl8t x'g] a"9fa"9L, czQm, afnaflnsf / dlxnfsf] /Iffsf nflu ljz]if Wofg lbg], k|sf]kdf k/]sfsf] p4f/ tyf vf]hL ug],{ k|sf]kk|efljt ;d'bfosf nflu ;Ddfghgs /fxtsf] Joj:yf ug],{ :jf:Yof]krf/, :jR5 vfg]kfgL, vfgf tyf cfjf;sf] Joj:yf tTsfn} ug]{, k|sf]kkl5 ug'kg]{ sfo{nfO{ Jojl:yt ug{ cfjZos kg]{ ;Dk"0f{ sfo{x¿aLr { ;dGjo ub}{ gful/ssf ;Dk"0f{ clwsf/sf] /Iff ug],{ kLl8tn] kfpg] ;a}vfn] ;xof]u bof jf bfg geP/ g};lu{s clwsf/ x'g eGg] efjgfsf] ljsf; u/L To;sf] ;'lglZrttf k|bfg ug]{ . cGt/f{li6«o dfgjclwsf/ sfg'gdf ePsf o:tf Joj:yfn] k/f]If ¿kd} eP klg k|sf]kLl8tsf clwsf/sf] k|Tofe"lt lbPsf] kfOG5 . k|sf]k M dfgjclwsf/ / sfg'g ÷21
  22. 22. clwsf/d'vL cjwf/0ff clwsf/d'vL cjwf/0ffsf] cy{ clwsf/d' v L cjwf/0ff dfgjclwsf/sf] dxŒjk" 0 f{ kf6f] xf] . o; cjwf/0ffcGtu{t /fHon] cfˆgf k|To]s gful/snfO{ :jtGqtf tyf ;Ddfgk"js { afFRg kfpg] clwsf/sf] k|Tofe"lt ug'kg]df hf]8 lbOG5 . { { ljsf;f]Gd'v / lk5l8Psf d'nssf ;a} gful/s Go"gtd dfgjclwsf/sf] ' pkef]u ug{af6 jl~rt 5g . pgLx¿ /fHosf] lg/ªsz zf;g jf hldGbf/ ' jf clwsf/k|fKt clwsf/Laf6 s'g} g s'g} ¿kaf6 lylrPsf x'G5g . of] cj:yf ljsl;t d'nsdf klg gePsf] xf]Og . ;d'bfoaLr hflt, wd{, /ªu, ' j0f{ / lnªusf cwf/df lje]b ug]{ k|rng ljZjJofkL ¿kd} sfod /x]sf] 5 . dflg;aLr b]lvPsf o:tf lje]bsf] cGTo ug{ lk5l8Psf jf /fHoåf/f lbOg] clwsf/af6 jl~rt ul/Psf gful/snfO{ cfˆgf] clwsf/sf af/]df hfgsf/L lbP/ ;r]t u/fpg] k|of; ul/Fb} cfPsf] 5 . o:tf k|of;åf/f ;d'bfon] cGofolj?4 cfjfh p7fpFb} cfˆgf] g};lu{s clwsf/sf] k|flKtsf nflu ug]{ k|of; g} clwsf/d'vL cjwf/0ff xf] . lk5l8Psf jf clwsf/af6 jl~rt ;d'bfosf clwsf/sf k|Tofe"ltsf] k|of; ub}{ clwsf/k|lt ;r]t u/fpg] sfo{qmdnfO{ clwsf/d'vL cjwf/0ffaf6 k]l| /t sfo{qmd dflgG5 . dfgjclwsf/df ljleGg ljwf / cjwf/0ff k|rlnt 5g . k|sf]k–1fgdfnfsf] o; v08df eg] dfgjclwsf/ / clwsf/d'vL cjwf/0ffnfO{ k|sf]k;Fu ;DalGwt /x]/ k|sf]kkLl8t JolQm tyf ;d'bfosf g};lu{s clwsf/ / ;/f]sf/sf ljifodf rrf{ ug]{ k|of; ul/Psf] 5 . clwsf/d'vL cjwf/0fsf] ljsf; ;g !@!% df a]nfotsf] DofUgfsf6f{af6 k|f/De ePsf] dfgjtfjfbL cjwf/0ff c7f/f}F ztfAbLsf cd]l/sL tyf k|mfG;]nL qmflGtkl5 yk kl/is[t ePsf] kfOG5 . k/f]ksf/df cfwfl/t dfgjtfjfbL wf/0ffcg';f/ jt{dfg ;dodf dfgjclwsf/ k|fs[lts clwsf/sf] ¿kdf ljsl;t ePsf] 5 . k|sf]k M dfgjclwsf/ / sfg'g ÷22
  23. 23. clwsf/d'vL cjwf/0ffsf] ljsf; lg/Gt/ rln/xg] k|lqmof xf] . dfgj;Eotf;Fu} ljsl;t x'b} cfPsf] ;f]r / ;dtfd"ns l;4fGtn] o;df kl/dfh{g ub}{ cfPsf] F 5 . lzIff, r]tgf, ;f+:s[lts, wfld{s, cfly{s, k|fljlws / ;fdflhs ;+/rgfdf cfO/xg] ;'wf/;Fu} clwsf/d'vL cjwf/0ffsf cfwf/ / dfGotf klg kl/is[t x'b} cfPsf 5g . vf; u/L k|mfG;sf] uf}/jdo qmflGtkl5 tNnf] ju{df ;d]t F ;dfgtfsf] l;4fGt nf]slk|o ePsf] dflgG5 . ;De|fGt ju{n] pkef]u ug]{ cfly{s, ;fdflhs, ;f+:s[lts / ljz]if u/L /fHon] lbg] ;'ljwf ;dfhsf ;a} ju{ / ;d'bfon] pkef]u ug{ kfpg'kg]{ dfGotfsf] ljsf;n] clwsf/d'vL cjwf/0ffsf] ljsf;nfO{ ;fy{stf k|bfg u/]sf] dflgG5 . b}jL zlQm tyf k|sl[ t g} dfgjclwsf/ tyf sfg'gsf] k|dv ;|ft xf] eGg] ' ] k/Dk/fut wf/0ffn] dfgjclwsf/sf] k|Tofe"lt lbg ;St}g . /fHosf] d"n sfg'g jf ;+ljwfg / cGo sfg'g agfpFbf dfgjclwsf/ ;'lglZrt ug]{ k|rng ljsl;t x'b} cfPsf] 5 . ;g !($* sf] dfgjclwsf/;DaGwL ljZjJofkL F 3f]if0ffkqnfO{ g} dfgjclwsf/sf] cGt/f{li6«o sfg'gsf ¿kdf :jLsf/ ul/Psf] 5 . ToxL 3f]if0ffkq clwsf/d'vL cjwf/0ffsf] k|dv cfwf/ xf] . ' clwsf/d'vL cjwf/0ffsf] ljsf; / lj:tf/df cGt/f{li6«o :t/sf w]/} ;ª3;+:yfn] e"ldsf v]Nb} cfPsf 5g . /fHodf ;ªs6 pTkGg ePsf cj:yfdf ;j{;fwf/0f gful/ssf clwsf/sf] /Iff, cfwf/e"t cfjZostfsf] k"lt{ / p4f/ tyf /fxt pknAw u/fpFbf lje]bk"0f{ Jojxf/ ug{ gkfOg] dfGotfsf] ljsf; eO/x]sf] 5 . oxL ;dtfd"ns ljrf/ / ;f]r g} clwsf/d'vL cjwf/0ffsf] dfu{bz{s b[li6sf]0f xf] . ljz]if u/L ;ªs6sfnLg cj:yf jf ljkbdf k/]sf dflg;sf] ;xof]usf nflu cGt/f{li6«o /]8qm; tyf /]8lqm;]G6 ;f];fO6Lsf] :yfkgf ePkl5 dfgjtfjfbL l;4fGtnfO{ Jofks ¿kdf :jLsf/ ug{ yflnPsf] kfOG5 . ;fdflhs åGå, o'4 / k|sf]kaf6 kLl8t ;d'bfosf] /fxt, p4f/ / k'gM:yfkgsf nflu lglZrt dfkb08 tof/ ug{ ljZj–kl/of]hgf ;~rfng eof] . ljZjsf w]/} d'nssf ;/sf/ / cGt/f{li6«o u}/;/sf/L ;+:yfx¿sf] ;xeflutfdf ' ;~rfng ePsf] o; kl/of]hgfn] ljkbdf k/]sf ;d'bfosf] cfwf/e"t cfjZostf k"lt{ ug]{ Go"gtd dfkb08 lgwf{l/t u/]sf] 5 . of] klg clwsf/d'vL cjwf/0ffsf ljsf;sf] dxŒjk"0f{ kIf dflgG5 . clwsf/d'vL cjwf/0ffsf d"n dfGotf clwsf/d'vL cjwf/0fsf dfGotf / l;4fGt w]/} 5g . tL dfGotfs} cfwf/df k|sf]k M dfgjclwsf/ / sfg'g ÷23
  24. 24. clwsf/af6 aflx/ kfl/Psf ;d'bfonfO{ clwsf/ lbnfpg] k|of; x'G5 . clwsf/d'vL cjwf/0ffsf d"ne"t dfGotfnfO{ lgDgfg';f/ lng ;lsG5 M dfgjtfjfbL l;4fGt dfgjtfjfbL l;4fGt g} clwsf/d'vL cjwf/0ffsf] k|dv dfGotf xf] . dflg; ' dflg;aLr lnªu, hft, wd{, ;+:s[lt, /ªu jf ju{sf cfwf/df lje]b x'gxbg . ' F' } dfgjtfjfbL l;4fGtcg';f/ k|sf]kkLl8tnfO{ dfgjclwsf/ sfg'gcg'¿k p4f/ tyf /fxt pknAw u/fpg'kb{5 . kLl8t ;d'bfo;Fu cfb/o'Qm / ;Ddfghgs Jojxf/ ug'kb{5 . ef}lts z/L/sf] /IffnfO{ dfq xf]Og, JolQmut :jtGqtf, { zflGt, :jfledfgsf] /Iff / ;DdfgnfO{ klg dfgjtfjfbL l;4fGtn] k|fyldstf lbPsf] 5 . dfgjtfjfbL b[li6sf]0fn] ;Ddfg kfPdf dfq clwsf/d'vL cjwf/0ffn] ;fy{stf k|fKt ug]{ x'bf dfgjLo l;4fGt g} o; cjwf/0ffsf] dxŒjk"0f{ ;|ft F ] dflgPsf] 5 . ;Ddfgk"js af“Rg kfpg] clwsf/ { ;dfhsf ;a}df ;dfgtf tyf ;Ddfgk"js afFRg kfpg] g};lu{s clwsf/ { /xG5 . To;}n] ;dfgtf tyf :jfledfgsf] /Iff g} clwsf/d'vL cjwf/0ffsf] csf]{ dxŒjk"0f{ dfGotf xf] . cdfgjLo Jojxf/, zf/Ll/s tyf dflg;s oftgf tyf kL8fbfoL Jojxf/af6 d'Qm eP/ :jtGqtfk"js afFRg kfpg] k|fs[lts { clwsf/ g} dfgjLo cjwf/0ffsf] ;|ft klg xf] . k|To]s JolQmn] k|fKt ug]{ o; ] k|sf/sf] clwsf/dfly s'g} kIfaf6 cltqmd0f ePdf dfgjtfjfbL ;+:yfn] JolQmsf] g};lu{s clwsf/sf] /Iffsf nflu kxn ug'kb{5 . cGt/f{li6«o dfgjtfjfbL { sfg'gcg';f/ k|sf]ksf ;dodf kLl8tnfO{ cTofjZos j:t' / ;]jf e]befj/lxt 9ªuaf6 pknAw u/fpg'kb{5 . o:tf sfo{sf] bfloTj /fHo / åGå/t cGo kIfdf ;d]t ;dfg ¿kdf /xG5 . lgMz:q JolQm tyf ;d'bfosf] ;'/Iff jt{dfg ;dodf ljZjsf clwsf+z d'nsdf cfGtl/s åGåsf sf/0f lgMz:q ' JolQmdfly klg cfqmd0f eO/x]sf] 5 . o; cj:yfdf lgMz:q JolQm jf ;d'bfon] ;'/Iff kfpg'kb{5 . ;fdflhs åGådf Pp6f kIfn] csf]{ kIfnfO{ zq'sf ¿kdf Jojxf/ ug]{ x'bf lgMz:q ;d'bfo a9L kLl8t x'G5g . ToxfF F lj/fdL, czQm, s}bL jf gful/s ;dfhsf] k|ToIf ;+nUgtf /x]sf] x'bg . o'4df F } k|ToIf ¿kn] ;xefuL gx'g] To:tf xltof/ljxLg ;d'bfosf] /Iff ug'{ dfgjtfjfbL k|sf]k M dfgjclwsf/ / sfg'g ÷24
  25. 25. cjwf/0ffsf] dfGotf xf] . :jtGqtf clwsf/d'vL cjwf/0ff cGtu{t k|sf]kkLl8tsf] ;xof]u ug]{ ;/sf/L, cw{;/sf/L tyf u}/;/sf/L ;+:yf / gful/s ;dfhsf] cl:tTj :jtGq x'gkb{5 . ;xof]ubftf ' ;+:yf tyf JolQm s'g} klg /fhgLlts, ;}lgs, cfly{s, wfld{s, ;fdflhs tyf ;f+:s[lts :jfy{, x:tIf]k / lje]baf6 d'Qm /xg'kb{5 . t6:ytf ;xof]u ug]{ ;+:yf ;b}j t6:y /xg'kb{5 . o; l;4fGtcg';f/ dfgjtfjfbL ;+:yfn] s;};u klg zq'tfk"0f{ Jojxf/ ug'{ x'bg . kLl8taLr ;dfg Jojxf/ F F } ug]{ / kLl8tsf clwsf/sf] /Iff ug]{ qmddf dfgjtfjfbL ;+:yfn] /fhgLlt, hft, wd{, jf j}rfl/s ljjfbaf6 cnu /xg'kb{5 . lgikIftf ;a} lnªu, hft, wd{, /fHo, ju{ / /fhgLlts ljrf/sf cfwf/df e]befj gu/L lgikIf Jojxf/ ug'{ dfgjtfjfbL l;4fGtsf] csf]{ dfGotf xf] . o; l;4fGtn] JolQmut jf ;fdflhs lje]bsf] cGTo ug]{ k|of; ub{5 . k|sf]kkLl8t ;a} JolQm;Fu ;dfg / lgikIf Jojxf/ ug'kb{5 . { p4f/ tyf /fxt k|sf]kkLl8t gful/sn] ;/sf/ jf ;xof]uLaf6 kfpg] p4f/ tyf /fxt bof jf eLv xf]Og . ;ªs6df k/]sf JolQm tyf ;d'bfosf] /Iff, cfjf;, vfBfGg, cf}ifwf]krf/ / cfo;|ftsf] ljsNk pknAw u/fpg' /fHosf] klxnf] st{Jo xf] . ] To;}u/L k|sf]kk|efljt jf kLl8t ;d'bfo;Fu vfgf, cfjf;, cf}ifwf]krf/, n'ufkmf6f] / hLjglgjf{xsf cfwf/e"t ;]jf k|fKt ug]{ clwsf/ /xG5 . k|sf]k–Joj:yfkg / clwsf/d'vL cjwf/0ff k|sf]kk|efljt JolQm tyf ;d'bfonfO{ ttsfnLg ;xof]u ug'{ / ;fj{hlgs k"jf{wf/sf] k'glg{df{0f ug'{ dfq k|sf]k–Joj:yfkgsf] dfgjLo kIf xf]Og . k|sf]kkLl8t ;d'bfosf] tTsfnLg cfjZostf k"lt{ ub}{ ;Ddfghgs hLjgofkg, k'gM:yfkg, ;'/Iff / bL3{sfnLg Joj:yfkgsf] k|Tofe"lt ug'kb{5 . tTsfnLg { p4f/ / /fxtsf nflu ul/g] ;xof]u klg ;Ddfghgs x'gkb{5 . clwsf/d'vL ' k|sf]k M dfgjclwsf/ / sfg'g ÷25
  26. 26. cjwf/0ffaflx/ /x]sf] ;xof]u bfg jf leIffsf] ¿kdf x'g] ePsfn] /fHon] To:tf] cj:yfsf] cGTo ub}{ k|sf]kkLl8t ;a}nfO{ ;dfg ¿kdf ;Ddfgk"js { ;xof]u lbg;Sg] Joj:yf ug'kb{5 . p4f/, /fxt tyf cGo ;xof]u ubf{ lgDg { ljifodf Wofg lbg'kb{5 M != k|sf]kkLl8t klg c¿;/x g} ;Ddflgt gful/s x'g . pgLx¿ cfˆgf ljifodf x'g] 5nkmn jf lg0f{ok|lqmofdf :jtGq ¿kn] ;xefuL x'g ;S5g . @= vfgf, 5fgf, gfgf, kfgf, :jf:Yo, lzIff / ;'/Iffnufotsf cfwf/e"t cfjZostf k|sf]kk|efljt gful/ssf k|fs[lts clwsf/ x'g . tL clwsf/ /fHon] ljgfzt{{ pknAw u/fpg'kb{5 . #= k|sf]khGo ;ªs6 k|fs[lts 36gf dfq geP/ dfgjLo cfr/0f, Jojxf/, cEof; / k/Dk/fut ;+:s[ltdf k|efj kfg]{ tŒj klg xf] . ;dfhdf rlncfPsf] k/Dk/fut dfGotf / ;+:s[ltlj?4sf sfo{ u/]/ ;d'bfosf] cf:yfk|lt gsf/fTds k|efj kg{ lbg'xbg . F' } $= ul/aLleq k|sf]khGo hf]lvd a9L x'G5 . To;}n] ul/aLlgjf/0f sfo{qmdnfO{ clwsf/d'vL cjwf/0ffcGtu{t sfof{Gjog ug]{ k|0ffnLsf] ljsf; ug'kb{5 . { %= k|sf]k–Joj:yfkg tyf k"jtof/L :yfgLo ;d'bfosf] cfjZostf tyf { :yfgLo hf]lvdsf] Go"gLs/0fdf ;xof]u k'Ug] vfnsf] x'gkb{5 . ' ^= ;'/lIft hLjgofkg ug{ kfpg' dfgjLo sfg'gåf/f k|Tofe"t ul/Psf] clwsf/ xf] . x/]s kLl8tn] cfkm" ;'/lIft 5' eGg] ljZjf; lng] jftfj/0f agfpg'kb{5 . k|sf]k M dfgjclwsf/ / sfg'g ÷26
  27. 27. dfgjLo ;xfotf kfpg] kLl8tsf] clwsf/ != cfˆgf] /fHo jf lgolGqt If]qsf kLl8tnfO{ dfgjLo ;xfotf k|bfg ug'{ /fHosf] st{Jo x'g5 . ] @= s'g} klg /fHo, cGt/f{li6«o ;/sf/L ;ª3;+:yf / u}/;/sf/L ;ª3;+:yf;Fu csf]{ /fHodf dfgjLo ;xfotfsf] k|:tfj /fVg] clwsf/ x'g5 . ] #= s'g} klg /fHo, cGt/f{li6«o ;/sf/L ;+:yf / u}/;/sf/L ;+:yfnfO{ k|efljt /fHosf] ;xdltdf kLl8tnfO{ dfgjLo ;xfotf k|bfg ug]{ clwsf/ x'g5Ù zf;g;Qfsf] ljv08g jf u[xo'4sf] cj:yfdf ;Da4 ] :yfgLo clwsf/Lsf] ;xdltdf o:tf] clwsf/ k|fKt x'g5 . ] $= Ps /fHon] csf]{ /fHosf kLl8tnfO{ dfgjLo ;xfotf k|bfg ug}kg]{ { bfloTj x'g5g . t/, cGo /fHo, cGt/f{li6«o ;/sf/L jf u}/;/sf/L ] } ;+:yfaf6 pknAw dfgjLo ;xfotfnfO{ ;xh agfpg' /fHosf] st{Jo x'g5 . olb s'g} /fHosf lj?4 bafasf pkfo cjnDag ul/Psf] /x]5 ] eg] ToxfFaf6 dfgjLo cfjZostfsf j:t' cfk"lt{ ug{ jlh{t ul/g]5 . %= ;+oQm /fi6«;ª3sf] a8fkqsf] kl/R5]b & sf cfwf/df ;'/Iffkl/ifbn] ' cGt/f{li6«o zflGt / ;'/Iffdf dfgjLo ljof]un] kf/]sf c;/sf] kl/df0f lgwf{/0f ug{ ;Sg]5 / kLl8tnfO{ dfgjLo ;xfotf k'¥ofpg cfjZos ;a} pkfo cjnDag ug{ /fHox¿ jf ;+oQm /fi6«;ª3Lo ;]gfnfO{ ' clVtof/ k|bfg ug{ ;Sg]5 . ^= cGt/f{li6«o sfg'gadf]lhd ljb]zL d'nssf ;/sf/, cGt/f{li6«o ;/sf/L ' ;ª3;+:yf jf u}/;/sf/L ;ª3;+:yfaf6 k|bfg ul/Psf dfgjLo ;xfotf u|x0f ug]{ st{Jo /fHosf] x'g5 . ltgLx¿n] :j]R5frf/L 9ªun] cfˆgf] ] k"j;xdltnfO{ OGsf/ ug{xbg . { ' F' } &= h'g /fHosf] lgoGq0fdf JolQmn] kfpg] dfgjLo ;xfotf /x]sf] x'G5, To; /fHodfly kLl8t gful/ssf] clwsf/ x'g5 . To;}u/L dfgjLo ] ;xfotf pknAw u/fpg] jf lgod #, $ / ^ adf]lhd dfgjLo ;xfotf ljt/0f ug]{ cg'dlt k|bfg ug]{ /fHosf] st{Jo x'g5 . ] –-dfgjLo ;xfotfsf] clwsf/ ;+oQm /fi6«;ª3Lo ' z}lIfs, j}1flgs tyf ;fF:s[lts kl/ifb, k]l/;– !((%_ k|sf]k M dfgjclwsf/ / sfg'g ÷27
  28. 28. :km]o/ kl/of]hgf kl/ro kLl8tnfO{ dfgjLo cjwf/0fcg'¿k ;xfotf ug]{ sfo{df ;+nUg ;+:yfsf k|ltlglwx¿aLr ;g !((& df 5nkmn k|f/De ePsf] lyof] . a[xt 5nkmnkl5 cGt/f{li6«o dfgjclwsf/ sfg'g, dfgjclwsf/;DaGwL lgb]zs l;4fGt, { /0fgLlt, z/0ffyL{ sfg'g, cGt/f{li6«o /]8qm; cfGbf]ng / ljleGg u}/;/sf/L ;+:yfsf cfrf/;+lxtf ;d]l6Psf] dfgjLo a8fkq hf/L eof] . ljkbdf k/]sf kLl8tsf nflu ;xof]usf If]q / cfwf/x¿ klxrfg ul/P . ;xof]usf] cfwf/nfO{ lbuf], e/kbf]{ / u'0f:t/Lo agfpg Go"gtd dfkb08, ;"rsfªs / kyk|bz{s l;4fGtsf] ljsf; ul/of] . o;} kl/of]hgfnfO{ …:km]o/ k|fhS6Ú cyf{t …:km]o/ ] ] kl/of]hgfÚ elgof] . :km]o/ kl/of]hgfn] k|sf]khGo 36gfdf k/]sf kLl8t JolQm tyf ;d'bfodf ;xof]u k'¥ofpg] sfo{df k}/jL ub}{ ;xof]unfO{ ;Ddfghgs agfpg p4f/ / /fxtsf cfwf/e"t dfkb08 lgdf{0f u/]sf] 5 . To;}n] :km]o/nfO{ dfgjLo ;xfotfsf nflu kf/bzL{, u'0f:t/Lo / dfgjtfjfbL ljZj–kl/of]hgf dflgG5 . k|sf]k jf åGåaf6 kLl8t ;d'bfosf nflu ;xof]u sfo{qmd ;~rfng ubf{ k|efljt ;d'bfosf] ;fdflhs, wfld{s Pj+ ;f+:s[lts dfGotf tyf ef}uflns cj:yfcg'¿k ;~rfng ug]{ Joj:yf x'gkb{5 . ;xof]u kfpg]n] bfg kfPsf] ' geP/ ;Ddfgk"js afFRg kfpg] clwsf/sf] /Iff ePsf] cg'el" t ug{ kfpg'kb{5 . { :km]o/ kl/of]hgfn] ;xof]usf ;fdu|Lsf] Go"gtd dfkb08;d]t lgwf{/0f ul/lbPsf] 5 . ;xfotfsfo{n] ;dfhdf csf]{ lje]b ghGdfcf]; eGg] kIfdf kl/of]hgf ;+jbgzLn ] /x]sf] 5 . o;sf nflu :km]o/n] ef}uf]lns, cfly{s, k|fljlws, ;fdflhs tyf ;f+:s[lts cj:yfnfO{ cfwf/ dfg]/ :yfgLo ;xeflutf / k|rlnt cEof;sf] cjnDagdf ljz]if hf]8 lbPsf] 5 . k|sf]k M dfgjclwsf/ / sfg'g ÷28
  29. 29. :km]o/ kl/of]hgfsf cfwf/e"t l;4fGt k|sf]k tyf ;z:q åGåaf6 k|efljt JolQm tyf ;d'bfonfO{ dfgjLo ;xof]u ug]{ ;fdflhs ;+:yfsf nflu :km]o/ kl/of]hgf dfu{bz{s l;4fGt xf] . o; kl/of]hgfsf cfwf/e"t l;4fGt lgDgfg';f/ 5g M k|sf]khGo cj:yfdf afnaflnsf, a"9fa"9L, ckfªu, la/fdL / dlxnfnfO{ p4f/ tyf /fxtdf k|fyldstf lbg'kb{5 . k|sf]kk|efljt x'gdf clwsf+z ] oxL ju{ kg]{ / pgLx¿ cfˆgf] ;'/Iff cfkm}F ug{ c;dy{ x'g] ePsfn] pgLx¿sf] ;'/Iffdf ljz]if Wofg lbg'kb{5 . kLl8t JolQm tyf ;d'bfosf ;b:osf] ;Ddfgk"js afFRg kfpg] clwsf/sf] { /Iff ul/g'kb{5 . xltof/ljxLg JolQmnfO{ cGt/f{li6«o dfgjtfjfbL sfg'gcg'¿k ;+/If0f / p4f/ ug'kb{5 . { ;z:q åGådf xltof/ljxLg ;d'bfo ;xefuL gx'g] ePsfn] ;xof]usf] If]qnfO{ xltof/ljxLg ;d'bfodf s]lGb|t ug'kb{5 . { ;z:q o'4sf] cj:yfdf o'4/t b'j} kIfsf 3fOt] jf dfl/Psf JolQmn] ;dfg ¿kdf p4f/ tyf /fxt kfpg'kb{5 . k|sf]k, ;fdflhs åGå jf o'4h:tf 36gfaf6 lj:yflktnfO{ hflt, wd{, /fli6«otf jf /fhgLlts cfwf/df hLjg tyf :jtGqtf ;ªs6df kg{;Sg] cj:yf b]lvPdf To:tf JolQmnfO{ hah{:tL lkmtf{ ug'xbg . { F' } :km]o/ kl/of]hgfsf Go"gtd dfkb08 k|sf]k k|efljt If]qsf] ef}uf]lns cj:yf, ;fdflhs, wfld{s, ;f+:s[lts ;+/rgf, cfly{s cj:yf tyf k|fljlws 1fgsf cfwf/df ;xfotfsf] :j¿k lgwf{/0f ug' k5{ . /fxt ;xof]u / cGo ;]jf pknAw u/fpFbf ckgfpg'kg]{ ljlwx¿ dfgjclwsf/, dfgjLo d"No / dfGotfcg'¿k x'gk5{ . ;xfotf ug]{ ;+:yfn] ' cfˆgf cg'ej / 1fgnfO{ cfwf/ dfg]/ lglZrt u'0f:t/o'Qm ;]jf k|bfg ug'k5{ . ;xof]usf] gfddf u'0f:t/xLg j:t' / tf}/tl/sf k|of]u ubf{ ;dfhdf { e|d pTkGg x'g ;S5 / k|lts"n c;/;d]t kg{ ;S5 . u'0f:t/xLg vfBfGg, cf}iflw / :jf:Yo;]jfn] ;ªqmd0fdf lgoGq0f x'bg, a? ;d:of ylkg ;S5 . F } kl/of]hgfn] lgwf{/0f u/]sf dfkb08 lj:t[t / Jofks 5g . p4f/ tyf k|sf]k M dfgjclwsf/ / sfg'g ÷29
  30. 30. /fxtsf If]qdf sfd ug]{ ;a}n] lgwf{l/t dfkb08 k"/f ug]{ k|lta4tf lng'k5{ . kl/of]hgfn] lgwf{/0f u/]sf k|dv dfkb08 lgDgfg';f/ /x]sf 5g M ' != cf/f]Uo, :jR5 kfgL / ;/;kmfO @= vfB;'/Iff, kf]if0f / vfB;xof]u;DaGwL Go"gtd dfkb08 #= cf>o:yn, a;f]af; / u}/vfBj:t';DaGwL Go"gtd dfkb08 $= :jf:Yo–;]jf;DaGwL Go"gtd dfkb08 plNnlvt ljifodf ;xof]u k'¥ofpg ug'kg]{ tof/LnfO{ ;femf dfkb08 eGg { ;lsG5 . :km]o/ kl/of]hgfn] lgwf{/0f u/]sf ;femf dfkb08 lgDgfg';f/ 5g M != ;xeflutf ;xfotf sfo{qmdsf] k|f/lDes cg'dfg, n]vfªsg, ;~rfng, cg'udg, lg/LIf0fh:tf sfo{df k|sf]kkLl8t ;d'bfonfO{ ;xefuL u/fpg'k5{ . @= k|f/lDes cg'dfg k|sf]kaf6 JolQm tyf ;d'bfodf k/]sf] k|efjsf ;fy} ;xfotfsf] If]q / k|sl[ tsf] cg'dfg ug'k5{ . { #= sfo{;~rfng cflwsfl/s jf ;DalGwt lgsfon] cfˆgf] cwLgdf /x]sf] If]qsf ;+efljt ;d'bfonfO{ ;xof]u ug{ grfx]sf] cj:yfdf ;d]t dfgjLo ;xof]u ug'k5{ . { $= nIo–lgwf{/0f k|sf]khGo hf]lvdsf] cj:yf / k|efljt JolQm jf ;d"xsf] vfFrf] klxNofP/ nIo–lgwf{/0f ug'k5{ . { %= cg'udg sfo{qmdsf] k|efjsfl/tf jf To;n] NofPsf kl/jt{gsf] lgoldt cg'udg ul/g'k5{ . ^= d"Nofªsg dfgjLo ;xof]usf] :jR5 / kf/bzL{ d"Nofªsg ug'k5{ . { k|sf]k M dfgjclwsf/ / sfg'g ÷30
  31. 31. &= Ifdtf / lhDd]jf/L ;xfotf sfo{qmdsf] of]hgf tof/L / k|efjsf/L sfof{Gjogsf nflu ;xfotfsdL{df cfjZos of]Uotf, cg'ej / OdfGbf/L x'gk5{ . ' * dfgjLo ;+;fwgsf] kl/rfng ;xfotf–sfo{ k|efjsf/L ePsf]] ;'lglZrttf k|bfg ug{ cg'udgstf{ / ;xfotfsdL{nfO{ klg cfjZos ;xof]u ug'k5{ . { dfgjLo ;xfotfsf Go"gtd dfkb08 ;femf dfkb08n] lgwf{/0f u/]cg'¿k k|sf]kk|efljt ;d'bfosf nflu ;xof]usf] If]q lgwf{l/t x'G5 . kl/of]hgfn] lgwf{/0f u/]sf dfkb08sf k|dv rf/ If]q ' lgDgfg';f/ 5g M != cf/f]Uo, :jR5 kfgL / ;/;kmfO kfgLsf] u'0f:t/;Fu :jf:Yo, cfjf; / kof{Kt ef]hgsf] cljR5Gg ;DaGw /x]sf] x'G5 . To;}u/L åGå jf o'4sf ;dodf kfgLsf] ;|ftdfly cfqmd0f jf ] sAhf ug{ lgif]w ul/g'kb{5 . kl/of]hgfn] :j:y hLjgsf nflu kfgL / ;/;kmfOsf If]qdf k"/f ug'kg]{ dfkb08sf] lgwf{/0f lgDgfg';f/ u/]sf] 5 M { s= cf/f]Uo ;d'bfosf ;a} ;b:onfO{ ;dfg ¿kdf u'0f:t/Lo ;]jf / ;'ljwf pknAw u/fP/ ltgsf] cf/f]Uo ;'lglZrt ul/g'kb{5 . v= :jR5 kfgLsf] cfk"lt{ k|sf]khGo cj:yfdf :jR5 kfgLsf] cefj x'g] x'bf ;xfotfsdL{n] kfgLsf] F cfk"lt{ ubf{ lgDg dfkb08 k"/f ug'kb{5 M { != kfgLsf] kx'r / dfqf “ kLl8tn] lkpg, vfgf ksfpg / ;/;kmfOsf nflu kof{Kt dfqfdf :jR5 / u'0f:t/Lo kfgL kfpg'kb{5 . @= kfgLsf] u'0f:t/ k|sf]k M dfgjclwsf/ / sfg'g ÷31
  32. 32. ljt/0f ul/g] kfgL hLjf0f'/lxt :jR5 / ;kmf x'gkb{5 . ' #= kfgLsf] ;~ro kLl8tn] lkpg, vfgf ksfpg / ;/;kmfOsf nflu cfjZos kg]{ kfgL /fVg / k|of]u ug{ rflxg] efF8fjt{g kfpg'kb{5 . u= lb;f–lk;fa Joj:yfkg != rkL{sf] kx'r / ;ªVof “ k|efljt ;d'bfosf nflu ;lhn} k'Ug ;lsg] 7fpFdf kof{Kt ;ªVofdf ;'/lIft rkL{sf] Joj:yf ug'kb{5 . { @= rkL{sf] lgdf{0f / k|of]u k|of]u ug{ ;lhnf], :jR5 / ;'/lIft :yfg rog u/L rkL{ agfpg'kb{5 . 3= ;ªqmfds hLjf0f'sf] lgoGq0f k|sf]kkl5 ;ªqmfds /f]u km}lnP/ yk k|sf]k pTkGg x'g ;S5 . To:tf] cj:yf pTkGg x'g glbg ;/;kmfOsf dfWodaf6 ;ªqmfds /f]usf] lgoGq0fsf nflu lgDg dfkb08 k"/f ug'kb{5 M { != JolQmut / kfl/jfl/s k|lt/Iff k| e fljt ;d' b fonfO{ dxfdf/LhGo ;ª q md0faf6 ;' / lIft /xg ;/;kmfO;DaGwL 1fg lbg'kb{5 . @= k|bif0f lgoGq0f " hg:jf:Yodf c;/ k'¥ofpg] k|bif0f / hg:jf:Yodf k|lts"n k|efj kfg]{ " j:t'sf] k|of]udf k|efjsf/L lgoGq0f u/L k|lt/Iffsf pkfo ckgfpg'kb{5 . #= /f;folgs kbfy{sf] k|of]u / k|lt/Iff ;ªqmfds hLjf0f'x¿sf] lgoGq0f ug{sf nflu /f;folgs kbfy{sf] k|of]u ubf{ k|sf]k–k|efljt / ;xfotfsdL{nfO{ k|lts"n c;/ gkg]{ ;'lglZrttf x'gkb{5 . ' ª= kmf]xf]/–Joj:yfkg k|sf]kkl5 kmf]xf]/d}nf a9]/ jftfj/0f k|bl" ift x'G5 . o;af6 :jf:Yodf yk k|sf]k M dfgjclwsf/ / sfg'g ÷32
  33. 33. ;d:of pTkGg x'g;Sg] x'bf kmf]xf]/ Joj:yfkg tTsfn} ug'kb{5 . F { != kmf]x/ ;ªsng / yfGsf] ;]jfu|fxL dflg;n] 3/fo;L tyf cf}Bf]lus jf cGo kmf]xf]/d}nf, cf}iflwhGo kmf]xf]/sf] k|bif0faf6 d'Qm jftfj/0fdf afFRg kfpg'kb{5 . pgLx¿n] " 3/]n' kmf]xf]/sf] kof{Kt / k|efjsf/L yfGsf] nufpg] ;'ljwf kfpg'kb{5 . r= 9nlgsf; af9L, klx/f] jf cGo s'g} klg sf/0faf6 hd]sf] kfgL, 3/]n' kmf]xf]/ kfgL lgsf;sf nflu 9nlgsf;sf] k|aGw tyf hLjf0f'sf] ;ªqmd0f lgoGq0fsf pkfo ckgfpg'kb{5 . @= vfB;'/Iff, ;xof]u / kf]if0f;DaGwL dfkb08 :km]o/ kl/of]hgfåf/f lgwf{l/t vfB;'/Iff, kf]if0f / vfB;xof]u;DaGwL dfkb08n] k|sf]kkLl8t ;d'bfosf] vfBclwsf/nfO{ k|ltlalDat ub{5 . :j:y / kf]if0fo'Qm vfgfsf] cfk"lt{sf nflu Go"gtd dfkb08 o;cGtu{t kb{5g . s= vfB;'/Iff / kf]if0fsf] cfsng tyf ljZn]if0f k|sf]kkLl8t ;d'bfosf ;b:o–;ªVof, vfBcfr/0f / kf]if0f:t/sf] klxrfg u/L ljZn]if0f ug'{ vfB;'/Iff / kf]if0f:t/ sfod ug]{ cfwf/ xf] . cfjZostfsf] k|If]k0f k|efljt ;d'bfosf] ;d]t ;xeflutfaf6 ug'kb{5 . vfB;'/Iff / { kf]if0f:t/ Joj:yfkgsf nflu lgDgcg';f/ b'O{ ;femf dfkb08 lgwf{l/t 5g M != vfB ;'/Iffsf] d"Nofªsg / ljZn]if0f k|sf]k jf åGåsf cj:yfdf ;d'bfodf ;fdfGo vfgfsf] ;d]t cefj x'G5 . o; cj:yfdf vfB;xof]u pknAw u/fpg'kj{ ;xfotfsdL{n] " kLl8t ;d'bfosf] To;cl3 vfBfGg k|of]u ug]{ tl/sfsf] ljZn]if0f u/]/ To;}cg'¿k ;xfotf pknAw u/fpg'kb{5 . @= kf]if0f:t/sf] d"Nofªsg / ljZn]if0f s'kf]if0faf6 kLl8t k|sf]kk|efljt ;d'bfosf ;b:ox¿sf] cj:yf, sf/0f / k|sf/sf] ljZn]if0f u/]/ vfBfGgsf] cfk"lt{ ug]{ Joj:yf ldnfpg'kb{5 . v= vfB;'/Iffsf dfkb08 k|sf]k M dfgjclwsf/ / sfg'g ÷33
  34. 34. k|sf]kk|efljt If]qdf vfBfGgsf] cefj tTsfnsf lgldQ dfq geP/ eljiosf nflu klg /xg ;S5 . vfB;xof]usf Go"gtd dfkb08leq vfBkbfy{sf] u'0f:t/, ;'/Iff / hLjgofkgsf nflu ;|ftsf] ;+/If0f, ;+j4{g / ljsf; klg ] k5{g . vfB;'/Iffsf Go"gtd dfkb08 lgDgfg';f/ 5g M != ;fdfGo vfB;'/Iff k|efljt ;d'bfonfO{ ;Ddfgk"js afFRg / ;|ftsf] ;+/If0f tyf k'gM:yfkgf { ] ug{ kof{Kt dfqfdf vfB tyf u}/vfBj:t' k|bfg ug'kb{5 . { @= k|fylds pTkfbg cfwf/e"t pTkfbg–k|0ffnLsf] ;'/Iff / ;+j4g ug'kb{5 . { { #= cfo / /f]huf/L cfocfh{g / /f]huf/Lsf ;|ftsf] Joj:yf ug'kb{5 . ] { $= ahf/sf] kx'r “' k|efljt ;d'bfosf nflu pTkfbs, pkef]Qmf / ljqm]tfsf ¿kdf ahf/;Dd kx'rsf] Joj:yf ug'kb{5 . F { u= kf]if0f;DaGwL dfkb08 kf]if0fo'Qm vfBfGgsf] cefjaf6 s'kf]if0f tyf cGo /f]u km}lng] ;Defjgf klg a9b5 . o; cj:yfdf s'kf]if0fsf sf/0f kQf nufP/ k|lt/IffTds pkfo ckgfpg'k5{ . != ;fwf/0f kf]if0f ;xof]u dfkb08 k|efljt ;d'bfosf ;a}nfO{ kf]if0fo'Qm vfBfGg pknAw u/fOg'kb{5 . @= hf]lvd ;d"x cTolws hf]lvddf k/]sf JolQmsf] klxrfg u/L ltgnfO{ ljz]if ;xof]u k|bfg ug'kb{5 . { 3= s'kf]if0fdf ;'wf/ vfBcNktf / u'0f:t/xLg vfgfn] s'kf]if0f a9fpF5 . s'kf]if0fdf k/]sf jf To:tf] hf]lvddf /x]sf JolQmsf] ;'/Iff / cfjZos pkrf/sf] Joj:yf ug'kb{5 . s'kf]if0fsf] :t/cg';f/ kf]ifsTj j[l4sf nflu lgwf{l/t { dfkb08x¿ lgDgfg';f/ 5g M k|sf]k M dfgjclwsf/ / sfg'g ÷34
  35. 35. != ;fdfGo s'kf]if0f ;fdfGo s'kf]if0fsf] lg/fs/0f ug{ vfBfGgsf] :t/df kl/jt{g ug'kb{5 . { @= hl6n s'kf]if0f hl6n s'kf]if0fsf] ;d:of ;fdfwfg ug{ tTsfnLg pkrf/ / zlQmj4{s vfBfGgsf] yk Joj:yf ug'kb{5 . { #= vfBcNktff6 x'g] s'kf]if0f vfBcNktfåf/f pTkGg s'kf]if0fsf] cGTosf nflu u'0f:t/Lo / kf]if0fo'Qm vfBfGgsf] k|aGw ldnfpg'kb{5 . ª vfB;xof]u;DaGwL dfkb08 k|sf]k jf ;z:q åGåaf6 ;d'bfosf] vfB;|ft gi6 eP/ clgsfn nfUg] ] cj:yf pTkGg ePkl5 ;d'bfodf km}lng] lg/fzfnfO{ x6fpg vfBfGg ;xof]usf ;fy} k|sf]ksf] ;fdgf Ifdtfdf clej[l4 ug]{ sfo{ klg ;~rfng ug'kb{5 . { tTsfnLg ;d:of ;dfwfgsf ;fy} bL3{sfnLg vfB;'/Iffsf lgDglnlvt pkfo cjnDag ug'kb{5 M{ != tTsfnLg ;d:of ;dfwfgsf nflu lgMz'Ns vfBljt/0f aGb ug]{ . @= ;s];Dd :yfgLo txaf6} vfBfGgsf] Joj:yf ug]{ . tTsfn vfg], ksfpg] / art ug]{ ef8fFjt{g gePsf cj:yfdf ;fd"lxs ef]hgsf] Joj:yf ldnfpg] . #= lj:yflktnfO{ geOgx'g] cj:yfdf dfq vfB;xof]u lbg] . $= k|efljt If]qdf vfBfGg art geP/ cefj eP dfq aflx/af6 v/Lb ug]{ . %= ;z:q åGåsf ;dodf xltof/wf/Ln] vfB;xof]usf] sfo{nfO{ lgolGqt u/]/ b'?kof]u gu?g eGg]tkm{ ;r]t /xg] . r= vfB;xof]u of]hgf ljkbsf ;dodf ;d'bfo;Fu /x]sf] art vfBfGg, To;sf] u'0f:t/ / ;|ftsf ] cj:yfsf] ljZn]if0f ug'kb{5 . o;sf cltl/Qm ;fdflhs tyf ;f+:s[lts { ;+/rgf / vfB–Jojxf/sf r'gf}tLsf] ;fdgf ug'kg]{ x'G5 . oL ;d:ofsf] { ;fdgfsf nflu vfBfGg k|aGw / ljt/0fsf nflu ljz]if of]hgf agfpg'k5{ . o:tf of]hgfsf nflu lgwf{l/t dfkb08 o:tf 5g M k|sf]k M dfgjclwsf/ / sfg'g ÷35
  36. 36. != cfxf/of]hgf ljt/0f x'g] vfBfGgn] ;d'bfo;Fu pknAw ;|f]t, vfBJojxf/ / cfjZostfaLrsf] vf8n k'gkb{5 . {' @= pko'Qm / :jLsfo{ ljtl/t vfBkbfy{ k|fKt ug]{ JolQmsf] k/Dk/f / ;fdflhs ;+:s[ltcg¿k :jLsfo{ x'gkb{5 . ' #= u'0f:t/ / ;'/Iff vfBfGg u'0f:t/Lo, :jR5, xflg/lxt jf ;'/lIft / pkef]uof]Uo x'gk5{ . ' ljt/0f ul/g] vfBfGg ld;fj6o'Qm jf b"lift x'gxbg . ' F' } 5= vfB;xof]u Joj:yfkg Joj:yfksn] k|efljt ;d'bfodWo] s;nfO{ slt vfBfGg rflxPsf] xf] To;} cg';f/ ljt/0f / ;|ftsf] ;+/If0f ug]{ ljifodf s]lGb|t /xg'kb{5 . ] != vfB;~rfng kl/jf/sf] ;b:o ;ªVofsf cfwf/df lglZrt ;dosf nflu cfjZos kg]{ vfBfGg ;'/lIft /fVg] clwsf/ x/]s gful/sdf /x]sf] x'G5 . To:tf] vfBfGg kl/jf/ tyf ;d'bfodf ;'/lIft e08f/0f ug]{ Joj:yf ul/lbg'k5{ . @= ljt/0frqm vfBfGgsf] k'glj{t/0f ug'kg]{ cj:yfdf k"jl{ jtl/t ljj/0f;Fu le8fP/ { cfjZos ePgePsf] olsg ug'k5{ . { #= ljt/0f vfBfGgsf] ljt/0f ;dfg'kflts, kf/bzL{ / lhDd]jf/Lk"0f{ ¿kdf ug'k5{ . { #= cf>o:yn, a;f]af; / u}/vfBj:t';DaGwL dfkb08 lj:yflkt kl/jf/sf lgldQ zf}rfno, kfgL, vfBfGg cflbsf] ;/n cfk"lt{ / b}lgs lqmofsnfksf nflu pko'Qm jf;:yfgsf] k|aGw ug'kb{5 . o;sf nflu { lgDg dfkb08 lgwf{l/t ul/Psf] 5 M s= cf>o:yn k|sf]k M dfgjclwsf/ / sfg'g ÷36
  37. 37. lj:yflktsf nflu km/s–km/s cf>o:yn pknAw u/fpg g;lsg] cj:yfdf :yfgLo ;fd'bflos tyf ;/sf/L ejg, Aof/]s tyf :s'ndf c:yfoL SofDk v8f u/L /fVg] Joj:yf ldnfpg'k5{ . != /0fgLlts of]hgf ;s];Dd eO/x]sf ejgx¿af6} jf;:yfgsf] ;d:of ;dfwfg ug'kb{5 . { /0fgLlts of]hgfdf ;d'bfosf] :jf:Yo, ;'/Iff / kfl/jfl/s uf]kgLotf ;'lglZrt x'gkb{5 . ' @ ef}lts of]hgf cfktsfnLg cfjf;df ;s];Dd :yfgLo ;|ft / ;fwgs} k|of]uaf6 ] rflxg] ;]jf;'ljwf tyf ;'/Iffsf] Joj:yf ug'kb{5 . { #= cfjf;sf] If]qkmn hLjgofkgsf nflu Go"gtd / cTofjZos lqmofsnfk ;~rfng ug{;Sg] If]qkmn x'gkb{5 . ' $= gS;fªsg cf>o:ynsf] gS;fªsg / Joj:yfkg k|efljt kl/jf/åf/f :jLsf/ ug{ nfos, k|sfz tyf xfjf l5g],{ Gofgf], :jf:Yo Pj+ ;'/Iffsf b[li6n] pQd x'gkb{5 . ' %= lgdf{0f lgdf{0fsfo{ :yfgLo 1fg / ;|ftsf] pkof]udf cfwfl/t x'gkb{5 . ] ' ^= jftfj/0fLo k|efj jftfj/0fdf k|lts"n k|efj gkfg]{ ;fdu|L / k|ljlwsf] k|of]u x'gkb{5 . ' v= u}/vfBj:t'sf] Joj:yfkg hLjgofkgsf nflu cf]9g–cf]5ofpg] n'uf, nufpg] sk8f / ;/;kmfOsf ] nflu ;fa'g, bGtdGhgh:tf j:t' u}/vfBj:t'sf pbfx/0f x'g . :km]o/ kl/of]hgfn] o:tf j:t'sf Joj:yfsf] ;DaGwdf lgDgfg';f/sf] dfkb08 lgwf{/0f u/]sf] 5 M != n'ufkmf6f] / cf]5ofg k|sf]k M dfgjclwsf/ / sfg'g ÷37
  38. 38. kLl8tnfO{ ef}uf]lns cj:yf / df};dcg'¿k cf]9g,] cf]5ofpg] / nufpg] n'ufsf] Joj:yf ug'kb{5 . { @= JolQmut cf/f]Uo k|sf]kk|efljt ;d'bfon] ;/;kmfOsf nflu kof{Kt ;fa'g / bGtdGhg kfpg'kb{5 . #= ksfpg] / vfg] ef“8fjt{g k|efljt kl/jf/nfO{ kl/jf/sf ;b:osf] ;ªVofsf cfwf/df ksfpg] / vfg] efF8fat{g pknAw u/fpg'kb{5 . $= :6f]e, OGwg / aQL ;a}nfO{ vfgf ksfpg tyf pHofnf]sf] nflu :6f]e, OGwg / aQLsf] ;'ljwf pknAw u/fpg'kb{5 . %= cf}hf/ / ;fdu|L ;'/lIft cfjf;sf] pkof]u, dd{t;Def/ tyf cGo sfo{sf nflu rflxg] s'6f], sf]bfnf], xFl;of, v's/L tyf cGo cfjZos cf}hf/sf] Joj:yf ' ul/lbg'kb{5 . $= :jf:Yo–;]jf;DaGwL dfkb08 k|sf]kk|efljt If]qdf rflxg] :jf:Yo–;]jfsf] :j¿k klxrfg u/L ;]jf–k|jfx, cg'udg tyf d"Nofªsg ug'{kb{5 . o;cGtu{t /fli6«o tyf :yfgLo :jf:Yo;DaGwL ;]jfsf] k|0ffnLdf ;xof]u k'¥ofpg], ;dGjo ug]{ / :t/Lo agfpg] k|of; kb{5g . :km]o/ kl/of]hgfn] lgwf{/0f u/]sf :jf:Yo;]jf;DaGwL dfkb08 lgDgcg';f/ 5g M s= :jf:Yok|0ffnL tyf ;]jf k"jf{wf/ k|sf]kk|efljt If]qdf tTsfn cfjZos kg]{ :jf:Yo;]jf k|bfg ug{ / ;Defljt dxfdf/Lsf] lgoGq0fsf nflu k|lt/IffTds pkfo cjnDag ug'kb{5 . 3fOt]sf] { pkrf/, s'kf]if0f jf k|bl" ift jftfj/0fsf sf/0f pTkGg ;ªqmd0f lgoGq0f ug]{ u/L :t/Lo :jf:Yo;]jf ;'lglZrt ug'kb{5 . ;]jfsf ;dodf cfly{s, wfld{s, { ;f+:s[lts, ;fdflhs, /fhgLlts, n}ªl us / hftLo lje]bsf] cGTo ub}{ ;dfg'kflts, Joj:yfksLo, cfly{s, ;+:yfut / k|fljlws k|lta4tf hgfOPsf] x'gkb{5 . k"jf{wf/sf] tof/Lsf dfkb08 o:tf 5g M ' k|sf]k M dfgjclwsf/ / sfg'g ÷38
  39. 39. != ;]jfsf] k|fyldsLs/0f cfktsfnLg cj:yfdf 3fOt] tyf /f]uLsf] pkrf/åf/f d[To'b/ Go"g ug]{ k"jf{wf/ tof/ ug'k5{ . { @= :jf:Yo–k|0ffnLdf ;xof]u /fli6«o tyf :yfgLo :t/df pknAw :jf:Yo;]jfsf], ;+/rgfnfO{ ;xof]u x'g] lsl;dn] :jf:Yo–;]jfk|0ffnLsf] ljsf; ug'k5{ . { #= ;dGjo r':t / pTs[i6 :jf:Yo;]jf pknAw u/fpg ;]jfk|bfos lgsfo tyf :jo+;jsaLr k|efjsf/L ;dGjosf] Joj:yf ug'k5{ . ] { $= k|fylds :jf:Yo;]jf /f]usf] cj:yfcg'¿k k|fylds :jf:Yo;]jf / x]/rfxsf] /fd|f] Joj:yf x'gk5{ . ' %= pkrf/fTds ;]jf kLl8tn] :t/Lo, u|fXo, l;4fGt / ;t{ kfngf ePsf] pkrf/fTds ;]jf kfpg'k5{ . ^= :jf:Yo;DaGwL ;"rgf–k|0ffnL hg:jf:Yosf] cj:yf, pknAw u/fOPsf] ;]jf, ;d:of;DaGwL tYofªssf] ;ªsng, ljZn]if0f / ;"rgf–k|jfxnfO{ kf/bzL{ / k|efjsf/L agfpg'k5{ . v= ;?jf /f]usf] lgoGq0f k|sf]khGo cj:yfdf ;?jf /f]un] dxfdf/Lsf] ¿k lnFbf kLl8t g} a9L k|efljt x'G5g . dn]l/of, Zjf;k|Zjf;, emf8fkvnf, d]gGhfOl6;, sfnfhf/, sdnlkQ, ] 6fOkmfO8 / bfb'/fh:tf /f]u k|sf]kk|efljt If]qdf km}lnG5g . To;af6 afnaflnsf, a"9fa"9L, czQm, ue{jtL jf ;'Ts]/L dlxnf tyf sdhf]/ / s'kf]if0faf6 kLl8t JolQmsf] Hofg vt/fdf kg]{ ;Defjgf a9L x'G5 . o:tf] cj:yfdf :jf:Yo;]jf pknAw u/fpg] lgwf{l/t dfkb08x¿ lgDgfg';f/ 5g M != k|lt/Iff ;?jf /f]usf] ;ªqmd0faf6 k|lt/Iffsf ;fdu|Lsf] Joj:yf, pkof]u, ;"rgf / ;]jf ;dfg ¿kdf k'¥ofpg] . k|sf]k M dfgjclwsf/ / sfg'g ÷39
  40. 40. @= bfb'/f lgoGq0f ^ b]lv !% jif{aLrsf ;a} afnaflnsfnfO{ bfb'/flj?4 k|lt/IffTds pkrf/– ;]jf lbg] . #= k/LIf0f / /f]u–Joj:yfkg ;ªqmfds /f]uaf6 aRg k|efljt ;a}nfO{ k|efjsf/L k/LIf0f / pkrf/;]jf lbg] . $= dxfdf/Lsf] ;fdgf cfsl:ds dxfdf/Lsf] ;fdgf ug{ k"jtof/Lsf pkfo ckgfpg] . { %= dxfdf/Lsf] k/LIf0f / pkrf/ k|sf]kk|efljt If]qdf dxfdf/L km}lng] ;Defjgf eP tTsfn lgoGq0f / pkrf/sf] Joj:yf ug]{ . ^= PrcfO{eL÷P8; o; /f]usf] ;ªqmd0f ePdf To;af6 arfpg cfjZos k|aGw ug]{ . u= g;g]{ /f]usf] lgoGq0f e'Orfnf], x'/Latf;, cfunfuL, ;'gfdL, af9L, klx/f]h:tf k|sf]khGo 36gf F tyf ;z:q åGå jf o'4af6 3fOt] ePsf JolQmsf] ;dod} pkrf/ geP d[To' x'g] ;Defjgf x'G5 . To:t} n}ªl us lx+;f / k|hgg–:jf:Yo, dfgl;s jf dgf]j1flgs / zf/Ll/s kL8f Go"g ug{ ug'kg]{ sfdsf dfkb08x¿ :km]o/ } { kl/of]hgfn] tf]ssf] 5, h'g lgDgfg';f/ 5g M ] != rf]6k6s k|sf]kdf k/L rf]6k6s nfu]/ 3fOt] ePsf JolQmsf]] tTsfn pkrf/ ug'kb{5 . { @= k|hgg–:jf:Yo k|efljt If]qdf k|hgg :jf:Yo;]jf pknAw gePsf] cj:yfdf To;sf nflu Go"gtd k|fylds pkrf/ ;]jf pknAw u/fpg'kb{5 . #= dfgl;s / ;fdflhs :jf:Yo kLl8t ;d'bfosf JolQmdf ;fdflhs ;d:of pTkGg u/fpg] s'g} /f]u jf dfgl;s c:j:ytf b]lvPdf :jf:Yo;]jf pknAw u/fpg'kb{5 . $= bL3{ /f]u k|sf]kkLl8t ;d'bfodf bL3{/f]uL dflg; eP ;xof]ustf{n] ltgsf] pkrf/sf] Joj:yf ug'kb{5 . { k|sf]k M dfgjclwsf/ / sfg'g ÷40
  41. 41. ;ªs6sfnLg ;dodf lzIffsf Go"gtd dfkb08 k|fs[lts tyf dfgjLo sf/0fn] x'g] k|sf]kaf6 pTkGg ;ªs6sfndf klg k|sf]kkLl8t ;d'bfo / ltgsf afnaflnsfnfO{ cfwf/e"t lzIffsf] clwsf/af6 jl~rt ug'{ dfgjclwsf/sf] cGt/f{li6«o dfGotflj?4sf] ck/fw dflgPsf] 5 . lzIff cfh{g ug{ kfpg] gful/ssf] g};lu{s clwsf/sf] /Iff ub}{ k|To]s kLl8tnfO{ lzIffdfly z'ne kx'rsf] “ k|Tofe"lt lbg' ;/sf/sf] bfloTj xf] . kl/ro k|sf]ksf ;dodf pTkGg ;ªs6sfnLg cj:yfdf gful/snfO{ lzIff k|fKt ug]{ clwsf/af6 ljd'v ul/g' x'bg . vfgf, cfjf; / :jf:Yo;]jfh:t} lzIff klg F } dflg;sf] cfwf/e"t cfjZostfleq k5{ . To;}sf/0f h:tf];s} cfkTsfnLg ' cj:yf pTkGg eP klg lzIff k|fKt ug]{ g};lu{s clwsf/af6 ljBfyL{ jf gful/snfO{ cnu ug'{ pgLx¿dfly cGofo ug'{ xf] . o; cjwf/0ffn] ljZjJofkL dfGotf k|fKt u/]sf sf/0f lzIffnfO{ zflGt If]q 3f]if0ff ug{ / lzIff k|fKt ug{ kfpg] clwsf/nfO{ cfwf/e"t dfgjclwsf/sf] ¿kdf dfGotf lbg gful/s ;dfhsf ;a} tKsfaf6 /fHo / ;DalGwt If]qnfO{ bafa lbg] ul/Psf] 5 . k|fs[lts sf/0fn] xf]; jf dfgjLo sf/0fn] xf];, s'g} klg k|sf]khGo 36gfn] ;dfhdf k|lts"n k|efj kf/]sf] cj:yfdf klg z}lIfs lqmofsnfk lgjf{w ¿kdf ;~rfng ug'{ cfjZos 5 . o;sf nflu :km]o/ kl/of]hgfn] ;ªs6sfnLg lzIffsf nflu Go"gtd dfkb08 lgwf{/0f u/]sf] 5 . ljZjJofkL ;xsfo{åf/f xft] k':tssf ¿kdf k|sflzt ;ªs6sfnLg lzIffsf nflu Go"gtd dfkb08 ;fd"lxs k|lta4tfsf] Bf]ts dflgPsf] 5 . o;n] k|sf]khGo " cj:yfaf6 pTkGg ljkb jf ;ªs6sfnLg ;dodf afnaflnsf, lszf]/lszf]/L, o'jf–ju{ / k|f9 ;a}df lzIff k|fKt ug]{ g};lu{s clwsf/ x'G5 eg]/ k}/jL u/]sf] } 5 . k|sf]kkLl8tsf] p4f/ tyf /fxtsf nflu lgwf{l/t :km]o/ kl/of]hgfs} cfwf/df tof/ ePsf] cfsl:ds z}lIfs dfkb08n] ljkb / åGåaf6 pTkGg dfgjLo kL8f sd ug{ ;Dej eP;Ddsf ;a} sbd rflng' kg]df hf]8 lbFb}{ k|sf]k M dfgjclwsf/ / sfg'g ÷41
  42. 42. k|sf]kkLl8t ;d'bfosf] ;Ddfgsf ;fy hLjgofkg ug{ / lgjf{w ¿kdf lzIff cfh{g ug{ kfpg] clwsf/nfO{ ;'lglZrt ug]{ k|of; u/]sf] 5 . ;ªs6sfnLg ;dodf lzIffsf] ¿k/]vf k|To]s JolQmdf lzIff k|fKt ug]{ clwsf/ x'G5 . ljZjJofkL dfgjclwsf/ 3f]if0ffkq -!($*_Ù z/0ffyL{;DaGwL dxf;lGw -!(%!_Ù o'4sf] ;dodf ;j{;fwf/0fsf] ;'/Iffaf/] h]gefdf ePsf] cfly{s, ;fdflhs, tyf ;f+:s[lts ] clwsf/;DaGwL dxf;lGw -!(^^_Ù afnclwsf/ dxf;lGw -!(*(_Ù ;a}sf] nflu lzIff clek|l] /t ug]{ p2]Zo /x]sf] 8fs/ ljZj lzIff kl/of]hgf 5nkmnsf] sfo{ut vfsf -@)))_ nufotsf w]/} cle;lGw tyf kl/kqx¿df z}lIfs clwsf/;DaGwL Joj:yf ul/Psf 5g . k|sf]k jf o'4h:tf] cNksfnLg tyf bL3{sfnLg ;ªs6sf] cj:yfdf cfˆgf] / l5d]sLsf] hLjg arfpg ;lsg] k|sf/sf] Jojxfl/s lzIff dxTjk"0f{ x'G5 . afnaflnsf, o'jf tyf j[4nfO{ lbOg] o:tf] lzIffn] ;ªs6sf ;dodf x'g;Sg] zf]if0f tyf k|sf]kaf6 ePsf] Iflt lj?4 cfkm"nfO{ ;zQm ¿kdf pEofpg] ] Ifdtf k|bfg u5{ . o'4sf ;dodf lj:tfl/t af?bL ;'?ªaf6 ;'/lIft /xg xf]; jf P8;sf] /f]syfdh:tf ljifodfÙ lzIffn] ;ªs6sf] ;dodf, vf; u/L afnaflnsf tyf lszf]/–lszf]/Ldf eljiosf] nflu :yfloTj / cfzf k|bfg u/]/ :j:y / ;'/lIft hLjg afFRg ;xof]u k'¥ofpF5 . o; k|sf/sf] lzIffn] b'MvbfoL kL8fsf] cg'ej sd ug{, ;Lksf] ljsf; ug{ / åGå ;dfwfg tyf zflGt lgdf{0fdf ;xof]u k'¥ofpF5 . ;ªs6sfnLg ;dodf klg lzIffsf] ;'lglZrttfsf lgldQ Go"gtd dfkb08 lgwf{/0fdf ;xof]u k'¥ofpg ;g @))# df Ps sfo{bn u7g eof] . ;ªs6kl5sf] k'g;+/rgfdf z}lIfs clwsf/sf] k|Tofe"t ug{ ;+oQm /fi6«;ª3Lo lgsfox¿, { ' u}/;/sf/L ;+:yf, bftf, k|lzIffyL{, vf]hstf{, k|efljt ;d'bfosf JolQm ;lDdlnt ;~hfnsf l;4fGtcg'¿k o; sfo{bnn] ;ªs6sfnLg lzIffsf nflu Go"gtd dfkb08sf] lgwf{/0f u/]sf] xf] . o; dfkb08n] ;ªs6u|:t cj:yfdf lzIff k|fKt ug]{ clwsf/sf] ;'lglZrttf, ;a}sf] ;dfg kx'rsf cfwf/ jf dfkb08, F ;"rs tyf lgb]z l;4fGtnfO{ hf]8 lbPsf] 5 . dfkb08sf] tof/Lsf qmddf { ljZjsf %) eGbf a9L /fi6«sf @ xhf/ @ ;o %) eGbf a9L JolQmsf] of]ubfg /x]sf] 5 . sfo{bnn] ;g @))$ sf] hgj/Lb]lv d] dlxgf;Dd clk|msf, Pl;of, Nofl6g cd]l/sf / dWok"j{ tyf o'/f]kdf k/fdz{ sfo{qmd u/]sf] lyof] . ljleGg If]qsf lj1, ;+oQm /fi6«;ª3Lo lgsfo / ;ªs6sfnLg ' k|sf]k M dfgjclwsf/ / sfg'g ÷42
  43. 43. lzIff ;~hfnsf k|ltlglwx¿sf] k/fdz{df tof/ o; dfkb08 afnclwsf/ dxf;lGw, 8fs/ ljZj lzIff kl/of]hgf, ljleGg dfgjclwsf/ dxf;lGw tyf sfg'g / ;x>fAbL ljsf;nIodf cfwfl/t 5 . Go"gtd dfkb08sf] k|of]ustf{ lzIffsf Go"gtd dfkb08 ;ªs6sfnLg cj:yfdf z}lIfs ultljlw ljgfcj/f]w ;~rfng ug{sf nflu tof/ ul/Psf] xf] . o;n] ;Defljt ;ªs6sf lj?4 k"jtof/L tyf dfgjLo d"Nosf] /Iffsf nflu jsfnt u5{ . k|fs[lts sf/0faf6 { x'g] k|sf]k, ;fdflhs åGå tyf o'4 / cGo s'g} klg ;ªs6sf ;dodf oL dfkb08x¿ k|of]uof]Uo 5g . ;ªs6sfnLg lzIffsf nflu lgwf{l/t Go"gtd dfkb08n] ;ªs6nfO{ k|fs[lts k|sf]k / o'4hGo ;ªs6sf ¿kdf juL{s/0f u/]sf] 5 . k|fs[lts sf/0faf6 x'g] k|sf]kcGt{ut af9L, klx/f], e"sDk, v8]/L, cfFwL–t'kmfgnufotsf k|sf]knfO{ lnOPsf] 5 . o; dfkb08n] cfsl:ds cj:yfdf z}lIfs If]qdf ;d'bfosf] clwsf/ s;/L k|Tofe"t ug]{ eg]/ dfu{bz{g ug]{ x'bf o;sf] k|of]u ;/sf/ / z}lIfs If]qdf F ;+nUg ;/f]sf/jfnfn] ug{ ;S5g . o;sf cltl/Qm c:yfoL ;]jf k|bfg ug]{ /fli6«o tyf cGt/f{li6«o u}/;/sf/L ;+:yf, :yfgLo ;d'bfo / gful/s ;dfhn] klg o;sf] pkof]u ug{ ;S5g . Go"gtd dfkb08sf] d'Vo cfwf/ cf}krfl/s tyf cgf}krfl/s lzIffsf kf7oqmdsf] ljsf; /fHon] lgwf{/0f u/]sf] vfsfleq /x]/ ;/sf/sf] :jLs[lt k|fKt lgsfon] u5{ . o;sf cltl/Qm lgwf{l/t ljifodf ;d'bfonfO{ ;r]t u/fpg ljleGg /fli6«o tyf cGt/f{li6«o lgsfo / u}/;/sf/L ;+:yfx¿af6 klg kf7o;fdu|Lsf] pTkfbg x'g] u5{ . o; dfkb08n] :ynut¿kdf tof/ u/L nfu" ul/g] z}lIfs /0fgLlt tyf sfo{qmdsf] lj:t[t JofVof u/]sf] 5}g tfklg z}lIfs sfo{qmdsf] gLltut ljsf; / sfof{Gjogsf] lg/Gt/tfsf nflu hf]8 lbPsf] 5 . o;sf ;fy} o; dfkb08n] ;ªs6sfnLg ;dodf ug'kg]{ dfgjLo sfo{ / To;sf] dof{bf sfod /fVg { ;xof]uL, hfgsf/Lk|b Go"gtd dfkb08, d"Vo ;"rs tyf dfubz{g k|:t't u/]sf] 5 . kfFr ju{df ljeflht ;ªs6sfnLg lzIffsf Go"gtd dfkb08 lgDg 5g M ;a} ju{sf nflu ;femf dfkb08 o; dfkb08sf] ;jf{lws dxŒjk"0f{ kIf ;fdflhs ;dfj]zLs/0f xf] . dfkb08sf] k|sf]k M dfgjclwsf/ / sfg'g ÷43
  44. 44. sfof{Gjog, cg'udg, d"Nofªsg / lg0f{o k|lqmofdf :yfgLo ;|ftsf] cTolws ] k|of]u / ;d'bfosf] ;lqmo ;xeflutf x'gkg]df hf]8 lbOPsf] 5 . ' { != kx'r tyf l;sfOsf] jftfj/0f “ o; dfkb08n] l;sfOsf cj;/ ;a}n] kfpg' kg]df hf]8 lbPsf] 5 . o;cg';f/ { :jR5 lkpg] kfgL, :jf:Yo tyf ;/;kmfO, vfB cg'bfg, kf]if0f, cf>oh:tf If]qdf ;a} ju{ / hfthfltsf] ;dfg kx'r x'g' k5{ . ;ªs6af6 ;'/lIft /xg F / l5d]sLnfO{ ;d]t ;'/Iff lbg;Sg] k|of]ufTds 1fgsf] k|j4{gÙ ef}lts, af}l4s, dgf]j1flgs Ifdtf clej[l4sf nflu ;fem]bf/L cjwf/0ff cg'¿k sfd } x'g' k5{ . @= lzIf0f tyf l;sfO k|efjsf/L lzIf0f / l;sfOsf] ljsf;df ;xof]u ug'{ kg]df o;n] hf]8 lbPsf] { 5 . pko'Qm kf7Øqmd, tflnd, ;'emfj / d"Nofªsg u/]/ lzIf0f / l;sfOnfO{ k|efjsf/L agfpg o; dfkb08n] lgb]z u/]sf] 5 . { #= lzIfs tyf lzIffljb ;ªs6sfnLg lzIffsf nflu bIf dfgj ;+;fwgsf] Joj:yf x'g' k5{ . lzIfs tyf cGo bIf hgzlQmsf] 5gf]6, lgo'lQm / ;]jfsf] u'0f:t/ sfod ug'{ k5{ . $= lzIff gLlt tyf ;dGjo :yfgLo, If]qLo / ljZjJofkL dfGotfcg';f/ gLltlgdf{0f, of]hgf th'df tyf { sfof{Gjogsf nflu ;zQm ;dGjo ug'{ k5{ . %= dfkb08sf cGt/;DalGwt ;jfn Go"gtd dfkb08sf] ljsf; / sfo{Gjog ubf{ cGo ljleGg cGt/;DalGwt ;jfnx¿sf] ;Daf]wgdf klg Wofg lbOPsf] 5 . cGt/f{li6«o dfgjclwsf/ sfg'g, n}ªl us ;dfgtf, afnclwsf/, hfthflt, If]q, ;fd'bflos ;xeflutf, PrcfOeL÷P8;, ckfªutfh:tf ;ªs6fled'v cj:yfnfO{ klg b[li6ut ul/Psf] 5 . dfkb08sf] k|f?k ;ªs6sfnLg lzIff sfo{qmdnfO{ k|efjsf/L agfpg k|sf]kk|efljt ;d'bfosf] ;xeflutf h?/L x'G5 . ef}uf]lns If]q, k|sf]ksf] :j¿k / ;fdflhs ;+/rgfsf cfwf/df ;d'bfodf s:tf] sfo{qmdsf] cfjZostf k5{ eGg] hfgsf/L ;f6f;f6 k|sf]k M dfgjclwsf/ / sfg'g ÷44
  45. 45. ug'{ k5{ . sfo{qmdk|ltsf] rf;f] a9fpg, lg0f{o k|lqmofdf ;xefuL x'g;Sg] Ifdtf j[l4 ug{ ;d'bfonfO{ ;zlQms/0f ug'{ k5{ . ;ªs6sfnLg lzIffsf ;jfndf ;f]em} sfo{ ug{ ;Ifd agfpg] lqmofsnfk tyf sfo{qmd lje]b/lxt cyf{t ;dfj]zL tl/sfaf6 ul/g' k5{ . ;d'bfosf] ;xeflutf k|ltlglwsf] ¿kdf, k/fdz{bftfsf] ¿kdf / k"0f{ ;xeflutfsf ¿kdf /xg ;S5 . o:tf ;xefuLn] lg0f{o, cg'udg tyf d"Nofªsg k|lqmofdf ;f]em} ;xeflutf hgfpg kfpg' k5{ . k|sf]ksf] ;fdgf ug]{ Ifdtfsf] ljsf;df k|Tofe"lt lbg k|efjsf/L tyf u'0f:t/Lo z}lIfs of]hgfsf] lgdf{0f, sfof{Gjog, Joj:yfkg tyf ;dGjo, / To;sf] n]vfhf]vf ubf{ ;ªs6fled'v ;d'bfosf] ;xeflutfnfO{ pRr k|fyldstf lbg' k5{ . ;d'bfosf] ;lqmo ;xeflutfn] g} ;d'bfod'vL tyf k|efjsf/L z}lIfs /0fgLlt tof/ ug{ ;xof]u u5{ . ;ªs6sfnLg lzIffsf] :t/lgwf{/0f / o;sf cfwf/e"t dfGotfcg'¿k Go"gtd dfkb08sf sf] klxrfg ug{ lgDg oyfy{nfO{ cfTd;ft ul/g' k5{ M Go"gtd dfkb08 ;ªs6sfnLg lzIff :jefljs¿kn] u'0ffTds x'g' k5{ eGg] kIfdf o; dfkb08n] hf]8 lbPsf] 5 . o;n] hjfkmb]xLk"0f{ lzIff pknAw u/fpFbf Go"gtd vfsf lgwf{/0f ul/Psf] 5 jf 5}g eGg] ;ªst u5{ . ] d"Vo ;"rs ;"rsnfO{ dfkb08 k"/f eP jf gePsf] b]vfpg] ;ªstsf ¿kdf lnOG5 . ] o;n] sfo{qmd sfof{Gjogsf] k|lqmof jf k|of]uljlwsf] k|efj tyf kl/0ffdsf] dfkg u5{ . dfu{bz{g k|To]s dfkb08sf dfu{bz{gn] ljleGg kl/l:yltdf dfkb08 tyf ;"rssf] kfngf ubf{ cfOkg]{ Jojxfl/s sl7gfOx¿sf] ;dfwfgdf ;xof]u u5{ . o;df k|fyldstfdf k/]sf ljifosf k/fdz{ tyf cWoog–dgg ug'kg]{ { pko'Qm a'bfx¿ ;dfj]z ul/Psf] 5 . o;n] dfkb08 tyf ;"rs;Fu F ;DalGwt cGo dxTjk"0f{ ljifo klg ;dfj]z ug'sf ;fy} låljwfk"0f{ cj:yf { tyf ljjfb / ;d"xaLrsf] b"/Lsf] klg JofVof u5{ . k|sf]k M dfgjclwsf/ / sfg'g ÷45
  46. 46. dfkb08– v08M ! lzIffdf ;d'bfosf] ;xeflutf ;ªs6sfnLg ;dodf ;~rfng x'g] z}lIfs sfo{qmddf ;d'bfosf] k|ToIf ;xeflutf x'gkg]df o; dfkb08n] hf]8 lbPsf] 5 . ;d'bfosf] ;xeflutfsf] ' { k|Tofe"ltsf nflu lgDgcg';f/sf dfkb08 lgwf{l/t 5g M ;fd'bflos ;xeflutf dfkb08 ! M ;xeflutf dfu{bz{g plNnlvt ;"rsfªs k|fKt ug{ ;d'bfosf] ;xeflutf ePsf] ;'lglZrt x'g' h?/L 5 . To;sf nflu ;d'bfosf] ;xeflutf lgDgcg';f/ x'g' kg]5 M { != ;fd'bflos lzIff ;ldlt ;ªs6sfnLg lzIffsf Go"gtd dfkb08df ;fd' b flos lzIff k|dv ;"rs ' ;ldlt eGg] zAbn] ;d'bfosf] z}lIfs cfjZostfsf] klxrfg ug{ != k|efjsf/L z}lIfs sfo{qmdsf] cleefjs, lzIfs ;ª u 7g, k| T ofe" l t lbg k| s f] k k| e fljt :yfgLo ;+:yf, gful/s ;dfh, ;d'bfoleq}af6 5gf}6 ul/Psf o' j f tyf dlxnf, lzIfs / k|ltlglwåf/f z}lIfs sfo{qmdsf] ljBfyL{ n ufotsf ;a} s f] k|fyldsLs/0f / of]hgf th'df x'G5 . { k|ltltlwTj /x]sf] ;ldlt eGg] @= z}lIfs lqmofsnfksf] ljsf; / hgfpF 5 . o:tf] ;ldltsf] sfof{Gjogdf afnaflnsf / o'jf cfjZostf Psn jf ax' ju{ ;+nUg x'G5g . lzIffk|0ffnLk|lt pQ/bfoL x'g #= ;fd'bflos lzIff ;ldltn] z}lIfs ;S5 . l;sfOsf] nflu pko'Qm ultljlw tyf ah]6sf] ;fdflhs jftfj/0fsf] ljsf; / n] v f / lx;fjlstfa ug{ Joj:yfkgn] ;a} ju{aLr ;xof]u ;fj{hlgs a}7s af]nfpF5 . cfbfg k|bfg ug{ ;xof]u u5{ . $= ;d'bfosf ;b:o, afnaflnsf / o; ljlwn] z}lIfs ;+/rgfsf] o'jfx¿sf nflu z}lIfs Joj:yfkg ljsf; ug{ / :yfgLo ;+:s[lt ug{ tflnd tyf Ifdtf clej[l4sf tyf z}lIfs k/Dk/fsf] ;DdfgnfO{ cj;/x¿ pknAw x'G5g . ;dGjofTds e"ldsfåf/f lbuf] k|sf]k M dfgjclwsf/ / sfg'g ÷46
  47. 47. agfpg] ;+oGqsf] lgdf{0fdf klg ;xof]u u5{ . @= z}lIfs sfo{qmddf ;fd'bflos k|ltlglwTj lzIff ;ldltdf :yfgLo u}/;/sf/L ;+:yf, wfld{s ;+:yf, k|ToIf ;/f]sf/ /xg] ;d'bfosf ;a} ju{, hfthflt tyf dlxnfsf] ;dtfd"ns k|ltlglwTj x'gk5{ . ' o:tf k|ltlglw k|hftflGqs k|lqmofn] 5gf}6 ePsf / ;ldltn] j}wflgs dfGotf kfPsf] x'gk5{ . ' #= e"ldsf tyf pQ/bfloTj ;fd'bflos lzIff ;ldltsf ;b:osf] e"ldsf tyf pQ/bfloTj :ki6 ul/Psf] x'g' k5{ / To;sf] hfgsf/L ;d'bfonfO{ lbOg' k5{ . ;ldltsf d"n bfloTj lgDgcg';f/ lgwf{l/t x'g' k5{ M ;/f]sf/sf] ljifosf 5nkmn / a}7sdf lgoldt pkl:yt x'g] . a}7ssf] lg0f{o tyf cfly{s ;|ft / of]ubfgsf] ljj/0f b'?:t /fVg] . ] ljBfno kfqf], ;fd'bflos kIf emNsfpg] jf ;d'bfonfO{ ;+nUg u/fpg ;lsg] z}lIfs sfo{qmd, :yfgLo cj:yfcg';f/sf] kf7oqmdh:tf ;+f:s[lts ¿kn] pko'Qm ljlwx¿ ckgfpg kxn ug]{ . ;d'bfosf ;b:o / z}lIfs sfo{qmdaLr ;DaGw lj:tf/ ug{ ;/f]sf/jfnf;Fu lgoldt cGt/lqmof ug]{ . $= z}lIfs vfsf lgdf{0fdf ;d'bfosf] hjfkmb]lxtf lzIffk|lt ;/sf/L tyf u}/;/sf/L lgsfonfO{ hjfkmb]xL agfpg ;fd'bflos ;xeflutfsf] k|Tofe"lt ug{ ;Sg' k5{ . o;sf nflu lgDgcg';f/sf ljlw ckgfpg' h?/L x'G5 M ljleGg hfthflt, afns, o'jf / k|f9sf nflu tTsfnLg z}lIfs } :j¿ksf] cfjZostfsf] klxrfg, pknAw dfgj ;+;fwg, Ifdtf tyf ;do / cfly{s ;|ftsf] Joj:yfkg, ] efiffut ;d"x / cGo pk;d"xaLr ;dGjofTds ;Gt'ngsf] Joj:yf, ;'/Iff Joj:yfsf] ;Ldf lgwf{/0f / Joj:yfkg, lzIff k|bfg ul/g] :yfgsf] ;'/Iffsf] k|Tofe"lt, cfsl:ds ;dodf ;'/Iff k|bfg ug{ ;Sg] z}lIfs 1fg lbg] . k|sf]k M dfgjclwsf/ / sfg'g ÷47
  48. 48. %= :yfgLo z}lIfs sfo{of]hgf ;d'bfo / ;fd'bflos lzIff ;ldltn] lzIffsf lqmofsnfknfO{ k|sf]kk|efljt tyf ;ªs6fled'v ;d"xsf] cfjZostfsf cfwf/df lgwf{/0f ub}{ ;d'bfodf cfwfl/t z}lIfs sfo{of]hgf lgdf{0f ug{' k5{ . o:tf] of]hgfn] cf}krfl/s tyf cgf}krfl/s lzIff ;]jf tyf sfo{qmdsf] u'0ffTds ;'wf/sf] nflu ;+/rgf pknAw u/fpF5 . of]hgfdf lgDg ljifonfO{ ;dfj]z ug{ 5'6fpg' x'bg M F } pko'Qm z}lIfs jftfj/0fsf] ¿k/]vf, lqmofsnfksf] :yfloTj, z}lIfs sfo{qmdsf] nIo tyf ;"rsdf sfo{stf{aLr ;femf kl/b[iosf] ljsf; . cWoog tyf cWofkgsf] jftfj/0fdf ;'wf/k|lqmofsf] k|fyldstf lgwf{/0f / To;sf cfwf/df sfo{stf{aLr sfdsf] afF8kmfF8 . lgwf{l/t ;doleq ;/f]sf/jfnfx¿aLr of]hgfdf plNnlvt nIo k|flKtsf lgldQ pQ/bfloTj ;lxt sfo{of]hgfsf] ;dLIff . &= z}lIfs lqmofsnfkdf afn ;xeflutf ;+oQm /fi6«;ª3Lo afnclwsf/ dxf;lGwsf] wf/f !# n] afnaflnsfnfO{ ' ltgLx¿sf] hLjgdf k|efljt kfg]{ ljifodf cfjfh p7fpg tyf k|f9fj:yfsf] } pQ/bfloTjsf nflu tof/L x'g] clwsf/ k|bfg u/]sf] 5 . o; wf/fsf] dd{cg';f/ ;a} pd]/sf lzIffyL{nfO{ ltgLx¿n] k|fKt ug]{ lzIffk|0ffnLsf] ljsf; tyf Joj:yfkgdf ;+nUg ul/g' k5{ . afnaflnsfnfO{ cfkmgf] tyf ;d'bfosf cGo afnaflnsfsf] /Iffdf ;3fp k'Ug] lqmofsnfkdf tflnd k|bfg ug'{ k5{ . ljBfno ;'wf/sf lqmofsnfkdf ;'emfj lbg] jf lzIff k|fKt ug]{ jftfj/0fdf x'g;Sg] zf]if0faf/] hfgsf/L lbg] / To:tf lqmofsnfknfO{ /f]syfd ug]{ Ifdtfsf] ljsf; ug]{ kIfdf tflnd kl/nlIft x'gk5{ . z}lIfs sfo{qmdn] ' cfsl:ds ;dodf cfpg] ;d:of ;dfwfg ug{ ;Ifd agfpg] k|of; ug'{ k5{ . *= ;fdflhs n]vfk/LIf0f ;ªs6sfnLg lzIff dfkb08sf] ;kmn sfof{Gjo eP gePsf] k/LIf0fdf a[xt ¿kdf ;d'bfosf] ;xeflutfdf x'g' k5{ . dfgj ;+;fwgsf] pkof]u, Ifdtf clej[l4, cfly{s tyf ef}lts ;fwgsf] pkof]u / ;]jfsf] u'0f:t/ k/LIf0fnfO{ ;fdflhs n]vfk/LIf0faf6 k|dfl0ft ug]{ k|fjwfg /flvPsf] x'g' k5{ . (= Ifdtf ljsf; ;d'bfosf] Ifdtf ljsf; geP;Dd ;ªs6sfnLg lzIff sfo{qmd ;~rfng ug'{ ;fGble{s x'bg . sfo{qmd ;~rfngk"j{ ;d'bfosf ;b:onfO{ k|fljlws F } tyf ;}4flGts tflnd lbg' k5{ . ;d'bfosf] jt{dfg Ifdtfsf] d"Nofªsg ub}{ tflndsf] cfjZostf / To;nfO{ k"lt{ ug]{ ljlwsf] klxrfg ug'{ k5{ . k|sf]k M dfgjclwsf/ / sfg'g ÷48
  49. 49. ;fd'bflos ;xeflutf dfkb08 @ M ;|ft kl/rfng ] o; dfkb08n] ;ªs6sfnLg lzIffsf nflu :yfgLo ;|ftsf] kl/rfngdf hf]8 lbPsf] 5 . :yfgLo ;|ftsf] ] ] k|efjsf/L kl/rfngaf6 dfq ;d'bfon] wfGg;Sg] sfo{qmdsf] vfsf tof/ x'G5 . dfu{bz{g != ;fd'bflos ;|ft ] k|dv ;"rs ' ;d'bfodf pknAw dfgj ;+;fwg, != ;d'bfo, lzIffljb, lzIfs tyf df}lb|s tyf ef}lts ;|ftx¿ ;fd'bflos ] lzIffyL{n] cfjZos ;|ftx¿sf] ] ;|ftleq k5{g . o:tf ;|ftsf] kl/rfng ] ] klxrfg ;d'bfoleq} u5{g . z}lIfs jftfj/0fsf] ;'wf/;Fu k|ToIf != u'0f:t/Lo lzIff, ;'/Iff Joj:yf ¿kdf hf] l 8g' k5{ . ljBfnosf] / sfo{qmddf lbuf] kx'rsf nflu F ;+/rgfTds ;'wf/ tyf dd{t;Def/sf ;d'bfodf pknAw ;|ftx¿sf]] nflu :yfgLo ;fwg / >dsf] kl/rfng x'G5 . of]ubfgsf] vfsf tof/ ug'{ k5{ . != ;a} ;/f]sf/jfnfn] ;d'bfosf] @= kx'r / ;'/Iffsf] lj:tf/ “ Ifdtf klxrfgdf ;xof]u u5{g ;ªs6fled"v ju{sf afnaflnsfnfO{ / :yfgLo ;Lk tyf Ifdtfsf] lgoldt ?kdf ljBfno hfg] jftfj/0f pRrtd k|of]u x'g] lsl;dn] agfpg ;d'bfosf ;b:onfO{ ;lqmo z}lIfs sfo{qmdsf] ;+/rgf ¿kdf kl/rfng ug]{ Joj:yf ug'{ k5{ . tof/ x'G5 . ul/a kl/jf/sf afnaflnsfnfO{ ;kmf n'uf k|bfg ug'{ jf afnaflnsf Hofbf ePsf kl/jf/nfO{ vfBfGg pknAw u/fpg' tyf lszf]/Lx¿dfly x'g] ;Defljt b'Jo{jxf/af6 ltgLx¿nfO{ ;'/Iff lbg dlxnf ;xeflutf a9fpg' o;sf s]xL pbfx/0f x'g . #= :yfloTjsf] k|Tofe"lt sfo{qmd lbuf] x'g] cfwf/ tof/ u/L ;|ft kl/rfng, Joj:yfkg tyf k|zf;sLo ] sfdsf/jfxLdf ;d'bfosf] pQ/bfloTjsf] af]w u/fpg' k5{ . $= ;fd'bflos of]ubfgsf] :jLsf/ ;fd'bflos ;xof]u / k|lta4tfnfO{ :jLsf/ u/L To;sf] lbuf]kgsf nflu k|f¿k tof/ ug'{ k5{ . bftfnfO{ lbOg] ;"rgfdf ;d'bfosf] of]ubfgsf] dfqfTds tyf u'0ffTds hfgsf/L ;dfj]z x'g' k5{ . k|sf]k M dfgjclwsf/ / sfg'g ÷49
  50. 50. %= :yfgLo Ifdtf M ;ªs6sfnLg ;dodf klg lzIffnfO{ lg/Gt/tf lbg;Sg] Ifdtf tyf ;ªs6;Fu h'Wg ;Sg] ;fd'bflos Ifdtf clej[l4sf nflu cfjZos tflnd / dgf]an a9fpg] sfo{qmddf hf]8 lbg' k5{ . dfkb08– v08M @ sfo{qmdsf] ljZn]if0f ;ªs6sfnLg lzIff sfo{qmdsf] k|efjsf/L sfof{Gjog / lbuf]kgsf nflu ;fd'bflos ;xeflutfsf] cj:yf / k|ltkmnsf] lgoldt ¿kdf ljZn]if0f ul/g' k5{ . o;/L ljZn]if0f ug]{ k|lqmofsf klg dfkb08 lgwf{/0f ul/Psf 5g, tL lgDgcg';f/ 5g M ljZn]if0f dfkb08 ! M k|f/lDes n]vfhf]vf dfu{bz{g k|dv ;"rs ' != ;dosf] n]vfhf]vf != k|sf]ksf] cj:yf / ;'/Iffsf] l:yltnfO{ ;d'bfosf] ;'/Iffsf nflu k|sf]ksf] Wofgdf /fVb} k|sf]kk"j{sf] z}lIfs ;do / To;kl5 kg]{ k|efjsf] cj:yfsf] cWoog ul/G5 . n]vfhf]vf x'g' k5{ . lzIffdf kx'Frsf] ;'lglZrttfsf nflu @= ;" r ssf] ljsf;, JofVof, ;' w f/Ù ;fd' b flos ;~hfnh:tf] Joj:yfkg / tYofªs ;ªsngdf j}slNks ;|ftsf] ljsf; ug'{ k5{ . ] d'Vo ;/f]sf/jfnfx¿ ;dfj]z x'G5g . #= ;/f]sf/jfnfx¿sf] ;lqmo ;xeflutfdf @= tYofªs ;ªsng÷n]vfhf]vf k|sf]kk|efljt If]qsf nflu lzIffsf] lzIfssf] cfjZostf, Ifdtf, cfjZostf / ;|ftsf] n]vfhf]vf x'G5 . ] tyf ;d:ofsf tYofªs / cGo $= pknAw ;|ftcg'?k k|efljt ;d'bfodf ] ;"rgfsf] ;ªsng of]hgfa4 cfly{ s , ;fdflhs, /fhgLlts ¿kdf x' g ' k5{ . k| s f] k k| l t ;'/Iff;DaGwL ;]jfsf] cfjZostf hjfkmb] x L agfpg lzIff lgwf{/0f ul/G5 . k|bfosx¿af6 ul/g] :ynut e|d0fdf ;dGjo ug'{ k5{ . %= lzIffyL{ s f] ;' / Iffsf vt/f tyf ;ªs6fled"vtf ljZn]if0f ul/G5 . #= ljZn]if0f ljlw ;ªs6sfnLg lzIffnfO{ e]befj/lxt agfpg] ljlwsf] lgisif{ lgsfNg'kj{ " k|sf]k M dfgjclwsf/ / sfg'g ÷50
  51. 51. tYofªnfO{ lqsf]0fLo k4ltdf ?kfGt/0f ug'{ k5{ . lqsf]0fLo tYofªssf] :j¿k tYofªssf] bf]xf]/f] kg]{ jf vlK6g] l:yltnfO{ dfkg jf ljZn]if0f ug]{ ldl>t ljlw xf] . $= ;/f]sf/jfnfsf] ;+nUgtf ;Dej eP;Dd k|efljt ;d'bfosf w]/} JolQm tyf ;/f]sf/jfnfx¿ ;dfj]z ul/g' k5{ . k|f/Dedf tYofªs ;ªsng, ljZn]if0f tyf Joj:yfkg of]hgfsf] ljsf;df ;/f]sf/jfnfsf] ;xeflutf ;Lldt eP klg cg'udg tyf d"Nofªsgdf pgLx?sf] ;xeflutf a9fpg' k5{ . %= n]vfhf]vfsf] k|flKt of]hgfnfO{ clGtd ¿k lbg ljZn]if0f ul/Psf] tYofªs oyfzL3« pknAw x'g] Joj:yf ldnfpg' k5{ . lzIffsf] cfjZostf / ;|ftsf] klxrfg ug{ ;ªs6cl3 ] / kl5sf] l:yltsf] k|If]lkt vfsf tTsfn pknAw x'g' k5{ . ^= ;fdfGo cfsl:ds cj:yfsf] n]vfhf]vf lzIffsf] k|Tofe"lt / afnaflnsfsf] ;'/Iffsf lgldQ cfjZos ;|ftsf] tYofªs ] ;ªsng ug{ lzIffljb / ;'/Ifflj1nfO{ ;dfj]z ug'{ k5{ . &= hf]lvd ljZn]if0f afns tyf o'jfx¿sf] :jf:Yo ;'/Iffdf k|efj kfg]{ ;j{kIfLo cj:yfk|lt Wofg lbg' k5{ . ljBfyL{dfly cfpg;Sg] jftfj/0fLo vt/f, af?bL ;'?ª tyf ljikmf]6s xltof/h:tf hf]lvdsf] ;"rL tof/ u/]/ ejg tyf cGo k"jf{wf/sf] ;'/Iffsf] k|Tofe"lt x'gu/L tYofªs tyf kl/l:yltsf] ljZn]if0f ug'{ k5{ . ] ;Defljt hf]lvdsf] klxrfg / ljZn]if0f u/]/ To;sf] Go"gLs/0fsf nflu Joj:yfkg /0fgLlt tof/ u/L k"jtof/L, k'g;+/rgfsf] ;'wf/h:tf kIfdf { { sfd ug]{ Joj:yf ul/g' k5{ . *= n]vfhf]vfaf6 k|fKt glthfsf] cfbfg k|bfg M ;ªs6sfnLg lzIff of]hgfsf] dfkb08nfO{ k|efjsf/L agfpg /fli6«o tyf :yfgLo :t/sf k|ltlglwx¿aLr ;dGjo ul/g' k5{ . glthfsf] cfbfgk|bfg u/L kl/dfh{g ug'{ kg]{ cj:yfsf] ljZn]if0f / bIf tyf k|lt:kwL{ lgsfosf] cefj ePdf cGt/f{li6«o g]tTjnfO{ ;dGjo tyf hfgsf/L cfbfgk|bfg ;+oGqsf] [ lhDdf lbg' k5{ . k|sf]k M dfgjclwsf/ / sfg'g ÷51
  52. 52. sfo{qmd ljZn]if0f dfkb08 @ M /0fgLlts lhDd]jf/L z}lIfs sfo{qmdnfO{ hjfkmb]xL agfpg :ki6 ljj/0f ;lxt ;d:ofsf] ljZn]if0f u/L sfo{sf] vfsf ljsl;t ug'{ k5{ . dfu{bz{g k|dv ;"rs ' != hjfkmb]xL != sfo{ q mdsf] cf/Dedf cfwf/e" t ;ªs6sfnLg lzIffsf Go"gtd tYofªs ;ªsng x'G5g . dfkb08 sfof{Gjog ug{ cfjZos @= ;du| tYofªsn] ;'ema'emnfO{ :ki6 sf]if;lxt ah]6 ljlgof]hgsf] k|ltljlDat u5{ . k|Tofe"lt x'g' k5{ . cg'dfg #= afnaflnsf, o' j f, k| f } 9 ;a} s f] ul/PeGbf a[xt :t/df z}lIfs lzIffk|lt lhDd]jf/Lsf] af]w x'G5 . sfo{qmdsf] dfu ePdf To;k|lt hjfkmb]xL x'g ;Dej eP;Dd $= k| f /lDes tYofª s ;F u kl5Nnf nrstf ckgfpg ;lsg] k|:tfj tYofªssf] t'ngfTds ljZn]if0f x'G5 . x'g' k5{ . To;}u/L k|:tfjn] s'g %= ;ªs6fled'v ;d'bfosf nflu z}lIfs :yfgsf] nflu s:tf] k|sf/sf] sfo{ q mdnfO{ /0fgLlts ?kdf z}lIfs sfo{qmd ;~rfng ug]{ hjfkmb]xL agfpF5 . of]hgf /x]sf] 5 eGg] ls6fg ug'{ ^= ;dfj]zL tyf u'0f:t/Lo z}lIfs k5{ . /0fgLltn] k|sf]kk|efljt ;d'bfosf] @= tYofªs ;ªsng÷ljZn]if0f cfjZostf ;Daf]wg u5{ . k|:tfjn] cfwf/e"t tYofªssf] ;ªsng tyf ljZn]if0f, sd{rf/Lsf] Ifdtf clej[l4, / cg'udg tyf d"NofªsgnfO{ ;'lglZrt ug'{ k5{ . #= /0fgLltnfO{ cBfjlws ug]{ ;dofg'sn ;d:of ;dfwfgsf nflu /0fgLltnfO{ q}dfl;s ¿kdf k'g/fjnf]sg " u/L cBfjlws ug'{ k5{ . $= bftfsf] hjfkmb]xLtf z}lIfs u'0f:tf/ sfod /fVg / ;ªs6fled"v lzIffyL{x¿sf] lg/Gt/tfsf nflu bftfn] ;xof]u h'6fpg hjfkmb]xL x'g' k5{ . lj:yflkt dflg;sf] a;f]af; ePsf] 7fpFdf lzIffsf Go"gtd dfkb08 k"/f ug{ cfjZos sf]ifsf] Joj:yf ug'{ k5{ . k|sf]k M dfgjclwsf/ / sfg'g ÷52

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