15. biochemical accident dks 14

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15. biochemical accident dks 14

  1. 1. h}ljs tyf /f;folgs b'36gf÷1 {
  2. 2. k|sf]k–1fgdfnf–!% h}ljs tyf /f;folgs b'36gf { n]vs /fdrGb| Gof}kfg] k|sfzs h}ljs tyf /f;folgs b'36gf÷2 {
  3. 3. s[lt M h}ljs tyf /f;folgs b'36gf { n]vs M /fdrGb| Gof}kfg] k|sfzs M jftfj/0f tyf afn ;/f]sf/ ;+:yf–g]kfn (ECO-Nepal) ;jf{lwsf/ M k|sfzsdf ;'/lIft ;+:s/0f M k|yd, ;fpg @)^$ ;ªVof M @,))) k|lt cfj/0f l8hfOg M /d]z bfxfn d'b|s M lszf]/ ckm;]6 k|; -k|f=_ ln=, kmf]g M $#%!)$$ ] d"No M ?= %)÷– ISBN : 978-99946-927-3-6 k|sf]ksf] hf]lvd Go"gLs/0f tyf k|sf]ksf] ;fdgf ug]{ ;fd'bflos Ifdtf clej[l4sf nflu ;r]tg cleofgcGtu{t k|sf]k–1fgdfnf k|sfzgdf cf+lzs ¿kdf cfly{s ;xof]u ug]{ lgDg ;fem]bf/ ;+:yfx¿k|lt Osf]–g]kfn xflb{s cfef/ JoQm ub{5 M PS;gP8 g]kfn cS;kmfd hLaL g]kfn kf]= a= g+= ^@%&, sf7df8f}+, g]kfn kf]= a= g+= @%)), sf7df8f}+, g]kfn kmf]gM $$#^$&& kmf]gM %%@)%*^ kmofS;M (&&–!–$$!(&!* kmofS;M (&&–!–%%@#!(& j]e;fO6M www.actionaid.org/nepal j]e;fO6M www.oxfam.org.uk h}ljs tyf /f;folgs b'36gf÷3 {
  4. 4. k|sfzssf] egfO g]kfndf h}ljs tyf /f;folgs b'36gfn] k|sf]ksf] ?k lng] cj:yf { ljsl;t eOg;s]sf] eP klg o;nfO{ k|sf]ksf ?kdf x]g{] ljZjJofkL dfGotf cufl8 cfO;s]sf] 5 . x'g t g]kfn cf}Bf]lus ljsf;df lgs} kl5 /x]sf] ljsf;zLn d'ns xf] . oxfF h}ljs tyf /f;folgs j:t'sf] ' pTkfbg x'bg eGg ;lsg] cj:yf 5 . oBlk /f;folgs kbfy{, F } sL6gfzs ljiffbL / cf}iflwhGo /;fog ljsl;t d'nsaf6 cfoft ug]{ ' k/Dk/f rn]sf] lgs} nfdf] ;do eO;s]sf] 5 . xfd|f] d'n'sdf sL6gfzs cf}iflwsf] k|of]udf eO/x]sf] j[l4n] ;':t ?kdf dxfdf/Lsf] ?k lng] ;Defjgf eg] a9b} uPsf] 5 . jGohGt'sf] cqmd0f eg] g]kfnsf] hl6n ;d:of xf] . xfQL, u}8f, F af3, ax'nf s's/, ;k{ cflbsf] cfqmd0faf6 jif]gL bh{gf}F dflg;sf] ' { d[To' x'g] u/]sf] 5 . o:tf jGohGt'sf] cfqmd0faf6 kLl8t JolQm tyf kl/jf/nfO{ ;/sf/n] s'g} k|sf/sf] Ifltk"lt{ lbg] gLltut Joj:yf x'g ;s]sf] 5}g . ljz]if kl/l:yltdf / kx'r ePsf kl/jf/n] eg] obfsbf F Ifltk"lt{ kpg] u/]sf] klg kfOG5 . h}ljs tyf /f;folgs b'3{6gf tyf jGohGt'sf] cfqmd0faf6 klg hgwgsf] Iflt x'g] qmd tLj| x'b} uPsf] sf/0f g]kfndf klg o:tf F 36gfnfO{ k|sf]ksf ?kdf :jLsf/ ug'{ cfjZos b]lvPsf] 5 . g]kfnsf] ;Gbe{df gf}nf] b]lvP klg o;af6 kg]{ ;fdflhs ;ªs6k|lt ;+jbgzLn x'g' x'g' h?/L /x]sf] 5 . ] of] ljifo gofF eP klg h}ljs tyf /f;folgs b'36gfaf/] ;/n efiffdf { hfgsf/L lbg ;kmn n]vs Gof}kfg];lxt k|sf]k 1ffgdfnfsf] k|sfzg ug{ k|/0ff k|bfg ug]{ PS;gP8 g]kfnsf l;lgo/ lydln8/ Zofd;'Gb/ ] 1fjfnL / cS;kmfd hLaL g]kfnsf sfo{qmd ;+of]hs lji0f'k;fb v/]n | tyf o;sf] z'4fz'l4 / ;fh;Hhfdf ;xof]u ug]{ Osf]–g]kfnsf ;a} ;xofqLx?k|lt wGojfb JoQm ub{5f}F . Osf]–g]kfn ECO-Nepal h}ljs tyf /f;folgs b'36gf÷4 {
  5. 5. ljifo;"rL h}ljs cfqmd0f tyf /f;folgs b'36gf { %–!! ljifok|jz ] % h}ljs k|sf]k tyf b'36gf { ^ jGohGt' / dflg;aLr åGå & jGohGt' lx+;s x'gsf] sf/0f | ' & jGohGt'sf] cfqmd0f lgoGq0fsf pkfo ( ;/sf/L bfloTj !) /f;folgs b'36gf tyf o;af6 aRg] pkfo { !@–!( /f;folgs b'36gfsf s]xL k|;ªu { !# /f;folgs b'36gf lgoGq0f { !$ ;]e;f] 36gfkl5sf] k|of; ] !% /;fogsf] hf]lvd / Joj:yfkg !% pk;+xf/ !( ;Gbe{;fdu|L @) h}ljs tyf /f;folgs b'36gf÷5 {
  6. 6. h}ljs cfqmd0f tyf /f;folgs b'36gf { ljifok|j]z g]kfndf h}ljs tyf /f;folgs b'36gfsf] ljifodf s'/f ubf{ gf}nf] / cfZro{hgs { nfUg ;S5 . cf}Bf]lus ljsf;sf qmddf afd] dfq klg ;g{ g;s]sf] d'nsdf ' o; k|sf/sf] b'36gf x'G5 eg]/ sNkgf klg ug{ ;lsFbg . d'nssf] cfly{s { } ' ljsf;df ko{6g Joj;fosf] k|j4{g / hnljB'tsf] ljsf; g} k|fyldstfdf /x]sf] jt{dfg ;Gbe{df 7"nf /f;folgs sf/vfgfsf] :yfkgf x'g] ;Defjgf sd} /x]sf] 5 . oBlk g]kfnsf] ;Gbe{df hLjf0f'af6 dflg;sf] :jf:Yodf x'g] cfqmd0f, v]taf/Ldf nufOPsf vfBfGg afnLdf x'g] sL/f tyf jGohGt'sf] cltqmd0f, jgljgfzsf sf/0f dflg;dfly x'g] jGohGt'sf] cfqmd0f / s[lifpTkfbg j[l4 tyf /f]u / sL/fsf] lgoGq0fsf nflu k|of]u ul/g] sL6gfzs cf}iflwn] h}ljs tyf /f;folgs b'36gfsf] l:ylt pTkGg ug]{ ;Defjgf eg] Jofks aGb} uPsf] { 5 . To;}n] oxfF 7"nf /f;folgs b'36gfsf af/]df Hofb} yf]/} dfq rrf{ ul/g]5 { eg] g]kfnsf ;Gbe{df jGohGt'sf] cfqmd0f, v]taf/Ldf nfUg] /f]u, sL/f / To;sf] lgoGq0fsf nflu k|of]u x'g] sL6gfzs cf}iflw jf /;fogsf ljifodf ;+lIfKt rrf{ ul/g]5 . ljZjdf hg;ªVofsf] rfk lbg k|ltlbg a9b} uPsf] 5 . a9bf] hg;ªVofsf] nflu cfjZos kg]{ vfBfGgsf] cfk"lt{ ug{ pTkfbg a9fpg'sf] s'g} ljsNk 5}g . vfBfGg pTkfbg a9fpg dflg;af6 sL/fsf] lgoGq0f tyf /f]usf] pkrf/sf nflu sL6gfzs / /f]ulg/f]w cf}iflwsf] cfljisf/ x'g] qmd tLj| ultdf k|f/De eof] . o;sf ;fy} /f;folgs dnsf] pTkfbg / k|of]udf ;d]t Jofks ¿kn] j[l4 ePsf] 5 . s]xL jif{otf jgljgfzsf] ult sd x'b} uP klg klg jGohGt'sf] pko'Qm F h}ljs tyf /f;folgs b'36gf÷6 {
  7. 7. af;:yfg eg] 36bf] qmddf 5 . ;fd'bflos jgsf] ljsf; / lj:tf/n] jgsf] If]qkmn a9] klg /fli6«o jgdflysf] cltqmd0f / rfk eg] lg/Gt/ al9/x]sf] 5 . o;/L a9]sf] cltqmd0fsf sf/0f jgsf] leqL cj:yf tyf :j¿k kftlnFb} hfg] qmddf /x]sf] 5 . af;:yfg / vfB pknAwtfsf] cefjsf] kl/0ffd:j¿k dflg; / v]tLkftLdf jGohGt'sf] cfqmd0f klg a9b} uPsf] 5 . g]kfndf o; k|sf/sf] 36gfnfO{ k|sf]ksf ¿kdf lng] ul/Psf] 5}g . oBlk ablnFbf] kl/l:yltdf jGohGt'sf] cfqmd0fn] k|sf]ksf] cj:yf eg] pTkGg ub} cfPsf] 5 . k|sf]k 1fgdfnfsf] o; z[ªvnfdf xfdL jGohGt'sf] cfqmd0f / /f;folgs b'36gfsf { af/]df rrf{ ug]5f}F . hLjf0f'sf] cfqmd0f / dxfdf/Laf/] k|sf]k 1fgdfnf–!) { df ljj]rgf ul/;lsPsf] x'bf To; ljifodf oxfF rrf{ ul/g] 5}g . F h}ljs k|sf]k tyf b'3{6gf dflg; tyf dflg;åf/f pTkfbg x'g] vfBfGg, kmnk"mn / t/sf/Lsf] v]tLdfly hLjhGt' tyf hLjf0f'åf/f x'g] cfqmd0fn] dflg; / dfgjLo ;DklQsf] Iflt x'g] cj:yfnfO{ h}ljs k|sf]k elgG5 . o:tf] k|sf]k ;fdfGoh:tf] nfUg] eP klg obfsbf ljgfzsf/L klg x'g ;S5 . ax'nf s's/ / :ofnn] 6f]s/ jf ;k{bzaf6 ' ] + slxn]sfxLF k|sf]khGo cj:yf pTkGg x'g] u/]sf] kfOG5 . o; k|sf/sf] kL8faf6 cGo k|sf]ks} h:tf] u|fdL0f If]qsf ;LdfGt ;d'bfo g} a9L kLl8t x'g] u5{g . lbgk|ltlbg al9/x]sf] jftfj/0fLo k|bif0f tyf hnjfo' kl/jt{gsf sf/0f " ljZjdf gofF–gofF hLjsf] pTklQ / lj:tf/ x'g] qmd klg tLj| aGb} uPsf] 5 . To;}u/L k[YjLdf /x]sf hLjsf] :j¿k / pkof]lutfdf klg kl/jt{g x'b} uPsf] F 5 . kl/0ffd:j¿k gofF–gofF /f]usf] pTklQ klg x'g yfn]sf] 5 . hg:jf:Yodf k|ToIf tyf ck|ToIf k|efj kfg]{ o:tf /f]ux¿sf] ljsf;nfO{ klg h}ljs cfqmd0fsf] ¿kdf lng ;lsG5 . sfnfHjf/, 8FuHj/f], x}hf, h'sf, emf8fafGtfh:tf ] ' dxfdf/LnfO{ klg h}ljs cfqmd0fs} ¿kdf lng ;lsG5 . To;}u/L ljZjdf zlQmsf] xf]8 rln/x]sf] 5 . o'4sf ljleGg vfn] xltof/ / h}ljs xltof/sf] cfljisf/n] dflg; g} dflg;sf] b'Zdgsf ¿kdf b]lvPsf] 5 . o'4sf qmddf s'g} nx8L zf;sn] sy+sbflrt h}ljs xltof/sf] k|of]u ug]{ cfb]z lbof] eg] ljZjn] clxn];Dds} ;a}eGbf 7"nf] Iflt a]xf]g{' kg]5 . o; { h}ljs tyf /f;folgs b'36gf÷7 {
  8. 8. sygcg';f/ …3/kfn'jf jf jGohGt', /f]upTkGg ug]{ hLjf0f'sf] cfqmd0f / dflg;åf/f pTkflbt h}ljs xltof/sf] k|of]un] pTkGg ug]{ ljgfzsf/L cj:yfnfO{ h}ljs k|sf]k tyf b'36gf elgG5 . o:tf] 36gfn] dflg; dg]{ jf 3fOt] x'g] jf { cªueªu x'g] tyf dflg;åf/f ul/Psf] v]tLkftLnufot cGo ;DklQ ;d]t gi6 x'g] cj:yf pTkGg x'G5 eg] To;nfO{ h}ljs k|sf]k eGg' kg]{ x'G5 . jGohGt' / dflg;aLr åGå g]kfndf jGohGt'sf] cftªs lgoldt ¿kdf rln/x]sf] 5 . @)^) ;fn ebf} $ ut] ;'g;/Lsf wgaxfb'/ >]i7n] xfQLnfO{ dfg{ ufpFnn] yfk]sf] ljB'tLo ] w/fkdf k/L Hofg u'dfP . To;}u/L ;f]xL lhNnfdf xfQLn] pv' v]tL ;vfk kf/]sf] sf/0f /fdaxfb'/ bfxfnn] yfk]sf] ljB'tLo w/fkdf k/L Pp6f xfQL d/]sf] lyof] . ToxL ;fn k'; @# ut] ljB'tLo w/fkd} ;'8 k/]/ Pp6f xfQL F d/]sf] lyof] eg] emfkfsf] ch'gwf/fsf] ;fd'bflos jgdf bfp/f vf]Hg uPsf ] { rf/ hgfnfO{ hªunL xfQLn] df/]sf] lyof] . ToxL jif{ lrtjgdf af3sf] cfqmd0faf6 !@ hgfn] Hofg u'dfPsf lyP . To; af3nfO{ :yfgLojf;Ln] /fhb/af/af6 l;sf/L lemsfP/ dfg'{ k/]sf] lyof] . o:tf 36gf t/fO{ / kxf8L b'a} If]qdf lgoldt ¿kdf x'g] u5{g . o:tf 36gfdf k/L slxn] dflg; d5{g jf 3fOt] x'G5g eg] slxn] To:tf cfqmd0fsf/L jGohGt'nfO{ dflg;n] dfg]{ u5{g . jGohGt'sf] cfqmd0fsf] o; k|sf/sf] z[ªvnfn] jGohGt' lsg olt lx+;s x'b5g eg]/ cWoog ug'kg]{ cj:yf ljsl;t x'b} cfPsf] 5 . dflg; / | F} { F jGohGt'aLr rln/x]sf] o; åGån] dflg;nfO{ dfq hf]lvddf kf/]sf] 5}g, jGohGt'sf] ljgfzsf] hf]lvd klg a9b} uPsf] 5 . o; k|sf/sf] åGån] h}ljs ljljwtf ;ªs6fkGg aGb} uPsf] / k|fs[lts ;|ftdfly dfgjLo kx'r 6fl9Fb} ] F uPsf] cg'el" t ug{ yflnPsf] 5 . jGohGt' lx+;|s x'g'sf] sf/0f rf/ bzscl3;Dd g]kfnsf] b'Ol{ txfOeGbf a9L If]qkmn jgn] 9fs]sf] lyof] . To;;dodf htftt} jGohGt' b]Vg kfOg] s'/f xfd|f lktfk'vf{n] ub}{ cfPsf 5g . t/ otfsf bzsdf jgdfly a9]sf] cltqmd0fn] oqtq kfOg] jGohGt' h}ljs tyf /f;folgs b'36gf÷8 {
  9. 9. b]Vg;d]t d'l:sn x'b} uPsf] 5 . sltko jGohGt' nf]k x'g] vt/fdf k/]sf 5g F eg] sltko nf]k eO;s]sf 5g . To;}u/L w]/} jGohGt' clxn] ;ªs6fled'v aGb} uPsf 5g . h;n] ubf{ ;+s6fled'v k|hfltnfO{ ;+/lIft jGohGt'sf] ;"rLdf /fVg'kg]{ cj:yf cfPsf] 5 . clxn] g]kfndf !# k|hfltsf :tgwf/L, $ k|sf/sf r/f;lxt clhªu/ / 3l8ofn uf]xL ;+/lIft jGohGt'sf] ;"rLdf /x]sf 5g . o;/L jGohGt' nf]k x'g' jf ;+s6fled'v k|hfltsf] ;"rLdf kg'sf] k5fl8 { jgljgfz g} k|dv sf/0f b]lvPsf] 5 . cfˆgf] af;:yfg ljv08gsf] rk]6fdf ' k/]kl5 clwsf+z jGohGt' a;fOF;/fO u/]/ ;'/lIft If]qtkm{ nfUg' jf ;Gtfgf]Tkfbgdf sdL cfP/ nf]k x'g' cfZro{hgs s'/f xf]Og eg] ;fF3l' /Psf] ] af;:yfgaf6 dfgja:tLlt/ k:g' klg gf}nf] s'/f xf]Og . clwsf+z jgIf]q ljgfz x'b} jf kftlnFb} uPkl5 ;/sf/åf/f ;+/lIft jg jf /fli6«o lgs'~hx¿df F jGohGt'sf] rfk a9b} uPsf] kfOG5 . o;/L ;fgf] If]qdf w]/} k|sf/sf / w]/} ;ªVofdf jGohGt' a:g' c;Dej x'g] ePsfn] klg jGohGt' dfgja:tLlt/ lg:sg] u5{g / b'36gf lgDTofpF5g . { o;sf ;fy} jGohGt'sf] ljr/0f ug]{ af6f] klg ;fF3l' /Fb} uPsf] 5 . jGohGt'sf] ljr/0f If]q ;Lldt x'b} uPsfn] klg cfqmd0f ug]{ jf cfqmd0f x'g] hf]lvddf F klg j[l4 x'b} uPsf] 5 . pbfx/0fsf] ¿kdf DofGdf/b]lv ef/tsf] cf;fd x'b} F F g]kfnsf] sf]zL gbL 5]p5fpsf] jgIf]q;Dd x'g] xfQLsf] :jtGq cfjthfjtnfO{ lng ;lsG5 . x/]s jif{sf] dªl;/–k';df ^) b]lv &) sf] ;ªVofdf cf;fd x'b} F hªunL xfQL g]kfn k|jz ug]{ u/]sf] kfOG5 . o;/L k;]sf xfQLn] ljz]ifu/L ] k"jL{ g]kfnsf] emfkf, df]/ª, ;'g;/L, pbok'/;Dd ljt08f dRrfpFb} w]/} wg hgsf] Iflt ug]{ u/]sf] 5 . o;}u/L g]kfndf af3sf] cftªs klg sd kL8fbfoL 5}g . af3sf] ;+/If0f ePsf /fli6«o lgs'~h cf;kf; dfq xf]Og, cGo If]qsf ufpF / ;x/df klg af3sf] k|jz x'g] u5{ . s]xL ;fd'bflos jgsf] 3gTj a9g yfn]kl5 tL jg ] af3sf] af;:yfgsf nflu pko'Qm x'g yfn]sf 5g . kl/0ffd:j¿k ;fd'bflos jgdf a:g] af3n] 3'dlkm/ ug]{ :yfg gkfpFbf jf cfxf/sf nflu jgdf cGo ;fsfxf/L jGohGt' gkfpFbf ltgLx¿ l;sf/sf] vf]hLdf ufpF jf ;x/lt/ h}ljs tyf /f;folgs b'36gf÷9 {
  10. 10. k:5g . lzjk'/L /fli6«o lgs'~haf6 obfsbf af3 / lrt'jf lgl:sP/ sf7df8f}+ pkTosfsf ;x/L / u|fdL0f If]qdf k:g' o;}sf] pkh dflgPsf] 5 . o:t} l:ylt d'nssf clwsf+z u|fdL0f If]qdf klg x'g] u/]sf] 5 . o;/L jGohGt'sf] cfqmd0f ' a9gsf k|dv sf/0fnfO{ o;/L lng ;lsG5 M ' ' jgljgfzåf/f af;:yfg ;fF3l' /g', ;fd'bflos jgsf] If]qkmn ;fgf] x'g,' /fli6«o jgsf] leqL 3gTj kftnf] x'g,' jgljgfzsf sf/0f zfsfxf/L hgfj/ nf]k x'g' / zfsfxf/L hgfj/sf] cefjdf df+zfxf/L hgfj/sf] nflu cfxf/fsf] cefj x'g,' jgljgfzsf sf/0f jGohGt'sf] 3'dlkm/ ug]{ af6f] cj¿4 x'g' . hgfj/nfO{ dflg;af6 cfk"mdfly cfqmd0f x'g] cfef; x'g,' jGohGt'sf] cfqmd0f lgoGq0fsf pkfo jGohGt'sf] dflg;dfly cfqmd0f x'g' c:jefljs xf]Og . clwsf+z zfsfxf/L hgfj/ dflg;b]lv efU5g eg] df+zfxf/L hgfj/n] obfsbf dflg;nfO{ g} cfqmd0f u5{g . d"ntM clwsf+z hgfj/n] dflg;af6 cfk"mdfly vt/f pTkGg x'g] ;Defjgf b]vdf dfq dflg;dfly cfqmd0f u5{g jf nv]65g . t/ xfQL ] zfsfxf/L jGohGt' ePklg p;n] dflg;nfO{ ljgfsf/0f g} klg nv]6g] jf dfg]{ u5{ . s'g} af3n] Psk6s dflg;sf] l;sf/ u/]/ vfPsf] 5 eg] To;nfO{ g/eIfL af3 elgG5 . To:tf] af3n] dflg;nfO{ h'g;'s} ;dodf e]6df jf ] b]vdf klg cfqmd0f ug{ ;S5 . ctM o:tf hgfj/af6 x'g;Sg] cfqmd0faf6 ] aRg] pkfosf] vf]hL ug'{ g} ;a}eGbf a'l4dfgL 7xl/g]5 . To;}u/L g]kfnsf] t/fO{ If]qdf xfQLsf] cfqmd0fdf k/L jif]gL bh{geGbf a9L { dflg;sf] d[To' x'g] u/]sf] cg'dfg 5 eg] 7"nf] dfqfdf wfg, ux',F pv', t/sf/LafnL gi6 x'g] u/]sf] 5 . jGohGt'af6 s'g jif{ slt dflg;sf] d[To' eof] jf slt wgdfnsf] Iflt eof] eGg] tYofªsLo clen]v PsLs[t ug]{ Joj:yf gePsfn] ;/sf/n] ;d]t To:tf] tYofªs lbg ;Sg] cj:yf 5}g . h}ljs tyf /f;folgs b'36gf÷10 {
  11. 11. sltko tYofªssf] ;ªsng k|lqmof g} q'l6k"0f{ /x]sf] cg'dfg ug{ ;lsG5 . ljZjs} k|l;4 Psl;ª] u}8fsf] cfqmd0faf6 klg dflg;sf] d[To' x'g] u/]sf] 5 . F lrtjg /fli6«o lgs'~hsf] dWojtL{ If]qdf 3fF;bfp/fsf nflu jg k:g] pkef]Qmfn] slxn]sfxLF u}8fsf] l;sf/ x'g' k/]sf] 36gf ;'Gg kfOG5 . o; jif{ dfq} u}8fsf] F F cfqmd0fsf sf/0f To; If]qdf Ps hgfsf] d[To' ePsf] 5 . t/ o:tf 36gfsf] hfgsf/L ;~rf/sf] ;'ljwf ePsf ;x/ / ;x/cf;kf;sf If]qaf6 dfq cfpg] u/]sf] 5 . d'nssf] b'ud ufpFdf jGohGt'sf] cfqmd0faf6 d[To' ePsf] hfgsf/L ' { cfpg' lgs} sl7g x'G5 / To;k|lt sltko dflg;sf] rf;f] klg /x]sf] x'bg . F} h] eP klg jGohGt'sf] cfqmd0faf6 eO/x]sf] hgwgsf] Iflt lgoGq0fsf nflu ;/sf/n] ljz]if /0fgLlt clVtof/ ug'{ cfjZos b]lvG5 . plrt ;/sf/L k|of;af6 dfq} h}ljs ljljwtf tyf dfgj hgwgsf] Ifltsf] /f]syfd ug{ ;lsG5 . oBlk h}ljs ljljwtfsf] Bf]tssf ¿kdf /x]sf o:tf jGohGt'sf] ;+/If0f ug'{ dflg;sf] bfloTj g} xf], t/ ltgLx¿af6 x'g] cfqmd0flj¿4 cfˆgf] k|lt/Iff ug'{ klg clwsf/ xf] . t}klg jGohGt'sf] l;sf/ ug'eGbf ltgLx¿sf] { cfqmd0faf6 aRg] pkfosf] vf]hL ug'{ jftfj/0fLo tyf kl/l:yltsLo b[li6sf]0fn] ;fGble{s x'g5 . jGohGt'sf] cfqmd0f x'g;Sg] If]qdf a;f]af; ug]{ ;d'bfon] ] ;fjwfgL ckgfP/ cfˆgf] ;'/Iff ug'kg]{ x'G5 . o;sf nflu lgDg ljifodf { Wofg lbPdf klg jGohGt'sf] cfqmd0faf6 aRg ;xof]u ldN5 M g/eIfL af3 ePsf] hªun 5]p5fp a;f]af; ug]{ ufpFnn] laxfg} jf ] /flt 3/af6 aflx/ lgl:sg x'bg . h¿/L sfd k/]/ lgl:sg' k/]df F} 5/l5d]sLsf] ;xof]udf ;d"xdf dfq lgl:sg'k5{ . dlxnf, afnaflnsf, a"9fa'9LnfO{ PSn} jgleq / jgsf] 5]p5fp hfg lbg' x'bg . F} 3/ jf ufpF 5]p5fpsf] jgdf af3 ePsf] cfef; ePdf 3/kfn'jf hgfj/sf uf]7 jf vf]/ alnof] agfpg'k5{ jf cfjZos ;'/Iffsf] Joj:yf ug'k5{ . { af3nfO{ a:tLlt/ cfpg glbg dflg;sf] jf cGo cfsf/sf k'Tnf agfP/ v]taf/L, 3/uf]7 5]p5fp /fVg'k5{, To;f] ugf{n] af3 jf cGo h}ljs tyf /f;folgs b'36gf÷11 {
  12. 12. jGohGt' klg cfjf; If]qleq k|jz ug{ 8/fpg ;S5g . ] ;/sf/L bfloTj jftfj/0fLo tyf kl/l:yltsLo k|0ffnLsf] ;+/If0fsf lx;fan] klg jGohGt'sf] ;+/If0f ug'{ h¿/L 5 . nf]kf]Gd'v / ;ªs6fkGg jGohGt' t s'g} Ps b]zsf nflu dfq ;Dkbfsf ¿kdf /xg] cj:yf gePsfn] o:tf jGohGt'nfO{ cGt/f{li6«o ;Dkbfsf] ¿kdf :jLsf/ ug]{ ul/Psf] 5 . To;}n] o:tf b'ne jGohGt'sf] { l;sf/ ug'{ jf dflg;dfly cfqmd0f u/]sf] cj:yfdf dfl/xfNg' klg pko'Qm x'bg . To;}n] jGohGt'sf] cfqmd0f x'g;Sg] If]qdf ;/sf/n] ljz]if ;'/Iff F} k|aGw ug'{ ;/sf/sf] bfloTj x'g cfpF5 . s'g jGohGt'n] s'g If]qdf s'g ;dodf cfqmd0f u5{g eGg] cWoog ljZn]if0faf6 hf]lvdsf] klxrfg u/L ltgLx¿nfO{ dfgja:tLleq k:g glbg ckgfpg' kg]{ ;ts{tf tyf pkfosf] lgwf{/0f ug'{ cfjZos 5 . o;sf nflu ;/sf/n] h}ljs dfu{ lgwf{/0f u/L dflg;sf] k|jz jf cltqmd0f lgif]lwt If]q lgwf{/0f ug'{ /fd|f] x'G5 . gful/ssf] ] ;'/Iffsf nflu jGohGt' lgoGq0f b:tfsf ¿kdf hgkb jf z;:q k|x/LnfO{ tflnd lbnfpg] / To:tf] bIf hgzlQmnfO{ ;Defljt hf]lvdsf If]qdf kl/rfng ug]{ Joj:yf u/]df hgtfn] ;'/Iffsf] cg'el" t ug{ kfpg] 5g . jGohGt'sf] cfqmd0fdf k/L d/]sfsf nflu plrt Ifltk"lt{ lbg], 3fOt]sf] pkrf/sf] k|efjsf/L aGbf]a:t ug]{ / Iflt ePsf] wgdfnsf] plrt Ifltk"lt{ pknAw u/fpg] h:tf Joj:yf ug'{ klg ;/sf/sf] bfloTjleq g} k5{ . To;}n] o:tf] ljifodf ;/sf/n] cfjZos gLlt / lgod agfpg' h¿/L 5 . To;sf] nflu ;/sf/n] ljleGg ;/f]sf/jfnf lgsfo tyf ;j{;fwf/0f;Fu k/fdz{ u/L ;'emj ;ªsng ug'k5{ . { h}ljs tyf /f;folgs b'36gf÷12 {
  13. 13. /f;folgs b'36gf tyf { o;af6 aRg] pkfo ljZjdf 7"N7"nf pBf]usf] :yfkgf ePsf 5g . o'/l] god k|zf]wg u/L cf0fljs pmhf{ pTkfbg ug]{ dfq xf]Og, o'4sf nflu pkof]u x'g] xltof/ klg pTkfbg ug]{ k|rng a9b} uPsf] 5 . k"jL{ / klZrdL d'nsaLr a9b} uPsf] j}rfl/s ' lje]bsf sf/0f rn]sf] ;}4flGts emu8fn] o'4sf] ¿k lng]5g eGg ;lsg] } cj:yf /x]sf] klg 5}g . ljZjn] k|frLgsfnb]lv g} o'4sf] kL8f ef]Ub} cfPsf] 5 . k|frLg o'udf ePsf wfld{s o'4n] clxn] klg d'lQm kfpg ;s]sf] 5}g . ljZjJofkL ¿kdf cftªs dRrfO/x]sf] cnsfobf gfds ;ªu7gn] jt{dfg o'udf klg wfld{s o'4sf] gfddf ljZjdf ;ªs6 pTkGg ul//x]sf] 5 . /fhgLlts ¿kdf rn]sf] zlQmsf] xf]8sf sf/0f ljZjn] klxnf] / bf];f]| o'4sf] kL8f klg ef]lu;s]sf] 5 . bf];f]| ljZjo'4df cd]l/sfn] hfkfgdfly v;fn]sf] cf0fljs adn] u/]sf] ljgfznfO{ ljZjs} b'ef{Uosf] ¿kdf lng] ul/Psf] 5 . o:tf] o'4 km]l/ klg gxf]nf eGg ;lsg] cj:yf 5}g . oltv]/ cd]l/sfn] O/fsdfly u/]sf] cfqmd0fn] klg efjL ljZjo'4sf] vfsf tof/ u/]sf] xf] ls eGg] cfzªsf pTkGg ePsf] kfOG5 . o;sf ;fy} ljZjdf cGtb]zLo tyf cG/f{li6«o ¿ksf ;fgf–7"nf o'4 rln/x]sf { 5g . o; qmddf ljleGg k|sf/sf xltof/sf] k|of]u eO/x]sf] 5, h;df s'g} g s'g} k|sf/sf] /f;folgs tTjsf] k|of]u eO/x]sf] 5 . ;dfhdf ljb|fx x'bf, ] F ;fd'lxs emu8f x'bf jf ;/sf/ / ;dfhsf Ot/kIfaLr em8k x'bf k|of]u x'g] F F c>'Uof;nfO{ klg /f;folgs xltof/sf] k|of]usf ¿kdf lng ;lsG5 . ;fdfGo ¿kdf o; Uof;n] dflg;sf] cfFvfdf dfq k|efj k/]sf] cg'el" t eP klg o:tf] Uof; lg/Gt/ k|of]u eO/xFbf To;n] bL3{sfnLg k|efj kf5{ eGg] lj1x¿sf] egfOnfO{ cjx]ngf ug{ ldNb}g . o;/L ljZjdf rln/x]sf] zlQmsf] xf]8 / To; k|lqmofdf k|of]u x'g] /;folgs xftxltof/n] k|sf]kpGd'v cj:yfsf] pTklQ u/]sf] 5 . To;}n] dflg;åf/f pTkfbg ePsf /;fogsf] k|of]usf sf/0f pTkGg x'g] k|sf]knfO{ /f;folgs k|sf]k elgG5 eg] pmhf{ tyf /f;folgs kbfy{ h}ljs tyf /f;folgs b'36gf÷13 {
  14. 14. pTkfbg ug]{ 7"nf pBf]udf s'g} sf/0fn] b'36gf eP/ hgwgsf] Iflt ePdf { To;nfO{ /f;folgs b'36gf elgG5 . o:tf b'36gfaf6 /]l8of]wdL{ ljls/0fsf] { { r'xfj6 x'g] jf cGo /f;folgs tTjsf] r'xfj6 eP/ dfgjLo Ifltsf ;fy} jftfj/0f klg g/fd|/L k|bl" ift x'G5 . /]l8of]wdL{sf] r'xfj6 ;a}eGbf ljgfzsf/L dflgG5 . o;n] k|sf]khGo 36gfsf] ;dodf dfq geP/ bzsf};Dd cfˆgf] F k|efj sfod /fV5 . ;g !($% df cd]l/sfn] hfkfgsf] lx/f]l;df / gfuf;fsLdf v;fn]sf] adsf] k|efj jt{dfg k':tfn] ;d]t ef]lu/x'g k/]sf] oyfy{ g} o;sf] HjnGt pbfx/0f xf] . ;fdfGotof /]l8of]wdL{ ;fdu|Lsf] pTkfbg, e08f/0f / 9'jfgL ubf{ c;fjwfgLsf sf/0f ;+of]ua; x'g] /;fogsf] r'xfj6af6 x'g] Ifltsf] ;'/Iff g} ljZjJofkL ;fj{hlgs rf;f]sf] ljifo ag]sf] 5 . /;fogsf] k|of]u hgfj/dfly ug'{ jf ] b'36gfa; /;fog pgLx¿dfly r'lxg'h:tf 36gfn] z/L/sf] afXo tyf leqL { b'a} efudf k|efj kf5{ . /f;folgs b'36gfaf6 k|ToIf ¿kdf kg]{ tyf ck|ToIf { ¿kdf kg]{ k|efj b'an] 7"nf] If]qsf ;d'bfo k|efljt x'g] u5{g . o;k|sf/ } ljZjdf h}ljs tyf /f;folgs b'36gfn] k|sf]ksf] hf]lvd a9fO/x]sf] oyfy{nfO{ { :ki6 kf5{ . o:tf b'36gfn] dfgjlgld{t ;+/rgfdf ;d]t Jofks Iflt x'g] { u/]sf] 5 / o; qmdn] ljsf;dfly 7"nf] r'gf}tL k|bfg u/]sf] 5 . /f;folgs b'36gfsf s]xL k|;ªu { xflgsf/s /;folgs j:t'sf] pTkfbg, 9'jfgL jf k|of]u ubf{ x'g] cfsl:ds Ifltsf 36gfnfO{ g} /;folgs b'36gf elgG5 . ljiffQm tyf xflgsf/s ;fdu|Lsf] { cgk]lIft r'xfj6 jf oL ;fdu|L;Fu ;DalGwt xflgsf/s 36gf g} /;folgs b'36gf x'g . ljiffQm kbfy{sf] e08f/0f, 9'jfgL jf pkof]u ubf{ r'xfj6sf] { sf/0fn] /;folgs b'36gf eP tfklg vf; b'36gf pTkfbg tyf e08f/0f { { sf/vfgfdf g} x'g] u5{ . o:t} b'36gfsf] pbfx/0fdf ef/tsf] ef]kfn k|fGtsf] { Ps pBf]udf ;g !(*$ df ePsf] ljiffQm /;fog -/]l8of]wdL{ ljls/0f_ sf] r'xfj6n] sl/a b'O{ xhf/ kfFr ;o dflg;sf] Hofg lnPsf] lyof] . ;f] 36gfaf6 xhf/f}F dflg; ckfªu ag]sf lyP eg] clxn] klg To;sf] k|efj lg:t]h x'g ;s]sf] 5}g . To;}u/L ;g !(*^ df :jL6h/Nof0sf] af;]ndf glhs}sf] kfgLsf] ;|ftdf ] h}ljs tyf /f;folgs b'36gf÷14 {
  15. 15. kf/f], cf]uf{gf]kmf]:km]6 laiffQm tyf cGo /;fog ldl;P/ /fOg]gbLdf kfFr nfveGbf a9L df5f gi6 eof] . To:t} /f;folgs b'36gf o'/f]kdf klg ePsf] lyof] . ;g !(&^ df o'/f]kdf { ePsf] /f;folgs b'36gfnfO{ ;]e;f] b'36gfsf ¿kdf lrlgG5 . o; b'36gfaf6 { ] { { o'/f]kn] ef]usf] kL8f eljiodf k'gM gbf]xf]l/of]; eg]/ /f;folgs b'36gf ] { lgoGq0f sfg'gsf] nfu" eof] . o'/f]kdf nfu" ePsf] o; sg'gnfO{ g} ;]e;f] ] lgb]z gfdn] lrlgg yflnPsf] 5 . { ;g !(&^ df O6fnLsf] ;]e;f] eGg] 7fpFdf /x]sf] ljiffbL pTkfbg ug]{ /;folgs ] ;+oGqdf ePsf] b'36gfdf 6]6f« Snf]/f] l8a]Ghf]kf/fl8cf]lS;g 3gf w"jfFsf] ¿kdf { cf0fljs e§Laf6 r'xfj6 eof] . o; /;fogsf] k|of]u 6«fOSnf]/f]km]gf]n pTkfbg ug{ ul/GYof] . o;sf] cnfjf pQm e§Ldf pTkGg clgolGqt afXotfkLo k|ltlqmofsf sf/0f cToGt} ljiffn' sfl;{gf]hl] gs /;fog / /]l8of]wdL{ ljls/0f klg pT;h{g ePsf] lyof] . o; /;fogaf6 ePsf] c;/af/] s]xL dflg;afx]s cGo ;j{;fwf/0f gful/sn] tTsfn s'g} k|sf/sf] ;"rgf kfpg ;s]sf lyPgg . e§Laf6 dflg;df tTsfn} c;/ kfg]{ tTjsf] pT;h{g dfq ePsf] lyPg, To;n] tL; lsnf]ld6/eGbf aflx/sf] kl/lw;Dd cfˆgf] kmF8f lkmFhfPsf] lyof] . o; 36gfaf6 To; If]qsf ;Dk"0f{ v]tLafnLdf c;/ k'usf] lyof] eg] ^)) eGbf ] a9L dflg; ;f] :yfgaf6 lj:yflkt x'g' k/]sf] lyof] . o; b'36gfdf k/]/ slt { dflg;sf] d[To' ePsf] lyof] eGg] tYofªs geP klg b'O{ xhf/eGbf a9L dflg;nfO{ ;+jbgzLn cj:yfdf :jf:Yo;]jf k|bfg ug'{ k/]sf] lyof] . ] /f;folgs b'36gf lgoGq0f { /f;folgs r'xfj6 jf ljikmf]6sf 36gfnfO{ lgoGq0f ug{ k|fylds /f]syfd jf cfGtl/s ;'/Iffsf] ¿kdf …;'wfl/Psf] ;'/Iff k|0ffnLÚb]lv /;fogsf] k|of]u tyf lgdf{0fdf ;d"n kl/jt{g Nofpg'k5{ . o:tf pBf]u ;~rfng ug]{ ;/sf/L lgsfo jf lghL If]qsf k|lti7fgx¿n] s'g} klg ljiffQm /;fogsf] e08f/0f;DaGwdf /x]sf hfgsf/L ;fj{hlgs ¿kdf pknAw u/fpg'kg]{ sfg'gL Joj:yf ePdf o;sf] c;'/lIft pkof]udf lgoGq0f x'g] ;Defjgf /xG5 . o:tf hfgsf/Ldf cfwfl/t /x]/ gful/sn] Hofbf ljiffQm r'xfj6 x'g ;Sg] ;ªs6fled'v If]qsf] klxrfg u/L ;'/Iffsf j}slNks pkfosf] cjnDag ug{ h}ljs tyf /f;folgs b'36gf÷15 {
  16. 16. ;S5g . /;folgs b'36gfsf] h8 sf/0f kQf nufO{ ;'/Iffsf nflu ckgfpg' { kg]{ ljifonfO{ ;+jbgzLntfsf ;fy :jLsf/ u/]/ ;Defljt efjL k|sf]ksf] ] /f]syfd ug{ ;lsG5 . /f;folgs pBf]uleq x'g] b'36gfnfO{ ljZjJofkL ;d:ofsf ¿kdf :jLsf/ ug{ { yflnPsf] 5 . oBlk pmhf{ pTkfbgsf] nIo lnP/ :yfkgf x'g] cf0fljs e§Ldf x'g] b'36gf Hofb} ljgfzsf/L x'G5 . o;sf] lgoGq0fsf nflu s;/L cufl8 { a9g ;lsG5 eGg] pbfx/0f ;f]e;f] 36gfkl5 ePsf] ;'wf/nfO{ pbfx/0fsf ] ¿kdf lng ;lsG5 . ;]e;f] 36gfkl5sf] k|of; ] ;]e;f] 36gf ePsf] !^ jif{kl5 cyf{t ;g !((@ df ;]e;f] lgb]znfO{ ] ] { o'/f]kel/ g} sfg'gL b:tfj]hsf] ¿kdf :jLsf/ ug]{ sfd ;DkGg eof] . o; lgb]zg tyf gLlt xfn;Dddf b'O{ k6s ;'wf/ ug]{ sfd ePsf] 5 . gLlt { ;'wf/sf] p2]Zo vt/fo'Qm kbfy{sf] e08f/0fnfO{ hg:jf:Yok|lt ;r]t /x]/ ug{ ;'/lIft jftfj/0f tof/ ug]{ / eljiodf :yfkgf x'g] cf0fljs e§Lsf] ;'/Iff Joj:yfdf ;'wf/ Nofpg] /x]sf] lyof] . o; lgb]zs gLltnfO{ :jLsf/ ug]{ { ;b:o /fi6«x¿n] sfg'g ;~rfng tyf k|zf;gdf bIftf Nofpg tyf Joj:yfkgnfO{ cem k|efjsf/L / z;Qm agfpg b'O{ jif{;Dd klv{g' k/]sf] lyof] . !((( sf] km]ac/L tLgb]lv o; lgb]zs l;4fGtsf] bfloTjnfO{ afWofTds '| { ¿kdf ;b:o /fi6«sf ;a} pBf]un] kfngf ug'kg]{ s8f Joj:yf pNn]v ul/of] . { ;]e;f]sf] bf];f| ] ;+zf]wgn] To:tf If]qsf] lgoldt k'g/fjnf]sg u/L ;'/Iffsf ] + lgldQ cfjZos kg]{ Joj:yfkg k|0ffnL, cfsl:ds of]hgf tyf e"pkof]u of]hgf tof/ u/L ;b:o /fi6«n] ;f] cg'¿k x'g] k|To]s k/LIf0fsf] kfngf ug'kg]{ { Joj:yf klg u/]sf] 5 . /;fogsf] hf]lvd / Joj:yfkg dflg;n] b}lgs cfjZostfsf j:t'sf] k"lt{sf nflu cfˆgf] Ifdtf, bIftf / ;|ftsf] nufgL ug'{ k|fs[lts lgods} Ps cªu xf] . o:tf cfjZostf k"lt{ ug{ ] pTkfbg x'g] x/]s j:t'df s'g} g s'g} k|sf/sf] /;fog ldl;Psf] x'G5 . ljgf /;fog s'g} cf}Bf]lus j:t'sf] pTkfbg x'G5 eg]/ ;f]Rg' g} ;a}eGbf 7"nf] q'l6 h}ljs tyf /f;folgs b'36gf÷16 {
  17. 17. x'g cfpF5 . /f]usf] /f]syfd tyf lgoGq0f ug{, s[lif pTkfbsTjdf j[l4 Nofpg / cf}Bf]lus pTkfbgnfO{ cfly{s ljsf;sf] d]¿b08 agfpg /;fogsf] 7"nf] e"ldsf /x]sf] 5 . k|To]s jif{ ljZjahf/df Ps xhf/ gofF /;fog ylkg] u5{g . jt{dfg ;dodf ljZjdf sl/a Ps nfv k|sf/sf /;fogx¿ k|of]udf 5g . Joj;flos pTkfbgsf k|foM j:t'df /;fogsf] c+z kfpg ;lsG5 . ljZjdf xfn;Dd kQf nfu]sf jf pTkGg eO;s]sf /;fogsf] ;ªVof bz nfv eGbfa9L eO;s]sf] cg'dfg ul/Psf] 5 . /f;folgs tTjsf] pTkfbg tyf pkof]usf b[li6n]] klg /ªufpg] / kf]Tg] /ª pTkfbg ug],{ cf}iflw / cGo ljifflb pTkfbg ug]{ / ljz]if /;fogx¿sf] pTkfbg ug]{ pBf]ux¿ /x]sf cf;kf;sf If]q b'36gfsf hf]lvddf k5{g . { o:tf pBf]un] ahf/sf] dfucg'¿k h}ljs / ch}ljs /;fogx¿ pTkfbg ug]{ u5{g . s]xL ljz]if /;fog dfq pTkfbg ug]{ pBf]ux¿df sfl:6s ;f]8f, sfa{g ANofs, km]gf]n, P;]l6s Pl;8, ldyfgf]n / chf]8fO /x]sf 5g . ef/tdf /;fogsf] pTkfbg ug]{ pBf]u ;du| ef/tsf] cf}wf]lus b[iodf tLj| ¿kdf ljsl;t eO/x]sf 5g . ef/tdf /;fog / o;sf ;xof]uL tTjsf] pTkfbg ug]{ pBf]ux¿sf] ljsf; tLj| ultdf x'g' v'nf ;Ldf ePsf] g]kfnh:tf] d'nssf ' nflu hf]lvdk"0f{ ljifo xf] . lsgeg] ef/tdf pTkfbg x'g] o:tf /;fogo'Qm ljifflb tyf dn g]kfnsf] ahf/df a]/f]s6f]s lelqg] u/]sf] kfOG5 . ;g @))!–@))@ df /;folgs kbfy{sf] ljZj lgof{taf6 dfq ef/tn] sl/a !@) ca{ ¿k}ofF nfe k|fKt u/]sf] lyof] . ;f] lgof{t ef/tsf] ;du| lgof{t Jofkf/dWo] !^=@) k|ltzt /x]sf] lyof] . /;folgs pBf]uaf6 x'g] hf]lvd o;sf] tLj| ljsf;;Fu} a9b} uPsf] 5 . gofF pBf]ux¿sf] :yfkgf, gofF /;fogsf] klxrfg / pTkfbgn] ahf/df 5fk 5f]8g] ePsfn] o;sf] pTkfbg klg tLj| ultdf j[l4 eO/x]sf] 5 . o:tf pBf]udf x'g] b'36gfsf] hf]lvd t dflg;n] em]Ng' k/]sf] 5 g}, /f;folgs kbfy{sf] ld>0faf6 { pTkGg x'g ;Sg] b'36gfsf] vt/f To;eGbf a9L xflgsf/s x'G5 . To;}n] { /;fogsf] k|of]u x'bf pTkGg x'g] k|ltlqmof tyf o;sf] hLjgrqmsf] cWoogn] F o;af6 k|fKt x'g] nfe–xflg tyf kmfObf / vt/fsf] cfsng ug'k5{ . /f;folgs { b'36gf ;Lldt / obfsbf x'g] eP klg o;n] ef]kfndf h:t} 7"nf] Iflt k'¥ofpg { h}ljs tyf /f;folgs b'36gf÷17 {
  18. 18. ;S5 . /;fogn] o;sf] jl/kl/sf] jftfj/0fdf w]/} c;/ k'¥ofpg] x'bf o;sf] F hf]lvdsf] ;Defjgf hlxn] klg /lx/x]sf] x'G5 . To;}n] /;fog pBf]ux¿n] ;'/Iffsf] pTs[i6 k|aGw ug'{ lgtfGt h¿/L x'G5 . pBf]u :yfkgf / ;~rfng ubf{ lgDg ljifodf pBdLsf] Wofg hfg'k5{ M pBf]u :yfkgf pBf]usf] :j¿k lgwf{/0f tyf klxn] lgwf{l/t :j¿ksf] k'g/fjnf]sg u/L /;fogsf] hf]lvd ljZn]if0f ug]{ / ;'/Iff Joj:yfkgsf k|lqmofsf] lgwf{/0f ug'{ k5{ . pBf]u :yfkgf ug]{ If]qsf] ef}uf]lns, ;fdflhs cj:yfsf] ljZn]if0f ub}{ ljB'tLo ;'/Iff, ;'/Iffn]vf, cfsl:ds of]hgf, tflnd cflb k|aGw u/]/ hf]lvd Joj:yfkgsf sfo{ ug'k5{ . pBf]u, pBf]udf sfo{ ug]{ sd{rf/L / cf;kf;sf] { hf]lvd If]qdf a;f]af; ug]{ hg;d'bfosf] /;fogaf6 kg]{ c;/sf] x/]s If]qdf aLdf ug'{ klg hf]lvd Joj:yfkgsf] Ps kxn x'G5 . lgodsf] kfngf pBf]u :yfkgf x'gklxn] jf kl5 klg pBf]udf x'g;Sg] cGo b'36gfsf] cj:yfdf ' { clUg ;'/Iff, sfdbf/ tyf sd{rf/Lsf] k]zfut jf :jf:Yo ;'/Iff, ljB'tLo hf]lvd cflb cj:yfsf] ljZn]if0f u/L hf]lvd Joj:yfkg ug'k5{ . { ;'/Iff Joj:yfkg pBf]u ;~rfngsf qmddf hf]lvd Joj:yfkgsf ;DalGwt ;a} If]qsf] cWoog tyf cg';Gwfg u/L ;kmn jf c;kmntfsf 36gfsf] ljZn]if0f u/L efjL /0fgLlt agfpg'k5{ . o; cj:yfdf ;fdfGo ljZn]if0f, k|fylds ljZn]if0f / cfGtl/s ljZn]if0f ug'kg]{ x'G5 . o:tf] ljZn]if0fn] hf]lvd Joj:yfkgnfO{ { ;3fpF5 . ljB'tLo hf]lvd cg'dfg ljB'tLo hf]lvdsf b[li6n] pBf]udf /x]sf] ;jf{lws vt/fo'Qm jf ;'/lIft If]qsf] juL{s/0f / k'g/fjnf]sg u/L ;f]xL cg';f/ hf]lvdsf] cg'dfg nufpg'k5{ . hf]lvdsf] :j¿kcg';f/ ;'/Iffsf] Joj:yfsf nflu cfjZos k|aGw klg ldnfpg'k5{ . h}ljs tyf /f;folgs b'36gf÷18 {
  19. 19. clUg hf]lvd cfsng pBf]u :yfkgf ePsf] kl/;/sf] klg juL{s/0f ug'k5{ . cfunfuLsf b[li6n] s'g { If]q jf :yfg a9L hf]lvdo'Qm 5 tyf /;fogsf] k|flKt, e08f/0f, x:tfGt/0f tyf ;~rfngsf ;dodf cfuf]af6 x'g;Sg] ;Defljt hf]lvdsf] klxrfg ug'{ h¿/L x'G5 . k|HHjngzLn /;fogsf] e08f/, k|of]u, x:tfGt/0f x'g] If]qdf cfuf] pTkGg ug]{ ;|ftsf] klxrfg u/L To:tf ;|ftsf] k"0f{ ¿kdf lgoGq0f ug]{ ] ] k|aGw ldnfpg'k5{ . ;ªs6sfnLg of]hgf pBf]udf sfo{/t sd{rf/L tyf sfdbf/sf] ;'/Iffsf nflu plrt Joj:yf ldnfpg'kg]{ x'G5 . pBf]u :yfkgf ePsf] ef}uf]lns :j¿k, ;fdflhs ;+/rgf, dfgjLo hLjgz}nL cflbn] sfdbf/sf] ;'/Iff Joj:yfsf] lgwf{/0fnfO{ ;xof]u k'U5 . dfgjhLjgsf] Iflt, ;DklQsf] ljgfz ug]{ ;Defljt k|sf]ksf] kl/b[iosf cfwf/df To;sf] Ifdtfsf] cfsng ug'k5{ . ;Defljt 36gf / To;af6 { kg{;Sg] k|efjsf] ljZn]if0f u/]/ ;ªs6sfnLg of]hgf tof/ ug'k5{ . o:tf] { of]hgf tof/ ubf{ ;Defljt hf]lvdsf] lgoGq0f ug]{ pkfox¿sf] l;kmfl/;, :ynut k"jtof/L of]hgfsf] lgwf{/0fh:tf sfo{ klg ug'k5{ . { { aLdf of]hgf /f;folgs pBf]udf /x]sf] cfGtl/s / afXo hf]lvd Joj:yfkgsf nflu aLdfsf] Joj:yf ug'{ /fd|f] x'G5 . aLdf ug'cl3 cfGtl/s / afXo ¿kdf x'g { ;Sg] hf]lvdsf] klxrfg / ljz]if0f ug'k5{ . hf]lvd lgoGq0fsf ljBdfg { pkfosf] k'g/fjnf]sg / ;dLIff ug'k5{ . o;sf ;fy} ljBdfg aLdf gLltx¿sf] { cWoog u/L o;sf] If]q, cfwf/e"t lk|ldod b/ / To;sf] ljZj;gLotf, lk|ldodf lbOg] 5'6sf] :j¿k / ljZj;gLotfsf] k|Tofe"ltsf] ;DaGwdf klg Wofg lbg'k5{ . o;/L ul/Psf] aLdf Joj:yfn] pBf]usf] hf]lvd Go"gLs/0fdf ;3fp k'U5 . hf]lvd Joj:yfkg ug{] tflnd pBf]usf] cfGtl/s tyf afXo ;'/Iffsf nflu sd{rf/L, sfdbf/ / ;'/IffsdL{nfO{ bIf k|fljlws jf ljz]if1af6 hf]lvd Joj:yfkg s]lGb|t tflnd lbg] Joj:yf h}ljs tyf /f;folgs b'36gf÷19 {
  20. 20. ldnfpg'k5{ . o:tf] tflndn] sd{rf/L tyf sfdbf/sf] Ifdtf clej[l4 ug]{ / pBf]u tyf sf/vfgfsf] ;'/Iffdf k|efjsf/L e"ldsf lgjf{x ug]{ u5{ . lj1x¿sf] pkl:ylt, ;fjwfgLsf ;fy 5gf}6 ul/Psf tflndsf gd'gf, cGtlqm{ofTds tyf ;xeflutfd"ns ljlw, pkof]uL tflnd ;fdu|L, ePsf 36gf tyf cj:yfsf] cWoog, ;ªu7gfTds cEof; cflbn] hf]lvd Joj:yfkgdf k|efjsf/L e"ldsf lgjf{x u5{ . o;/L k|bfg ul/g] tflndsf ljifoj:t' lgDgcg';f/ x'g ;S5g M /f;folgs ;'/Iff, e08f/0f ul/Psf Uof;sf] b'36gf–;'/Iff, { /;fog ;lDd>0faf6 x'g;Sg] b'36gf–;'/Iff, { hf]lvd klxrfgsf ljlw, cf}Bf]lus hf]lvd Joj:yfkg, cfunfuLsf] /f]syfd tyf ;'/Iff, ljB'tLo hf]lvd Joj:yfkg, ;ªs6sfnLg tof/L, ;'/Iff Joj:yfkg k|0ffnL, b'36gfsf] /f]syfd, { JolQmut tyf ;fdflhs ;'/Iff Joj:yfkg cflb . ljiffQm Uof;sf] pTkfbg x'g] /f;folgs ;+oGqsf] ;~rfngdf ;'/Iff Joj:yfsf] ;jf{lws dxTj /xG5 . /;folgs ;+oGqsf] :j¿kcg'¿k ;'/Iffsf ljljw kIfsf] ljZn]if0f u/]/ pTs[i6 ;'/Iff vfsf 5gf]6 ug'k5{, h;n] pBf]u / { ;Defljt b'36gfaf6 k|efj kg]{ If]qsf dflg;sf] ;'/Iffsf] k|Tofe"lt lbg { ;sf]; . /f;folgs b'36gfsf] k|efj tTsfnLg / bL3{sfnLg ¿kdf klg kg]{ ePsf]n] { of] Hofb} ljgfzsf/L x'G5 . To;}n] b'36gf ePkl5 To;sf] pkrf/ ug'eGbf { { /f]syfd ug'{ g} ;a}eGbf pQd Joj:yfkg xf] . h}ljs tyf /f;folgs b'36gf÷20 {
  21. 21. pk;+xf/ h}ljs tyf /f;folgs b'36gfsf If]q ;Lldt ePklg o;n] kfg]{ k|lts"n k|efjsf If]q { eg] Jofks g} /x]sf 5g . ljZjdf k|of]udf cfPsf ljleGg /;fogn] dflg;sf] hLjg / hLljsf]kfh{gsf x/]s cfofddf c;/ kfl//x]sf] x'G5 . s[lifafnLdf /f]usf hLjf0f' / sL/fn] ug]{ cfqmd0f / To;sf] lgoGq0fdf k|oQm ljifflb tyf o;n] jftfj/0fdf ' kfg]{ c;/sf af/]df klg ;a}n] hfgsf/L lng'kg]{ x'G5 . o; ljifodf hfgsf/L lng sfo{/t ;DalGwt lgsfo tyf s[lif ljsf; sfof{nox¿;Dd k'Ug'kg]{ x'g ;S5 . tL lgsfox?;Fu cfjZos k/fdz{ u/L s:tf] ljifflb slt dfqfdf k|of]u ug]{ / o;sf] k|efjsf/Ltf s:tf] 5 eGg]af/]df ;f]wLvf]hL ug'{ /fd|f] x'G5 . To;}u/L g]kfnsf] ;Gbe{df jGohGt'sf] cfqmd0fnfO{ cln a9L dxTj lbP/ x]g{' h¿/L b]lvPsf] 5 . g]kfnsf ljleGg efudf ax'nf hgfj/sf] cfqmd0f, xfQL, af3, u}8fh:tf hgfj/af6 F x'g] cfqmd0faf6 u|fdL0f / ;x/L b'a} If]qsf gful/s c;'/lIft dx;'; ug{ afWo /x]sf 5g . ;/sf/n] jGohGt'sf] ;'/Iff tyf lgoGq0fdf plrt Joj:yfkg k|0ffnL ckgfP/ ;j{;fwf/0fdf ;'/Iffsf] k|Tofe"lt lbg ;Sg' kb{5 . /f;folgs b'36gfaf6 x'g;Sg] Iflt Go"gLs/0fsf ljleGg pkfox¿ x'g ;S5g . 7"nf { pBf]usf] :yfkgfsf qmddf jftfj/0fLo k|efj d'Nofªsg ug]{ sfg'gL Joj:yf /x]sf] 5 . jftfj/0fLo k|efj d'Nofªsgaf6 k|fKt ;'emfjsf cfwf/df cfjZos gLlt th'df u/L sfof{Gjog ug]{ / gLltcg'¿k sfd eP gePsf] cg'udg ug]{ kxndf { ;/sf/ tyf ;DalGwt lgsfo ;lqmotfsf;fy cu|;/ ePdf lbuf] ljsf;sf] cjwf/0ffcg'¿k ;x>fAbL ljsf;nIo k|fKt ug{ sl7gfO gx'g ;S5 . k|sf]ksf 36gfdf lg/Gt/ j[l4 eO/x]sf] jt{dfg kl/j]zdf pBf]u, snsf/vfgf tyf kl/of]hgf ;~rfng ubf{ ljleGg /;fogaf6 x'g] jftfj/0fLo k|efj d'Nofªsgsf ;fy} k|sf]k k|efj d'Nofªsg klg ug'{ h¿/L b]lvPsf] 5 . o;tkm{ ;/sf/n] pko'Qm Joj:yf u/L ;a} ;/f]sf/jfnfnfO{ lgb]l{ zt ug'{ cfjZos 5 . g]kfndf h}ljs tyf /f;folgs jf k|sf]k k|efj d'Nofªsg ;d]t ug]{ sfg'gL Joj:yf eO;s]sf] 5 . t/ sfg'gL Joj:yf sfg'gdf dfq ;Lldt g/xL To;n] k|efjsf/L 9ªun] cuf8L a9gk5{ . ' tadfq hg;d'bfon] /;folgs hf]lvdaf6 ;'/lIft dx;'; ug{ ;S5g . ;Gbe{;fdu|L a6'si0f pk|tL, jftfj/0f ;+/If0f tyf lbuf] ljsf;, jftfj/0f Joj:yfkg tyf lbuf] ljsf; [ ] dxfljBfno, sf7df8f},+ @)%* . ;ljGb| l;+x, kof{j/0f e'uf]n, k|ofu k':ts ejg, Onfxafb, @))! . uf]kfnk|;fb b'nfn, kof{j/0f dfl;s, k"0ff{ªs $), r}t !)@^ . h}ljs tyf /f;folgs b'36gf÷21 {
  22. 22. h}ljs tyf /f;folgs b'36gf÷22 {

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