10.  epidemics dks 10
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10. epidemics dks 10

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10.  epidemics dks 10 10. epidemics dks 10 Document Transcript

  • dxfdf/Lsf sf/0f / ;'/Iff÷1
  • k|sf]k–1fgdfnf–!) dxfdf/Lsf sf/0f / ;'/Iff n]vs /fdrGb| Gof}kfg] k|sfzs ÷klx/f] lgoGq0fsf pkfo 2
  • s[lt M dxfdf/Lsf sf/0f / ;'/Iff n]vs M /fdrGb| Gof}kfg] k|sfzs M jftfj/0f tyf afn ;/f]sf/ ;+:yf–g]kfn (ECO-Nepal) ;jf{lwsf/ M k|sfzsdf ;'/lIft ;+:s/0f M k|yd, ;fpg @)^$ ;ªVof M @,))) k|lt cfj/0f l8hfOg M /d]z bfxfn d'b|s M lszf]/ ckm;]6 k|; -k|f=_ ln=, kmf]g M $#%!)$$ ] d"No M ?= %)÷– ISBN : 978-99946-927-9-8 k|sf]ksf] hf]lvd Go"gLs/0f tyf k|sf]ksf] ;fdgf ug]{ ;fd'bflos Ifdtf clej[l4sf nflu ;r]tg cleofgcGtu{t k|sf]k–1fgdfnf k|sfzgdf cf+lzs ¿kdf cfly{s ;xof]u ug]{ lgDg ;fem]bf/ ;+:yfx¿k|lt Osf]–g]kfn xflb{s cfef/ JoQm ub{5 M PS;gP8 g]kfn cS;kmfd hLaL g]kfn kf]= a= g+= ^@%&, sf7df8f}+, g]kfn kf]= a= g+= @%)), sf7df8f}+, g]kfn kmf]gM $$#^$&& kmf]gM %%@)%*^ kmofS;M (&&–!–$$!(&!* kmofS;M (&&–!–%%@#!(& j]e;fO6M www.actionaid.org/nepal j]e;fO6M www.oxfam.org.uk dxfdf/Lsf sf/0f / ;'/Iff÷3
  • k|sfzssf] egfO /f]ulgjf/0fsf dfgjLo lqmofsnfk;Fu} o;sf] k|sf]k klg lj:tfl/t x'b} F uO/x]sf] 5 . cf}nf] pGd'ngsf nflu ljZjn] w]/} 7"nf] vr{ u/] klg lgoGq0f x'g ;s]sf] 5}g . clxn] t sfnfhf/ / 8]Fu' gfdsf dxfdf/LhGo /f]u;d]t pTkGg eO;s]sf 5g . ljZjnfO{ a8{kmn', P8;h:tf dxfdf/Ln] klg cfqmd0f ul/;s]sf] 5 . To;}n] dfgj ;dfh dxfdf/LhGo /f]uaf6 ;'/lIft x'g] k|oTg ubf{ ub}{ klg c;'/lIft g} /x]sf] 5 . dxfdf/LnfO{ k|sf]kl;lh{t k|sf]ksf] ?kdf klg lng ;lsG5 . ljz]ifu/L af9L, klx/f], e'Orfnf]kl5 ;/;kmfO tyf z'4 lkpg] kfgL, z'4 vfgf F tyf :jR5 jftfj/0fsf] cefj x'g] sf/0fn] ljleGg k|sf/sf dxfdf/Ln] cfqmd0f ug{ ;S5g . o; cj:yfdf Ps k|sf]ksf] kL8faf6 d'lQm gkfpFb} csf]{ k|sf]ksf] l;sf/ x'gkg]{ afWotf dflg;df cfOk5{ . ' k|sf]k 1ffgdfnfsf] o; b;f}F z[ªvnfdf dxfdf/Lsf ljleGg kIfdf ;fdfGo hfgsf/L lbg] k|of; ul/Psf] 5 . o; k':tsdf ePsf hfgsf/Ln] k|sf]kl5 jf cGo k|sf]ksf 36gf geOsg pTkGg x'g;Sg] dxfdf/Lsf] hf]lvd lgoGq0f ug{ ;fdflhs ;xhstf{, lzIfs, ljBfyL{ tyf ;d'bfonfO{ ;xof]u k'Ug] ck]Iff ul/Psf] 5 . k|sf]k 1ffgdfnfsf cGo z[ªvnfh:t} o;nfO{ klg ;/n efiffdf k|:t't ug{ ;kmn n]vs Gof}kfg] ;lxt o;sf] k|sfzgsf nflu k|/0ff k|bfg ] ug]{ PS;gP8 g]kfnsf l;lgo/ lydln8/ Zofd;'Gb/ 1fjfnL / cS;kmfd hLaL g]kfnsf sfo{qmd ;+of]hs lji0f'k|;fb v/]n tyf o;sf] z'4fz'l4 / ;fh;Hhfdf ;xof]u ug]{ Osf]–g]kfnsf ;a} ;xofqLk|lt wGojfb JoQm ub{5f}F . Osf]–g]kfn ECO-Nepal ] 4÷klx/f] lgoGq0fsf pkfo
  • ljifo;"rL dxfdf/Lsf sf/0f / ;'/Iff %–!# ljifok|jz ] % dxfdf/Lsf] cy{ ^ dxfdf/L km}lng] sf/0f & dxfdf/Lsf] P]ltxfl;s k[i7e"ld / Iflt * cfsl:ds jf cfkTsfnLg cj:yf ( k|sf]khGo hf]lvd / dxfdf/L !! dxfdf/Lsf k|sf/ / lgoGq0fsf pkfo !#–@# a8{kmn' !# dxfdf/L lgoGq0f / Joj:yfkg !^ dxfdf/Lcl3sf] k"jtof/Lsf] of]hgf { !^ k|sf]ksf] ;dodf ug'kg]{ p4f/ / Joj:yfkg { !( cfkTsfnLg p4f/ @) bL3{sfnLg Joj:yfkg @) pk;+xf/ @# dxfdf/Lsf sf/0f / ;'/Iff÷5
  • dxfdf/Lsf sf/0f / ;'/Iff ljifok|j]z hg;ªVof j[l4, jftfj/0f k|b"if0f, :jR5 vfg]kfgL tyf ;/;kmfOsf] cefjsf sf/0f ljZjdf x/]s lbg xhf/f}F dflg;sf] d[To' x'g] u/]sf] 5 . kf]lifnf] vfBfGgsf] cefj, ul/aL / ljsf;sf gfddf eO/x]sf] ljgfzsf] tLj|tfn] d[To'sf] ;ªVof j[l4 ug{ yk of]ubfg lbFb} cfPsf] oyfy{nfO{ klg c:jLsf/ ug{ ;lsFbg . afFRgsf nflu geO gx'g] jfo' / kfgLsf ;|ftdf } ] eO/x]sf] k|bif0fn] ;j{;fwf/0f gful/sdf hg:jf:Yo;DaGwL ;d:of tLj| " aGb} uPsf] 5 . Pslt/ cfly{s ;d'Gglttkm{ ljZj bf}l8/x]sf] 5 eg] csf]tkm{ ul/aLdf afFRg ljjz ;d'bfo ljleGg k|sf/sf dxfdf/LhGo { /f]usf] lzsf/ alg/x]sf 5g . ljZjdf dxfdf/Lsf] k|sf]k kfgLhGo /f]uaf6 w]/} x'g] u/]sf] 5 . x'g t jt{dfg ;dodf PrcfOeL P8; / a8{ˆn'n] klg dxfdf/Lsf] ¿k lnO;s]sf] 5 . To;}u/L cf}nf], 8]u' Hj/f], x}hf, emf8fkvfnfh:tf Hofb} l56f] ;g]{ F /f]un] klg dxfdf/Lsf] ¿k lng] u/]sf 5g . dxfdf/Lsf] k|sf]k ljz]ifu/L k|sf]kåf/f l;lh{t k|sf]ksf ¿kdf pTkGg x'g] eP klg ;dfhdf ;fdfGo cj:yfdf ;d]t o;sf] k|efj b]lvg] u/]sf] 5 . g]kfndf dxfdf/Laf6 x'g] hgwgsf] Ifltsf] cfFsng ug]{ ljZj:t ;+oGqsf] ljsf; gePsfn] o;af6 x'g] dfgjLo Iflt cg'dfgdf dfq ;Lldt /x]sf] kfOG5 . k|sf]kaf6 ePsf] Ifltsf] tYofªs g]kfn ;/sf/sf] u[x dGqfnoaf6 dfq cflwsfl/s ¿kdf pknAw x'g] Joj:yf /x]sf] 5 . dGqfnosf] tYofªs cg';f/ ;g !(*# b]lv @))# ;Dddf dxfdf/Laf6 !! xhf/ cf7 ;o Ps hgfsf] lgwg ePsf] b]lvG5 . t/ d'nssf b'ud ufpFdf PsfPs b]vf kg]{ c1ft /f]usf] ' { l;sf/ ePsfx¿sf] tYofªs pknAw x'g g;s]sf] oyfy{nfO{ ;/sf/n] klg :jLsfg]{ u/]sf] 5 . cgf}krfl/s tYofªscg';f/ d'nsdf dxfdf/Laf6 ' jif]gL sl/a Ps xhf/ Ps;oeGbf a9L dflg;sf] d[To' x'g] u/]sf] 5 . { 6÷klx/f] lgoGq0fsf pkfo
  • sdhf]/ cfly{s cj:yf ePsf u|fdL0f ;d'bfo dxfdf/Lsf] k|sf]kaf6 kLl8t x'g] u/]sf 5g . ul/aLsf sf/0f pgLx¿ kf}li6s vfgf, ;kmf sk8f, pko'Qm cfjf;, :j:Yo jftfj/0faf6 al~rt /x]sf 5g eg] /fd|f] lzIff / lgoldt :jf:Yok/LIf0fdf rflxg] Go"gtd vr{ h'6fpg c;dy{ 5g . kf]if0fo'Qm vfgf, z'4 vfg] kfgL / ;/;kmfOsf] cefjdf To:tf ul/a ;d'bfoleq /f]usf hLjf0f'sf lgldQ cg'sn jftfj/0f tof/ x'g] ePsfn] " ;fdfGo /f]un] klg dxfdf/Lsf] ¿k wf/0f u5{ . g]kfnsf ljleGg 7fpF / cGo b]zdf pTkGg dxfdf/Lsf] cWoogaf6 klg clwsf+z ;?jf /f]usf] dxfdf/L lgDg:t/sf] af;:yfg /x]sf ul/a tyf lk5l8Psf ;d'bfodf g} w]/} b]lvPsf] kfOG5 . g]kfndf klg ;x/sf em'k8L / t/fO{sf ljkGg a:tL tyf kxf8sf lk5l8Psf ;d'bfodf dxfdf/Ln] k|sf]ksf] ¿k lng] u/sf] / To:tf ;d'bfodf g} d[To'b/ klg a9L /x]sf] kfOG5 . dfxfdf/Lsf] cy{ ;dfhsf] s'g} Ps If]qdf b]vf k/]sf] /f]u 5f]6f] ;dod} km}lnP/ cgk]lIft ' ¿kdf w]/} dflg; ;ªqmldt x'g] / dg]{ cj:yfnfO{ ;fdfGotof dxfdf/L elgG5 . To; cj:yfdf :yfgLo txdf ePsf lrlsT;s, cf}iflw, :jf:Yo s]Gb|sf] Ifdtf / pknAw cGo ;|ft tyf ;fwg ckof{Kt eP/ k|sf]ksf] ] cj:yf pTkGg x'G5 . crfgs b]vf k/]/ Jofks ¿kdf km}lnO{ hg:jf:Yodf ;d:of pTkGg ug]{ /f]usf] k|sf]knfO{ g} :jf:Yo;DaGwL lj1fgn] dxfdf/Lsf] ¿kdf kl/eflift u/]sf] 5 . /f]u nfu]/ dfq ;dfhdf dxfdf/L pTkGg x'bg . k|fs[lts / dfgjLo F} sf/0faf6 x'g] ck|Tofl;t 36gfn] k|sf]ksf] ¿k lnP/ hgwgsf] Iflt x'g] cj:yfnfO{ klg dxfdf/L eGg ;lsG5 . t/ klg o; k':tsdf /f]uhGo dxfdf/LnfO{ g} k|sf]ksf] ¿kdf lnP/ To;sf] Joj:yfkgsf ljifodf rrf{ ug]{ k|of; ul/Psf] 5 . dxfdf/LnfO{ ljleGg If]qaf6 ljleGg k|sf/n] JofVof ul/Psf] kfOG5 . ;fdflhs tyf k|ltsf/fTds :jf:Yo lj1fgsf cg';f/ g;g]{ k|sl[ tsf /f]u dxfdf/Lsf] ¿kdf km}lnFbgg . dxfdf/Lsf] ¿k lng] /f]usf hLjf0f' Ps } JolQmaf6 csf]{ JolQmdf ;5{g . o; lsl;dsf /f]usf hLjf0f' km}lngsf dxfdf/Lsf sf/0f / ;'/Iff÷7
  • nflu pko'Qm jftfj/0f tyf cGo tŒjx¿sf] ;+of]hg x'gf;fy dxfdf/Lsf] ¿kdf km}lng] u/]sf] kfOG5 . hf8f] ;dodf Zjf;k|Zjf;hGo /f]u, jiff{ofddf af9L tyf klx/f]kl5 k|bif0fdf x'g] j[l4sf sf/0f pTkGg x'g] emf8fkvfnf, " x}hf, Dofb]Hj/f], cf}nf], OG;]kmnfOl6;, sfnfhf/ sdnlkQ, bfb'/f, OGkmnPGhf, ' 8]u' Hj/f]h:tf /f]u dxfdf/Lsf] ¿kdf km}lng] u/]sf 5g . To;}u/L a8{ˆn', F PrcfOeL÷P8; klg ljZjJofkL ?kdf dxfdf/L ag]/ km}lng] qmddf j[l4 eO/x]sf] 5 . /f]uhGo lhjf0f' jf ljiff0f', /f]u nfUg cg'sn zf/Ll/s cj:yfsf] JolQm / " /f]u ;g{] k|lqmofsf nflu hLjf0f'sf] j[l4 / cfqmds Ifdtf ljsf; ug]{ jftfj/0fh:tf tŒjn] ;?jf /f]usf] dxfdf/L pTkGg ug{ cx+ e"ldsf v]N5 . /f]usf hLjf0f' jf ljiff0f' 5}gg eg] /f]u pTkGg x'g ;Sb}g . sdhf]/ zf/Ll/s cj:yfsf] JolQmnfO{ /f]un] t'?Gt} ks85 / ;ªqmd0fsf/L ¿k wf/0f u5{ . /f]usf hLjf0f' k|jz u/]sf] dflg;sf] k|lt/IffTds Ifdtf ] sdhf]/ ePdf /f]u tLj| ultdf a95 . o:tf] hLjf0f' ;?jf k|sf/sf] ePdf :j:y JolQmdf klg k|jz u5{ / lj:tf/} km}lnP/ dxfdf/Lsf] ¿k lnG5 . ] o;k|sf/ :ki6 x'G5 …PsJolQmaf6 Zjf;k|Zjf;, vfgf jf cGo ;+;u{sf] dfWodaf6 csf]{ JolQmdf / ToxL dfWodaf6 ljleGg JolQmdf ;/]/ dflg;sf] hLjg g} ;ªs6do agfpg] s'g} klg /f]unfO{ dxfdf/L eGg ;lsG5Ú . dxfdf/L km}lng] sf/0f /f]u pTkGg ug]{ hLjf0f' / ;Defljt /f]uLsf] ;+of]unfO{ k|bl" ift jftfj/0fn] k|a4{g u/]sf] v08df /f]usf] km}nfj6 Jofks aGg ;S5 . o;/L km}lnPsf] /f]un] dxfdf/Lsf] ¿k wf/0f u5{ . ef}uf]lns cjl:ylt, k|sf]ksf cGo 36gfsf] pkl:ylt, ;'4 vfg] kfgL tyf ;/;kmfOsf] l:ylt, kmf]xf]/d}nfsf] Joj:yfkgh:tf ljifon] /f]usf] pTklQ / km}nfj6sf] ;Ldf lgwf{/0f u5{ . Vff;u/L, JolQmut, 3/fo;L / ;fd'bflos txdf k|of]u x'g] vfBfGg, xfjf / kfgLdfkm{t /f]u km}lng] u5{ . JolQmut ;/;kmfOsf] cefjdf km}lng] dxfdf/L ;/;kmfOk|lt k|lta4 JolQmdf klg lj:tf/} ;g{ ;S5 . s'g} klg ;?jf /f]usf] Joj:yfkg kmf]xf]/d}nf, zf}rfno, JolQmut jf 3/fo;L ;/;kmfO, :jf:Yo;DaGwL r]tgfdf lge{/ /xG5 . dflg;n] k|of]u ug]{ kfgL k|bl" ift 5 eg] emf8fkvfnf, 6fOkmfO8, hlG8; / 5fnfsf ljleGg /f]u 8÷klx/f] lgoGq0fsf pkfo
  • nfUg] / dxfdf/Lsf] ¿kdf km}ng] ;Defjgf /xG5 . hyfefjL kmf]x/d}nf u/]df jf v'nf 7fpFdf lb;flk;fa u/]df xfjfkfgL b"lift eP/ ljleGg k|sf/sf ;?jf /f]u dxfdf/Lsf] ¿kdf km}lng] jftfj/0f tof/ aG5 . s]xL k|sf]ksf 36gfkl5 dxfdf/Lsf ¿kdf /f]u km}lng] u/]sf] kfOG5 . To;/L km}lnPsf] dxfdf/LnfO{ k|sf]kl;lh{t k|sf]ksf ¿kdf lng] ul/Psf] 5 . t}klg s'g} Ps k|sf]ksf sf/0f dxfdf/Lsf] pTklQ x'G5 eg]/ k"0f{ ¿kdf ljZjf; ug'{ klg unt x'g ;S5 . s'g} klg k|sf]kkl5 dxfdf/L cfpF5 g} eGg ;lsGg . oBlk af9L, klx/f], e'Orfnf], ;'Vvf tyf nfdf] F v8]/Lsf sf/0f ;?jf /f]usf] pTklQ x'g] u/]sf] kfOG5 . hnjfo' kl/jt{gsf sf/0f klg ljZjdf ljleGg /f]un] dxfdf/Lsf] ¿k lng yfn]sf] 5 . dxfdf/Lsf] pTklQ, j[l4 / lj:tf/sf] sf/0fnfO{ lgDgcg';f/ lng ;lsG5 M k|bl" ift vfg] kfgL c;'/lIft vfBkbfy{ ;/;kmfOsf] cefj jftfj/0f k|bif0f " hnjfo' kl/jt{g dxfdf/Lsf] P]ltxfl;s k[i7e"ld / Iflt g]kfn ;fdflhs, cfly{s / z}lIfs ¿kdf lk5l8Psf] d'ns xf] . ef}uf]lns ' jftfj/0fsf lx;fan] tLg efudf ljeflht g]kfndf /f]uhGo jftfj/0f / o;sf cGo tŒjx¿ klg ef}uf]lns :j?ks} cfwf/df pTkGg eP/ dxfdf/Lsf ¿kdf km}lnG5g . ljif]zu/L, afnaflnsf, j[4, czQm / dlxnf ;?jf /f]ux¿af6 a9L k|efljt x'G5g . g]kfndf ljleGg ;dodf emf8fkvfnf, 7]pnf, dn]l/of, lgdf]lgof, bfb'/fh:tf /f]un] dxfdf/Lsf] ¿kdf af/Daf/ dflg;nfO{ k|efljt ug{] u/]sf] kfOG5 . ljut tLg bzsotf o:tf /f]usf] dxfdf/L k6s–k6s bf]xf]l/P/ cTolws hg;ªVof k|efljt ePsf] / To;n] b"/ufdL c;/ ;d]t 5f]8sf] kfOG5 . ] cGo k|sf]ksf] t'ngfdf dxfdf/Laf6 w]/} dflg; k|ToIf ¿kdf k|efljt x'g] / dfgjLo Iflt;d]t a9L x'g]u/]sf] 5 . ljZja}ªssf] jftfj/0fLo dxfdf/Lsf sf/0f / ;'/Iff÷9
  • :jf:Yo;DaGwL Ps cWoogcg';f/ g]kfn, ef/t, aªunfb]z, e'6fgnufot ljZjsf ul/a tyf sd ljsl;t b]z /f]uhGo dxfdf/Lsf] l;sf/ aGg] k|dv :yfgsf ¿kdf /x]sf 5g . oL b]zdf jftfj/0fLo k|bif0f / c;'/lIft ' " kfgLsf sf/0f emf8fkvfnf, Dofb]Hj/f], x}hf, sdnlkQ, Zjf;k|Zjf;;DaGwL /f]uaf6 jif]gL b;f}F nfv afnaflnsf kLl8t x'G5g . ljZja}ªssf cg';f/ { ul/a d'nssf nueu #) nfv afnaflnsf b"lift kfgLs} sf/0f x'g] ' /f]uhGo k|sf]kaf6 k|To]s jif{ db{5g . ul/aL, k5Øf}6]kg / ljkGg ;fdflhs k[i7e"ld g} ;?jf /f]usf] dxfdf/L / pRrd[To'b/ k|j4{g ug]{ k|dv tŒj x'g . ljZj :jf:Yo ;ªu7gsf] k|ltj]bgdf …ljZjJofkL ;?jf ' /f]usf] af]emÚ (Burden) sf] ;DaGwdf pNn]v ePcg';f/ ul/a / cljsl;t b]zdf Zjf;k|Zjf;;DaGwL /f]u, emf8fkvfnf / cf}nf]af6 x'g] d[To' ljZjsf] /f]uhGo d[To'sf] nueu @) k|ltzt s]lGb|t /x]sf] 5 . ljsl;t b]zdf eg] d[To'sf] k|dv bz sf/sdWo]sf] Zjf;k|Zjf;;DaGwL dxfdf/L cu|:yfgdf ' /x]sf] 5 . g]kfndf jif]gL dxfdf/Laf6 xhf/eGbf a9L dflg;sf] d[To' x'g] u5{ . { vf;u/L, jiff{ofddf cfpg] af9L, klx/f] / cfunfuLaf6 l;lh{t jftfj/0fLo c;Gt'ngaf6 pTkGg dxfdf/Lsf] cj:yfdf ;dod} :jf:Yo;]jf pknAw x'g g;Sbf w]/} dflg;n] Hofg u'dfpg'kg]{ l:ylt cfPsf] kfOG5 . @)^# / @)^$ ;fnsf] k|f/lDes cjlwdf dfq nueu sl/a @( xhf/ dflg; emf8fkvfnf / x}hfh:tf dxfdf/Laf6 k|efljt ePsf / sl/a tLg ;o dflg;sf] d[To' ePsf] b]lvG5 . k|sf]kkZrft /f]usf] dxfdf/L pTkGg x'g] lglZrt geP klg Joj:yfkg;Fu} o;sf] lgoGq0fsf ;DaGwdf ;+jbgzLn ] x'g ;s]df ;Defljt 7"nf] dfgjLo IfltnfO{ 6fg{ ;lsG5 . cfsl:ds jf cfkTsfnLg cj:yf e"sDk, af9L klx/f], /f]uhGo dxfdf/L, cfunfuL, lxdkft, cfFwL a]x/Lh:tf k|sf]ksf 36gf tyf dfgj l;lh{t o'4 jf åGbsf sf/0faf6 pTkGg c;xh cj:yfdf tTsfn ;dfwfgsf pkfox¿ cjnDag gul/Pdf dflg;sf] Hofg hf]lvddf k5{ . o"PgPr;Lcf/n] k|ltlbg !) xhf/df dflg;df @ JolQmsf] d[To' x'g' tyf emf8f kvfnf @% k|ltzteGbf a9L hg;ªVofdf b]lvg', k|ltlbg k|lt JolQm Go"gtd !) ln6/ :jR5 kfgL pknAw gx'g' 10÷klx/f] lgoGq0fsf pkfo
  • cfsl:ds jf cfkTsfnLg cj:yf hgfpg] ;"rssf] cfwf/df cfktsfnnfO{ kl/eflift u/]sf] 5 . To;}n] o:tf] cj:yfsf] Joj:yfkgsf] nflu tTsfn} ;dfwfgsf pkfox¿ canDag ug'k5{ . h;sf nflu k"jtof/L of]hgf { { agfpg' h?/L x'G5 . o:tf] cj:yfdf aflx/L ;xof]u ;d]t cfjZos kg{;S5 . ;fwf/0ftof k|sf]k cyjf cfktsfn b'jnfO{ ;ªs6sf] ¿kdf lnOG5 . } cyjf ;ªs6 eGgfn] crfgs kg]{ cyjf k6s–k6s hgwgsf] Iflt x'gu/L pTkGg x'g] ljgfzsf/L cj:yfnfO{ a'emfpF5 . csf]{ cy{df cfktsfn ] eg]sf] s'g} klg vt/fo'Qm 36gfaf6 hgwgsf] Iflt x'g] cj:yf xf] h;sf] ;fdgf ug{ ;d'bfosf] :yfgLo ;|ft ck"0f{ x'G5 . dxfdf/L o:t} b'Mvb 36gf ] xf], h;sf] ;fdgf ug{ ;d'bfo ;Ifd /x]sf] x'bg . F} To;}u/L /f]usf sf/0f /fi6«JofkL ¿kdf, If]qLo :t/df jf ;d'bfo :t/df åGå, lx+;f x'g;S5 . o:tf] cfktsfn ljleGg cj:yf kf/ ub}{ k"jf{j:yfdf gcfP;Ddsf] cj:yfdf hg;ªVofsf] 7"nf] lx:;f k|efljt x'G5 . o;sf] ;dfwfgsf] nflu :yfgLo / /fli6«o :t/ tyf cGt/f{li6«o If]qaf6 ;d]t kxn tyf cfjZos ;xof]u h'6fpg'kg]{ l:ylt pTkGg x'G5 . o:tf] ;ªs6sf] ;dodf åGå/t kIfaf6 cfkTsfnLg dfgjLo ;xfotf ;d]t ca?4 x'g;S5 . ;'/Iffsf] sf/0f p4f/stf{x¿ vt/fdf k5{g . o;/L x]bf{ cfkTsfnLg cj:yf cgk]lIft ¿kdf pTkGg x'g] cj:yf xf] . o; cj:yfdf dflg;sf] hLjgk4lt c:jefljs / c;xh x'G5 . cfkTsfnLg cj:yf lgDgcg';f/sf 36gf ePdf pTkGg x'G5 M e"sDk, Hjfnfd'vL, af9L, klx/f]h:tf k|sf]ksf 36gf . o'4, lx+;f, b'36gf, k|bif0f, cfuhgL, cftªsh:tf dfgjpT;lh{t { " k|sf]k ePdf . /fhgLlts, cfly{s, ;fdflhs, wfld{s, g}lts, ;ªu7gfTds, Joj:yfksLo cj:yf sdhf]/ ePdf . g]kfnsf] cfw'lgs Oltxf;df ePsf] !(() sf] dxfe"sDk, @)@) ;fnsf] e"sDk, @)@! ;fnsf] lxdtfn lj:kmf]6, @)#* ;fnsf] af9L, @)$% ;fnsf] e"sDk / @)%@ ;fn kl5sf] åGåsf] cj:yf cfkTsfnLg pbfx/0fx¿ x'g . dxfdf/Lsf sf/0f / ;'/Iff÷11
  • b]zsf] ;fdflhs tyf /fhg}lts ;d:ofaf6 kg]{ k|ToIf c;/n] dflg;x¿ z/0ffyL{sf] ¿kdf hLjg ljtfpg afWo x'G5g . ;+oQm /fi6«;ª3Lo z/0ffyL{ ' pRr cfof]usf cg';f/ cfGtl/s ¿kdf lj:yflkt JolQm tyf ;d'bfo ;}lgs ljb|fx, cfGtl/s åGå, n}l+ us lje]b, hftLo bªuf, dfgjclwsf/ ] pNnª3gh:tf sf/0fn] tTsfn cfˆgf] 3/ 5f]8g afWo eO/x]sf 5g . o:tf lj:yflkt ;d'bfonfO{ cfGtl/s ¿kdf lj:yflkt dflgPsf] 5 . logLx¿sf ;fdfGo :jf:Yo ;d:ofsf cltl/Qm k|hgg :jf:Yo ;d:ofdf ;d]t Wofg lbg' cTofjZos x'G5 . z/0ffyL{ pRr cfof]un] s'g} klg JolQm cfkmgf] b]zeGbf cGoq 5 / p cfkmgf] b]zdf kmls{g ;fdflhs, /fhgLlts cK7of/f]sf] sf/0fn] of t hfg ;Sb}g cyjf hfg vf]Hb}g jf p;sf] Hofg vt/fdf 5 eg] To:tf] cj:yfsf] JolQmnfO{ z/0ffyL{ egL JofVof u/]sf] 5 . o:tf] ;d'bfonfO{ klg cGo dfgjLo ;xfotfsf] cltl/Qm k|hgg :jf:Yo ;]jfsf] ;'lglZrttf cTofjZos x'G5 . k|sf]khGo hf]lvd / dxfdf/L ljZjsf w]/h;f] efudf ePsf cg]s lsl;dsf k|sf]ksf 36gfsf] cg'ejaf6 } clwsf+z k|sf]ksf sf/0fn] hg:jf:Yodf b]vf kg]{ ;d:ofx¿ Ps} lsl;dsf x'g] u/]sf] b]lvPsf] 5 . g]kfndf a/fa/ b]vf kg]{ emf8fkvfnf, x}hf, k|hgg :jf:Yo, cf}nf], sdnlkQ, sfnfhf/h:tf 5 k|sf/sf dxfdf/Lsf k|sf]kn] a9L k|efj kfg]{ u/]sf] kfOG5 . k|sf]kn] :jf:Yo If]qdf kfg]{ c;/ k|sf]kcg';f/ dfq km/s geP/ k|sf]k k|efljt If]qsf] k|sf]k x'gcl3 / ePkl5sf] cfly{s, ;fdflhs, ;f+:s[lts ' tyf /fhg}lts cj:yfcg';f/ klg km/s x'g] u/]sf] 5 . To;}n] k|sf]ksf] k"jtof/L / p4f/sf ultljlw ;~rfng ubf{ :jf:Yodf kg{;Sg] c;/sf { af/]df lgSof}n ug{ k|sf]k k|efljt If]qdf pknAw :jf:Yo ;]jfsf af/]df { klg ljrf/ ug'{ cfjZos x'G5 . o;sf cltl/Qm k|efljt If]qsf hg;d'bfosf] :jf:Yo /Iffsf nflu hg:jf:Yo;DaGwL gLlt / OdfGbfl/tfn] 7"nf] e"ldsf lgjf{x ug]{ ePsfn] :jf:Yo sfo{stf{df dfgjLo lrGtgsf] ljsf; x'g' h?/L b]lvG5 . ;?jf /f]ux¿sf] lgoGq0f la/fdL x'g] ;ªVof / d[To' ;ªVof 36fpg ;?jf /f]ux¿sf] lgoGq0f ug'{ cfjZos x'G5 . ;?jf /f]ux¿sf] ;do d} klxrfg ug{ k|sf]k x'gcl3 g} ' 12÷klx/f] lgoGq0fsf pkfo
  • ;"rgf k|0ffnLnfO{ ;'b[9 / e/kbf]{ agfpg' k5{ . o;sf nflu :km]o/ kl/of]hgfsf] ;?jf /f]u lgoGq0f dfkb08sf] cWoog ug'k5{ . { z'4 kfgLsf] cfk"lt{ :j:y eP/ afFRg :jR5 vfg] kfgL klxnf] ;t{ xf] . b"lift / To;df klg ckof{Kt vfg]kfgL cfk"lt{ jf k|of]uaf6 k|sf]k k|efljt hg;d'bfodf /f]u km}lng], /f]uLsf] ;ªVof / d[To' j[l4 x'g] ;Defjgf w]/} x'G5 . vfg]kfgLsf nflu :jR5 kfgLsf] cfk"lt{sf ;fy} JolQmut ;/;kmfOsf nflu klg kof{Kt kfgLsf] cfk"lt{ x'gk5{ . kLl8tnfO{ ;ªqmfds /f]uaf6 arfpg :km]o/ ' kl/of]hgfsf] vfg]kfgL cfk"lt{;DaGwL dfkb08sf] sfof{Gjog h?/L 5 . ;/;kmfO k|sf]kkl5 ;/;kmfO, kmf]x/ d}nf tyf 9n lgsf;sf] plrt Joj:yfkgsf] sdL ePdf jf zf}rfnosf] k|of]u gul/Fbf ;?jf /f]u km}lng] ;Defjgf a9]/ hfG5 . k|sf]k k|efljt If]qdf z'4 lkpg] kfgL / ;/;kmfOsf] kof{Kt ;'ljwf pknAw u/fpg] tof/L x'gk5{ . dfgj dnd"qsf] plrt lj;h{g ' ug{ ;s]df lb;fsf] dfWodaf6 km}lng] /f]ux¿sf] /f]syfd ug{ ;lsG5 . sL6–lgoGq0f k|sf]kkl5 nfdv'66h:tf sL/fsf] j[l4b/ Jofks x'g] / o:tf sL6af6 ;g]{ ] cf}nf], hfkfgL OG;]kmnfOl6;, 8]uh:tf /f]uaf6 d[To'b/ a9g] u5{ . ctM F ' k|sf]k Joj:yfkgsf] dxŒjk"0f{ kIfdf sL6–lgoGq0f klg Ps xf] . :jf:Yo -xfOlhg_ k|a4{g c:j:ys/ jftfj/0f tyf ;/;kmfOsf] sdLn] b"lift kfgL / vfgfsf] dfWodaf6 ;g]{ /f]usf ;ªqmd0f j[l4df ;xof]u k'U5 . k|sf]k k|efljt ;d'bfonfO{ z'4 kfgL tyf ;/;kmfO, 9n lgsf;, zf}rfnosf] plrt k|of]u cflbaf/] lzIff lbg'sf ;fy} kfgLsf wf/f, 9n, zf}rfno cflbsf] /]vb]v, dd{t;Def/sf af/]df klg hfgsf/L u/fOPsf] x'gk5{ . ' :jf:Yo ;]jf k|sf]ksf] 36gf x'gcl3 g} :jf:Yo ;]jf lbg] k|0ffnLnfO{ ;'b9 kfl/Psf] ' [ x'gk5{ . o;sf nflu ;a} :jf:Yo ;+:yfx¿df a]Unfa]Un} t/ ;dGjofTds ' k|sf]k k"jtof/L / Joj:yfkg of]hgfsf] ljsf; ul/Psf] x'gk5{ / lgoldt { ' ¿kdf To;sf] k|efjsfl/tfsf] hfFr ul/Psf] x'gk5{ . ' dxfdf/Lsf sf/0f / ;'/Iff÷13
  • dxfdf/Lsf k|sf/ / lgoGq0fsf pkfo a8{kmn' a8{ˆn'nfO{{ …xfOnL k]yf]hl] gs PlePg OgkmnPGhfÚ klg eGg] ul/G5 . of] ' s'v/f, xfF; tyf hªunL r/fr'?ªuLdf ljiff0f'åf/f nfUg] ;?jf /f]u xf] . ' of] /f]u obfsbf ;'u/df klg nfUg] u/]sf] cg';Gwfgstf{x¿sf] bfaL 5 . F ' dflg;df klg OgkmnPGhf /f]u nfUg] u5{ t/ dflg;df x'g] /f]usf] lsl;d ' leGg} x'G5 . r/fr'?ªuLdf nfUg] s]xL pkhfltsf laiff0f'n] dflg;df uDeL/ k|lts"n k|efj kfg{;S5 . r/fr'?ªuLdf of] /f]usf] klxrfg ;j{kyd | ;g !*&* df ePsf] lyof] eg] ;g !((& df dflg;df nfu]sf] yfxf ePsf] lyof] . dflg;df a8{km n' nfUg] sf/0f of] /f]u OgkmnPGhf …PÚ laiff0f'n] ubf{ x'G5 . laiff0f'nfO{ To;sf ;txdf ' x'g ;Sg] !^ j6f lxdUn'l6lgg -h;nfO{ H elgG5_ / ( j6f Go"/fldlg8]h –h;nfO{ N elgG5_ k|fl] 6gx¿sf] cfwf/df ljleGg k|hfltdf ljefhg ul/Psf 5g . tL k|hfltdWo] H5N1, H3N2, H7N7 / H9N2 n] dfq dflg;df /f]u nfu]sf] kfOG5 . OgkmnPGhf …PÚ laiff0f'n] xfF;, s'v/f, ' ' ;'u/, 3f]8f tyf cGo hgfj/x¿df dxfdf/L km}nfpF5 . dflg; tyf F ' r/fr'?ªuLdf nfUg] H5N1 / H7N7 laiff0f' ;ªqmfds x'g] eP klg dflg;df of] ;lhn} ;g{ ;Sb}g . oL laiff0f' ^)) l8u|L ;]lG6u|8 tfkdf #) ldg]6, @@) l8u|L ;]lG6u|8 ] ] tftf] kfgLdf $ lbg;Dd / z"Go l8u|L ;]lG6u|8df ! dlxgf;Dd afFRg ] ;S5g . t/ oL hLjf0f'nfO{ kmdf{lng jf cfof]l8gsf] k|of]un] eg] ;lhn} gi6 ug{ ;lsG5 . a8{km n'sf] pTklQ / Oltxf; of] /f]u ;g !((& b]lv r/fr'?ªuLaf6 dflg;df ;g{ yfn]sf] kfOPsf] 5 . 14÷klx/f] lgoGq0fsf pkfo
  • ;f] jif{ xªusªudf H5N1 OgkmnPGhfsf !* hgf /f]uL dWo] ^ hgfsf] ' d[To' ePsf] lyof] . xªusªudf ;g !((( df H9N2 OgkmnPGhf / ;g ' @))# df H5N1 OgkmnPGhfsf] k|sf]k b]lvPsf] lyof] . ;g @))# df ' H7N7 OgkmnPGhfn] xNof08df Ps hgfsf] d[To' ePsf] lyof] eg] *# ' hgf la/fdL ePsf lyP . ;g @))$ df yfONof08 / leotgfddf olsg ePsf @# /f]uLdWo] !( hgfsf] d[To' ePsf] lyof] . H5N1 OgkmnPGhfsf] k|sf]k ljleGg r/fr'?ªuL, s'v/f tyf ;'u/ / ' ' F ' dflg;df klg b]lvPsf] 5 . dflg;df of] /f]u 6sL{, O/fs, ch/a}hfg, OlhK6, tfOjfg, blIf0f sf]l/of, hfkfg, rLg, yfONofg08, OG8f]gl] ;of, leotgfd / SofDaf]l8ofdf e]l6Psf] lyof] . g]kfndf eg] xfn;Dd of] /f]u s'v/f, r/f tyf dflg;df e]l6Psf] 5}g . ' dflg;df ;g]{ k|lqmof a8{ˆn'sf] hLjf0f' s'v/fsf] ¥ofn tyf ;'nLdf sDtLdf !) lbg;Dd /xg ' ;S5 . s'v/fsf] Ps u|fd ;'nLdf nfvf}+ s'v/fnfO{ ;ªqmd0f ug{;Sg] ' ' ljiff0f' x'G5g . o;sf] hLjf0f' k|bl" ift efF8f, cfxf/f, ;'nL, df6f], xfjf / kmf]xf]/ h'Qfsf] dfWodaf6 Pp6f s'v/f kmfd{af6 csf]df kmfd{df ;g]{ u5{ . ' { a;fOF ;/]/ cfpg] r/fx¿n] klg of] /f]u ;fg{ ;S5g . dflg;df of] /f]u ;ªqmldt lhpFbf] jf d/]sf] r/fsf] k|ToIf ;Dks{af6 ;5{ . ljiff0f'n] ;ªqmd0f u/]sf] !* b]lv &@ 306fdf o;sf nIf0f b]lvG5 . r/fsf] ;'nL, df;' / c08faf6 klg o;sf] hLjf0f' ;g{ ;S5 . a8{km n'sf] nIf0f OgkmnPGhf …PÚ sf] ljiff0f'n] r/fx¿df ;fdfGob]lv clt uDeL/ nIf0fx¿ ' b]vfpF5 . cs:dft w]/} s'v/fx¿ dg],{ km'n kfg{ aGb ug],{ 6fpsf] ;'lGgg], ' bfgf gvfg], ltvf{pg], ;]tf] 5]g{] / kIfwft x'g] o;sf k|dv nIf0f x'g . ' dflg;df Hj/f] cfpg], vf]sL nfUg] tyf 3fF6L b'Vg] nIf0f b]vf k5{ . s]xL dflg;sf] kmf]S;f]df uDeL/ c;/ k/]/ lgdf]lgof klg x'G5 . o:tf] cj:yfdf /f]u 3fts aGg k'U5 . s'v/f kmfd{sf sfdbf/x¿, r/fr'?ªuLsf] cf}ifwf]krf/ tyf k|of]uzfnfdf ' ;+nUg JolQmx¿nfO{ /f]u ;g]{ ;Defjgf a9L x'G5 . of] /f]u hf];snfO{ klg ' } dxfdf/Lsf sf/0f / ;'/Iff÷15
  • nfUg ;Sg] ePtfklg k'/fgf /f]uL tyf /f]u;Fu n8g] Ifdtf sd ePsfnfO{ rf8}F nfU5 . a8{km n'af6 aRg] pkfo / pkrf/ df;' tyf c08fdf /f]usf ljiff0f' kfOg] ePklg tL ljiff0f' ^ ;o l8u|L ;]lG6u|8sf] tftf]df #) ldg]6df g} d5{g . ctM df;' tyf c08f ksfpFbf To;sf] leqL tfkqmd ;ft ;o l8u|L ;]lG6u|8 k'usf] s]xL a]/d} ljiff0f' dg]{ ] ] ePsf]n] ksfP/ vfPsf] df;' jf c08faf6 of] /f]u ;g{ ;Sb}g . o; /f]uaf6 aRg lgDg s'/fx¿df Wofg lbg'k5{ M zªsf:kb cj:yfsf r/fr'?ªuLnfO{ lgu/fgLdf /fVg] / To;sf] cf];f/ k;f/ aGb ug]{ jf ug{ nufpg] . /f]uL jf zªsf:kb s'v/fsf] df;' tyf c08f 5'bf ;'/lIft kf]zfs ' F tyf pks/0fsf] k|of]u ug]{ / 5f]Pdf /fd|/L xft w'g] . s'v/f kmfd{ / Xofr/Lx¿df h}ljs ;'/Iffsf pkfox¿ nfu" ug]{ . ' s'v/fsf] df;' tyf c08f /fd|/L ksfP/ dfq vfg] . ' hgr]tgf clej[l4 ug{ :jf:Yo lzIff ;+kif0f ug]{ . ]| JolQmut ;/;kmfOdf Wofg lbg] . /f]usf] zªsf nfu]df t'?Gt ;DalGwt :jf:Yo s]Gb|df va/ ug]{ . dflg; tyf s'v/fdf nfu]sf] o; /f]usf] ljz]if pkrf/k4lt ljsl;t ' ePsf] 5}g . /f]uL r/fr'?ªuLnfO{ tyf hgfj/nfO{ gi6 kfg]{ / ltgsf kmfd{ jf vf]/ lg;ªqmldt ug{' g} o;af6 aRg] klxnf] pkfo xf] . la/fdL dflg;nfO{ 5'66} /fvL nIf0fcg';f/ ;xof]ufTds pkrf/ ug'k5{ . ljb]zdf { PlG6efO/n cf}iflwx¿ k|of]u ul/g] ePtfklg g]kfndf tL cf}iflw pknAw gx'g,' dxFuf] x'g' / To;sf gsf/fTds k|efjx¿ a9L x'g] ePsf]n] k|of]udf NofOPsf] 5}g . g]kfndf o; /f]usf] lgoGq0fsf nflu lgDg pkfo cjnDag ul/Psf] 5 M lhNnfl:yt :jf:Yo tyf hg:jf:Yo sfof{nox¿, lhNnf kz';jf ] sfof{nox¿sf /]lk8 /]:kf]G; 6Ldx¿ / ;a} kz'–Sjf/]G6fOg r]s kf]i6x¿nfO{ ;r]t /flvPsf] 5 . /f]usf] afx'No ePsf b]zx¿af6 r/fr'?ªuL, ck|zf]lwt df;' tyf 16÷klx/f] lgoGq0fsf pkfo
  • cGo r/fhGo kbfy{sf] cfotdf k|ltaGw nufOPsf] 5 . r/f / r/fhGo kbfy{sf] Sjf/]G6fOg k4lt, /f]usf] ;le{nG; tyf ] cg'udgdf hf]8 lbOPsf] 5 . /f]unfO{ lelqg glbg ;ªs6sfnLg sfo{of]hgf nfu" ul/Psf] 5 . kz'kG5Ldf /f]u lgbfgsf nflu s]lGb|o kz'/f]u lgbfg k|of]uzfnf, /fli6«o kG5L /f]u lgbfg k|of]uzfnf tyf If]qLo kz'/f]u lgbfg k|of]uzfnfx¿df / dfgjdf /f]u lgbfgsf] nflu /fli6«o hg:jf:Yo k|of]uzfnfdfkm{t sfd ug]{ Joj:yf ldnfOPsf] 5 . dfgjdf /f]usf] tYo ;"rgf ;+kif0f Joj:yf ul/Psf] 5 . ]| xfn} ljleGg bft[ lgsfosf] ;xof]udf $ jif]{ a8{kmn' lgoGq0f cfof]hgfcGtu{t dfgj tyf r/fr'?ªuLdf /f]usf] vf]h tyf k|of]uzfnf ;'b9Ls/0f of]hgf sfof{Gjogdf /x]sf] 5 . [ dxfdf/L lgoGq0f / Joj:yfkg ;?jf /f]usf] dxfdf/L k|foM JolQmut, 3/]n' / dfgjl;lh{t jftfj/0fLo cj:yfsf sf/0f km}lng] x'bf o;sf] /f]syfd / lgoGq0f dflg;sf] 1fg, F wf/0ff / Jojxf/sf] kl/jt{gaf6 dfq ;Dej x'G5 . :jf:Yo lj1fgsf] k|rlnt egfO …pkrf/eGbf /f]syfd pQdÚ (Prevention is better than cure) n] dflg;nfO{ /f]u nflu;s]kl5 pkrf/ ug'eGbf /f]u nfUg] ;Defjgf { b]lvgf;fy /f]syfd ug'{ k|efjsf/L x'g] ;Gb]z lbPsf] 5 . ;fdfGotof dxfdf/L Joj:yfkgdf /f]u ;g]{ / km}ng] ;Defjgfsf] Go"gLs/0f ub}{ /f]syfdsf r/0fa4 pkrf/ljlw ckgfpg' /fd|f] x'G5 . dxfdf/Lcl3sf] k"j{tof/L of]hgf lhNnf k|sf]k p4f/ ;ldlt, g]kfn /]8qm;, g]kfnL ;]gf, ;z:q k|x/L, g]kfn k|x/L tyf cGo ;DalGwt lgsfox¿;Fu ;dGjo u/]/ lhNnfsf] cfkTsfnLg k"jtof/L / k|sf]k k|ltsf/fTds of]hgf tof/ kfg'k5{ . of] { { k"j{tof/L of]hgfdf c:ktfndf ul/g] k|sf]k Joj:yfkgsf] of]hgf / ;fd'bflos txdf lbg'kg]{ :jf:Yo ;]jf tyf lhNnfdf k|sf]k Joj:yfkgdf d'Vo e"ldsf v]Ng] lgsfox¿;Fu ;dGjo sfod u/L ;"rgf cfbfgk|bfg / dxfdf/Lsf sf/0f / ;'/Iff÷17
  • ;j{;ne kx'rsf] jftfj/0f tof/ kfg'k5{ . of]hgfdf lj:t[t :jf:Yol:ylt ' F { cfsng / pknAw x'g] :jf:Yo ;'ljwf, :yfgLo ;|ft–;fwg, hgzlQmsf] ] k|fyldstfsf] ljZn]if0f u/L hf]lvdsf] klxrfg ug'k5{ . jt{dfg ;dodf { pknAw eO/x]sf] :jf:Yo ;]jfn] k|sf]ksf] ;dodf s;/L sfd ug{;S5 eGg] ljifosf] klg lgSof]n ug'k5{ . { { ;"rgf ;ªsng k|sf]ksf] ;Defljt hf]lvddf /x]sf If]qdf ;/sf/L lgsfo, :jf:Yo sfof{no, /]8qm;, g]kfnL ;]gf, ;z:q k|x/L, g]kfn k|x/L, g]kfn :sfp6 tyf cGo ;ª3;+:yf;Fu ;dGjo u/L k|sf]ksf af/]df b|t–;"rgf ;ªsng k|0ffnLsf] " ljsf; u/L To;nfO{ ;'b9 kfg'k5{ . lhNnf :jf:Yo sfof{no / hg:jf:Yo [ { sfof{nodf ;"rgf s]Gb|sf] :yfkgf u/L u|fdL0f txaf6 ;"rgf ;ªsng ug]{ / tTsfn} clen]v ug]{ sfd ug'k5{ . o:tf] s]Gb| rf}la;}306f v'nf /xg] { Joj:yf ldnfOPsf] x'gk5{ . ' tflnd :jf:Yo sfo{stf{nfO{ ;/sf/n] cfjZos tflnd lbg'k5{ . o;sf ;fy} ;d'bfosf :jo+;jsn] klg tflnd k|fKt ug]{ jftfj/0f tof/ ug'k5{ . ] { cfkTsfnLg k"jtof/L tyf k|sf]k Joj:yfkgdf Ifdtf clej[l4 ug'sf { { ;fy} u|fdL0f txb]lv ;DalGwt :jf:Yo lgsfo;Dd e/kbf]{ ;"rgf k|jfx ug{;d]t :jo+;js tflndsf] k|j4{g ug'{ pko'Qm x'G5 . ] cf}iflwsf] df}Hbft k|sf]kkl5 pTkGg x'g;Sg] cfkTsfnLg cj:yfsf nflu cfjZos kg]{ cf}iflw tyf pks/0f :yfgLo ;d'bfodf / :jf:Yos]Gb|df df}Hbft /fVg' h?/L x'G5 . lhNnf c:ktfn jf lhNnf :jf:Yo jf hg:jf:Yo sfof{nodf cfk"lt{ x'g] cf}iflw tyf pks/0f tTsfn cfk"lt{ ug{;Sg] u/L tof/L cj:yfdf /fVg'k5{ . vfg]kfgL tyf ;/;kmfO k"jtof/L of]hgf agfpFbf ;'/lIft vfg]kfgL cfk"lt{ tyf ;/;kmfOh:tf { ljifodf ;+j]bgzLn /xg'k5{ . jftfj/0f k|b"if0f x'g] lqmofsnfknfO{ 18÷klx/f] lgoGq0fsf pkfo
  • lg?T;flxt u/L :jR5 jftfj/0f lgdf{0f ug'k5{ . o;sf nflu ;d'bfo { cfkm}n] klg ;ts{tf ckgfpg'k5{ . F dxfdf/Laf6 k|efljt ;d'bfonfO{ ;'/lIft /fVg To;sf] ;Defjgf, sf/0f / k|efjaf/] k|efljt x'g;Sg] ;d'bfonfO{ ;r]t u/fpg'k5{ . vf; ;d'bfodf cf}nf] /f]un] x/]s jif{ lgoldth;f] dxfdf/Lsf] ¿k wf/0f ub}{ cfPsf] 5 eg]] of] ;?jf /f]u nfUg] sf/0f s] xf], s;/L ;5{, /f]usf nIf0f s:tf x'G5g, /f]uaf6 s:tf] vt/f pTkGg x'g;S5 eGg] ljifodf ;d'bfodf r]tgf clej[l4 ug'k5{ . o;af6 /f]u km}lng / dxfdf/Lsf] ¿k lng glbg { ;d'bfon] cfkm}F ;r]t / ;hu eP/ kxn ug{;S5 . emf8fkvfnf, x}hf, Dofb]Hj/f]h:tf /f]u d'Votof ;/;kmfOsf] sdLsf sf/0f km}nG5 . o:tf /f]usf] dxfdf/L km}lng] ;Defljt :yfgdf hgr]tgf sfo{qmd;Fu} JolQmut, 3/fo;L, ;fd'bflos / jftfj/0fLo ;/;kmfO cleofg rnfpg' a9L k|efjsf/L x'G5 . w]/h;f] ;?jf /f]u b"lift kfgLsf] k|of]uaf6 } dxfdf/Lsf] ¿kdf km}ng] u5{g . b}lgs pkof]u ul/g] kfgL z'4 / ;kmf x'g' :jf:Yosf] b[li6sf]0fn] clgjfo{ zt{ g} xf] . t;y{, ;d'bfodf b"lift kfgLaf6 s:tf :jf:Yo ;d:of pAhG5g eGg]af/] hfgsf/L u/fpFb} kfgL z'4 kfg]{ Jofjxfl/s tl/sfsf] k|of]u ug{ clek|l] /t ug'k5{ . { :jR5 vfg]kfgL Joj:yfkgsf nflu kfgLsf] ;|ft, ;ªsng ug]]{ 7fpF / ] 3/]n' pkof]usf nflu kfgL /fVg] efF8fnufotdf kfgL b"lift x'g] sf/0faf/] ;a}df 1fg x'g' cfjZos x'G5 . kfgLsf] ;|ft ;kmf eP klg 3/;Dd ] NofpFbf–NofpFb} klg b"lift x'g] ;Defjgf /xG5 . ctM :jR5 vfg]kfgLsf] plrt Joj:yfkg ug]{ xf] eg] kfgLaf6 km}ng] /f]uhGo dxfdf/L w]/xb;Dd } lgoGq0f x'G5 . 3/]n' tyf jftfj/0fLo k|b"if0fsf nflu b}lgs dfgjLo lqmofsnfk / cfr/0fn] k|dv e"ldsf lgjf{x u/]sf] x'G5 . jftfj/0fLo z'4tfsf nflu ' 3/fo;L kmf]x/d}nfsf] ;'/lIft Joj:yfkg, ;fj{hlgs zf}rfnosf] lgoldt /]vb]v, dd{t;Def/ ul/g'k5{ . v'nf 7fpFdf lb;flk;fa / kmf]xf]/ ug]{ s'/fsf] sfg'gL / Jojxfl/s ¿kdf lgoGq0f x'gk5{ . ;fj{hlgs kmf]xf]/ ' Joj:yfkgsf] pko'Qm Joj:yf ldnfpg'kb{5 . plNnlvt sfo{ dxfdf/L lgoGq0f / Joj:yfkgsf ;fwf/0f pkfo x'g . dxfdf/Lsf sf/0f / ;'/Iff÷19
  • o:tf sfo{af/] a'emg / sfof{Gjog ug{ pRrcWoog jf ljz]if1tfsf] h?/t kb}g . o;sf nflu cfwf/e"t 1fg, ;sf/fTds wf/0ff, ;xof]uL efjgf / { ;Defljt hf]lvdk|lt rgfvf] eP k'U5 . k|sf]ksf] ;dodf ug'kg]{ p4f/ tyf Joj:yfkg { s'g} klg /f]u dxfdf/Lsf] ¿kdf km}lng] ;Defjgf b]vfk/]df tTsfn} ;DalGwt ;/sf/L lgsfodf va/ ug'k5{ . o:tf /f]usf] :yfoL lg?k0fsf { nflu /f]usf] ;|ft klxrfg u/L pkrf/ ug{ ljz]if1 / lrlsT;ssf] ;xof]u ] lng' cfjZos x'G5 . /f]u lgbfgsf nflu pkrf/ ubf{ / /f]uLsf /]vb]v ubf{;d]t cGo dflg;df /f]u g;g]{ plrt ljlw ckgfpg'k5{ . dxfdf/Lsf] cj:yfdf k|efljt JolQmsf] clen]v /fvL, To;;Fu ;DalGwt lgsfonfO{ pknAw u/fpg'k5{ . o;af6 eljiodf dxfdf/Lsf ;Defljt sf/0faf/] cWoog u/L lgoGq0fsf pkfo vf]Hg;d]t ;Da4 kIfnfO{ ;xof]u k'Ub5 . :jf:Yo l:yltsf] cfsng k|sf]k ePsf] :yfg / To; j/k/sf] :jf:Yo l:ylt a'‰g :jf:Yo :jo+;jsnfO{ ] tTsfn kl/rfng ug'k5{ . ;d'bfodf s;}nfO{ ck|Tofl;t /f]u nfu]sf] { cfef; x'gf;fy :jf:Yo s]Gb|df ;"rgf ug'k5{ . k|f/lDes :jf:Yo l:yltsf] { cfsng ug{ :jf:Yo s]Gb|af6 pknAw kmf/fd e/]/ jf e/fP/ ;DalGwt lgsfodf pknAw u/fpg'k5{ . :jf:Yo sfof{non] klg k|sf]khGo 36gf ePsf] @$ 306fleqdf d"Nofªsg 6f]nL k7fO;Sg'k5{ . :jf:Yo ;]jf lhNnf hg:jf:Yo sfof{non] dxfdf/L km}lng;Sg] If]qdf :yfgLo :jf:Yo ;+:yf, g]kfn /]8qm;, k|x/L, ;]gf, lghL :jf:Yo ;+:yf, :yfgLo u}/;/sf/L ;+:yf / :yfgLo ;d'bfo;Fu ;xof]u lnO{ cfkTsfnLg :jf:Yo ;]jf k|bfg ug{ ;dGjo ug'k5{ . cfkTsfnLg cj:yfdf 3fOt]sf] pkrf/ tyf Joj:yfkg { / ;/;kmfOsf sfo{sf cltl/Qm hg:jf:Yo;Fu ;/f]sf/ /fVg] ljifodf :jf:Yo;]jf s]lGb|t x'gk5{ . ' cfkTsfnLg p4f/ ;?jf /f]u lgoGq0f dxfzfvfsf] ;+of]hgdf s'g} klg k|sf]khGo sf/0faf6 20÷klx/f] lgoGq0fsf pkfo
  • x'g;Sg] dxfdf/L Joj:yfkg ug{ cfkTsfnLg k"jtof/L / k|sf]k Joj:yfkg { sfo{qmd ;~rflnt x'G5g . o:tf sfo{qmdcGt{ut of]hgf th'df, Ifdtf { clej[l4, ;r]tgf sfo{qmd, ;/f]sf/jfnf ;+:yfx¿aLr ;dGjo sfod ug]h:tf sfo{qmd;d]t ;~rfng x'g] u/]sf 5g . jiff{ofddf af9L / { klx/f]sf] k|sf]kkl5 b]vfkg{] dxfdf/Lsf] Joj:yfkg ug{ If]qLo / lhNnf txsf :jf:Yo lgsfox¿df Go"gtd cfkTsfnLg cf}iflw tyf cfjZos ;fdu|L k|sf]kcufj} k7fpg] Joj:yf ul/Psf] x'G5 . :yfgLo ;+:yf / ;xhstf{sf] ;xof]udf ;d'bfon] oL If]qaf6 ;]jf k|fKt ug{ ;lhnf] x'g] ePsfn] ;xhstf{x¿n] ;d'bfosf] dxfdf/LhGo hf]lvdsf] klxrfg ul//fVg' /fd|f] x'G5 . cfkTsfnLg :jf:Yo;]jf / /fxt Joj:yfkgsf nflu s]Gb|, If]q / lhNnf txsf cfkTsfnLg k|ltsf/ 6f]nLsf] Joj:yf ldnfOPsf] x'G5 . lhNnf :jf:Yo sfof{nosf] cu'jfOdf lhNnfdf k|ltsf/ 6f]nLn] If]q / s]Gb|sf] lgb]{zgdf s'g} klg /f]uhGo dxfdf/Lsf] k|ltsf/sf] Joj:yfkg u5{ . ;}4flGts / gLltut ¿kdf o:tf 6f]nLsf] Joj:yf ul/Psf] eP klg jf:tljs ¿kdf k|sf]k / dxfdf/Lsf] ;dodf cfjZos p4f/ tyf /fxt Joj:yfkg ug{] Ifdtf ljsf;sf nflu cfjZos tflnd, ;Lk / 1fg lbg] cj;/ eg] ldnfPsf] kfOPsf] 5}g . To;}n] :yfgLo ;+:yfn] ;/f]sf/jfn;Fu ;dGjo u/L tflnd / hgr]tgf clej[l4df ;3fp k'¥ofpg' h?/L 5 . bL3{sfnLg Joj:yfkg ;d'bfodf dxfdf/Laf6 d[tssf] ;ªVof, k|efljt JolQm, k|sf]k lgoGq0fsf] Nffut / s'n Iflt nufotsf] tYout k|ltj]bg tof/ kf/L ;DalGwt lgsfodf k|:t't ug'{k5{ . oL tYosf] cfwf/df hg;d'bfodf ;r]tgf clej[l4sf sfo{qmd th'df ug{ ;xh x'G5 . o;af6 eljiodf dxfdf/Lsf] { ;Defljt If]qsf] klxrfg u/L k"jf{g'dfg, ;~rf/ / ;dGjosf nflu k"jrtfjgL k|0ffnL / tYofªs ;ªsngdf ;xof]u ldN5 . To;}sf] cfwf/df { ] bL3{sfnLg of]hgf tof/ ug{ / sfof{Gjog ug{ ;lsG5 . dxfdf/L lgoGq0f / Joj:yfkgsf nflu ;/sf/af6 klg cfjZos gLltut / sfg'gL Joj:yf ldnfO{ ;/f]sf/jfnf lgsfonfO{ ;hu / ;lqmo /fVg'k5{ . dxfdf/L lgoGq0f / Joj:yfkg :jf:Yo lj1fgsf] Jofks / ax'kIfLo ;/f]sf/sf] If]q xf] . dxfdf/Lsf sf/0f / ;'/Iff÷21
  • ctM dxfdf/L lgoGq0f tyf Joj:yfkgsf k"jtof/L k|ltsf/, k'g/fjnf]sg { tyf d"Nofªsg sfo{sf] ;dGjo eP k6s–k6s bf]xf]l/g] dxfdf/Lsf] :yfoL lgbfg ug{ ;xof]u ldN5 . ljBdfg sfg'gL Joj:yfdf ;'wf/ dxfdf/Lsf] lgoGq0f / Joj:yfkgsf] ;Gbe{df g]kfndf ljBdfg P]g, sfg'g / lgodx¿ kof{Kt / k|efjsf/L ePsf] b]lvFbg . hgtfk|lt pQ/bfoL } sfg'gsf] cefj cem} klg vl6sPsf] 5 . g]kfndf lakm/ lgoGq0f P]g, @)@) / ;ªqmfds /f]u P]g, @)@) dfq} sfof{Gjogdf 5g . lakm/ cfpg glbg afnsnfO{ vf]k nufpg' clgjfo{ ug]{ qmddf k|dv k|:tfjgfsf ;fy ' lakm/ lgoGq0f P]g– @)@) cfPsf] lyof] . kmntM ljZjsf ;fy} g]kfnaf6 klg lakm/ pGd"ng ePsf] dflgPsf] 5 . ;ªqmfds /f]u P]g, @)@) sf] k|:tfjgfn] g]kfn clw/fHoe/ s'g} klg efudf ;ªqmfds /f]u km}lnPdf jf km}lng] ;Defjgf b]lvPdf To;n] pu|¿k lng gkfpg]u/L] /f]syfd jf lgoGq0f ug]{ Joj:yf ldnfpg] nIo lnPsf] kfOG5 . ;f] P]gn] s'g} klg ;?jf /f]usf] /f]syfd, lgoGq0f / Joj:yfkg ug{] bfo/fnfO{ km/flsnf] agfPsf] 5 eg] g;g]{ /f]usf] dxfdf/LnfO{ j]jf:tf u/]sf] 5 . ctM ;a}vfn] ;?jf /f]usf] dxfdf/Lsf] Joj:yfkgsf nflu cfjZos sfg'g, gLlt tyf lgod :ki6 ¿kdf cfpg ;s]sf] 5}g . oL lgodsf] k|fb'ef{j x'gklxn] :jf:Yo dGqfno, :jf:Yo ;]jf ljefu, ' :yfgLo ;/f]sf/jfnf lgsfo / ;ª3;+:yfx¿n] 7f8f] sfo{qmd ;~rfng u/L hg:jf:Yosf ;]jf pknAw u/fpg] u/]sf lyP . jt{dfg ;dodf eg] :jf:Yo sfo{qmdnfO{ k|efjsf/L agfpg If]qut¿kdf ;dfof]hg u/L PsLs[t :jf:Yo sfo{qmd ;~rfng x'g yfn]sf 5g . o:tf] Joj:yf ePkl5 k|dv ¿kdf /f]uhGo dxfdf/Lsf] Joj:yfkg x]g{] Olk8]ldof]nf]hL ' tyf /f]u lgoGq0f dxfzfvfaf6} k|sf]k Joj:yfkg sfo{qmd;d]t ;~rflnt x'gu/]sf 5g . ] g]kfndf b]lvPsf ;d:of /f]uhGo dxfdf/L lgoGq0f / Joj:yfkgdf b]lvPsf k|dv ;d:ofnfO{ ' 22÷klx/f] lgoGq0fsf pkfo
  • b]xfocg';f/ lng ;lsG5 M P]gsfg'gdf Joj:yf ePcg';f/ sfof{Gjog x'g g;Sg', s]Gb|Lo txdf ag]sf gLlt, lgod, of]hgf tyf sfo{qmd If]q tyf lhNnf txdf ;dodf gk'Ug' / k|efjsf/L sfof{Gjog, cg'udg / d"Nofªsg gx'g,' k|sf]khGo sf/0faf6 :jf:Yo If]qdf kg{;Sg] gsf/fTds c;/af/] kof{Kt 1fg gx'g' tyf hfgsf/L ePsf tYonfO{ klg a]jf:tf ug',{ dxfdf/LhGo ;d:of ;dfwfgsf nflu ljljw If]qsf ;ª3;+:yf / ;fem]bf/aLr k|efjsf/L ;dGjo x'g g;Sg' . plNnlvt ;d:of ;dfwfgsf nflu ;/sf/L txaf6 gLltut Joj:yfsf] k|efjsf/L sfof{Gjog x'g' cfjZos 5 . k|sf]khGo sf/0faf6 l;lh{t dxfdf/L lgoGq0fsf nflu ;j{kIfLo ;dGjo / ;fem]bf/Lsf] cfjZostf k5{ . ctM o;sf] Joj:yfkgsf] k|dv lhDd]jf/L kfPsf] lgsfon] k|efjsf/L ' e"ldsf v]Ng' cfjZos 5 . s]Gb|Lo:t/df th'df ul/Psf] gLlt / of]hgfsf] k|efjsf/L sfof{Gjog ug{ { If]q / lhNnf txsf :jf:Yo lgsfox¿sf] Ifdtf ljsf; x'g klg h?/L 5 . o;sf cnfjf ;/sf/L tyf u}/;/sf/L ;+:yf;d]tsf] k|efjsf/L ;dGjo sfod ug{;s] k|sf]k Joj:yfkg ;fy{s aGg;S5 . ljsf; xf]; jf /fxt Joj:yfkg, ;fj{hlgs lgsfo / lghLIf]qaLrsf] ;fem]bf/L Ps ckl/xfo{ cfjZostf xf] . ;/sf/L lgsfo / u}/;/sf/L ;ª3;+:yfaLrsf] ;dGjo k|efjsf/L gePdf ;fdflhs sfo{df pTkGg x'g] cj/f]wh:t} o; If]qdf klg ;d:of pTkGg x'g ;Sb}g eGg ;lsGg . g]kfnsf] :jf:Yo ;]jf clwsf+z j}bl] zs ;xof]udf lge{/ /x]sf] kl/k|Iodf ] o;sf] k|efjsfl/tfdf ;d]t cGt/f{li6«o ;fem]bf/ lgsfosf] e"ldsf pNn]Vo /xFb} cfPsf] kfOG5 . g]kfnsf] :jf:Yo ;]jfIf]qsf k|dv ;xof]uLdf ljZj ' :jf:Yo ;ªu7g, o'lg;]km tyf cGo ;+oQm /fi6«;ª3Lo ;+:yfx¿, bft[;:yf ' + / cGt/f{li6«o u}/;/sf/L ;+:yf k5{g . oLdWo] dxfdf/L lgoGq0f / Joj:yfkgsf nflu ljZj :jf:Yo ;ªu7g, o'lg;]km, ;+oQm /fi6«;ª3Lo ' hg;ªVof Joj:yfkg sf]if, ljZja}ªsnufotsf cGt/f{li6«o u}/;/sf/L ;+:yfn] a]Unfa]Un} k|lqmofaf6 ;xof]u pknAw u/fpg] u/]sf 5g . ;+oQm ' dxfdf/Lsf sf/0f / ;'/Iff÷23
  • /fi6«;ª3 dftxtsf lgsfo / låkIfLo lgsfon] ;/sf/;Fu gLlt–lgdf{0fb]lv sfof{Gjog tx;Dd k|ToIf ¿kdf ;+nUg eP/ sfd ub}{ cfPsf 5g . /fli6«o tyf cGt/f{li6«o u}/;/sf/L ;+:yfn] ljleGg ljifo / If]qdf sfof{Gjog txdf sfd u/]sf 5g . dxfdf/L lgoGq0f / Joj:yfkgsf nflu k|fljlws Pj+ cfly{s j}b]lzs ;xof]u :jf:Yo ;]jfsf] cleGg cªusf ¿kdf /xFb} cfPsf] 5 . sltko dxfdf/Lsf] lgbfg / /fxt Joj:yfkgsf nflu ;d]t bft[ lgsfosf] d'v tfSg'kg]{ cj:yf /x]sf] 5 . g]kfndf dxfdf/L Joj:yfkgsf nflu /fli6«o Ifdtf ljsf;qmd k|f/lDes cj:yfd} /x]sf] 5 . ev{/} dfq :jf:Yo sfo{qmd ljs]Gb|Ls/0f u/L /f]uhGo dxfdf/Lsf] /fxt Joj:yfkgsf] lhDdf lhNnf / :yfgLo txnfO{ lbg] sfo{ cf/De ePsf] 5 . ljBdfg cl:y/tf / czflGt tyf ;ªqmd0fsfnLg cj:yfdf b'ud / lk5l8Psf ;d'bfodf cfjZos dfgjLo tyf cGo { ;|ft;fwg ckof{Kt x'g] ePsfn] w]/n] k|sf]kaf6 kLl8t x'gkg]{ / Hofg;d]t ] } ' u'dfpg'kg]{ cj:yf pTkGg x'g] u/]sf] 5 . ljBdfg ;d:of ;dfwfgsf nflu gLltlgdf{tf / lgb]{zs txdf lhDd]jf/L / uDeL/tfsf]] cefj b]lvG5 . Pstkm{ s]Gb|Lo:t/df lgwf{l/t gLlt tyf sfo{qmd, If]q tyf lhNnf tx;Dd k'Ug l9nf] x'g] u/]sf] 5 eg] csf]tkm{ If]q, lhNnf / { :yfgLo tx;Dd dxfdf/L Joj:yfkgsf lgwf{l/t ;|ft;fwg ;dod} gk'Ug] ] / r'xfj6 x'g] sf/0fn] klg dxfdf/LhGo /fxt Joj:yfkg k|efjsf/L x'g g;s]sf] k|tLt x'G5 . o; cj:yfdf gLltlgdf{0f ug]{ lgsfon] cfkm}F lhDd]jf/ eP/ :jf:Yo sfo{qmd sfof{Gjog, cg'udg / d"Nofªsg ug'{ h?/L 5 . To;}u/L, :jf:Yo sfo{qmd sfof{Gjog txsf :jf:Yo sfo{stf{ / :jo+;jssf] Ifdtf ] ljsf;df Wofg k'Ug' klg h?/L 5 . k|sf]khGo dxfdf/L Joj:yfkgsf k"jtof/L / /fxt Joj:yfkgdf ;Dk"0f{ ;/f]sf/jfnfaLr ;dGjo :yfkgf { ug]{ / o:tf ;d:ofaf/] k|;, /]l8of] tyf 6]lnlehgdfkm{t r]tgfd"ns ] sfo{qmd k|;f/0f u/L nlIft p2]Zo k|fKt ug{ ;lsG5 . 24÷klx/f] lgoGq0fsf pkfo
  • pk;+xf/ ;/sf/sf] tYofªscg';f/ dxfdf/Laf6 yf]/} dfq dflg;sf] Hofg uPsf] b]lvPklg o;sf] jf:tljs tYofªs ;ªsng ug]{ Joj:yf clxn];Dd gePsfn] olt g} dflg; dxfdf/Laf6 d5{g eGg] oyfy{ yfxf kfpg ;lsPsf] 5}g . ljz]ifu/L kfgLhGo sf/0faf6 dxfdf/L pTkGg x'g] ePklg cGo k|sf]ksf 36gfkl5 klg o;sf] hf]lvd j[l4 x'g] u/]sf] 5 . sltko cj:yfdf cGo s'g} k|sf]k geP klg dxfdf/Ln] w]/} dflg;nfO{ cfˆgf] l;sf/ agfpg] u/]sf] kfOG5 . ;/sf/n] dxfdf/L Joj:yfkgsf] k|lqmofnfO{ k|efjsf/L agfpg cGt{lgsfo ;dGjo u/L ;xsfo{ clej[l4 ug'{ h?/L b]lvPsf] 5 . k|sf]ksf ;dodf :yfgLo lgsfo, u}/;/sf/L ;+:yf jf gful/s ;dfh;Fu ;dGjo / ;xsfo{ ug]{ wf/0ff /x]sf] eP klg To;n] k|lta4tf kfpg ;s]sf] 5}g . sltko cj:yfdf u|fdL0f ;d'bfo :jf:YosdL{ cfpg]5g eGg] cfz ub}{ hLjgd/0fsf] bf];fFwdf /xg] u/]sf y'k|} pbfx/0f kfpg ;lsG5, t/ :yfgLo lgsfon] ;df:o ;dfwfgsf nflu ;dGjo / ;xsfo{ u/]sf] x'bg . o; cj:yfdf dxfdf/Lsf] k|sf]k km}lng'nfO{ c;fdfGo 7fGg klg F} ;lsFbg . To;}n] k|sf]k Joj:yfkg k|lqmofnfO{ k|efjsf/L agfpg] k|lta4tf } ;a}n] lng' h?/L 5 . ;Gbe{;fdu|L :km]o/ kl/of]hgf, dfgjLo a8fkq tyf Go"gtd dfkb08 -g]kfnL ;+:s/0f_, k|sf]k k"jtof/L ;~hfn g]kfn, sf7df8f},+ @)^$, . { g]kfn ;/sf/ u[xdGqfno, l8;f:6/ l;gfl/of] ckm g]kfn, ;g @))$ . pd]z s§]n, g]kfndf /f]uhGo dxfdf/Lsf] cj:yf / /fxt Joj:yfkg, kof{j/0f dfl;s, k"0ff{ªs %#, h]7 @)^@ . :jf:Yo ;]jf ljefu / Olkl8ldof]nf]hLsf ljleGg k|sfzgx? kof{j/0f dfl;ssf ljleGg cªsx? dxfdf/Lsf sf/0f / ;'/Iff÷25
  • ÷klx/f] lgoGq0fsf pkfo 26