Green My Fleet: An analysis of a collaborative
effort between Evergreen Fleets and the City
of Issaquah
    Our goal is to...
Table of Contents:

1. Introduction...1
2. Executive Summary...1
3. Project Objective...2
4. Purpose...2
5. Clients...2
Introduction:                                                                                                             ...
Project Objective:                                                                                                        ...
1. Quantitative: One major outcome of this project will be to compile             The remaining fifty percent...
Tasks                   6-Oct         8-Oct           Oct      13-Oct         15-Oct         20-Oct       21-Oc...
Data Diary
A large portion of this project was the development of a coherent methodology        compelled to review each M...
Data Diary
• Fuel Type                                                                         the City could target in or...
Data Diary
mental and our reported totals. In this sense, our reported fuel consumption        tices documents listed on t...
Metrics                                                             Figure 1: Quarterly Fuel Consumption in Gallons for   ...

          Figure 5: Discrepancy between Reported Fuel Data   Figure 6: Discrepancy between Reported Fuel Data
Best Practices: Green Fleets Plan
Policy Statement:                                                                  Resea...
Best Practices: Green Vehicle Purchasing Policy
Policy Statement:                                                         ...
Best Practices:          Green Vehicle Purchasing Policy Cont.                               Best Practices:           Rig...
Best Practices: Preventive Maintenance Program
In order to optimize vehicle operation, a preventive maintenance program   ...
Best Practices: "Right-Size" Requirement forProgram for Maintenance Products
                 Recover, Reduce, and Reuse V...
Best Practices: Green Rental Car and Car-Sharing Policy
As a piece of the City of Issaquah’s Commute Trip Reduction (CTR) ...
Best Practices:            Green Rental Car and Car-Sharing Policy
According to a recent news release , the city of Washin...
Recommendations for Evergreen Fleets:
In working with the City of Issaquah to evaluate their emissions data and Best      ...
Recommendations for Evergreen Fleets Cont:                                                       Recommendations for the C...
Recommendations for the City of Issaquah:                                                                                 ...
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Green My Fleet


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Green My Fleet: An analysis of a collaborative effort between Evergreen Fleets and the City of Issaquah.

By David Perlmutter and Julia Wilson

Please read the final report that we submitted to the City of Issaquah in December 2009.

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Green My Fleet

  1. 1. Green My Fleet: An analysis of a collaborative effort between Evergreen Fleets and the City of Issaquah Our goal is to evaluate the Evergreen Fleets program. In order to accomplish this goal we will do the following: ◊ Work with the City of Issaquah to collect fleet data in order to complete the online Evergreen Fleets evaluation worksheet ◊ Evaluate the ease or difficulty working with the online worksheet Clients: Contributors: ◊ Provide critical analysis of flaws regarding the Evergreen Evergreen Fleets David Perlmutter City of Issaquah Julia Wilson Fleets website CEP 460 ◊ Provide suggestions to Evergreen Fleets that may lead to Class of 2010 greater fleet particpation
  2. 2. Table of Contents: 1. Introduction...1 2. Executive Summary...1 3. Project Objective...2 4. Purpose...2 5. Clients...2 6. Deliverables...3 7. Calendar...4 8. Data Diary...5-7 9. Example of Evergreen Fleets Worksheet...8 10. Metrics...9-10 11. Best Practices Documents...11-17 12. Recommendations for Evergreen Fleets...18 13. Recommendations for the City of Issaquah...19
  3. 3. Introduction: Executive Summary: In response to global warming due to gas emissions, toxic particulate matter The process of becoming Green Fleets certified is an intriguing yet daunting and greenhouse gasses, the Puget Sound Clean Cities Coalition developed a challenge that will face many applicant cities after the City of Issaquah. Fac- program called Evergreen Fleets. This voluntary program is intended to pro- ing rising fuel prices, greater environmental concern and funding in the public vide a framework for vehicle fleets across the country. Fleet managers are sector, and increasingly available alternative-fuel technologies entering the provided with a list of goals pertaining to green practices and policies in order marketplace, green fleet certification programs like Evergreen Fleets are sure to combat the pollution caused by the leading cause of greenhouse gas emis- to become ever more popular in the coming years. sions - the millions of vehicles on the road each day. The practices suggested in the Evergreen Fleets manual encourage fleets to maintain accurate fleet The purpose of this report is to provide a case study in the evaluation of a data pertaining to fuel consumption and type, trading up to green vehicles, candidate city for Green Fleets certification, Issaquah, WA. In our evaluation, diesel retrofitting, green fuel procurement and reducing waste from idling we will first analyze the process of inputing vehicle emissions data into the Ev- and improper maintenance procedures. For a fee, fleets can obtain Evergreen ergreen Fleets Evaluator Tool that produces the City’s final certification score. Fleets certification by meeting one of the three levels of standards outlined We will also review and create the City’s Best Practices documents that con- in their manual. The Evergreen Fleets website contains a worksheet, called stitute the second half of the Green Fleets certification score. We will operate the Evaluator Tool, for fleets to enter their library of data to rate their level of under the assumption that Issaquah is at a “ground zero” state and has no Best certification. Benefits to certification include good public relations, reduction Practices documents to offer. This has compelled us to create templates of of need for foreign fuel sources and boosts to employee health, morale and several potential Best Practices as a review of their feasibility as part of wide- productivity (1). Although there is certainly an outlying cost to the program, ly-applied Green Fleets certification requirements. The first part of our review overall fleet costs have been shown to reduce over time in fuel, maintenance will consist of Recommendations for the City of Issaquah to better prepare its and vehicle costs (1). data to increase its likelihood of Green Fleets certification. To date, only two other Washington Fleets have been certified with In addition, this report will also provide a critique of Evergreen Fleets’ facilita- the Evergreen Fleets program. However, the City of Issaquah has been working tion of the data review process through its online Evaluator Tool. The criteria to become the third fleet certified. Issaquah has provided us, the “Green My for Green Fleets certification will be ground-truthed with actual results from Fleets Team”, with most of the data necessary to qualify for certification. We our case study, Issaquah. This report will ultimately act as a guide for Ever- have organized the data and applied it to the Evergreen Fleets worksheet to green Fleets administrators in the evaluation of future applicant fleet agen- see where Issaquah needs improvement, or where they are currently meeting cies, as well as an analysis of how cities can most efficiently prepare their data or exceeding expectations. The next phase of our project is to continue work- to maximize their likelihood of certification. ing with the City of Issaquah in an effort to collect their entire fleet library of data and complete the Evaluator Tool. With the suggestions we have provided in this document, we hope to enable Evergreen Fleets certification for the City of Issaquah. p1
  4. 4. Project Objective: Our Clients: The objective of this project was to work with the City of Issaquah and assist Leslie Stanton, Climate Protection Program Manager their Fleet Manager in becoming certified under the Evergreen Fleets pro- Puget Sound Clean Air Agency gram, administered by the Puget Sound Clean Air Agency. Evergreen Fleets is (206) 689-4022 a green fleets certification initiative conceptually similar to the Leadership Ms. Stanton was responsible for introducing us to the Evergreen Fleets in Energy and Environmental Design (LEED) used to certify sustainable archi- project with the City of Issaquah and establishing the expectations of our tecture. Municipalities, public agencies, and private firms compete to receive final product. She briefed us on the Evergreen Fleets program, including a Green Fleets certification ranging from one to five stars by reducing their the levels of certification, the program’s history, its long-term goals in fleets’ greenhouse gas emissions and implementing Best Practices by investing reducing greenhouse gas emissions, its effectiveness in the agencies that have applied for certification, and potential problems to expect in creat- in cleaner fuels and vehicle technologies. ing a Data Diary and evaluating Best Practices. Ms. Stanton also provided our group with copies of the Evergreen Fleets Certification and Emissions Our project focus was to evaluate the Evergreen Fleets Program using data Reporting Guidance Manual, which establishes the thresholds of “Green acquired from the City of Issaquah, including vehicle miles traveled (VMT’s), Fleet” certification, requirements for submission of emissions data, and an fuel consumption, the City’s master fleet inventory list, and a series of Best in-depth overview of Best Practices information. Practices. After evaluating City data using the criteria provided by the Ever- green Fleets online Evaluator Tool, our project objective was two-fold: Mary Joe deBeck, Resource Conservation Coordinator 1. Evaluate the effectiveness and user-friendliness of the Evergreen Fleets City of Issaquah Resource Conservation Office evaluation metrics and Evaluator Tool using the City of Issaquah as a case study (425) 837-3417 2. Assess the City of Issaquah’s likelihood of Green Fleets certification and Ms. deBeck was our primary contact with the City of Issaquah and was areas where improvement is needed responsible for providing us with emissions data and documents outlining the city’s implementation of Best Practices listed in the Evergreen Fleets Manual. The Purpose of Evergreen Fleets: Kelly Kussman, Fleet Supervisor City of Issaquah Public Works Operations Department "A voluntary, progressive certification program aimed at decreasing (425) 837-3490 air emissions from fleets while also reducing petroleum consump- Mr. Kussman is the Fleet Supervisor for the City of Issaquah, responsible for tion. The program creates incentive for fleets to freely adopt more providing raw data, including the following: fuel-efficient policies and practicess and to invest in cleaner fuels 1. Vehicle Miles Traveled and vehicle technologies. " 2. Master List Inventory of all City vehicles 3. Scanned fuel receipts indicating fuel consumption Evergreen Fleets Certification & Emissions Reporting Guidance Manual version 1.2 August 2009 David Fujimoto, Resource Conservation Office Manager pg. 5 City of Issaquah Resource Conservation Office p2
  5. 5. Deliverables 1. Quantitative: One major outcome of this project will be to compile The remaining fifty percent of the score that will qualify the City the Baseline year (2007) and Current year (2008) data for the City of Issaquah for Green Fleets certification comes from a series of of Issaquah’s fleet emissions. 2009 data will not be included in this policies that the city must implement in the following areas: hav- study because doing so would require data projections for the re- ing a written green fleet plan, green vehicle purchasing, green maining months. This data includes the following: fuels procurement and efficiency measures, vehicle maintenance, i) Vehicle equipment inventory list diesel vehicle retrofits, and green rental/car sharing vehicle use. ii) full documentation of Vehicle Miles Traveled (VMT’s) 4. Qualitative: The second qualitative segment of this project will iii) fuel receipts to demonstrate annual fuel consumption be a final report that details to what extent, and in what areas, This data is required for determining the city’s level of compliance the City of Issaquah has reduced fleet emissions, to what degree with the Green Fleets certification thresholds. Special data on the its Best Practices have fulfilled the thresholds for Green Fleets city’s diesel vehicle emissions are also needed to calculate total certification, and the city’s overall likelihood of Green Fleets emissions. Fifty percent of the total score qualifying an organization certification. This section of the report would outline the City’s for Evergreen Fleet certification comes from their success in reduc- successes in implementing Best Practices that have led to an ing total greenhouse gas emissions. This quantitative piece of the improved score for certification. In describing the City’s shortcom- project is critical to determining how close the City of Issaquah is to ings, the report will make recommendations of initiatives the City certification. An online Evaluator Tool in editable Excel spreadsheet can enact to improve its likelihood of Green Fleets certification. format is used for each type of emissions data and Best Practices A second portion of the report will be a broader evaluation of the category to calculate the City’s final score with respect to pre-de- Evergreen Fleets program’s ease of use in a new city, the feasibili- termined thresholds for certification. ty of its emissions reduction thresholds and Best Practices require- 2. Quantitative: The second qualitative component of this project will ments, and recommendations for improvements for future users. be to create a detailed “Data Diary” that describes the steps nec- This evaluation will encompass the Certification and Emissions essary to convert raw agency data to fit the template used on the Reporting Guidance Manual used by agencies to outline their plans Evergreen Fleets Evaluator Tool page. The Data Diary will describe for apply for the certification and the online Evergreen Fleets the assumptions built into each set of data, as well as the data’s Evaluator tool that participants use to report their data and assess source and scope. Coordination with the Fleets Manager, Kelly Kuss- their compliance with the program thresholds. A final section will man, and the Resource Conservation Coordinator, Mary Joe deBeck, evaluate the ease of converting raw data to the online Evaluator will be necessary to create a Data Diary for the emissions data and Tool format, using insights from our Data Diary. Best Practices documents, respectively. The Data Diary constitutes an in-depth methodology for data conversion and document re- trieval that can be replicated by future applicants for Green Fleets certification. 3. Qualitative: The first qualitative outcome of this project will be an analytical report of the City of Issaquah’s Best Practices in imple- menting cleaner vehicle technologies and investing in cleaner fuels. p3
  6. 6. 11-Octy11- Tasks 6-Oct 8-Oct Oct 13-Oct 15-Oct 20-Oct 21-Oct 22-Oct Research Green Fleets Collect Data From City of Issaquah Create Cumulative Progress Report Develop Deliverables Layout Create Data Diary Tasks 1-16-Nov 17-Nov 18-Nov 23-Nov 24-Dec 8-10-Dec 15-Dec 7-Jan Conference Conference Collect Data From City of Is- Class Call with Call with Storyboard Class class Exit Presentation saquah Presentation Issaquah Issaquah Presentation Presentations Interview to Issaquah Cumulative Progress Report Deliverables Layout Data Diary Best Practices Document p4
  7. 7. Data Diary A large portion of this project was the development of a coherent methodology compelled to review each Make and Model of the vehicles as they appeared of transferring the City Issaquah’s fleet data into the online Evergreen Fleets in the monthly fuel receipts and categorize them ourselves according to the Evaluator Tool for analysis. The City of Issaquah data we were provided includ- gross vehicle weight. Using a variety of automotive search engines12, were able ed: to accurately classify a majority of vehicles with the correct Vehicle Class for 1. Vehicle equipment inventory for both 2007 and 2008 further analysis. However, many vehicles were unaccounted for because their 2. Vehicle emissions data for 2007 (baseline year) and 2008 (current year) Vehicle ID Numbers were not listed in the vehicle inventory. This occurred with 3. Best Practices information and documents provided by the City of Is- 4 vehicles in 2008 and 24 vehicles in 2007, out of a total of 153 and 182 ve- saquah hicles, respectively. Our experience in working with City data compelled us to create a “Data Di- ary” detailing the most efficient and accurate ways of compiling, processing, A second problem we encountered was the lack of distinction between motor and analyzing the data for the greatest ease of Evergreen Fleets application. vehicles and vehicle equipment in our vehicle equipment inventory. Because Please see an example on the left side of page 10 of this document. the Evergreen Fleets certification does not take into account the emissions produced by vehicle equipment, devices such as sewer equipment, genera- The Data Diary that follows will explain the steps taken to compile, process, tors, mowers, tractors, brushcutters, and pumps had no value in our analysis and apply City data to the assessment criteria of the Evergreen Fleets Evalua- and were not compiled in our total fuel consumption figures that were plugged tor Tool, according to each section of data we received. into the Evaluator Tool. Removing these equipment from the vehicle equipment inventory ahead of time would have saved significant effort in the compilation 1. Vehicle equipment inventory: of vehicle emissions data. The vehicle equipment inventory lists all City fleet vehicles by Vehicle ID Num- In sum, a reorganization of the City’s vehicle equipment inventory is necessary ber, as well as listing the Year, Make, Model, Description, and Department to in several areas to better accomodate the process of Green Fleets certifica- which the vehicle was assigned. This document was integral to our analysis, tion: the classification of Vehicles by Vehicle Class as well as Vehicle ID Num- as we would have been unable to categorize fuel consumption according to ber and Make/Model, ensuring that all City vehicles with emissions data are ac- Vehicle Class or list the number of City vehciles in each Vehicle Class, as the counted for, and separating motor vehicles from non-motor-vehicle equipment. Evergreen Fleets Evaluator requires. In addition, the Vehicle ID Numbers were essential to compiling the scanned fuel receipts for the Baseline and Current 2. Vehicle emissions data: Years. Each fuel transaction in the monthly City fuel receipts was characterized first by Vehicle ID and then by date, so without this piece of information on the To accurately compile, process, and analyze the vehicle emissions data in the vehicle equipment inventory tracking fuel consumption would have been sub- form of scanned monthly fuel receipts from the City Fleet Supervisor, it was stantially more difficult. necessary to create an Excel spreadsheet with several thematic divisions. The thematic divisions of our Data Diary were as follows: Several problems with the inventory became apparent during our composition of the Data Diary. First, the inventory does not include a Vehicle Class category, • Vehicle ID Number which the Evergreen Fleets Evaluator requires. Therefore, in order to aggre- gate fuel consumption in a later process according to Vehicle Class, we were p5
  8. 8. Data Diary • Fuel Type the City could target in order to meet its emissions reduction goals. Finally, we • Total Gallons segmented vehicle emissions data by Vehicle Class because this was required • Fuel Expenditure ($) by the Evaluator Tool. We had already assigned each Vehicle ID Number its • Vehicle Class corresponding Vehicle Class after reviewing the vehicle equipment inventory For more information, please review a sample Data Diary located in the Appen- previously. The analysis of fuel consumption by Vehicle Class is useful because dix of this report. different Vehicle Classes roughly correspond to the different functions of City departments, which are apt to reduce their emissions strategically by target- First, it was logical to compile the data in monthly segments for the Current ing the least fuel-efficient or highly-consuming Vehicle Classes. The Vehicle and Baseline Years, as this is the format in which we received the fuel receipts. Class information is further important because it is the only metric that shows This monthly data segmentation also enables further analysis of the data both changes in the overall composition of the City fleet between the two study monthly and quarterly. Second, recording every fuel transaction first by Vehicle years. ID Number was important for several reasons. The unique Vehicle ID Numbers enabled us to track each individual vehicle’s consumption over the course of Several segmentations of vehicle emissions data were not performed due to the study period. They allowed us to easily validate our data for accuracy, the limitations of the fuel receipts data we received. We were unable to ac- precision, and completeness. An important process on the Evaluator Tool was curately record Vehicle Miles Traveled (VMT) information for City vehicles recording the number of vehicles in each Vehicle Class for both years, which because they were rarely recorded on the receipts that Mr. Kussman provided would have been conceptually impossible without a unique vehicle identifier. us. In many instances, the City drivers would simply record a series of zeros or nonsensical numbers on the odometer readings at the end of their trips We segmented the data further by Fuel Type and Gallons. Fuel Type segmenta- because they had not taken the time or did not wish to record this informa- tion was necessary to segregate diesel vehicles, a separate section of evalua- tion. Although the VMT’s were required by the Evaluator Tool, the focus of the tion in Green Fleets certification, from non-diesel vehicles and any alternative- Green Fleets initiative is reducing fuel consumption, which is not directly fuel vehicles. Compilation of Total Gallons was a crucial part of the analysis related to actual VMT’s. By purchasing fuel-efficient vehicles and implementing because they are the principal unit of fuel consumption, and there would Best Practices, it is possible for the City to maintain or even increase its VMT’s otherwise have been no metric to compare the two years of data. and still reduce its greenhouse gas emissions. Dates of fuel transactions within the monthly periods were also not compiled because they were not pertinent We segmented the vehicle emissions data by the dollar value ($) of each trans- to our analysis nor to the Evaluator Tool. action despite this metric not appearing on the Evaluator Tool because we recognize the economic as well as environmental interest inherent in reduc- A significant problem we encountered in compiling the vehicle emissions data ing City fuel emissions. Analysis of emissions data by dollar expenditures can was the incompleteness of the fuel receipts we were given. Very frequently the also pinpoint vehicles that overspend by buying inappropriate types of fuel for fuel receipts list fuel transactions that run off the page, never to be contin- their Vehicle Class. Recording the monetary value of fuel transactions in our ued, without any summary or total of the full transaction’s extent. Therefore Data Diary was important because it reflected a collective picture of rising gas we were unable to add these fuel transactions to the monthly totals. Because prices that have motivated many cities to reduce their total emissions through the total completed fuel transactions that we were able to record were often programs like Evergreen Fleets in the first place. Furthermore, this analysis of about 40%-50% less than the total monthly expenditures recorded by the Fleet City fuel spending can illustrate seasonal variations in fuel consumption that Manager, we created a Metric explaining the discrepancy between the Depart- p6
  9. 9. Data Diary mental and our reported totals. In this sense, our reported fuel consumption tices documents listed on the following pages. Generally, the Best Practices data may be seen as a representative sample of the total fleet data. Another requirement of the Green Fleets certification is two-fold: 1) having the docu- indicator of the incompleteness of our data was the fact that relatively few of ments on file with clear policy statements directing City departments towards the vehicles listed on the vehicle equipment inventory appeared under report- established Green Fleet practices; 2) showing supporting receipts or documen- ed fuel transactions. Of the more than 900 vehicles listed in the City’s vehicle tation that the written policies have been correctly followed by the City de- equipment inventory, only 153 (2008) and 182 (2007) were reported under our partments. Because of our limited access to City documents, we were unable fuel consumption compilations. to meet this second requirement of Green Fleets certification. However, using the Evergreen Fleets Certification & Emissions Reporting Guidance Manual, we An important step in preparing our compiled fuel transactions data for the were able to create sufficient templates to qualify the City for at least partial Evaluator Tool was the creation of a Data Filter using Microsoft Excel. This Data fulfillment of Green Fleets Best Practices in several areas, including: Filter function allowed us to quickly sort through large amounts of emissions • Green Fleets Plan data by Vehicle Class and Fuel Type, which greatly accelerated the process of • Green Vehicle Purchasing Policy inputting data into the Evaluator Tool. For instance, when compiling the num- • “Right-size” Vehicle Purchasing Policy ber of gallons of diesel fuel consumed by Class 4 Trucks in 2008, it was first • Preventive Maintenance Program necessary to filter all Class 4 Trucks in each month of the 2008 year. Manual • Recover, Reduce, and Reuse Program for Vehicle Maintenance Product review of each monthly grouping of Class 4 Trucks would reveal which vehicles • Green Rental Car and Car-Sharing Policy used diesel fuel and which did not. Using the “Paste Special” (addition func- tion) of Excel, it was fairly easy to aggregate 12 monthly totals of fuel con- sumption and Vehicle Class distributions data into the Evaluator. We used this function with every Vehicle Class distribution and fuel consumption total we entered into the Evaluator Tool. Although the compilation, processing, and analysis of vehicle emissions data presented many operational problems, we were able to successfully complete the Evergreen Fleets Evaluation for a sizeable sample of the City of Issaquah’s fleet. For a list of proposed remedies to the structural problems we encoun- tered throughout the creation of our Data Diary, please refer to our Recom- mendations section at the end of this document. 3. Best Practices: Initially during this project, we had envisioned the review of existing Best Practices documents that the City of Issaquah had on file in order to meet this section of Green Fleets certification. However, due to a lack of available documentation, we changed our assignment to help produce the Best Prac- p7
  10. 10. p8
  11. 11. Metrics Figure 1: Quarterly Fuel Consumption in Gallons for Figure 2:Quarterly Fuel Expenditures for 2007 and 2007 and 2008 2008 After analyzing and compiling the vehicle emissions data for 2007 (Baseline Year) and 2008 (Current Year), we were able to create the following metrics that help to illustrate changes in City fuel consumption and fleet composition: 1. Quarterly Fuel Consumption in Gallons for 2007 and 2008 2. Quarterly Fuel Expenditures for 2007 and 2008 3. Discrepancy between Reported Fuel Data and Department Totals, in Gallons, 2008 4. Discrepancy between Reported Fuel Data and Department Totals, in Gallons, 2007 Figure 3: Discrepancy between Reported Fuel Data Figure 4: Discrepancy between Reported Fuel Data 5. Discrepancy between Reported Fuel Data and Department and Department Totals, in Gallons, 2008 and Department Totals, in Gallons, 2007 Totals, in Dollars, 2008 6. Discrepancy between Reported Fuel Data and Department Totals, in Dollars, 2007 Metrics produced by the Evergreen Fleets Evaluator Tool: 7. Total Emissions (Metric Tons CO2e) 8. Percent of Baseline Emissions per Vehicle Category 9. Percent of Current Emissions per Vehicle Category p9
  12. 12. Metrics Figure 5: Discrepancy between Reported Fuel Data Figure 6: Discrepancy between Reported Fuel Data and Department Totals, in Dollars, 2008 and Department Totals, in Dollars, 2007 No Data No Data Figure 8: Fuel Consumption (in Gallons except Figure 9: Percent of Current Emissions per Vehicle Compressed Natural Gas and Propane) Category Percent of Baseline Emissions per Percent of Current Emissions per Vehicle Category Vehicle Category Cars Cars 5.3% SUVs, Pickups & Vans 9.0% SUVs, Pickups & Vans 24.2% Motorcycles, Scooters & 39.3% Motorcycles, Scooters & ATVs ATVs 70.5% Trucks Trucks 51.6% 0.1% Buses Buses p 10
  13. 13. Best Practices: Green Fleets Plan Policy Statement: Research and Evaluate Options: It is the intention of the city of Issaquah to implement a program to satisfy Several target points must be addressed in order to ensure the success the requirements of the of the program. Evergreen Fleets initiative. To do this, we will take the following steps: • Identify availability and practicality of different options. • Create a Green Fleets action plan. • Calculate implementation costs and net financial gains. • Formalize a Green and “Right-Size” vehicle purchasing policy. • estimate environmental benefits. • Procure Green Fuels and monitor fuel consumption, efficiency, driving • Identify risks associated with the option and ways to mitigate these prctices and develop and incentive program for fleet drivers to encour- risks. age green fleet practices. • Prioritize options. • Practice preventive maintenance. • Set fuel efficiency and gree house gas emission targets. • Recover, reduce and reuse fleet maintenance products. • Install diesel retrofitting in every possible vehicle. Develop an implementation plan for each goal: • Enact a green vehicle sharing program for city employees. • Create a timeline with responsibilities, measureable outcomes and deadlines, roles and responsibilities. To accomplish the above program goals, the city of Issaquah will commit • Create a monitoring, measuring and reporting strategy for these goals to implement the following suggestions. with key performance indicators. Budget: • To be determined by the city of Issaquah. Fleet Baseline and set goals: • It is imperative to organize fleet records in such a way to effectively manage the above program goals. Issaquah will need to set a baseline year for data. The suggested start date is January 2010. Data entry must include vehicle miles traveled (VMT’s), type and quantity of fuel consumption and a list of current fleet vehicles. This will enable the city of Issaquah to accurately track each vehicle and its impact on the environment. It will also help set future budgets. p 11
  14. 14. Best Practices: Green Vehicle Purchasing Policy Policy Statement: reduction targets will be employed when possible. Fleet Management will work 1. The City shall make every effort to obtain the “cleanest” vehicles pos- with all City Departments to identify the most fuel-efficient vehicle with maxi- sible as measured by available emissions certification standards and those pub- mum emission reduction available that can meet the operational needs of the lished by manufacturers. department, while taking into account the vehicle’s life-cycle costs and fuel 2. Evergreen Fleets defines Green Vehicles as follows: availability. a. Light Duty: 6. Requests for exemptions to the Green Fleets Vehicle Purchasing Policy i. Listed in the top two green vehicles for each class in EPA’s Green shall be submitted in writing to the Fleet Manager and exemptions awarded if Vehicle Guide or ACEEE’s Green Book. there is sufficient justification. ii. Achieves at least 25 percent better-than-average miles per gallon for each vehicle class. Exemptions: iii. Uses alternative fuels including biodiesel, ethanol, natural gas, Fleets Management may grant an exemption from the requirements of this propane or electricity. Policy to an applicable Department requesting an exemption under any one of b. Heavy Duty (gross vehicle weight over 8,500 pounds): the following circumstances: i. New vehicles must meet most recent model year emission stan- 1. Where there is no model of motor vehicle or motorized equipment avail- dard for fine particles (PM2.5), by engine size class. able that will comply with the requirements of this Policy and still meet the ii. Used vehicles must be retrofitted, refueled, repowered, or reu- specifications of its intended purpose and Department needs. built to meet or exceed the most recet model year emission stan- 2. Where the analysis demonstrates to the satisfaction of the Fleets Man- dard for PM2.5, by engine size class. agement each of the following: c. Light Duty Vehicles: The City shall purchase or lease only models of a. That any amortized additional incremental cost of purchasing a lower passenger vehicles and light duty trucks that are rated as low emissions emission vehicle that complies with the requirements of this Policy vehicle (LEV) or better by the EPA, where service levels for carrying out cannot be recovered over the operating life of the vehicle or metered City functions are not negatively impacted. equipment through a reduction in fuel, maintenance, and other costs d. Heavy Duty Vehicles and Equipment: The City shall purchase or lease incurred during the operating life of such vehicle or equipment; and only Heavy Duty Vehicles or Equipment whose engines are CARB certified b. That Fleet Management, or another City Department, has unsuccessfully as low-emission, when available for the given application and where City applied for, or attempted to identify grant funding for the lease or service levels are not negatively impacted. purchase of the vehicle or motorized equipment with the requirements 3. Each replacement vehicle will achieve the greatest level of emission re- of this Policy from outside sources. ductions possible, while still meeting the operational needs of the City. Alter- 3. Where the requesting department demonstrates to the satisfaction of nate-fuel (biodiesel, liquefied natural gas, hydrogen, or electric) replacement Fleet Management that the use of a vehicle or metered equipment would sig- vehicles should be procured only when there is fueling infrastructure in place nificantly disrupt operations or reduce service levels. at City operated or local commercial fueling stations to support the operation of these vehicles. In the case that Fleet Management grants an exemption, Fleet Management 4. Emissions reduction targets shall be reviewed annually by the Green shall purchase or lease the model of motor vehicle or metered equipment that Fleets team and modified based on vehicles available for that model year. will meet the specifications of the applicable department and has the highest 5. Vehicle purchase requests shall be reviewed and minimum emission fuel efficiency and lowest available emissions ratings for the type of vehicle p 12
  15. 15. Best Practices: Green Vehicle Purchasing Policy Cont. Best Practices: Right Size Vehicle Purchasing Policy or metered equipment specified, provided that the cost is within a reason- Appropriately sized vehicles, optimal for the duties they perform, must be as- able range of the cost of a vehicle meeting the specifications but having higher signed to staff. Matching duty requirements of staff to the smallest possible emissions ratings. vehicle for the task is a crucial part of reducing emissions. The City of Issaquah is a member of the Washington State Purchasing Coop- In determining the right vehicle for the job, consider the following guidelines: erative, and the City should therefore use its membership as a cost-effective • Driver’s job, physical size, age, and gender means of vehicle purchase. • The most important driver requirement for the task(s) for which the ve- hicle was intended: productivity? Tow capacity? Utility? Comfort? Safety? The City should invest in the green vehicles available through the Washington • Impact and cost of down-time and idling State General Administration contract whenever the purchase is cost-effective • Cargo load with regard to energy savings, level of service, and City performance needs. As • Driving conditions of August 2009, the following vehicles are available on the contract: • Operating costs (fuel, maintenance, depreciation, collision rates) • Ownership costs (acquisition, insurance, incentives, resale value) Hybrid-electric vehicle and compressed natural gas: • Honda Civic HEV Smaller vehicles should be substituted for larger vehicles by phasing them in as • Honda Civic CNG new vehicles are purchased or by disposing of larger vehicles that are no longer • Honda Insight EX HEV needed for their original tasks. • Honda Insight LX HEV • Toyota Prius HEV Vehicle “right-sizing” also refers to the size of the City fleet and ensuring that • Toyota Camry HEV the right-sized vehicles are used efficiently to maximize City investment as well • Ford Escape HEV as reduce emissions. Flex-fuel vehicle: • Chevrolet Express AWD Cargo Van By analyzing the operational needs of the City’s fleet, and eliminating excess • Chevrolet Tahoe PPV vehicles, only then will non-essential trips be discouraged and alternative • Chevrolet Impala forms of travel be encouraged. Whenever possible, share agreements between • Ford Crown Victoria Departments and sections should be established in order to reduce the size • Ford F150 eng option of the fleet. Review annually the fleet inventory list with careful attention to • Chevrolet 1500 eng option those vehicles that are disproportionately inefficient, and schedule their even- • Chrevolet HHR tual elimination or replacement. • Dodge Grand Caravan • Chevrolet Express eng option on AWD For more information, contact Bill Griffin, State Procurement Office, at 360.902.7421 and p 13
  16. 16. Best Practices: Preventive Maintenance Program In order to optimize vehicle operation, a preventive maintenance program • Have fuel pump checked for correct pressure every three months. must be in place. For Issaquah to have a successful preventive maintence pro- Brakes gram, we suggest the following: • Ensure brakes do not drag or bind. · Written documentation of vehicle usage recording vehicle miles trav- • Check linings/pads, drums/discs to ensure they are not worn out. eled or hours used. Radiator · Appropriate Data Storage. For Issaquah, we suggest an excel spread- • Check radiator water level daily sheet. • Top off radiator water while engine is on and hot. · Scheduled reporting system to ensure the program is in place and in use. Additionally, in order for the program to be successful, the following criteria Adherence to a preventive maintenance program provides the following ben- must be in place. efits: · A work order system · Adoption of fleet maintenance schedules to include warranty checks · Increase in cost effectiveness According to Evergreen Fleets, every maintenance program should include the · Provides flexibility for the adjustment of maintenance periodicity following components. Engine · Increase in component life cycle • Check cleanliness of air cleaner and change oil periodically. • Clean and adjust carburetor properly. · Generates energy savings • Check to assure there is no excessive noise or difficulty in engaging gears · Reduction of equipment failure Steering • Check steering box oil level regularly. · Estimated 12%-18% cost savings • Ensure there is proper steering wheel free-play. Tires and wheels • Maintain recommended tire pressure. Electrical A few disadvantages exist. • Check battery alternator, voltage regulator and fan belt. • Ensure wiring and connecgions to distributor and spark plugs, con- · Does not elimnate catastrophic disasters tact breaker points and condenser are in good condition with the appropriate gap. · More labor intensive Fuel Tank and Lines • Check all fuel line connections for loss of fuel to leakage or evapora- · Includes non-emergency tasks potentially leading to vehicle damage. tion. p 14
  17. 17. Best Practices: "Right-Size" Requirement forProgram for Maintenance Products Recover, Reduce, and Reuse Vehicle Purchases Policy Statement: Performance is the ability of the product or service to accomplish or contribute The City shall acquire its goods and services in a manner that complies with to accomplishment of a job or task. federal, state, City laws, and other requirements (e.g., City resolutions). The City shall purchase and use materials, products and services which are fiscally City departments shall use, where feasible, products that perform and have responsible, reduce resource consumption and waste, promote opportunities to the least damaging/most beneficial environmental impact, including new en- lesser-advantaged segments of our community, perform adequately, and pro- vironmentally preferable products, reusable products, recycled content, and mote human health and well-being. recycled products. Recognizing its role as a major purchaser of goods and ser- vices, the City shall seek opportunities to encourage and influence markets for Environmental factors to be considered in selecting products include life cycle environmentally preferable products through employee education; supporting assessment of: pilot testing of potential new products; adopting innovative product standards, specifications, and contracts; leveraging citywide buying expertise and buying- • Pollutant releases, especially persistent bio-accumulative toxins (PBTs) power through programs such as Copernicus; and embarking on cooperative • Waste generation; ventures with other jurisdictions. • Greenhouse gas emissions; • Recycled content; • Energy consumption; • Depletion of natural resources; and • Potential impact on human health and the environment. Social equity factors to be considered include, but are not limited to: • Use of local businesses • Use of small, minority and women-owned businesses • Ergonomic and human health impacts Fiscal factors to be considered include but are not limited to: • Lowest total cost • Leveraging City buying power • Impact on staff time and labor • Long-term financial/market changes • Technological advances in a rapidly changing market p 15
  18. 18. Best Practices: Green Rental Car and Car-Sharing Policy As a piece of the City of Issaquah’s Commute Trip Reduction (CTR) program1 The City will make a concerted effort to evaluate the usage frequency of enacted in August 2007, the City will make a concerted effort to supplement all City vehicles that make regular contact with the CTR locations identified its motor vehicle fleet with green rental cars and car-sharing services to reduce above. When a rarely-used vehicle is identified, the City will determine the overall emissions. The CTR was created following a 2006 Washington State law, cost-effectiveness of replacing the vehicle with a semi-regular checkout of a the Commute Trip Reduction Efficiency Act, which requires local governments car-share vehicle. in those counties experiencing the greatest automobile-related air pollution and traffic congestion to develop and implement plans to reduce single-occu- Car-Share Services pant vehicle trips. Car-sharing programs allow users to reserve a vehicle by the hour or day. Res- The City has focused its CTR program on nine (9) commuter destinations that ervations are made either online or via a mobile device. Pricing is all-inclusive have been identified as primary generators of single-occupant vehicle trips pricing (gas and insurance), which eliminates complex personal car reimburse- within the city, one of which is the City administration complex itself: ments and streamlines billing. This Best Practice is particularly relevant for 1. Microsoft organizations that have under-utilized or rarely used vehicles and could substi- 2. Siemens Medical Solutions USA, Inc. tute a car-share option in lieu of an additional vehicle. Car-sharing can sig- 3. SpaceLabs Medical nificantly reduce car usage, and has attracted considerable interest nationally 4. Costco - CWC Travel among transportation planners and policymakers. Car-sharing is the only pro- 5. Alltel - Call Center gram that has succeeded in reducing car ownership by a significant amount. 6. City of Issaquah 7. Costco World Headquarters The City can save significantly by outsourcing sections of its less frequently 8. The Boeing Company - Eastpointe used motor vehicle fleet to a fleet management professional, such as a car- 9. King County Library System sharing agency. Since the car-sharing agency owns the vehicles, no restrictive debts are attached to the City’s assets. This allows the City to leave its budget The CTR program calls for the implementation of a variety of improvements to open for principal business needs apart from vehicle maintenance and insur- transit, pedestrian, and bicycle transportation infrastructure surrounding these ance. sites to achieve a 13% reduction in Vehicle Miles Traveled (VMT) per capita by 2011. The Fast Fleet program2 operated by the car-sharing agency ZipCar is one ex- ample of a cost-savings by transitioning away from the City’s rarely-used fossil- Concurrently with the improvements in multi-modal transportation infrastruc- fuel burning vehicles to alternative fuel vehicles, hybrids, plug-in hybrids, flex- ture to the aforementioned commuter destinations, the City has identified fuel vehicles (FFVs) by introducing a large-scale car-sharing of these vehicles. Car-Sharing as a potential method for reducing VMT per capita as well as over- In addition, the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009 makes it pos- all emissions. In addition, third party car-sharing services offer a means for sible for public sector fleets to obtain federal funding to build highly efficient, the City to avoid the high maintenance and fuel costs that come with vehicle shared, electric fleets. ZipCar’s FastFleet Fleet Modernization Program ownership, especially for rarely-used vehicles. (FMP) can make it faster and easier to qualify for funding and meet the new 1 City of Issaquah. (2007). Commute Trip Reduction Plan. Public Works Engineer- standards. ing, Resource Conservation Office/Planning Department, Issaquah, WA. 2 p 16
  19. 19. Best Practices: Green Rental Car and Car-Sharing Policy According to a recent news release , the city of Washington, D.C., the first in the country to adopt the Fast Fleet system, saved more than $300,000 during a four-month test period. The city aims to save over $1 million during the 2009 fiscal year. Green Rental Car Services For rarely-used vehicles or for vehicles used on a short-term basis for special assignments, an alternative to using car-sharing services is to utilize ther ser- vices of green rental car vendors. One such green rental vendor, Enterprise, offers a wide range of services for municipalities to use in their implementation of emissions-reducing Best Prac- tices. Enterprise offers through its “Keys to Green” program services of Fleet Analysis, Emissions Offsets, Fuel Technologies, and Vehicle Optimization. En- terprise has been recognized as a leader in providing rental vehicles that use alternative fuel technologies such as gas-electric hybrid engines and flex-fuel vehicles that run on E85. In addition, when emissions reductions are not fea- sible for certain City operations via implementing alternative fuel technologies, Enterprise provides a carbon offsets program that will meet emission reduction goals through investment in other alternative 3rd party energy projects. In terms of the availability of hybrid and flex-fuel vehicles for rental, Enter- prise has shown itself to be a leader among rental car vendors. According to a recent report, Enterprise “is probably the winner of the green rental car race. The company offers the largest fleet of hybrids and fuel efficient vehicles of any rental car agency in America: their fleet numbers 440,000, and that in- cludes 5,000 hybrids and 73,000 ‘flex fuel’ cars that can run on E85.” p 17
  20. 20. Recommendations for Evergreen Fleets: In working with the City of Issaquah to evaluate their emissions data and Best The under-reporting of vehicle emissions data is likely to be a problem for many Practices documents for potential Green Fleets certification, several method- cities due to driver inattention, under-staffing and under-funding, and other ological problems with the Green Fleets program emerged. demands on the fleet managers’ time and resources. One useful metric that could help to ensure a high rate of data entry into the Evaluator is a bar graph One urgently needed addition to the Evaluator is an online vehicle database juxtaposing the City’s Departmental Totals and the current totals reported to that will allow fleet managers to store vehicle emissions data by their Vehicle Evergreen Fleets. Evergreen Fleets should require candidate agencies to report ID Number, the unique vehicle identifier that allows mangers to quickly look-up their monthly Departmental Totals of VMT’s, fuel consumption (gallons), and fuel vehicle information within each month. Fleet managers would then be able to expenditures ($) along with the entry of these data on a per-transaction basis as compile vehicle emissions data on a per-transaction basis, removing the burden described previously. A penalty of certification points could be issued to cities of sorting through the entire fleet by Vehicle Class and Fuel Type and produc- that demonstrate a low rate of data entry or high discrepancy between monthly ing monthly totals for each. After fleet records are updated weekly (or another Departmental Totals and monthly sub-totals entered into the Evaluator Tool. short-term interval), the Tool could accommodate per-transaction data entry by recording the Vehicle ID Number, Vehicle Class, Fuel Type, and VMT (drawn from Another category of analysis that Evergreen Fleets should include in its Evalua- the recorded difference between the current and previous vehicle odometer tor Tool is total vehicle emissions data by the dollar value ($) of each transac- readings). Including this tool would allow a much faster upload of emissions data tion. Cities recognize the economic as well as environmental interest inherent that would ease the manpower requirements of applying for Green Fleets certi- in reducing their fuel emissions and becoming certified with Evergreen Fleets. fication and negate much of the need for an external Data Diary. In addition to the positive publicity of cutting emissions and implementing environmentally sound Best Practices, cities could use a monetary comparison Included in this database would be a search-engine device that allows fleet man- between Baseline and Current Years to justify their efforts towards certification agers to look up each vehicle’s Vehicle Class according to the Make and Model, on a fiscal basis. By demonstrating the cost savings that often accompany fuel- and thereafter by the Vehicle ID after the vehicle is entered into the database. efficiency and Best Practices, cities would be better able to publicize their fiscal This feature would save a large amount of effort required in the current system responsibility as well as environmental integrity to their constituents. Analysis of in classifying each vehicle’s Make and Model by gross weight in order to sort the emissions data by dollar expenditures can also pinpoint individual vehicles that vehicles by Vehicle Class. As soon as each vehicle ID was stored in the database, overspend by buying inappropriate types of fuel for their Vehicle Class. Record- the requirement of the Evaluator Tool to list the number of vehicles in each Ve- ing the monetary value of fuel transactions in our Data Diary was important hicle Class would have already been met. because it reflected a collective picture of rising gas prices that have motivated many cities to reduce their total emissions through programs like Evergreen Another necessary modification is to create monthly sub-sections within the Fleets in the first place. Furthermore, this analysis of City fuel spending can Evaluator Tool to better accommodate fleet managers’ methods of recording illustrate seasonal variations in fuel consumption that the City could target in their emissions data. Manually creating sums of 12 months of data in the Evalu- order to meet its emissions reduction goals. ator Tool is a taxing process that few fleet managers are likely to appreciate. In addition to monthly sub-sections, quarterly sub-sections that aggregate each One excellent function that the Evaluator Tool has provided in its design is 3-month data cycle would be useful for cities that need to report their fleet’s fi- the product of various graphs upon completing data entry for the Baseline and nances on a quarterly basis. In each case, the Evaluator Tool should create auto- Current Years. This series of graphs is a meaningful accomplishment that fleet sums that tabulate monthly or quarterly totals to form the Current and Baseline managers can easily reproduce and publicize to promote their fuel-efficiency ef- Year comparisons. p 18
  21. 21. Recommendations for Evergreen Fleets Cont: Recommendations for the City of Issaquah: forts. This Analysis page of the Evaluator Tool should be preserved for all future Our research of the City of Issaquah Fleet’s candidacy for Green Fleets certifica- candidate agencies because it offers a powerful and compelling visual incen- tion posed several challenging situations. However, all of these obstacles can be tive to demonstrate progress in meeting Green Fleets goals. To improve this overcome by implementing a comprehensive data entry schedule. Once a pro- function, Evergreen Fleets should take the monthly sub-totals of emissions and gram is developed, the only tasks will be ongoing data entry and management, VMT’s data outlined previously and create similar graphs comparing the changes and a review of Evergreen Fleets requirements in order to keep up to date. This between the same months of the Baseline and Current Year. This addition would section of Recommendations deals only with vehicle emissions data, as the City help fleet managers to further analyze the seasonality of their progress in meet- was assumed from the beginning of this project to have no Best Practices docu- ing emissions reduction thresholds. mentation available. Finally, Evergreen Fleets should recognize that prior to applying for Green Fleets In order to qualify for the Evergreen Fleets Initiative, the City of Issaquah must certification, few agencies have anything resembling the Best Practices docu- be able to provide the following information: ments that the certification requires. This reality disqualifies these agencies 1. Complete baseline and current data to include fuel consumption and total from certification by default. While the Evergreen Fleets Manual did provide expenditures on a monthly basis for 2007 and 2008. We would suggest applying several easy-to-use templates for creating Best Practices, large portions of the data to an excel spreadsheet similar to the Data Diary included in the appendix certification score came from supporting documentation that these Best Practic- of this report. es were adhered to by City departments. Future candidates should be granted a 2. Odometer readings for each vehicle for 2007 and 2008 in the above men- grace period of one year in which to test out their newly-adopted Best Practices tioned spreadsheet. before they are penalized for not proving that they were followed. 3. Completed Action Plan implementing Evergreen Fleets strategies (See Best Practices Section). 4. Have a sequential list of currently owned cars in order of either vehicle class or vehicle number. It would be prudent to reserve a sequence of numbers for a certain class of vehicle. For example: 001-100 > Full Size Sedan 101-200 > Mid-Size Hybrid 201-250 > Small SUV 251-300 > Large SUV 301-400 > Class 4 Truck …and so on. Once the program is implemented, an administrator would be necessary to maintain and manage data entry, keep abreast of new Evergreen Fleets policies, ensure policies regarding the Action Plan are carried out and transfer data from the City of Issaquah to the Evergreen Fleets worksheet at the appropriate time. p 19
  22. 22. Recommendations for the City of Issaquah: References In addition to streamlining the process of fuel emissions data collection and data processing, the City of Issaquah should also be aware that its Best Prac- 1. City of Issaquah. (2007). Commute Trip Reduction Plan. Public Works Engineer- tices documents comprise a significant portion of the overall Green Fleets ing, Resource Conservation Office/Planning Department, Issaquah, WA. certification score. This project was completed from a “ground-zero” basis, 2. City of Olympia. (2007, March 1). Fleet Management Guideline #1: Green Fleets in which the City was assumed to have no available Best Practices documents, Policy. Sections 4.5.3 and 4.5.7. document templates, or supporting documentation. As such, The Best Practices 3. City of San Jose, (2007, September 1). Green fleet policy. City Policy Manual documents included in this report were written as templates that require ex- 5.2.0. San Jose, CA: Retrieved from pansion with up-to-date City data. These document templates, in most cases, licy_091707.pdf borrowed language from the Green Fleets Plans of other candidate cities that 4. City of Seattle, Department of Planning and Development. (2003, November 6). may or may not be appropriate to the policy goals of the City of Issaquah. In Sustainable purchasing policy (6.14.14). Seattle, WA: Retrieved from http://www.seattle. order to earn the maximum number of points for certification in the Best Prac- gov/DPD/cms/groups/pan/@pan/@sustainableblding/documents/web_informational/ tices categories, the City should complete the following steps: dpds_007568.pdf 5. City of Seattle, Fleets and Facilities Department, Office of Sustainability and 1. Complete the Best Practices documents it is currently lacking, including the Environment. (2007). A Clean and green fleet: an updated action plan for the city of Green Fuels Procurement Policy, Fuel Consumption and Vehicle Use Track- seattle Seattle, WA: Retrieved from ing, Fleet Efficiency Technologies, Fuel-efficient Driving Practices and Train- Plan_Sea_07Update.pdf ing, Incentive/Reward Program for Fuel Conservation/Efficiency, and Diesel 6. Enterprise Fleet Management. (2009). Keys to green: our comprehensive environ- Retrofit Technology. mental platform. Retrieved from 2. Clearly elaborate City policy objectives and fleet certification benchmarks 7. Gingrich, S. City of Toronto, Toronto Fleet Services. (2008). Green fleet plan through the Green Fleets Plan 2008-2011 Toronto, Ontario, CA: Retrieved from 3. Provide supporting documentation (receipts, financial statements, manuals) 8. Lyon, N.S. (2009, April 29). Zipcar launches "fastfleet" first integrated service for the following Best Practices templates: Green Vehicle Purchasing Policy, for public sector vehicle fleets. Retrieved from “Right-Size Policy”, Preventive Maintenance Program, RR & R Program for car/38015/ Vehicle Maintenance Products, and the Green Rental Car and Car-Sharing 9. Meyn, S, Stanton, L, Cline, C, & Gilpin, E. Puget Sound Clean Air Agency, Policy. Evergreen Fleets. (2009). Evergreen fleets: certification & emissions reporting guidance manual (Version 1.2). Seattle, WA. 10. Ream, A. U.S. Department of Energy, FEMP O&M, Industrial, Metering, Com- missioning Energy Savings Expert Team (ESET). (2007). Predictive maintenance Re- trieved from main.html 11. Rogers, S. (2008, July 8). Green Car Rental Roundup: Who's Going Green and Who's Missing the Boat. Retrieved December 1, 2009, from Earth First: http://earthfirst. com/green-car-rental-round-up-who%E2%80%99s-going-green-and-who%E2%80%99s- missing-the-boat/ 12. ZipCar. (2009). Introducing fast fleet by zipcar. Retrieved from
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