12. fire dks 12

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12. fire dks 12

  1. 1. k|sf]k–1fgdfnf–!@ cfunfuL /f]syfdsf pkfo n]vs /fdrGb| Gof}kfg] k|sfzs
  2. 2. s[lt M cufnfuL /f]syfdsf pkfo n]vs M /fdrGb| Gof}kfg] k|sfzs M jftfj/0f tyf afn ;/f]sf/ ;+:yf–g]kfn (ECO-Nepal) ;jf{lwsf/ M k|sfzsdf ;'/lIft ;+:s/0f M k|yd, ;fpg @)^$ ;ªVof M @,))) k|lt cfj/0f l8hfOg M /d]z bfxfn d'b|s M lszf]/ ckm;]6 k|; -k|f=_ ln=, kmf]g M $#%!)$$ ] d"No M ?= %)÷– ISBN : 978-99946-865-2-0 k|sf]ksf] hf]lvd Go"gLs/0f tyf k|sf]ksf] ;fdgf ug]{ ;fd'bflos Ifdtf clej[l4sf nflu ;r]tg cleofgcGtu{t k|sf]k–1fgdfnf k|sfzgdf cf+lzs ¿kdf cfly{s ;xof]u ug]{ lgDg ;fem]bf/ ;+:yfx¿k|lt Osf]–g]kfn xflb{s cfef/ JoQm ub{5 M PS;gP8 g]kfn cS;kmfd hLaL g]kfn kf]= a= g+= ^@%&, sf7df8f}+, g]kfn kf]= a= g+= @%)), sf7df8f}+, g]kfn kmf]gM $$#^$&& kmf]gM %%@)%*^ kmofS;M (&&–!–$$!(&!* kmofS;M (&&–!–%%@#!(& j]e;fO6M www.actionaid.org/nepal j]e;fO6M www.oxfam.org.uk
  3. 3. k|sfzssf] egfO afx|} dlxgf cfunfuLsf] hf]lvd /xg] eP klg df3b]lv h]7;Ddsf] udL{ / ;'Vvf df};d a9L hf]lvdo'Qm /x]sf] x'G5 . g]kfndf jflif{s ;fnfvfnf k}tL; s/f]8 ?k}ofF a/fa/ cfly{s Iflt x'g] u/]sf] b]lvG5 F eg] jflif{s cf};tdf lqrfln; hgf dflg;sf] d[To' x'g] u/]sf] 5 . o; tYofªsaf6 cfunfuLn] lgs} ljgfzsf/L k|sf]ksf] ?k lnO/x]sf] oyfy{nfO{ k|i6 kf/]sf] 5 . k|sf]ksf s'g} klg 36gfnfO{ dflg;n] efUosf] v]n jf cl3Nnf] hGddf u/]sf] sd{sf] k|ltkmnsf] ?kdf lng] u/]sf] kfOG5 . ;fdflhs ;+/rgf / wfld{s tyf ;f+:s[lts cGwtfsf sf/0f cem};Dd /x]sf] o; k|sf/sf] wf/0ffsf] cGTo x'g] xf] eg] cfunfuL nufotsf ;a} k|sf]ksf 36gfnfO{ Go"g ug{ ;lsG5 . cfunfuL To:tf] k|sf]k xf] h;nfO{ dflg;n] k"0f{ ?kdf g} lgoGq0f ug{ ;S5 . (( k|ltzt cfunfuLsf 36gf dfgjLo ql'6s} sf/0f x'g] ePsfn] cfunfuLsf 36gfnfO{ To;} ;Ldf;Dd lgoGq0f ug{ ;lsG5 . t/ o;af/] hgr]tgf clej[l4 ug]{ / ;/sf/n] clUg;dg s]Gb|nfO{ klg k|efjsf/L agfpg' h?/L 5 . k|sf]k 1ffgdfnfsf] o; z[ªvnfdf klg cGo z[ªvnfdfh:t} ;/n efiff / k|:t'lt lbP/ n]vsn] cfkmgf] ljåtfsf] kl/ro lbg' ePsf] 5 . o;sf ;fy} 1ffgdfnf k|sfzg ug{ k|/0ff k|bfg u/]/ PS;gP8 ] g]kfnsf l;lgo/ lydln8/ Zofd;'Gb/ 1fjfnL / cS;kmfd hLaL g]kfnsf sfo{qmd ;+of]hs lji0f'k;fb v/]nn] k|sf]k hf]lvd Go"gLs/0fsf] | k|of;nfO{ ;d'bfo;Dd k'¥ofpg] k|fT;fxg lbg' ePsf] 5, To;}n] pxfFx? ] wGojfbsf kfq x'gxG5 . To;}u/L 1ffgdfnfsf x/]s z[ªvnfnfO{ ' ' k|efjsf/L agfpg o;sf] z'4fz'l4 / ;fh;Hhfdf ;xof]u ug]{ Osf]– g]kfnsf ;a} ;xofqLnfO{ wGojfb glbO{ x'Fb}g . o; z[ªvnfn] cfunfuLaf/] lbg] 1ffgsf] pkof]u eP/ hf]lvd Go"gLs/0fsf nflu yf]/} dfq of]ubfg ldNof] eg] klg ;+:yfn] cfkmgf] k|of; ;fy{s ePsf] 7fGg]5 . Osf]–g]kfn ECO-Nepal ]
  4. 4. ljifo;"rL cfunfuL / o;sf] sf/0f %–( ljifok|jz ] % cfuf];DaGwL P]ltxfl;s syg ^ cfuf]sf] j}1flgs JofVof ^ cfunfuL x'g] sf/0f & cfunfuL ;lhn} km}lng] If]q ( cfunfuLsf] k|sf]k x'g] :yfg / cj:yf ( jf?0foGqsf] ljZjOltxf; !)–!& g]kfndf clUglgoGq0f ;]jf !! jf?0foGq ;]jfsf] k|efjsfl/tf !# cfunfuL lgoGq0f !# cfunfuL, hf]lvd gS;fªsgdf Wofg lbg'kg]{ kIf !% cfunfuL eOxfn] s] ug]{ !% 36gfaf/] va/ ubf{ kfngf ug'kg]{ s'/f { !^ cfuf] lgoGq0fdf hg;xeflutf !& pk;+xf/ @)
  5. 5. cfunfuL / o;sf] sf/0f ljifok|j]z g]kfndf x'g] k|dv k|sf]khGo 36gfdWo] cfunfuL klg Ps xf] . ' ljz]ifu/L, ;'ssf jf cGo cfuf]n] ;lhn} l6Kg;Sg] HjngzLn ] j:t'af6 ;lNsPsf] cfuf] km}lnP/ cfunfuLsf b'MvbfoL 36gf x'g] u/]sf 5g . cfunfuLsf sf/0f /fli6«o ;DklQ dfq gi6 x'bg, jif]gL w]/n] Hofg u'dfpg' / 3/af/ljxLg klg x'g' kl//x]sf] F } { } 5 . cfFvfcufl8 b]lvg] k|fs[lts ;f}Gbo{ / dfgjlgld{t ;'Gb/ ef}lts ;+/rgf If0fe/d} v/fgL eP/ v08x/ aGb5g . xf85fnf lvofP/ / kl;gfsf] wf/f aufP/ cfh{g ul/Psf] >L;DklQ If0fe/d} ;vfk eP/ dfgjhLjg si6s/ aGb5 . cfunfuLsf 36gf k|foM cfuf]sf] x]nr]qmØfOF / c;fjwfgLk"0f{ k|of]usf sf/0f x'g] ub{5g . oxL ;fgf] c;fjwfgLn] kfl/jfl/s hLjgd} bL3{sfnLg c;/ k'Ug] cfunfuLh:tf] eoªs/ k|sf]k x'g] ub{5 . sltko cfunfuLaf6 kLl8t kl/jf/ / ltgsf ;Gtfg– b/;Gtfg ;fdflhs, cfly{s, ef}lts Pjd dfgl;s ;ªs6af6 p7g} g;Sg] cj:yfdf k'u]sf 5g . o;af6 /fli6«o ljsf;sf] ult;d]t k|efljt eO/x]sf] x'G5 . cfuf] ;lNs;s]kl5 dfgjlgld{t tyf k|fs[lts ;+/rgfsf k|foM ;a} j:t' ;lhn} hn]/ gi6 x'g k'Ub5g . cfuf] aNbf eoªs/ zlQm pTkGg x'G5 . ToxL zlQmn] cGo cfuf]n] ghNg] ;'/lIft 7flgg] j:t'nfO{ klg gi6 ub{5 . cfunfuL ePkl5 o:tf j:t'sf] ljgf; x'g]qmd 36gf:yndf cfuf] hNgsf nflu rflxg] tŒj /x'Gh]n qmlds ¿kdf rln/xG5 . o;/L cfunfuL x'bf To;sf] F k|efjdf k/]sf ;Dk"0f{ kbfy{sf] Iflt x'G5 .
  6. 6. cfuf];DaGwL P]ltxfl;s syg cfuf]sf] pTklQ slxn] / s;/L eof] eGg] cflwsfl/s k|df0f s]xL geP klg 9'ªuoub]lv g} dflg;n] cfuf]sf] k|of]u ub}{ cfPsf] ] ' dfGotf 5 . j}lbs u|Gycg';f/ lx/0ofIfsL 5f]/L ljs]zLn] lzjhLsf] ue{wf/0f ubf{ pg}sf] sf]vaf6 clUgsf] pTklQ ePsf] dflgG5 . st} j;'–efof{sf] ue{af6 clUgsf] pTklQ ePsf] eGg] klg ul/G5 . t/ clUgsf] pTklQ hlxn] ePsf] eP klg o;sf af/] clUgk'/f0fdf k|z:t} syg kfOG5 . cfuf]sf] j}1fflgs JofVof j}1flgs cjwf/0ffdf clS;hg (Oxygen) / OGwg (Fuel) sf] 3if{0f (Friction) x'Fbf jf tfk (Heat) ldl;Fbf x'g] /f;folgs k|ltlqmofaf6 pTkGg zlQmsf] cg'el" tnfO{ cfuf] elgG5 . jt{dfg o'udf cfuf] b}lgs hLjgsf nflu geO{ gx'g] j:t' eO;s]sfn] cfuf]sf] cfjZostf k"/f ug{ o;sf] pTklQ ug]{ ljleGg pkfox¿ ckgfOg] ul/G5 . ;nfO{, nfO6/, rsds, em'nf], ljB't lx6/h:tf cfuf] pTkGg ug]{ s'g} g s'g} ;fwgsf] x/]s 3/df b}lgs k|of]u x'G5 . o:tf ;fwg k|of]u u/]/ h]–h;/L cfuf] pTkGg ul/g] eP klg clS;hg+OGwg+3if{0f jf tfksf] ;lDd>0fsf] l;4fGtaf6 g} cfuf]sf] pTklQ ePsf] x'G5 . aNg] j:t'x¿sf] u'0f / kl/df0fcg';f/ pTkGg cfuf]sf] k|ToIf u'0f jf cju'0f km/s x'G5 . cfuf] aNbf x'g] /f;folgs k|ltlqmofn] jftfj/0fdf ;d]t c;/ k'¥ofpF5 . cfuf] an]sf] cj:yfdf x]bf{ w"jfF, cfuf]sf] Hjfnf, cªuf/, sf]Onf / lemNsfx¿ b]lvg] eP klg To;af6 sfa{g df]gf]cS;fO8, sfa{g 8fOcS;fO8, xfO8«fhg ] ;NkmfO8, gfO6«fhg 8fOcS;fO8h:tf ljleGg k|sf/sf cb[Zo ] ljiffQm Uof;;d]t lg:sG5g . To:tf Uof;af6 gfs lv¥ofpg], cfFvf kf]Ng], lbdfun] sfd gug]{h:tf c;/ b]vf kb{5g eg]
  7. 7. Zjf;k|Zjf;af6 z/L/df k|jz x'bf s]xLIf0fd} dfgj jf hLjhGt' ] F a]xf]; x'g klg ;S5g . o:tf ljiffQm Uof; jftfj/0fdf ldl;g]qmdsf] lg/Gt/tfn] kof{j/0fdf ;d]t 7"nf] k|efj kfl//x]sf] x'G5 . cfunfuL x'g] sf/0f ljz]ifu/L v/sf em'k|femfk|L 3/ ePsf] Onfsfdf cfunfuLsf 36gf a9L x'g] eP klg ;x/L If]qsf kSsL ejg ePsf cfjf; If]q, snsf/vfgf, / jghªundf ;d]t cfunfuLsf 36gf k|z:t x'G5g . cfuf] pTkGg x'g] sf/0fsf lx;fan] cfunfuLsf k|dv sf/0f b'O{ k|sf/sf 5g . ' k|fs[lts sf/0f cfuf]sf] k|of]u ug{ dflg;n] ljsf; u/]sf ;fwgsf] k|of]u gx'Fbf k|fs[lts lqmof—k|ltlqmofaf6 ;d]t cfuf] pTkGg eP/ cfunfuLsf 36gf x'g] ub{5g . o;/L x'g] cfunfuLnfO{ k|fs[lts sf/0faf6 ePsf] cfunfuL elgG5 . k|fs[lts ¿kdf pTkGg eO{ hªunaf6 ;'? ePsf] cfunfuL km}nFb} uP/ dfgja:tL, cf}Bf]lus If]q, v]tL tyf jfuau}Frfh:tf If]qdf klg Iflt k'Ug ;Sb5 . cfunfuL x'g] k|fs[lts sf/0fnfO{ lgDgfg';f/ cWoog ug{ ;lsG5 M ;'Svf tyf af]qmf lklN;Psf ¿v Pscfk;df 3if{0f eP/ cfuf] pTkGg x'Fbf . r6Øfªsf sf/0f cfuf] pTkGg x'bf . F rlDsnf] j:t', rlDsnf] 9'ªuf jf kfgLaf6 ;"osf] ls/0f { nuftf/ k/fjt{g eO{ ;'s]sf jf cfuf]n] l5§} aNg;Sg] ;'Vvf j:t'df 7f]lSsP/ cfuf] pTkGg x'bf . F afFb/ jf cGo hªunL hgfj/sf lqofsnfkaf6 9'ªuf Pscfk;df 7f]lSsFbf x'g] 3if{0faf6 cfuf] pTkGg x'bf . F e'Orfnf]h:tf k|sf]ksf sf/0f sf7, 9'ªuf jf c¿ j:t' F Pscfk;df 7f]lSsP/ cfuf] pTkGg x'bf . F
  8. 8. cfunfuL x'g] dfgjLo sf/0f cfjZostfk"lt{sf nflu c;fjwfgLk"js cfuf]sf] k|of]u / To;sf] { Joj:yfkgdf x]nr]qmØfOF ubf{ cfunfuLsf] k|sf]k pTkGg x'G5 . To:t} ljB'tLo ;fdu|L, d]l;g jf ljB't nfOgsf] u8a8Lsf sf/0f klg cfuf] pTkGg eO{ cfunfuLsf 36gf k|z:t x'g] u/]sf] kfOG5 . cfunfuL x'g] ;Defljt dfgjLo sf/0f b]xfocg';f/ 5g M c;fjwfgLk"js cfuf]sf] k|of]u { k'/fgf] / q'l6k"0f{ ljB'tLo jfOl/ªaf6 cfuf] ;Nsg' . /fhgLlts lj/f]wsf ;dodf /fFshn; lgsfNbf jf k|of]u ] ' ' ubf{ ;+jbgzLn If]qdf cfuf] emf]l;g' jf hyfefjL ˆofFlsPsf] ] cfuf] km}ng' . cflt;afhL ubf{, k6fsf k8sfpFbf tyf lj:kmf]6s j:t' lj:kmf]6 x'bf cfunfuL x'g' . F xjfOhxfh b'36gfaf6 cfuf] km}ng' . { = HjngzLn tyf clt HjngzLn j:t'df cfuf]n] e]6g,' To:tf j:t'sf] k|of]u ubf{ cTolws tfk tyf k|sfz pTkGg eP/ lj:kmf]6 x'bf cfuf] pTkGg eO{ km}ng'' . F P]gf, l;;f, r:dfsf 6'qmf tyf To:t} 6Nsg] rlDsnf] j:t' 3fddf /flvFbf ;"osf] k|sfz k/fjt{g eP/ ;'ssf HjngzLn { ] j:t'df 7f]lSsP/ cfuf] pTkGg eO{ km}ng' . 7"nf ljB'tLo tf/ Pscfk;df h'Wbf jf ljB'tLo df]6/x¿af6 b'36gfa; cfuf] pTkGg eP/ km}ng' . { cfuf] nufpFbf la?jfn] rfF8f] kfn'jf xfN5, 3fF; df}nfpF5 eg]/ hªundf 89]nf] nfpg' . cfjf;, pBf]u, snsf/vfgfdf tyf cGo :yfgdf ljleGg sf/0fn] cfuf] pTkGg eO{ ;Nsg' .
  9. 9. cfunfuL ;lhn} km}lng] If]q vfgf ksfpg / cGo 3/]n' k|of]hgsf nflu 3/3/df ;w}F cfuf] aflnG5 . t/, o:tf] cfuf] cgk]lIft :yfgdf ;lNsg]lalQs} klg cfunfuLsf] k|sf]k l;h{gf eOxfNb}g . k|fslts / s[lqd sf/0fn] pTkGg ePsf] cfuf] ;dod} lgoGq0f ug{ g;s] of] km}nG5 / cfunfuLsf] k|sf]k pTkGg x'G5 . o;/L ljleGg lsl;dn] ;lNsPsf] cfuf] km}n]/ k|sf]k pTkGg x'g cfuf] ;Ns]sf] :yfgsf] k|s[lt, ToxfF /x]sf k|fs[lts Pjd dfgjLo k|of]usf j:t' jf ;+/rgf, cfuf]n] ;d]6]sf] If]q, ef}uf]lns cj:yf, cfunfuL lgoGq0fsf ;| f ] t ;fwgsf] pknAwtfsf] cj:yf, :yfgLo txdf /x] s f] hgzlQmh:tf w]/} sf/0fn] cxd e"ldsf lgjf{x ub{5g . cfunfuLsf] k|sf]k x'g] :yfg / cj:yf cfunfuL lgoGq0f ug{ ;|ft, ;fwg gePsf :yfg . ] cfunfuL lgoGq0f ug{ cfjZos hgzlQm gePsf :yfg . cfunfuL lgoGq0f ug{, ;|ft;fwg kl/rfng ug{ hfGg] JolQm ] gePsf :yfg . 3gf cfjfbL tyf g]kfndf cfunfuLaf6 Iflt of]hgfljxLg a:tL . jif{ dfgj d[To' cfly{s Iflt ?= v8]/L k/]/ emf/kft ;'Vvf ePsf] jg . !((% &# @#,^@,*),(#&÷– ;lhn} aNg ;Sg] j:t' jf !((^ ^! #),*#,^$,%$%÷– !((& $% @#,)&,%#,(%(÷– afnLgfnL ePsf :yfg . xjfOhxfh b' 3 { 6 gf / !((* %$ #,#%,%*,@@*÷– k|fljlws q'l6 ePsf If]q . !((( $^ !#,%&,&^,!*(÷– @))) %# @#,(@,%!,**!÷– clt k|HHjngzLn j:t' @))! @^ @$,^@,%^,$)!÷– ePsf :yfg . @))@ !! ($,^(,!%,(#)÷– udL{ / x' / Latf; rNg] @))# !^ &#,!),@$,%))÷– :yfg . hDdf #*% #,!),*!,*@,%&)÷– ;|ft M g]kfn ;/sf/, u[xdGqfno . ]
  10. 10. jf?0foGqsf] ljZjOltxf; ljleGg sf/0fn] pTkGg cfunfuL ;dod} lgoGq0f ug{ g;Sbf o;n] k|sf]ksf] ¿k wf/0f u/L 7"nf] dfqfdf wghg / dxŒjk"0f{ j:t'sf] Iflt ub{5 . t;y{, cfunfuL lgoGq0fsf nflu k|efjsf/L k|ljlwsf] vf]hLsf qmddf ;g !^)) tfsf a]nfotdf xftn] rnfpg'kg]{ nfdf l;l/Gh kDkh:tf jf?0foGq (Fire Engine) sf] ljsf;af6 jf?0foGqsf] Oltxf; ;'? x'G5 . t/ k|of]u ug{ ckm7/f] ] ePsfn] tL ;fdu|Laf6 ;g !^## df nG8gdf ePsf]] cfunfuL lgoGq0f ug{ ;Dej ePg . To; cg'ejaf6 k|f/Dedf ljsf; ePsf] To; ;fdfGo k|ljlwdf cfjZos ;'wf/ / kl/dfh{g cfjZos 7flgof]] . ;g !^^^ df nG8gdf km]l/ …u|6 kmfo/ nG8gÚ gfd ] lbOPsf] eoªs/ cfunfuL eof] . o;/L cfunfuL bf]xf]l/O/xFbf cfuf] lgefpg] /fd|f] k|ljlw / k|efjsf/L ;+oGqsf] cfjZostf 68sf/f] b]lvg yfNof] . kmn:j¿k ;g !*## df nG8g kmfo/ OlGhgsf] :yfkgf x'g k'Uof] . cfw'lgs jf?0foGqsf] ljsf;df kmfo/ OlGhgsf k|yd ;~rfns h]D; a|8 p8 (James Braid Wood) n] dxŒjk"0f{ of]ubfg lbPsf ] 5g . k|f/Dedf ;f] kmfo/ OlGhgdf *) hgf rf}aL;} 3G6f t}gfy sd{rf/L tyf !( kmfo/ :6];g :yfkgf ul/P . p8n] !*## b]lv !*^% ;Dd pQm ;+oGqsf] g]t[Tj ub}{ cfunfuL lgoGq0fs} l;nl;nfdf k'l/P/ d[To'j/0f u/] . nG8gdf kmfo/ OlGhg :yfkgf ePkl5 tTsfnLg ladf sDkgLn] ;d] t jf?0foGqsf] ljsf;df of]ubfg u¥of] . cfw'lgs jf?0foGqsf] ljsf;df SofK6]g ;/ O/df;]:j (Captain Sir Eyremassayshow) n] w]/} ldlxg]t vr]sf 5g . o; qmddf Pstkm{ kmfo/ OlGhgsf] {
  11. 11. ljsf; x'Fb} uof] eg] csf]{tkm{ cfuf] lgefpg 5'§} ;+oGqsf] cfjZostfaf]w u/L a]nfotdf ;g !*^% df d]6f] kmfo/ la|u8 « ] P]g kfl/t eof] . To;}anfb]lv a]nfotsf] clUglgoGq0f ljefu ] axfnjfnf k|wfgdGqLsf] dftxtdf /xFb} cfPsf] 5 . ToxL P]gcg';f/ ;g !()$ df nG8g kmfo/ la|u8 / ;g !($! df ] g]zgn kmfo/ ;le{;sf] :yfkgf eof] . o;}tfsf a]nfotdf agfOPsf] …df]l/;Ú gfds Fire Engine sf k'hf{ af]s/ ;j{kyd ] | g]kfndf leqØfOPsf] xf] . lj;+ !(($ ;fndf 3f]8hfqfsf] lbg ] sf7df8f}sf] h'4;8sdf /flvPsf] pQm jf?0foGq h'4 jf?0foGqsf] F kl/;/df cBflk 5Fb5 .} cGo If]qdf h:t} jf?0foGqsf] If]qdf klg hfkfgn] w]/} ljsf; u/]sf] 5 . hfkfgdf ;j{kyd ;g !^%* clUglgoGq0fsf nflu | …hf]–ljs];LÚ elgg] hg:t/sf] ;ªu7g vf]lnof] . ;g !&!& df tTsfnLg 6f]lsof] gu/sf hgtf cfkm}n] …dfrL–ljs];LÚ elgg] F clUglgoGq0f ljefu :yfkgf u/] . ;g !*^* df hfkfgdf cfw'lgs k|zf;lgs Joj:yf nfu" ePkl5 Fire Defence nfO{ u[xdGqfnocGtu{t /flvof] . hfkfg ;/sf/n] ;g !($& df nfu" u/]sf] kmfo/ l8km]G; cu{gfOh]zg sfg'gsf] k|efjsf/L sfof{Gjog ;g !($* b]lv x'b} cfPsf] 5 . F g]kfndf clUglgoGq0f ;]jf clUglgoGq0f ;]jf Fire Service cfunfuLsf] cfktsfnLg cj:yfdf JolQm, ;dfh / /fi6«sf] hgwgsf] ;'/Iff ug{ ;w}F tof/L cj:yfdf /xg] lgMz'Ns ¿kdf pknAw x'g] ;]jf xf] . g]kfn ;/sf/n] pkTosfsf tLg jf?0foGq ;]jfnfO{ u[xdGqfnocGtu{t /fv]sf] 5 eg] ljleGg gu/ If]qdf gu/kflnsfcGtu{t jf?0foGq ;]jf ;~rfngdf cfPsf 5g . cfunfuLsf] ljkb pTkGg x'bf kLl8tn] p4f/ / /fxtsf] ;]jf F kfpg' p;sf] dfgjclwsf/ xf] . t;y{ cfunfuLaf6 cfˆgf
  12. 12. gful/ssf] lhpwgsf] Iflt gxf]; eg]/ ljZjsf k|foMh;f] ;a} /fi6«df o;sf lglDt cfjZos ;]jf lj:tf/sf nflu ;/sf/L nufgL ePd'tflas g} pknlAw xfl;n ePsf 5g . t/ g]kfndf xfn;Dd #% ;x/df dfq jf?0foGq ;]jf pknAw x'g'nfO{ ;Gtf]ifhgs dfGg ;lsFbg . To;df klg u[xdGqfnon] cfkmgf] } dftxtdf /x]sf sf7df8f}F pkTosfsf tLg jf?0foGq ;~rfngsf nflu s]jn kGw| nfv ?k}ofF jflif{s ah]6 ljlgof]hgd} ;Lldt /fVg' kof{Kt dfGg ;lsGg . To:t}, :yfgLo ljsf; dGqfnon] cfkm"cGtu{t /x]sf] #@ gu/kflnsfåf/f ;~rflnt jf?0foGq ;]jfsf nflu !# nfv () xhf/ ?k}ofF dfqsf] cltGo"g /sd cg'bfg lbg] u/]sf] kfOG5 . o;/L x]bf{ ;/sf/n] clw/fHoe/sf jf?0foGqsf nflu s]jn @* nfv () xhf/ ?k}ofF dfq vlr{g] u/]sf] b]lvG5 . jf?0foGq ;]jfsf] ljsf;df /fi6«n] ck]lIft nufgL ug{ g;s]s} sf/0f o;sf] ;]jf e/kbf]{ / ;j{;ne x'g ;s]sf] ' 5}g . k|of]udf cfO/x]sf tyf pknAw jf?0foGqx¿sf] cj:yf /fd|f] gx'g,' sd{rf/Lsf] of]Uotf Pjd Ifdtf j[l4sf nflu cfjZos tflnd, ;|f]t;fwg tyf ;'ljwf / ladfsf] Joj:yf gx'g'h:tf Joj:yfksLo sdhf]/Ldf klg ah]6 cefj g} sf/s b]lvG5g . o:tf sdLsdhf]/Lsf] lgjf/0fsf nflu dxŒjk"0f{ kf6f]sf ¿kdf cfly{s ;|ftn] g} e"ldsf lgjf{x u/]sf] x'G5 . ] jf?0foGq ;]jf lj:tf/ Pjd o;sf] ;]jf:t/ ljsf; ug]{ bfloTj ;/sf/d} hfG5 . /fHon] o:tf dfgjLo ;]jfaf6 hgtfnfO{ jl~rt ug'{ eg]sf] cfktsfnLg ;dodf p4f/ gu/L hgwgsf] Iflt x'g] cj:yfnfO{ ;xof]u ug'{h:t} xf] . o:tf] cj:yfaf6 cf}Bf]lus tyf Jofkfl/s k|lti7fg, gful/s jf ;dfhn] >L;DklQ / cfkmGt dfq u'dfpFbgg, /fi6«sf] cfly{s d]?b08 g} w/fzoL } aGg] ;Defjgf /xG5 . ctM /fHo / gful/s ;dfh b'jn] cfunfuL } ;femf ljkb xf] eg]/ jf?0foGqsf] lj:tf/ / ;]jf:t/ ljsf;df Wofg k'¥ofpg' cfjZos 5 .
  13. 13. jf?0foGq ;]jfsf] k|efjsfl/tf jf?0foGq ;]jfsf] sfo{ cfunfuL ePsf] cfktsfnLg cj:yfdf cfuf] lgefpg' xf] . t/ jf?0foGqsf sd{rf/Lx¿n] Ps}kN6 w]/} 7fpFdf ePsf 36gfdWo] s'g 36gfnfO{ a9L k|fyldstf lbg] eGg] lgSof]n ug{ ;Sg' kb{5 . o;sf nflu cfuf] lgoGq0fdf { sfdsf] k|fyldstfqmd dxŒjk"0f{ x'G5 . clUglgoGq0fdf vl6Psf sd{rf/Ln] ;aeGbf klxn] dfgjLo Iflt x'g glbg], ;s];Dd sd ug]{ / cGo Iflt gx'g] cj:yf pTkGg u/fpg]tkm{ Wofg k'¥ofpg' kb{5 . cfunfuLsf] ;dodf aflx/L cfuf] lgoGq0f gu/L leqL cfuf] lgoGq0f ug{ vf] H bf clUglgoGq0fdf vl6Psfx¿nfO{ g} cfuf]n] 3]g{ ;S5 . aflx/L cfuf] gnfu]sf] cj:yfdf leqL cfuf] lgoGq0f sfo{ klg k|fyldstfqmdcg';f/ ug'{ cfjZos x'G5 . ;kmntf;fy cfuf] lgefpg clUglgoGq0fdf vl6Psf sd{rf/Ldf ;fx;, a'l4dfgL / tTsfn lg0f{o ug{ ;Sg] Ifdtf x'g' kb{5 . sltko cj:yfdf tTsfn} k|fyldstf lgSof]n u/]/ sfo{ ug{ g;Sbf cfuf] lgoGq0f ug{ w]/} sl7g eO{ { hgwgsf] Iflt w]/} x'g] ub{5 . cfunfuL lgoGq0f ug{' clt sl7g sfd xf] . o;sf nflu cfunfuLsf] sf/0f, cfunfuL ePsf] :yfgsf] jftfj/0f, :ynut tyf dfgjLo kl/j]z, cfunfuLsf] l:ylt / cfunfuL eO/x]sf] ;doh:tf s'/fdf Wofg lbP/ plrt k|aGw ug{ g;s] clUglgoGqs :jod hf]lvddf kg{ ;S5g . ;xL ;dodf, ;xL sfd ug{ g;Sbf p4f/bn g} 36gfsf] l;sf/ x'g a]/ nfUb}g . o:tf] eof] eg] k|sf]kdf yk kL8f / ;d:of pTkGg x'G5 . cfunfuL lgoGq0f cfuf] nfu]/ lgefpg'eGbf cfuf] nfUg} glbg' k|sf]kaf6 aRg]
  14. 14. ;a}eGbf /fd|f] pkfo xf] . To;}n] 3/ agfpFbf, ljB'tLo jfol/ª ubf{, efG5f agfpFbf, Uof;, ;nfO{, nfO6/ rnfpFbf, r'/f]6 tfGbf, w"kaQL afNbf;d]t cfuf]sf] Jojl:yt k|of]udf Wofg k'¥ofpg' kb{5 . ;dfhdf cfunfuL lgoGq0fsf nflu cfktsfnLg ;dodf rflxg] cfjZos ;+zfwgsf] k"jf{wf/ tof/L cj:yfdf eP o:tf ljkbsf] lgoGq0f ug{ ;lhnf] x'G5 . cfunfuLaf6 aRg 3/, sfof{no, xf]6n, /]:6'/G6, c:ktfn, gl;{ªxf]d cflb ;fj{hlgs ] :yfgdf clUg;dgssf] Joj:yf ug{;s] To:tf :yfgdf nfu]sf] cfuf] lgoGq0f ug{ ;xh x'G5 . o:tf clUg;dgs ;fwgsf] ;do–;dodf hfFru/L b'?:t /fVg' cfjZos x'G5 . To:t} ejg jf cGo ef}lts ;+/rgf lgdf{0fdf pko'Qm :ynut of]hgf tof/ u/L u' 0 f:t/Lo lgdf{ 0 f ;fdu| L sf] k| o f] u ubf{ Pstkm{ cfunfuLnufot af9L, klx/f], cfFwLa]x/Lh:tf cGo k|sf]kaf6 klg aRg ;lsG5 eg] csf]tkm{ k|sf]ksf] k|efj lj:tf/ x'gaf6 { lgoGq0f eO{ Iflt Go"gLs/0fdf ;xof]u k'Ub5 . g]kfnsf] t/fO{If]q ;'Svf df};ddf a9L cfunfuL x'g] If]q xf] . t/fO{df a:g] ljz]ifu/L cflbaf;L / ljkGg kl/jf/sf 3/ tyf af/a]/f k/fn, 5jfnL, v/, ;G7L -h'6sf] 8fF7_ af6 agfOPsf F xf]rf / ;fgf x'G5g . o:tf 3/aflx/ / leq 3/fo;L k|of]hgdf / r'/f]6, laF8L cflb ;]jg ug{ cfuf]sf] k|of]u x'g] ub{5 . udL{n] ;a} j:t' ;'s/ em'?Dd ePsf] a]nf xfjfn] cfuf] p8fP/ NofP/ ] jf c;fjwfgLa; r'/f]6 laF8Lsf 7'6f glgefOsg kmfn]/ jf b'ef{Uoa; cfuf]n] o:tf j:t' l6Kbf cfunfuL x'g k'U5 . o:tf :yfgdf cfuf] km}ng]qmd tLj| ultdf x'g] x'bf lgoGq0fsf] ;Defjgf F w]/} sd x'G5 . cTolws cfunfuLsf 36gf x'g ;Sg] o:tf :yfgsf] klxrfg u/L ;Defljt cfunfuLaf6 aRg :yfgLo lgsfon] cfunfuL hf]lvdsf] gS;f tof/ ug'{ cfjZos x'G5 .
  15. 15. cfunfuL–hf]lvd gS;fªsgdf Wofg lbg'kg]{ kIf ;w}F vt/f eO/xg] j:t' jf ;DefJo :yfgsf] klxrfg . vt/fk"0f{ j:t' /x]sf] :yfgsf] klxrfg . cfunfuL lgoGq0fdf :yfgLo ;+nUgtf cfunfuL x'bf jf?0foGq ;]jf t'?Gt pknAw eOxfN5 eGg] 5}g . F s'g} klg :yfgdf cfunfuL ;'? x'gf;fy cfunfuL lgoGq0f sfo{df :yfgLo ;d'bfon] v]Ng] e"ldsf g} ;a}eGbf a9L dxŒjk"0f{ x'G5 . jf?0foGq cfOgk'Ub} :yfgLo ;d'bfos} k|of;af6 cfunfuL lgoGq0f ePsf pbfx/0f ;dfhdf k|z:t kfOG5g . jf?0foGq cfOk'ukl5 klg cfuf] lgoGq0fdf :ynut cj:yf a'em]sf :yfgLo ] ;d'bfosf] e"ldsfn] 7"nf] of]ubfg lbg ;S5 . cfunfuL eOxfn] s] ug]{ < cfunfuL ePsf] hfgsf/L ufpF;d'bfo;Dd /fd|/L k'Ug]u/L s/fpFb} jf l;67L k'ms]/ hg;xeflutf h'6fpg] . cfuf] km}ng gkfpFb} lgoGq0fdf tTsfn} h'6g] . cfunfuL lgoGq0f ug]{ ;|ft, ;fwgsf] ;xL ¿kdf pkof]u ] ug]{ . pknAw hgzlQmnfO{ nfOga4 ug]{ / kfgL, xl/of af]6la?jf, afn'jf, df6f]h:tf j:t' Psn] csf{df x:tfGt/0f ub{} cfunfuL ePsf] :yfg;Dd k'¥ofpg] . ;a}n] ;xof]usf] efjgfn] sfd ug]{ . ;|ft;fwg gePsf :yfgdf 5]p5fpdf cfuf] a9g glbg' g} ] cfuf] lgoGq0fsf] ;kmntf ePsfn] To;tkm{ Wofg lbg] . cfunfuLdf k/]sf dflg;nfO{ ;Dej eP cj:yfcg';f/
  16. 16. s'b/, kN6Fb} jf cGo ;'/lIft tl/sfaf6 aflx/ lgSng nufpg] ] tyf ;xof]u k'¥ofpg] . cfuf]sf] 3]/faf6 lgSng ;Dej gePsf kLl8tnfO{ kfgLn] leh]sf]] sk8f lbg], k|of]u ug]{ / To:tf] sk8f z/L/df a]// ] aflx/ lgsfNg ;xof]u ug]{ . 36gfaf/] va/ ubf{ kfng ug'{kg]{ s'/f 36gfaf/] cfktsfnLg p4f/sf nflu jf?0foGq ;]jfnfO{ va/ ubf{ lgDg s'/fx¿sf] 5f]6s/Ldf hfgsf/L lbg' kb{5 M s:tf] 36gf ePsf] xf] < 36gf s'g 7fpFdf ePsf] xf] < 36gf:yn k'Ug] af6f] s'g xf] < af6f]sf] cj:yf s:tf] 5 < 36gfsf] k|sl[ t s:tf] 5 < va/ ug]sf] gfd / ;Dks{ 6]lnkmf]g gDa/ cflb . { p4f/ bnn] ug'kg]{ sfd tyf st{Jo { p4f/ bndf vl6Psf clUglgoGqssf] st{Jo cfuf] lgefpg' dfq x'bg, k|sf]kdf km;]sf s]6fs]6L, a"9fa"9L, ckfªu / czQm F } dflg;sf]] p4f/ ug'{ pgLx¿sf] k|yd st{Jo x'G5 . To;kl5 cfuf] lgoGq0fsf sfo{ ;'rf? ub}{ 3fOt]sf] pkrf/sf] k|aGw;d]t Ps};fy ldnfpg' kb{5 . clUglgoGqs 6f]nLn] ;w}F k|fyldstfsf cfwf/df ljj]s k|of]u u/L sfo{ ug'{ cfjZos x'G5 . cfuf] lgoGq0f 6f]nLn] ckgfpg'kg]{ k|fyldstfqmd cfunfuL ePsf] :yfg, ef}uf]lns cj:yf, dfgjLo tyf cGo ef}lts Ifltsf] ;Defjgfsf] tTsfn} cfsng u/L clUglgoGqsn] k|fyldstfqmd lgwf{/0f ug'{kg]{ x'G5 . k|yldstfqmd lgwf{/0f ubf{ ljz]ifu/L lgDg ljifonfO{ Wofg lbg' kb{5 M
  17. 17. s= 36gf:yndf k|fyldstfsf cfwf/df sfd ug]{ . cfˆgf] ;'/Iff ug]{ . 3fOt] / km;]sfsf] p4f/ ug]{ . cfunfuL lgoGq0f ug]{ . cfunfuL 5]p5fp km}ng glbg] . 3fOt]sf] k|fylds pkrf/ ug]{ . v= p4f/df czQmnfO{ klxnf] k|fyldstf lbg] . u= afnaRrf, dlxnf, j[4j[4f tyf 3fOt]sf] p4f/ ug]{ . 3= ;fjwfgL;fy sfd ug]{ . ª= 36gf:ynaf6 lgsfn]sf j:t'x¿sf] ;'/Iff ug]{ . r= p4f/ ug],{ ljkb lgoGq0f ug],{ 3fOt]sf] k|fylds pkrf/ ug]{ / 3fOt]nfO{ c:ktfn nfg] Joj:yf ldnfpg] . 5= Ifltsf] ljj/0f lng] M 36gfsf] sf/0f 36gf:ynsf] If]qkmn cfly{s Ifltsf] cfsng 3fOt]sf] cj:yfsf] ljj/0f d[tssf] ;ªVof cflb . cfuf] lgoGq0fdf hg;xeflutf ;dfhdf eO/xg] k|sf]k lgoGq0f / Joj:yfkg ug{ ;/sf/L k|of; dfq oy]i6 x'bg eg] p;sf]] pkl:ylt klg ;a} :yfgdf F } ;Dej x'Fb}g . o;sf nflu 5/l5d]s tyf :yfgLo ;d'bfosf]] hfu?stf tyf ;xeflutf cfjZos x'G5 . ;fd"lxs ;xeflutf / arfj6sf :yfgLo k|ljlwsf] pkof]usf] 1fg tyf hgr]tgf k|sf]k Go"gLs/0fsf nflu ;xfos x'G5 . r]tgzLn ;dfhdf
  18. 18. cfunfuL lgoGq0f u/L Iflt sd ug{] sfo{ k|efjsf/L ¿kdf ;~rfng ug{ ;lsG5 . o:tf] ;fdflhs cj:yfsf] ljsf; ug{ :yfgLo ;d'bfosf] ;xeflutf x'g] / ltgnfO{ k|ToIf nfe x'g] sfo{ ul/g' ;fGble{s x'G5 M hgr]tgfd"ns sfo{qmd cfunfuL x'g] sf/0f / To;af6 k'Ug] dfgjLo, cfly{s, ;fdflhs, ef}uf]lns, kof{j/0fLo c;/af/] hgtfnfO{ r]tgzLn agfpg], o;sf] ljkbaf6 ;'/lIft u/fpg] / Iflt Go"gLs/0fdf hg;xeflutf h'6fpg] k|of; k"jtof/Lsf] klxnf] sfo{ xf] . hgr]tgf clej[l4 { ug{ /]l8of], 6]lnlehg, kqklqsfh:tf cfd;~rf/sf dfWodaf6 o:tf 36gf x'g;Sg] sf/0f, Iflt Go"gLs/0fsf pkfo, p4f/, Ifltsf] d"Nofªsg, tYofªs ;ªsng, /fxt ljt/0f cflb ljifodf hfgsf/L u/fpFbf 36gfsf] dfqf / ltgaf6 k'Ug] Ifltdf sdL cfpF5 . u}/;/sf/L ;+:yfsf] ;+nUgtf g]kfndf k|sf]ksf ljljw If]qdf sfd ug]{ u}/;/sf/L ;+:yfx¿sf] ;+nUgtf :yfgLo:t/df klg a9b} cfPsf] 5 . ;/sf/n] cfˆgf] bfloTj k"/f ug{ g;s]sf If]qdf cfFvf k'¥ofP/ ;fd'bflos ;xeflutfsf cfwf/df sfd ug]{ k|of;df nfu]sf w]/} u}/;/sf/L ;+:yf k|sf]k Joj:yfkg, k"j{tof/L, cfktsfnLg p4f/ tyf /fxtsf If]qdf sfo{/t 5g . k|sf]ks} cj:yfdf tTsfn} ;/sf/sf] pkl:ylt ;Dej gx'g klg ;Sb5 . To:tf] cj:yfdf k|sf]k;Fu ;DalGwt sfo{ ug]{ u}/;/sf/L ;+:yfnfO{ cfunfuL lgoGq0f tyf cfktsfnLg p4f/ / ;xof]usf lgldQ ;l/s u/fpg' k5{ . xf]l8{ªaf]8{ /fVg] jf kf]:6/ 6f“:g] cfunfuLaf/] ;r]t agfpFb} Iflt Go"gLs/0f / k|sf]k lgoGq0fdf
  19. 19. hg;xeflutf h' 6 fpg ;fj{ h lgs :yfgdf ;/n efiffsf xf]l8{ªaf]8{ /fVg], kf]:6/ 6fF:g], krf{ ljt/0f ug]{ sfo{ ug{ ;lsG5 . lzIffd"ns sfo{qmd cfunfuL jf cGo ljkbaf6 aRg k"j{tof/L, ;DefJo :yfgsf] klxrfg tyf 5gf]6, k|sf]k /f]syfdsf pkfo, 36gf jf 36gfkl5 3fOt]sf] p4f/ tyf k|fylds pkrf/sf] Joj:yf, /fxt ljt/0f, k' g lg{ d f{ 0 f tyf k' g :yf{ k gh:tf ljifodf ;/n efiffdf kf7o;fdu|Lsf] Joj:yf, ufpF3/, ;8s jf :yfgLo d~rdf b]vfpg ;lsg] gf6s, 6]lnlkmNd, k|x;g cflbsf dfWodaf6 ;a}nfO{ ;hu agfpg' pko'Qm x'G5 . ljkbsf a]nf cfˆgf] ;DklQ / cfkmGt u'dfPsfnfO{ c¿n] lbg] dfgjLo ;xof]u g} hLjgsf] cfwf/ x'G5 . ljkbdf wgL–ul/a hf] klg kg{ ;S5 eGg] ;Gb]z ;a}df k'¥ofpg;s] hgdfg;df ;xof]usf] efjgf hfUg] 5 . :yfgLo lgsfo / ;|ft;fwgsf] Joj:yfkg ] :yfgLo lgsfox¿df k|sf]k;DaGwL ah]6sf] Joj:yf u/L ;|f]t / ;fwg h'6fpg] tyf cfunfuL tyf cGo k|sf]k lgoGq0fsf tflnd k|bfg ug]{, cg'ejsf] cfbfgk|bfg ug]{ tyf ;+/rgf lgdf{0fsf dfkb08 nfu" ug]h:tf ljleGg sfo{ ug{;s] cfunfuLsf] { k|sf]k Go"gLs/0f, lgoGq0f tyf kLl8tsf] p4f/sfo{ ;lhnf] x'G5 . cf}iflwpkrf/ / /fxt ;fdu|Lsf] Joj:yf 36gfaf6 kLl8tx¿sf] p4f/;F u } 3fOt] dflg;nfO{ tTsfn} pkrf/sf] cfjZostf kb{5 . s'g} 3fOt]n] t'?Gt pkrf/ gkfP p;sf] d[To' x'g;S5 . To:tf] cj:yfdf :ynut 6«df c:ktfn jf :yfgLo lgsfod} k|fylds pkrf/sf] Joj:yf x'g' h?/L x'G5 . k|sf]kaf6 3fOt] ePsfsf] k|fylds pkrf/sf ;fdu|L :yfgLo ;d'bfodf ;d'bfos} /]vb]vdf /fVg] Joj:yf ul/g' kb{5 . k|fylds pkrf/kl5 cfjZos k/] c:ktfn n}hfg] Joj:yf klg ug'{ kb{5 . k|sf]kkLl8t JolQm jf kl/jf/ jf ;d'bfonfO{
  20. 20. tTsfn /fxt ;fdfu|L pknAw u/fpg' klg cfjZos x'G5 . ;/sf/n] k|sf]ksf] ;Defljt If]qdf :yfgLo lgsfo, ;d'bfo tyf ;DalGwt If]qdf sfd ug]{ u}/;/sf/L ;+:yfsf] ;+of]hgdf cfktsfnLg p4f/ / /fxt ;fdu|Lsf] Joj:yf ldnfpg' cfjZos x'G5 . kLl8tsf] dgf]an a9fpg] k|sf]kkLl8tnfO{ b'Mvsf] ;dodf lxDdt, ;fx; lbg' klg dxŒjk"0f{ sfo{ xf] . o;af6 kLl8tnfO{ kL8f / b'Mvsf] 38Ldf PSnf] dx;'; x'Fb}g . o:tf] ;dodf lbOg] ;fGTjgfn] 3fOt]df afFRg] dgf]ansf] j[l4 x'g5 eg] kLl8tnfO{ kL8faf]waf6 aflx/ lg:sg] ] ;fx; k|bfg ub{5 . k'/:sf/ k|sf]ksf ;dodf ul/g] p4f/ cfkm}df hf]lvdk"0f{ sfo{ xf] . p4f/sdL{ F dfgjLo efjgfn] cf]tk|ft eP/ vt/f df]Nb} p4f/ / k|sf]k lgoGq0fdf ] h'6sf x'G5g . ;/sf/n] cfunfuLh:tf] hf]lvdk"0f{ ;dodf sfd ] ug]{ p4f/bn, 6f]nL / JolQmnfO{ pgLx¿sf] e"ldsfsf cfwf/df d"Nofªsg / sb/ ug]{ Joj:yf ug'{ kb{5 . pk;+xf/ cGo k|sf]khGo 36gfsf t'ngfdf cfunfuLaf6 dfgjLo Iflt sd eP klg cfly{s Iflt w]/} a9L x'g] u/]sf] kfOG5 . clwsf+z cfunfuLsf 36gf dfgjLo q'l6 jf x]nr]qmofOFsf sf/0f x'g] u/]sf] kfOG5 . ;x/L If]qdf lah'nsf] dd{t;Def/ gu/]sf ejgdf ljB'tLo u8a8Ln] / u|fdL0f If]qdf cfuf]sf] plrt lgoGq0f gugf{n] cfunfuL x'g] 36gf w]/} x'g] u/]sf] 5 . cfunfuLnfO{ x'/Latf;n] km}lng ;xof]u ug]{ ePsfn] ljz]ifu/L ;'Vvf df};dd} cfunfuLsf 36gf x'g] u/]sf 5g . To;}n] df3kl5 h]7;Dd cfunfuL lgoGq0fsf nflu JolQmut / kfl/jfl/s zts{tf ckgfpg' a'l4dfgL x'G5 .

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