Flammable/Combustible Storage - Impacts of the Energy Policy Act

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This present was prepared for the National Registry of Environmental Professionals’ 2011 Annual Conference. The Conference was held in Las Vegas, October 3 – 5, 2011.

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Flammable/Combustible Storage - Impacts of the Energy Policy Act

  1. 1. 2011 NREP/OIP Annual Conference October 2011 David P. Horowitz, P.E., CSP Tighe & Bond 413.572.3211 (office) 413.250.2487 (cell) Twitter @dphorowitz [email_address] Tighe & Bond – A 2011 Best Firm! Flammable/Combustible Storage – Impact of the Energy Policy Act
  2. 2. International Symbol for ‘Choke’
  3. 3. Here’s My Favorite Team
  4. 4. Agenda - Storage Tank Flow Chart
  5. 5. Storage Tank Flow Chart
  6. 6. Aboveground Storage Tanks - Oil <ul><li>SPCC (Federal - Only for oil) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>40 CFR 112 </li></ul></ul><ul><li>AST Requirements </li></ul><ul><ul><li>NFPA 30 & 31 (National Code – most states) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Oil-filled electrical equipment </li></ul><ul><li>Most states require registration (local) </li></ul><ul><li>Many states require tightness testing </li></ul>
  7. 7. Applicable Code - NFPA <ul><li>“… reduce the worldwide burden of fire and other hazards on the quality of life by providing and advocating consensus codes and standards, research, training and education” </li></ul><ul><li>National Fire Protection Association (NFPA) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>NFPA 30: Flammable and Combustible Liquids Code </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>NFPA 30A: Motor Fuel Dispensing Facilities and Repair Garages </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>NFPA 31: Installation of Oil-Burning Equipment </li></ul></ul>
  8. 8. Applicable Code - UL <ul><li>… an independent, not-for-profit product-safety testing and certification organization. </li></ul><ul><li>Underwriters Laboratory Inc. (UL) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>UL 80: Standard for Steel Tanks for Oil-Burner Fuel </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>UL 142: Standard for Steel Aboveground Tanks for Flammable and Combustible Liquids </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>UL 2085: Standard for Protected Aboveground Tanks fro Flammable and Combustible Liquids </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>UL 1316: Standard for Glass-Fiber-Reinforced Plastic Underground Storage Tanks for Petroleum Products </li></ul></ul>
  9. 9. Flammable/Combustible Agency/Organization Flash Point (To be considered Flammable) OSHA/NFPA ≤ 100 °F EPA ≤ 140 °F (Ignitability) DOT < 141 °F
  10. 10. Spill Prevention, Control and Countermeasure (SPCC) Planning Requirements Aboveground Oil Storage
  11. 11. SPCC Regulations 101 <ul><li>Oil Storage </li></ul><ul><li>1,320 Gallons (above ground) </li></ul><ul><li>SPCC Plan </li></ul><ul><li>2002 Regulatory Changes </li></ul><ul><li>Subsequent Regulatory Changes </li></ul>
  12. 12. Integrity Testing – Industry Standards <ul><li>API 653 – Tank Inspection, Repair, Alteration and Reconstruction </li></ul><ul><li>API 575 – Inspection of Atmospheric and Low-Pressure Tanks </li></ul><ul><li>API 570 – Piping Inspection Code </li></ul><ul><li>ASME B31.3 – Process Piping </li></ul><ul><li>ASME 31.4 – Liquid Transportation Systems for Hydrocarbons, Liquid Petroleum Gas, Anhydrous Ammonia and Alcohols </li></ul><ul><li>STI SP001 – Standard for the Inspection of Aboveground Storage Tanks </li></ul><ul><li>UL 142 – Steel Aboveground Tanks for Flammable and Combustible Liquids </li></ul>
  13. 13. Integrity Testing – Steel Tank Institute SP001 ISSUED SEPTEMBER 2011 5 th EDITION
  14. 14. Applicable federal, state …… <ul><li>40 CFR 112 – SPCC </li></ul><ul><li>40 CFR 261 – Hazardous Waste </li></ul><ul><li>40 CFR 279 – Used Oil </li></ul><ul><li>40 CFR 280 - USTs </li></ul><ul><li>40 CFR 372 - EPCRA </li></ul><ul><li>NFPA 30/30A – Flammable & Combustible Liquids </li></ul><ul><li>NFPA 31 – Oil-Burning Equipment </li></ul><ul><li>UL 80 </li></ul><ul><li>UL 142 </li></ul><ul><li>UL 2085 </li></ul><ul><li>UL 1316 – Tank Construction </li></ul><ul><li>State </li></ul><ul><li>Local </li></ul>
  15. 15. SP001 – AST Categories
  16. 16. SP001 – Inspection Schedule
  17. 17. STI Inspection Results
  18. 18. ASTs
  19. 19. Normal Venting
  20. 20. Emergency Venting
  21. 21. Spill Containers
  22. 22. Overfill Prevention
  23. 23. Interstice
  24. 24. Compliance Issues Why? Why?
  25. 25. Ultra-Sonic Thickness Testing
  26. 26. Ideal Installation – Single Wall Tank
  27. 27. Ideal Installation – Double Wall Tank
  28. 28. Ideal Installation – Generator Tank
  29. 29. Observation Results <ul><li>200+ Tanks observed for tank integrity </li></ul><ul><li>One* with >75% wall thickness losses </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Compared to existing standards </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Some with evident corrosion </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Interior of double wall </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>External </li></ul></ul>FINDINGS
  30. 30. Observation Results <ul><li>Most with regulatory, code compliance, operational issues </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Vent heights & vent configuration/operation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>No overfill protection /Level detection devices </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Not UL 142 standard construction </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>No spill prevention devices </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Improper protection from vehicular impact </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Consistent with Florida Leak Autopsy Study (FLAS) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Mott-Smith Consulting Group </li></ul></ul>FINDINGS
  31. 31. Storage Tank Flow Chart
  32. 32. Underground Storage Tanks - Oil <ul><li>UST Requirements (Federal) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>40 CFR 280 (UST Regulations) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>40 CFR 281 & 282 (State Approval) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>UST Requirements (States) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Often cite NFPA 30 & 31 </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Most states require registration (local) </li></ul><ul><li>Many states require tightness testing </li></ul>
  33. 33. Question? <ul><li>What is the minimum tank volume for applicability under 40 CFR 280? </li></ul><ul><li>110 Gallons </li></ul><ul><ul><li>40 CFR 280.10(b)(4) </li></ul></ul>
  34. 34. Energy Policy Act of 2005 <ul><li>Underground Storage Tank Compliance Act of 2005 </li></ul><ul><li>Reduce releases to environment </li></ul><ul><li>Focus on preventing releases </li></ul><ul><li>Expanded Leaking Underground Storage Tank (LUST) Trust Fund </li></ul><ul><li>Inspections, operator training, delivery prohibition, secondary containment and financial responsibility </li></ul>
  35. 35. The Big Picture <ul><li>611,500 USTs </li></ul><ul><li>223,000 sites </li></ul><ul><li>2/3 of active USTs are compliant </li></ul><ul><li>UST releases declining </li></ul>
  36. 36. The Big Picture
  37. 37. Underground Storage Tank Systems
  38. 38. Inspection Overview <ul><li>Facility Records </li></ul><ul><li>Spill Protection </li></ul><ul><li>Overfill Prevention </li></ul><ul><li>Tank Leak Detection </li></ul><ul><li>Piping Leak Detection </li></ul><ul><li>Corrosion Protection </li></ul>
  39. 39. Records Review <ul><li>Pre-Inspection </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Federal </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Financial Assurance </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>State </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Environmental Registry </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Local </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Fire Department Permits </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Registration </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Facility </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Inventory Monitoring </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Release Prevention </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Inspection </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Verify record documents match registries </li></ul></ul>
  40. 40. Financial Assurance <ul><li>Use state financial assurance funds </li></ul><ul><li>Obtain insurance coverage </li></ul><ul><li>Obtain a guarantee </li></ul><ul><li>Obtain a surety bond </li></ul><ul><li>Obtain a letter of credit </li></ul><ul><li>Pass a financial test </li></ul><ul><li>Set up a trust fund </li></ul><ul><li>Local, State & Feds = OK! </li></ul>
  41. 41. Spill Buckets <ul><li>Below Grade Spill Buckets </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Sits under access hand hole, not exposed to elements, plows </li></ul></ul>
  42. 42. Overfill Prevention <ul><li>Automatic Shut Off </li></ul><ul><li>Ball Float Vent </li></ul><ul><li>High Level Alarm </li></ul>
  43. 43. Tank Leak Detection <ul><li>Interstitial Monitoring </li></ul><ul><li>Automatic Tank Gauging </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Continuous In-Tank Leak Detection System (CLSD) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Manual Tank Gauging </li></ul><ul><ul><li>≤2,000 gallons </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Statistical Inventory Reconciliation (SIR) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Vendor or approved in-house data analysis </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>2 year tightness testing interval </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Soil Vapor Monitoring </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Site assessment </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Groundwater Monitoring </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Site assessment </li></ul></ul>
  44. 44. Piping Leak Detection <ul><li>Interstitial Monitoring </li></ul><ul><li>Automatic Line Leak Detectors (ALLD) </li></ul><ul><li>European Suction </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Check valve immediately </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>beneath pump/dispenser </li></ul></ul><ul><li>American Suction </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Check valve at UST </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Tightness Testing </li></ul><ul><ul><li>3 year interval </li></ul></ul>
  45. 45. Corrosion Protection <ul><li>Galvanic Protection </li></ul><ul><ul><li>STI-P3 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>3 Year NACE Inspection </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>-0.850 Volt, soil to tank potential </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Impressed Current </li></ul><ul><ul><li>60 day Operator Inspection </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Annual NACE Inspection </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Non-Metal Construction </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Clad Steel Tanks </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>FRP </li></ul></ul>
  46. 46. Inspection Shortfalls <ul><li>Shear Valves </li></ul><ul><li>Vapor Recovery </li></ul><ul><li>Regulatory Confusion </li></ul>
  47. 47. Water in the Sump?
  48. 48. Typical Deficiencies – 175+ USTs Observed (No Retail) Deficiency % Identified Maintenance 91% Financial Assurance 84% Sump Monitoring 66% Registration 61% Overfill Prevention 38% Cathodic Protection 18% Double Wall Piping Issues 12% Shear Valve 11% ‘ Extra’ Vents 6%
  49. 49. Operator Training - FUTURE <ul><li>Required by August 8, 2012 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Three classes of operator </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Owner/Operator Inspections </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Monthly </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Semi-annual </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Annual </li></ul></ul>
  50. 50. Thank You! <ul><li>David P. Horowitz, P.E., CSP </li></ul><ul><ul><li>[email_address] </li></ul></ul>@dphorowitz

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