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Communication Theory2

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First Year Comms Theory lecture

First Year Comms Theory lecture

Published in: Education, Technology
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Transcript

  • 1. What is all this communications stuff? David Phillips FCIPR, FSNCR
  • 2. What We Will Do Today
    • Look back to see what how much we know about communicating
    • Learn about different models for communication
    • Look at the evolving communications landscape
  • 3. Interacting
    • Communication through books - Did you delight in pp 144-146 of Exploring Public Relations 2006 (Tench & Yeomans) and pp 20- 31 The Public Relations Handbook 2001 ( Theaker et al)?
    • Communication using experiences one to many - This slide show is available at Slideshare.net ( http://www.slideshare.net/dphillips4363 )
    • Adding a bit of a symmetrical interaction, noise and feedback - You can have cell phones on, blog, Twitter, and ask questions.
    • One to one is not all bad with a bit of symmetrical influence - You can email me david.g.h.phillips (at) geemaildotcom or chat on Google Talk/Live Messenger.
  • 4. History of Models
    • Animals communicate – Humans communicate – what is the difference?
    • If humans communicate why don’t we understand much about it?
    • After 60,000 years of human evolution, Aristotle 2300 years ago thought of three models
      • Ethos – The nature and qualities of the communicator
      • Logos – The nature, structure and content of the message (s)
      • Pathos – The nature, feelings and thoughts of the audience.
  • 5. Laswell’s theory
    • Who says – what – to whom – with what – effect.
    • Great for propagandists – all control – and limited in effect (McQuail & Windahl) – audiences have feelings to (and can turn a deaf ear)
    • Shannon and Weaver explained how by adding Noise ( now extended to physical, cultural, intellectual, emotional) and Feedback (the receiver has a role too) we can see its not that simple.
    • The bank of England dropped interest rate 1.5% - did the message get through for student loans?
  • 6. Osgood and Schramm
  • 7. All too linear
    • Assumption that communication is linear
    • From someone to someone
    • Who could possibly be interested?
    • What was the effect
    • Should communication ‘do something’?
    • A cognitive implication?
  • 8. Westley & McLean
  • 9. Context, society, experience and culture
    • Communication uses ‘signs’ (Peirce, Saussure)
    • Pictures, words, movements etc.
    • They have meanings
    • My picture is not the same as your picture. My word means what it means to me not what it means to you (Fiske).
      • Denotative - dictionary definition, explication of a picture etc)
      • Connotative - experience of the sign – nice/nasty, fun/dull)
      • Ambiguous - signs with many meanings – fit (healthy)/fit (worth a snog)/fit (shoes that don’t)/ fit (a health problem)
      • Polysemic can be interpreted differently. Often leads to misunderstanding – ‘I was bombed in London’
  • 10. The inquisitive human
    • McQuail/Blumer & Katz
      • Seeks diversion (from boring lectures)
      • Looks for personal relationships (the social animal)
      • Personal identity (the ‘badges’ that say ‘I’m me’ in the group or crowd
      • Surveillance (where am I, opportunities, threats, what’s cool)
    • McGuire
      • Search for knowledge
      • Search for emotional reward
      • Active or passive engagement
      • Ambition to get educated (internalised)/ need to get a degree (external badge)
      • Seeks gratification
  • 11. Maletzke C= Communicator, M = Message, R = Reciever
  • 12. Mass media
    • Does it work? It depends (friends & neighbours)
    • Opinion Formers and agenda setters
    • Two step flow (with ‘journalist’ in the middle)
    • Agenda setters
  • 13. Social Media
    • Network effect
    • One-2-one
    • One-2-many
    • Many-2-one
    • Many-2-many
    • Niche not mass communication
    • The transition of mass media (http://www.glamourmagazine.co.uk)
  • 14. Lets try out the theory
    • Facebook for the corporation
    • Twitter for the newspaper
    • YouTube for the University
    • Computer Games for the teacher
    • Mobile for the fashion industry
    • Network or broadcast?
    • Mass media or niche media?
  • 15. What We Will Do Today
    • Look back to see what how much we know about communicating
    • Learn about different models for communication
    • Look at the evolving communications landscape
  • 16. What is all this communications stuff? David Phillips FCIPR, FSNCR

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