Image and Reputation 2009


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  • Planned activity Measurable Can be controlled and manipulated Links with corporate strategy Communication - verbal and visual messages Behaviour - what the organization does and the way it does it
  • Its value lies in the associations that people attach to it (Hart, 1995) - it should reflect accurately the character and ethos, spirit and culture, of an organization and the way in which it desires to be perceived Names in particular – can create instant understanding and association: e.g. Weight Watchers; Head & Shoulders. Compare Head and Shoulders to Pantene, for example – here the name tells you less than the images of hair in the ads. Long-established names may in fact have positive associations anyway – e.g. Ford in the US. Logos - hard to have intrinsic meaning in a picture, but some manage it (e.g. Nike) – most act as a means of recognition, and the key to this is repetition, visual display in all possible areas. Colours and typefaces –Colour because people are thought to more readily recognize combinations of colour; typeface 0 also leads to particular impressions based on the style used. Idea of symbols is to fuse values, strategy and org culture to create a single proposition embodied in one name logo. A new logo can shift perceptions; it cannot change the organization e.g. British Telecom to BT. It is a signal that something else has changed. House style can promote a collegiate feeling and affect employee morale. Situations where an image rework might be necessary: change in consumer perceptions Evolution of company Update / modernisation requirement mergers, acquisitions new strategy privatization restructuring
  • Communication – quick and direct to implement, but has to be done well (and we talk more about this in sem 2) Behaviour – particular aspects can be reinforced by communications or by symbols. If these are inconsistent with each other – eg communicating quality as a top priority but few quality checks in place – then the image of the company will suffer (and therefore so will reputation). You might keep the same identity – but the impact of external facts will be more convincing than the actual identity in terms of its influence on consumer perceptions.
  • “ a company cannot create an image. Only a public can create an image, in that it selects those thoughts and impressions on which any image is based” Image is based on a range of stimuli – some of which the organisation can control – eg marketing, comms info, symbols, etc. - some of which it can’t, eg. Word of mouth, etc. Dowling – influences include employees’ image, external interpersonal communication, previous product/service experience, members of distribution channel, marketing and media communications There isn’t a single image – there are as many images as there are individuals, although many of the varieties may be closely related.
  • Corporate personality is the manifestation of the company’s self-perception. They are linked. Therefore, if this is unclear, then the image will also be relatively unclear. Organization projects: culture, policies, marketing and media communications Note this model could have added to it – reflexivity between org identity and image and between personality and the concrete manifestations of it – behaviour, symbolism and communication. IN terms of visual comms, it is assumed that changes in symbols and communication for example, will result in changes in behavior and this also results in changes in corp personality.
  • Image and Reputation 2009

    1. 1. Image, Identity, Relationship: A Theoretical Overview David Phillips Lecturer
    2. 2. Aims of lecture <ul><ul><li>To define and distinguish concepts of image , identity , reputation and corporate brand </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>To explore the relationship between corporate identity and corporate reputation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>To discuss the role of the corporate communicator </li></ul></ul>
    3. 3. Image, identity, reputation Image Identity Reputation
    4. 4. Corporate identity <ul><ul><li>‘ The picture of the organization that is presented to external stakeholders’ </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Cornelissen 2008 p69 </li></ul>
    5. 5. Importance of corporate identity <ul><ul><li>Distinctiveness: may help stakeholders find or recognise a corporation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Impact: provides a basis for being favoured by stakeholders </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Stakeholders: by projecting a consistent identity, they avoid pitfalls of multiple conflicting images and messages </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Cornelissen 2009, p65-66 </li></ul>
    6. 6. Origins of corporate identity <ul><ul><li>Initially, term was restricted to logos and other elements of visual design </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Came to be associated with all forms of communication and behaviour </li></ul></ul>
    7. 7. Model of corporate identity Corporate personality Communication Behaviour Symbolism Birkigt and Stadler 1986
    8. 8. Developing corporate identity <ul><ul><li>Mission (who) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Vision (what) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Culture (the way we do things) </li></ul></ul>Corporate personality
    9. 9. Corporate personality or corporate identity? ‘ Corporate personality… is the soul, the persona, the spirit, the culture of the organisation manifested in some way. The corporate personality is not necessarily something tangible that you can see, feel or touch. ‘ The tangible manifestation of a corporate personality is a corporate identity. It is the identity that projects and reflects the corporate personality’. Olins 1978
    10. 10. MEDIA WOM REPUTATION Organisational identity Corporate identity Products & services Communications Employee behaviour Cornelissen 2004, p69
    11. 11. Corporate Identity <ul><ul><li>‘ the sum of all the ways a company chooses to identify itself to all its publics’ (Margulies) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Traditionally, this meant logo and other symbols; now covers communications and employee behaviour </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>‘ the self-representation of an organisation through communications, products and services and employee behaviour’ (Cornelissen) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Tangible manifestation of corporate personality (Olins) </li></ul></ul>
    12. 12. Communicating Corporate Identity <ul><ul><li>The experienced and skilled communicator uses symbols , communication and behaviour to convey the identity of the organisation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>(Dolphin 1999) </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul>
    13. 13. Communicating corporate identity <ul><ul><li>Symbols names, logos, colours, icons, heraldry, flags, brand marks, corporate HQ, uniforms </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>A sign that causes one to feel, or to behave in a certain way (Heath, 1994) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>A powerful corporate tool - it may increase the attraction of communications output </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Short, sharp message - can help the recipient to recall something instantly </li></ul></ul></ul>
    14. 14. Communicating corporate identity <ul><ul><li>Communication - verbal and visual messages </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Behaviour - what the organization does and the way it does it </li></ul></ul>
    15. 15. Image, identity, reputation Image Identity Reputation
    16. 16. Corporate image <ul><ul><li>‘ a stakeholder’s immediate impression of an organization in relation to a specific message or image’ </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Cornelissen 2008 p70 </li></ul>
    17. 17. Corporate Image <ul><ul><li>‘ The immediate mental picture that audiences have of an organization.’ (Gray and Balmer) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>‘ The global evaluation (comprised of a set of beliefs and feelings) a person has about an organization’ </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Dowling, 2001:19 </li></ul>
    18. 18. Image, identity, reputation Image Identity Reputation
    19. 19. Corporate reputation <ul><ul><li>‘ a stakeholder’s collective representation of past images of an organization (induced through either communication or past experiences) established over time’ Cornelissen 2008 p70 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>‘ A good corporate reputation has a strategic value for the organization that possesses it. It ensures acceptance and legitimacy from stakeholder groups, generates returns, and may offer a competitive advantage as it forms an asset that is difficult to imitate.’ Cornelissen 2008 p69 </li></ul></ul>
    20. 20. Corporate Reputation Important intangible asset: “ A perceptual representation of a company’s past actions and future prospects that describe the firm’s overall appeal to all of its key constituents when compared to other leading rivals” ( Fombrun )
    21. 21. Corporate Reputation <ul><ul><li>“ A perceptual representation of a company’s past actions and future prospects that describe the firm’s overall appeal to all of its key constituents when compared to other leading rivals” ( Fombrun ) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“ Corporate reputations…typically evolve over time as a result of consistent performance, reinforced by effective communication, whereas corporate images can be fashioned more quickly through well-conceived communication programs” (Gray and Balmer) </li></ul></ul>
    22. 22. Reputational assets (Fombrun and Van Riel 2003) <ul><ul><li>Organisations with the strongest reputations are characterised by: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Visibility : the degree to which corporate themes are visible in all internal and external communication </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Distinctiveness : the degree to which the positioning is distinctive </li></ul></ul></ul>
    23. 23. Reputational assets (Fombrun and Van Riel 2003) <ul><ul><li>Authenticity : the degree to which an organisation communicates values that are embedded in its culture </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Transparency: the degree to which an organisation is open and transparent about its behaviour </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Consistency : the degree to which organisations communicate consistent messages through all channels </li></ul></ul>
    24. 24. Identity and reputation Culture history Corporate strategy CI-mix Behaviour Communication Symbolism Corporate reputation Performance Financial Sales Environment HRM Based on van Riel and Balmer 1997
    25. 25. Aligning identity, image, reputation Vision (managers) Culture (employees) Image (stakeholders) Vision-culture gap Image-culture gap Image-vision gap Hatch and Schultz 2001
    26. 26. Case study: British Airways to BA <ul><ul><li>Management vision: to become ‘the undisputed leader in world travel’ </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Repositioning the company: blend of traditional British and new cosmopolitan elements </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>New visual identity 1997 : 50 ethnic designs for tailfins </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Adverse reaction : from customers, from cabin crew (vision-image gap and vision-culture gap) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reversal of policy in 2000 : return to Union flag </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Cornelissen 2008 pp72-73 </li></ul>
    27. 27. Linking Identity to Image van Riel, 1995: 33 Corporate Identity Corporate Image Communication Symbolism Corporate Personality Behaviour Behaviour Symbolism Communication Corporate Personality
    28. 28. Identity vs Image <ul><ul><li>Internal – External </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Self – Other </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Singular - Multiple </li></ul></ul><ul><li>(Hatch and Schultz, 2000: 21-24) </li></ul>
    29. 29. Image v reputation ‘ Corporate image is the immediate mental picture that audiences have of an organization. ‘ Corporate reputations , on the other hand, typically evolve over time as a result of consistent performance, reinforced by effective communication, whereas corporate images can be fashioned more quickly through well-conceived communication programs.’ Gray and Balmer 1998
    30. 30. Transparency <ul><ul><li>Relationship between identity and reputation should be based on transparency (ie not discrepancy ) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>(Fombrum and Rindova) </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>‘ a state in which internal identity… reflects positively on the expectations of key stakeholders and the beliefs of these stakeholders about the firm reflect accurately the internally-held identity.’ </li></ul></ul>
    31. 31. Corporate identity planning <ul><ul><li>Van Riel’s model (1995) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>1. What is our current image? </li></ul><ul><li>2. What do we need it to be? </li></ul><ul><li>3. What is the difference? </li></ul><ul><li>4. What changes must be made to narrow the gap? </li></ul>
    32. 32. Managing corporate identity for image development <ul><ul><li>conduct research to determine senior management and a range of stakeholders’ views on actual and desired image </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>audit all elements of existing identity to see if they fit desired image </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>formulate a plan to adjust the corporate identity if necessary </li></ul></ul>
    33. 33. <ul><li>Possible objectives of Corporate Identity Policy Programme (Van Riel) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>maintain current position ( 1 and 2 are the same) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>adjust current position (1 and 2 are slightly dissonant) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>determine an entirely new position (1 and 2 are vastly different) </li></ul></ul>Managing corporate identity for image development
    34. 34. Researching actual and desired corporate image <ul><ul><li>Balmer’s Affinity Audit </li></ul></ul><ul><li>(1996, Van Riel and Balmer 1997) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1. Establish corporate mission and strategy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>2. Reveal dominant values and beliefs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>3. Evaluate values and beliefs against corporate mission and strategy. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>4. Nurture values and beliefs that support the mission/strategy </li></ul></ul>
    35. 35. Auditing existing corporate identity <ul><ul><li>Communication and behavioural audits </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>behavioural audits = attitude surveys - job satisfaction, effectiveness of policies, behaviour </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>communication audits = documents, verbal and non-verbal communications </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Symbols - Visual and design audit </li></ul></ul>
    36. 36. Identity structures (Olins 1989) <ul><ul><li>Monolithic - whole company uses one visual style eg Virgin, Shell, Sony, Microsoft </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Endorsed - subsidiary companies have own style, but parent company remains recognizable in the background eg General Motors, Nestlé, Cadbury </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Branded - subsidiaries have own style, and parent company not recognizable eg Procter & Gamble, Unilever, Diageo </li></ul></ul>
    37. 37. Corporate brand <ul><ul><li>Corporate branding is a recent term (extension of concept of product branding) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Monolithic: everything branded with same company name (Disney, Coca-Cola, Nike) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Branded: products brought to market with own name (Unilever and Procter & Gamble) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Endorsed: Businesses and products are badged with the parent company name (General Motors, Kellogg, Cadbury) </li></ul></ul>
    38. 38. Questions <ul><ul><li>How do you measure corporate reputation? (eg Reputation Quotient) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Should stakeholders become involved in corporate identity? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Who manages corporate identity? </li></ul></ul>
    39. 39. Selected reading <ul><ul><li>Bernstein, D (1984) Company Image and Reality: A critique of corporate communications </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cornelissen, J (2004) Corporate Communications: chapter 3 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cornelissen, J (2nd ed 2008) Corporate Communication </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Dowling, G (2001) Creating Corporate Reputations: Identity, Image and Performance </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fombrum, C and Van Riel, C (2003) Fame and Fortune: How successful companies build winning reputations </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ind, N (1992) The Corporate Image </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Olins, W (1999) Corporate identity </li></ul></ul>