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### P pt ch 04

1. 1. Chapter 4 Gross Income: Concepts and Inclusions Individual Income Taxes© 2013 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. 1
2. 2. The Big Picture Calculation Of Gross Income (slide 1 of 3)• At the beginning of the year, Dr. Cliff Payne opened his dental practice as a sole proprietorship.• For his new business, he selected a December 31 year-end.• He also entered into a contract to have a building constructed for his medical practice.• He used \$12,000 of extra money to purchase some stock. 2
3. 3. The Big Picture Calculation Of Gross Income (slide 2 of 3)• Dr. Payne’s accounting system provides him with the following info regarding the income from his dental practice for the 1st year of operation. Revenues (amounts billed patients for dental services) \$385,000 Accounts receivable: January 1 –0– Accounts receivable: December 31 52,000• The accounts receivable represent amounts billed patients that will be paid by patients, insurance companies, or charged off as uncollectible bad debts.• During the year, Sam Jones, a contractor who owed Dr. Payne \$4,000 for dental services, satisfied the account by installing solar panels on the roof of Dr. Payne’s new medical building. 3
4. 4. The Big Picture Calculation Of Gross Income (slide 3 of 3)• Based on his accounting records he concludes that gross income for Federal income tax purposes is the \$385,000 he billed his patients for dental services rendered.• Has Dr. Payne correctly calculated the gross income of this dental practice? – Read the chapter and formulate your response. 4
5. 5. Gross Income (slide 1 of 3)• Definition: Gross income includes all income from whatever source derived, unless specifically excluded under the Code• Concept is interpreted broadly by the courts 5
6. 6. Gross Income (slide 2 of 3)• Taxability of income follows the realization principle from accounting – Income is recognized (taxed) when realized• Mere appreciation in wealth (economic income) is not considered realized income 6
7. 7. Gross Income (slide 3 of 3)• Income is recognized whether it is in the form of cash, or “in-kind” cash equivalents (i.e., property or services) – The amount of income from “in-kind” receipts is equal to the FMV of the property or services• Income does not include recovery of the taxpayer’s capital investment 7
8. 8. The Big Picture - Example 1 Recovery Of Capital Doctrine• Return to the facts of The Big Picture on p. 4-1. – Dr. Payne sells common stock for \$15,000. • He had purchased the stock for \$12,000. – Dr. Payne’s gross receipts are \$15,000. • This amount consists of a \$12,000 recovery of capital and \$3,000 of gross income. 8
9. 9. The Big Picture - Example 5 Form Of Receipt• Return to the facts of The Big Picture on p. 4-1. – When Sam Jones performed the services in satisfaction of his \$4,000 account, Dr. Payne realized income equal to the value of the services of \$4,000. 9
10. 10. Accounting Periods• Taxable year is generally a 12-month period – Taxable year for most individual taxpayers is the calendar year – Fiscal year can be elected if taxpayer maintains adequate records • Fiscal year is a 12-month period ending on the last day of a month other than December – Example: July 1 to June 30 10
11. 11. Accounting Methods (slide 1 of 2)• There are 3 primary methods of accounting for tax purposes: – Cash receipts and disbursements method – Accrual method – Hybrid method 11
12. 12. Accounting Methods (slide 2 of 2)• In addition to overall accounting methods, taxpayers may choose (elect) tax treatment for various transactions, for example – Taxpayers can elect to use the installment method – Certain contractors may elect to use either the percentage of completion method or the completed contract method 12
13. 13. Cash Receipts Method• Income is recognized in the year it is actually or constructively received in cash or cash equivalent• An amount is constructively received when it is set aside and made available to taxpayer without substantial restrictions 13
14. 14. The Big Picture - Example 10 Constructive Receipt (slide 1 of 2)• Return to the facts of The Big Picture on p. 4-1. – On December 31, Dr. Payne has \$10,000 in patients checks that have not been deposited. • One check for \$3,000 is from a patient who asked him not to deposit it until after January 4th , because her account did not contain sufficient funds to pay the debt. 14
15. 15. The Big Picture - Example 10 Constructive Receipt (slide 2 of 2)• Under the cash method, Dr. Payne must recognize \$7,000 income from the checks on hand – The checks are a cash equivalent that is actually received.• The income from the \$3,000 check is neither actually nor constructively received – An insufficient account means the funds are not available. 15
16. 16. The Big Picture - Example 12 Constructive Receipt (slide 1 of 2)• Return to the facts of The Big Picture on p. 4-1.• Assume Dr. Payne elected to use the cash basis of accounting. – If he accepted credit cards, Dr. Payne would receive immediate credit in his bank account for 96% of the charge. • The other 4% would be retained by the credit card issuer. – To avoid the 4% charge, Dr. Payne chose not to accept credit cards. • Instead, his policy required all bills to be paid within 30 days after dental services were provided. 16
17. 17. The Big Picture - Example 12 Constructive Receipt (slide 2 of 2)• At year end, several patients owed a combined \$2,000. – They offered to pay with credit cards, but his office rejected their offers. – The \$2,000 was not constructively received at the end of the year. • Dr. Payne could have received payment by credit card, he contracted to receive payment at a later date before the dental services were performed. • Moreover, the 4% charge by the credit card company would be a ‘‘substantial limitation.’’ 17
18. 18. Exceptions To Cash Receipts Method• Original Issue Discount (OID) interest is taxable when earned rather than when interest is received• Series E and EE bonds are not subject to the OID rules – However, a cash basis taxpayer may elect to recognize the interest when earned 18
19. 19. Accrual Method (slide 1 of 2)• Income is recognized in the year that it is earned regardless of when it is collected• Income is earned when: – All events have occurred that fix taxpayer’s right to the income, and – The amount can be determined with reasonable accuracy• The accrual method is required for determining purchases and sales when inventory is an income- producing factor 19
20. 20. Accrual Method (slide 2 of 2)• Claim of right doctrine – Requires amounts received to be included in income even though the amount is in dispute and might be returned to the payor at a later date – If payment has not been received, no income is recognized until the claim is settled 20
21. 21. The Big Picture - Example 7 Claim Of Right Doctrine• Return to the facts of The Big Picture on p. 4-1.• On completing construction of the medical office building in 2012, the contractor submitted a bill. – Dr. Payne refused to pay the bill, claiming the contractor had not met specifications. – The contractor did not reach a settlement with Dr. Payne until 2013.• No income accrues to the contractor until 2013. – If Dr. Payne had paid for the work, then filed suit, the contractor could not defer the income • The income would be taxable in 2012. 21
22. 22. Exceptions to Accrual Method (slide 1 of 2)• Taxpayer can elect to defer recognition of income from advance payment for goods if same method of accounting is used for tax and financial reporting purposes 22
23. 23. Exceptions to Accrual Method (slide 2 of 2)• Advance payment for services to be performed after year-end is included in income in the year following receipt – The portion of the advance payment that is earned in the current year is included in income in the year of receipt• Prepaid rents or interest income are always recognized in the year received rather than when earned 23
24. 24. Hybrid Method• A combination of cash and accrual methods• Generally, used when inventory is a material income-producing factor – Use accrual method to account for inventory – Use cash method for other income and expenses 24
25. 25. Income Sources (slide 1 of 2)• Income from personal services is taxable to the person who performs the services – Fruit and tree metaphor• Income from property is taxable to the owner of the property – Assignment of income is not permitted 25
26. 26. Income Sources (slide 2 of 2)• Interest income accrues daily – If interest bearing instrument (e.g., bonds) is transferred, must allocate interest income between transferor and transferee based on the number of days during the period that each owned the property 26
27. 27. Dividends (slide 1 of 4)• Dividends are generally taxed to the party who is entitled to receive them – Dividends on stock transferred by gift after declaration date but before record date is generally taxed to the donor 27
28. 28. Dividends (slide 2 of 4)• Recent legislation has provided partial relief from double taxation of corporate dividends – Generally, dividends received in taxable years beginning after 2002 are taxed at the same marginal rate that is applicable to a net capital gain • Thus, individuals otherwise subject to the 10% or 15% marginal tax rates in 2012 pay 0% tax on qualified dividends received • Individuals subject to the 25, 28, 33, or 35 percent marginal tax rates pay a 15% tax on qualified dividends 28
29. 29. Dividends (slide 3 of 4)• The following dividends are not eligible for the reduced tax rates – Dividends from certain foreign corporations, – Dividends from tax-exempt entities, and – Dividends that do not satisfy the holding period requirement • Stock on which the dividend is paid must have been held for more than 60 days during the 121-day period beginning 60 days before the ex-dividend date to qualify for the reduced tax rates 29
30. 30. Dividends (slide 4 of 4)• Dividends from foreign corporations are eligible for qualified dividend status only if: – The foreign corporation’s stock is traded on an established U.S. securities market, or – The foreign corporation is eligible for the benefits of a comprehensive income tax treaty between its country of incorporation and the United States 30
31. 31. Income Received By An Agent• Income received by the taxpayer’s agent is considered to be received by the taxpayer – A cash basis principal must recognize the income at the time it is received by the agent 31
32. 32. Income From Partnerships• A partnership is not a separate taxable entity – Files an information return (Form 1065) • Provides data necessary for determining each partner’s distributive share of partnership’s income and deductions • Each partner reports distributive share of partnership income and deductions – Reported in year earned, even if not actually distributed • Because a partner pays tax on income as the partnership earns it, distributions are treated under the recovery of capital rules 32
33. 33. Income From S Corporations• A small business corporation may elect to be taxed similarly to a partnership – Referred to as an S corporation • The shareholders, rather than the corporation, pay the tax on the corporation’s income • Generally, shareholders report their share of the corp’s income and deductions for the year, even if not actually distributed 33
34. 34. Income From Estates And Trusts• Beneficiaries of estates and trusts – Generally, taxed on the income earned by the estates or trusts that is actually distributed or required to be distributed to them – Any income not taxed to the beneficiaries is taxable to the estate or trust 34
35. 35. Income In Community Property States• All property is deemed either to be separately owned by the spouse or to belong to the marital community – Community income is allocable equally to each spouse – Separate income may be allocable to owner-spouse• Separate property may produce community income (e.g., TX, LA)• No allocation of community income for some spouses living apart for entire year and filing separately 35
36. 36. Alimony and Separate Maintenance Payments (slide 1 of 4)• Alimony is: – Deductible by payor – Includible in gross income of recipient 36
37. 37. Alimony and Separate Maintenance Payments (slide 2 of 4)• Payments may qualify as alimony if: – Payments are in cash – Agreement or decree does not specify that the payments are not alimony – Payor and payee are not members of the same household at the time the payments are made – There is no liability to make the payments for any period after the death of the payee 37
38. 38. Alimony and Separate Maintenance Payments (slide 3 of 4)• Property settlements – Transfer of property to former spouse – No deduction or recognized gain or loss for transferor – No gross income and carryover of transferor’s basis for transferee – Front-loading of alimony payments • Alimony recapture (gross income) for payor • Deduction from gross income for recipient 38
39. 39. Alimony and Separate Maintenance Payments (slide 4 of 4)• Child support payments – Payments made to satisfy legal obligation to support child of taxpayer – Nondeductible by payor and not taxed to recipient (or child)• May be difficult to determine whether an amount received is alimony or child support – If amount of payment would be reduced due to some future event related to the child (e.g., child reaches age 21), such reduction is deemed child support 39
40. 40. Imputed Interest on Below-Market Loans (slide 1 of 4)• Interest is imputed, using Federal government rates, when a loan does not carry a market rate of interest – Imputed interest = the difference between the amount that would have been charged at the Federal rate and the amount actually charged• Applies to: • Gift loans • Compensation-related loans • Corporate-shareholder loans • Tax avoidance loans 40
41. 41. Imputed Interest on Below-Market Loans (slide 2 of 4)Concept Summary 4.2 41
42. 42. Imputed Interest on Below-Market Loans (slide 3 of 4)• Gift loans – Exemption for loans of ≤ \$10,000 between individuals • If loan proceeds are used to purchase income-producing property, the following limitation applies – On loans of \$100,000 or less between individuals • Imputed interest is limited to borrower’s net investment income for year • No imputed interest if net investment income is \$1,000 or less 42
43. 43. Imputed Interest on Below-Market Loans (slide 4 of 4)• \$10,000 exemption also applies to compensation-related and corporation- shareholder loans – No exemption if principal purpose of loan is tax avoidance • Makes practically all loans of this type suspect• Interest expense imputed to borrower may be deductible 43
44. 44. Annuity Income (slide 1 of 6)• Purchaser pays fixed amount for the right to receive a future stream of payments – Generally, early collections and loans against annuity ≤ increases in cash value are included in gross income • Amounts > increases in cash value are treated as a recovery of capital until cost recovered; additional amounts are included in income – Early distributions may also be subject to a 10% penalty 44
45. 45. Annuity Income (slide 2 of 6)• For collections on and after the annuity starting date – The exclusion ratio is applied to annuity payments received under contract to determine amount excludable: Exclusion ratio = Investment in contract Expected return under contract – Once investment is recovered, remaining payments are taxable in full 45
46. 46. Annuity Income (slide 3 of 6)• Examples: – Taxpayer pays \$10,000 for annuity that will pay \$1,000 a year • A: For a term of 15 years • B: For lifetime (life expectancy = 15 years) – Exclusion ratio for A & B = \$10,000 = .667 \$15,000 46
47. 47. Annuity Income (slide 4 of 6)• Example (cont’d) – A: 15 years of annuity payments • Years 1-15: \$333 taxable and \$667 excludable 47
48. 48. Annuity Income (slide 5 of 6)• Example (cont’d) – B: Lifetime payments and taxpayer lives 18 years • Years 1-15: \$333 taxable and \$667 excludable • Years 16-18: \$1,000 taxable each year – B: Lifetime payments and taxpayer lives 10 years • Years 1-10: \$333 taxable and \$667 excludable, and \$3,330 deduction on final return 48
49. 49. Annuity Income (slide 6 of 6)• The simplified method is required for annuity distributions from a qualified retirement plan – Exclusion amount is investment in contract divided by number of anticipated monthly payments (table amount based on age) 49
50. 50. Prizes and Awards• General rule: FMV of item is included in income• Exceptions: • Taxpayer designates qualified organization to receive prize or award (subject to other requirements) • Employee achievement awards of tangible personal property made in recognition of length of service or safety achievement (limits apply) 50
51. 51. Group Term Life Insurance• Exclude premiums paid by employer on first \$50,000 of coverage – Premiums on excess coverage are included in gross income • Inclusion amount based on IRS provided tables• If plan discriminates in favor of key employees (e.g., officers), key employees are not eligible for exclusion – In such a case, the key employees must include in gross income the greater of: • The actual premiums paid by the employer, or • The amount calculated from the Uniform Premiums table 51
52. 52. Unemployment CompensationUnemployment compensation is taxable in full 52
53. 53. Social Security Benefits (slide 1 of 6)• Up to 85% of benefits may be taxable• Taxability based on taxpayer’s modified adjusted gross income (MAGI) – MAGI = AGI (excluding Social Security) + foreign earned income exclusion + tax exempt interest• Two formulas for computing taxable benefits 53
54. 54. Social Security Benefits (slide 2 of 6)• Formula 1 - If MAGI plus ½ of Social Security benefits exceeds the base amounts below, but not the second set of base amounts, – Include in income the lesser of: • .50 (Social Security Benefits), or • .50 [MAGI + .50 (SSB) - base amount] – Base amounts: – \$32,000 MFJ, – \$0 MFS and not living apart, – \$25,000 for all other taxpayers 54
55. 55. Social Security Benefits (slide 3 of 6)• Formula 2 - If MAGI plus ½ of Social Security benefits exceeds the base amounts below – Include in income the lesser of: • .85(Social Security benefits), or • Sum of: .85[MAGI + .50(Social Security benefits) - second base amount], and the lesser of: – Amount included through application of the first formula – \$4,500 (\$6,000 for married filing jointly).• Base amounts: – \$44,000 MFJ, – \$0 MFS and not living apart – \$34,000 for all other taxpayers 55
56. 56. Social Security Benefits (slide 4 of 6)• Example of Social Security income: – A: Married with AGI = \$30,000; tax exempt interest income = \$3,000; Social Security benefits = \$10,000 – B: Married with AGI = \$40,000; tax exempt interest income = \$6,000; Social Security benefits = \$10,000 56
57. 57. Social Security Benefits (slide 5 of 6)• Example (cont’d) – A: Formula 1: Lesser of: • .50 (\$10,000) = \$5,000, or • .50 [(\$30,000 + \$3,000) + .50 (\$10,000) - \$32,000)] = \$3,000 • Therefore, \$3,000 of Social Security benefits included in gross income 57
58. 58. Social Security Benefits (slide 6 of 6)• Example (cont’d) – B: Formula 2: Lesser of: • .85 (\$10,000) = \$8,500, or • Sum of – .85[(\$40,000 + \$6,000) + .50 (\$10,000) - \$44,000] = \$5,950, and – Lesser of: – .50 (\$10,000) = \$5,000, or – \$6,000 • Therefore, \$8,500 of Social Security benefits included in gross income 58
59. 59. Refocus On The Big Picture• Using the accrual method of accounting, Dr. Cliff Payne has correctly calculated the gross income of his sole proprietorship. – He will report the \$385,000 amount on Schedule C of Form 1040. 59
60. 60. If you have any comments or suggestions concerning thisPowerPoint Presentation for South-Western FederalTaxation, please contact: Dr. Donald R. Trippeer, CPA trippedr@oneonta.edu SUNY Oneonta 60