1. The American NationChapter 28The Cold War Era, 1945–1991Copyright © 2003 by Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Prentice Hall, Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved.
2. The American NationCopyright © 2003 by Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Prentice Hall, Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved.ction 1: The Cold War Beginsction 2: The Korean War Periodction 3: Regional Conflictsction 4: The War in VietnamChapter 28: The Cold War Era, 1945–1991ction 5: The Cold War Ends
3. Chapter 28, Section 1The Cold War Begins• How did the Cold War begin?• How did the United States respond to Sovietexpansion?• How did the crisis over Berlin lead to new ColdWar alliances?• What happened in 1949 to increase Cold Wartensions?
4. Chapter 28, Section 1Growing distrust • The United States and Britain distrusted the SovietUnion. They disliked communist rejection of religionand private property and Soviet boasts thatcommunism would soon destroy free enterprisesystems around the world.• The Soviets distrusted the Western powers. Theyfeared that the United States would attack the SovietUnion and would rebuild Germany to challenge theSoviet Union, too.How The Cold War BeganEven before World War II ended, tensions surfaced among the Allies. TheUnited States and the Soviet Union plunged into a new kind of war. They didnot clash directly in battle. Instead, they competed for power around theworld. This intense rivalry became known as the Cold War. It lasted nearly 50years.
5. Chapter 28, Section 1How The Cold War BeganBroken promises • Stalin promised to hold free elections in EasternEuropean countries occupied by Soviet troops duringthe war, but he broke his promise.• By 1948, the Soviets had established communistgovernments in every Eastern European nation.• Except for Yugoslavia, these countries becamesatellite nations—nations that are dominated politicallyand economically by a more powerful nation—of theSoviet Union.The “Iron Curtain” • As early as 1946, Winston Churchill had warnedagainst Soviet expansion into Eastern Europe. He said,“An iron curtain has descended across the Continent.”The “iron curtain” cut off Eastern Europe from thedemocratic governments of the West.• When communist parties achieved some success inother parts of Europe, Western fears of communismincreased.
6. Chapter 28, Section 1The United States Responds to Soviet ExpansionPresident Harry S Truman was determined to keep Soviet influence containedwithin existing boundaries. Thus, his Cold War policy was known ascontainment.The Truman Doctrine• Truman asked for large amounts of military and economic aid for Greeceand Turkey. With American aid, both countries held off communism.• His program to encourage nations to resist communist expansion becameknown as the Truman Doctrine.The Marshall Plan• When Secretary of State George Marshall saw the devastation of Europe,he feared that such terrible conditions might encourage communistrevolutions. He proposed a plan to help Europe rebuild.• The Marshall Plan provided more than $12 billion in aid to WesternEuropean countries. It reduced the threat of communist revolutions.
7. Chapter 28, Section 1The Crisis Over Berlin• After the war, the Allies divided Germany into four zones.American, British, French, and Soviet troops each occupied azone. Berlin, deep in the Soviet zone, was also divided among thefour Allies.• By 1948, the United States, Britain, and France wanted to reunitetheir zones. Stalin opposed that plan. He saw it as a threat to theSoviet Union. To show his determination to keep WesternGermany from reuniting, he closed all roads, railroads, and riverroutes between Berlin and West Germany.• Rather than send troops and risk war, Truman approved a hugeairlift. During the Berlin Airlift, hundreds of American and Britishplanes carried tons of supplies to West Berliners every day. Theairlift lasted for almost a year. Finally, Stalin lifted the blockade.The United States, Great Britain, and France merged their zones.
8. Chapter 28, Section 1The Crisis Over Berlin• Germany and Berlin remained divided throughout the1950s. With American aid, West Germany became aprosperous nation. The Soviet zone became the GermanDemocratic Republic, or East Germany, a much poorercountry.• When many people fled communism by crossing over intoWest Berlin, the embarrassed East German governmentbuilt a huge concrete wall topped with barbed wire. Itsealed off East Berlin from West Berlin. The Berlin Wall cutoff contact between families and friends and became asymbol of the Cold War that divided the world.
9. Chapter 28, Section 1New alliances emerged during the Cold War. Many of the world’s nationsestablished a world peacekeeping organization.Cold Waralliances• North Atlantic Treaty Organization, or NATO—In 1949, the United Statesand many Western European countries joined together to defendWestern Europe against any Soviet threat.• The Warsaw Pact—In 1955, the Soviet Union formed its own militaryalliance with Eastern European nations.UnitedNations• In October 1945, 51 nations formed the United Nations, or UN. Overtime, membership has expanded.• Under the UN charter, member nations agree to bring disputes beforethe body for peaceful settlement.• Every member has a seat in the General Assembly, where problemscan be discussed. A smaller Security Council also discusses conflictsthat threaten peace.• The UN has done its best work fighting hunger and disease andimproving education. UN relief programs have helped victims offamine, war, and other disasters.• Preserving peace has proved more difficult.New Cold War Alliances
10. Chapter 28, Section 1New Cold War Alliances
11. Chapter 28, Section 1Cold War Tensions Increased• In September 1949, the Soviet Union successfully testedthe atomic bomb.Communist forces, led by Mao Zedong, gained power inChina.• The United States had long backed the Nationalists, led byJiang Jieshi.• Mao set up the People’s Republic of China.• Nationalists forces retreated to the island of Taiwan.• By the end of 1949, China and the Soviet Union controlledalmost a quarter of the globe.
12. Chapter 28, Section 1Section 1 AssessmentPresident Truman’s Cold War policy was toa) keep Soviet influence contained within existing boundaries.b) let Soviet influence spread to neighboring countries in Asia but not tothe United States or Western Europe.c) fight a series of small wars with the countries that surrounded theSoviet Union.d) go to war with the Soviet Union.Probably the greatest successes of the United Nations have been ina) preserving peace.b) fighting hunger and disease and improving education.c) defending Western Europe against Soviet threats.d) keeping the Soviet Union from dominating the Warsaw Pact nations.Want to connect to the American History link for this section? Click here.
13. Chapter 28, Section 1Section 1 AssessmentPresident Truman’s Cold War policy was toa) keep Soviet influence contained within existing boundaries.b) let Soviet influence spread to neighboring countries in Asia but not tothe United States or Western Europe.c) fight a series of small wars with the countries that surrounded theSoviet Union.d) go to war with the Soviet Union.Probably the greatest successes of the United Nations have been ina) preserving peace.b) fighting hunger and disease and improving education.c) defending Western Europe against Soviet threats.d) keeping the Soviet Union from dominating the Warsaw Pact nations.Want to connect to the American History link for this section? Click here.
14. Chapter 28, Section 2The Korean War Period• Why did the United States become involved in theconflict in Korea?• How did the fighting in Korea end?• What were the results of the hunt for Communistsat home?
15. Chapter 28, Section 2The United States in the Korean Conflict• Korea is a peninsula in East Asia. As World War II ended, the United Statesand the Soviet Union agreed to a temporary division of Korea at the 38thparallel. The United States backed a noncommunist government in SouthKorea. The Soviet Union supported a communist government in NorthKorea.The North Korean invasion• In June 1950, North Korean troops crossed the 38th parallel and invadedSouth Korea. These forces occupied Seoul, capital of South Korea.• President Truman asked the United Nations to send a military force.• The UN agreed. General Douglas MacArthur would command UN forces.The UN landing at Inchon• At first, UN forces were outnumbered. Soon the North Koreans occupiedalmost all of Korea.• MacArthur launched a counterattack by sea. He landed at Inchon, behindNorth Korean lines. The North Koreans were forced back across the 38thparallel. Then, MacArthur got UN approval to cross into North Korea.
16. Chapter 28, Section 2The United States in the Korean ConflictChina enters the war• China warned the United States not to invade NorthKorea or they would retaliate.• As UN forces neared the northern border of Korea,masses of Chinese troops crossed into North Korea.• Once again, South Korean forces were pushed back.
17. Chapter 28, Section 2How the Fighting in Korea EndedA dispute arose between Truman and MacArthur.• The Korean War turned into a bloody deadlock. Duringthe deadlock, a disagreement arose between GeneralMacArthur and President Truman. MacArthur felt thatUN forces must attack China. Truman thought anattack on China could lead to a world war.• When MacArthur complained publicly that politiciansin Washington were holding him back, Truman firedhim. Truman pointed out that the President iscommander in chief.
18. How the Fighting in Korea EndedChapter 28, Section 2The two sides sought an armistice in Korea.• Peace talks began in mid–1951. They dragged on with littleprogress.• In 1952, Dwight Eisenhower, the popular World War II general,became President. He visited Korea.• Finally, in July 1953, the two sides signed an armistice to end thefighting. It redrew the border between North Korea and SouthKorea near the 38th parallel. Along the border, it set up ademilitarized zone (DMZ), an area with no military forces. On eitherside of the DMZ, heavily armed troops dug in. They remain today.Costs of the war• When the Korean War had ended, the borders had changed little.• The human costs were high—about 54,000 Americans and nearly2 million Koreans and Chinese were killed.
19. Chapter 28, Section 2The Korean War
20. Chapter 28, Section 2The Hunt for Communists at Home• The Korean War increased worries about Communists at home.During the Great Depression, some people had turned tocommunism as the only solution to the nation’s economictroubles. In time, however, many recognized Joseph Stalin as abrutal dictator and left the party, but some stayed on.• Between 1946 and 1950, several people in the United States,Canada, and Britain were arrested as Soviet spies. In the UnitedStates, Ethel and Julius Rosenberg were sentenced to death forpassing atomic secrets to the Soviets. They were executed in1953.• Americans worried that there might be Communists in highgovernment positions. In 1950, Alger Hiss, a State Departmentofficial, was imprisoned for perjury, or lying under oath. Hissdenied he was part of a Soviet spy ring. Later evidence wouldsuggest that, indeed, he had been a spy.
21. The Hunt for Communists at HomeChapter 28, Section 2• In 1947, Truman ordered investigations of governmentworkers. Thousands of government employees werequestioned.• In 1950, Senator Joseph McCarthy of Wisconsin announcedthat he had a list of 205 State Department employees whowere Communist party members. He never proved hisclaims, but he won attention. For four years, McCarthyspread suspicion.• In 1954, the Senate held televised hearings to investigate anew McCarthy charge—that there were Communists in theUnited States Army. This time, McCarthy looked like a bully,not a hero. In 1954, the Senate passed a resolution tocensure, or officially condemn, McCarthy for “conductunbecoming a member.”
22. Chapter 28, Section 2Section 2 AssessmentThe Korean War began whena) South Korean troops invaded North Korea.b) Chinese troops poured into North Korea.c) North Korean troops invaded South Korea.d) Russian troops landed at Inchon, near the 38th parallel.In the early 1950s, Senator Joseph McCarthy held Senate hearings toinvestigatea) whether or not government workers were working hard enough fortheir pay.b) whether President Truman should have fired General MacArthur.c) the actual total costs of the Korean War.d) claims that members of the Communist party held government jobs.Want to connect to the American History link for this section? Click here.
23. Chapter 28, Section 2Section 2 AssessmentThe Korean War began whena) South Korean troops invaded North Korea.b) Chinese troops poured into North Korea.c) North Korean troops invaded South Korea.d) Russian troops landed at Inchon, near the 38th parallel.In the early 1950s, Senator Joseph McCarthy held Senate hearings toinvestigatea) whether or not government workers were working hard enough fortheir pay.b) whether President Truman should have fired General MacArthur.c) the actual total costs of the Korean War.d) claims that members of the Communist party held government jobs.Want to connect to the American History link for this section? Click here.
24. Chapter 28, Section 3Regional Conflicts• Why did the Cold War spread to Africa and Asia?• Why did Cuba become a crisis spot during theCold War?• Why did the United States intervene in LatinAmerica during the Cold War?• How did the Cold War lead to an arms race?
25. Chapter 28, Section 3The Philippines • The United States withdrew from the Philippines in1946.• Since then, the Philippines has struggled to preserve ademocratic government. It has suffered from poverty,local uprisings, and dictatorships, including the rule ofFerdinand Marcos.The Cold War Spread to Africa and AsiaAfter World War II, colonies of European and other powers demandedindependence. Some achieved independence peacefully. Others had to fightfor it. Sometimes, Communists joined people in their struggle.To keep the Soviets from expanding their influence to former colonies,American leaders faced choices.• Should the United States provide aid to a colonial power?• Should the United States use secret aid to counter the Soviets?• Should the United States send troops to influence the affairs of anothernation?
26. Chapter 28, Section 3Africa • During the 1950s and 1960s, more than 30 African nationsbecame independent.• Both the United States and the Soviet Union sought alliesamong these newly independent nations.• Some nations have had civil wars. Others have had borderwars with their neighbors. Often the United States and theSoviet Union backed opposing sides.India andPakistan• In 1947, India won independence from Britain.• India was divided into two nations: India and Pakistan.• Pakistan became an ally of the United States. India acceptedboth American and Soviet aid but remained neutral in theCold War.Indochina • French-ruled Indochina included present-day Laos,Cambodia, and Vietnam.• In each country, separate nationalist groups fought forindependence. The wars lasted for almost 30 years.The Cold War Spread to Africa and Asia
27. Chapter 28, Section 1Bay ofPigsInvasion• The Soviet Union began supplying Cuba with aid.• In 1961, President John F. Kennedy approved a plan for Cuban exiles to overthrow Castro.Exiles are people who have been forced to leave their own country.• A force of Cuban exiles landed at the Bay of Pigs on Cuba’s south coast. Castro’s forcesquickly rounded up the invaders. The Bay of Pigs invasion strengthened Castro andembarrassed the United States.CubanMissileCrisis• In October 1962, President Kennedy learned that the Soviets were secretly building missilebases on Cuba.• Kennedy announced that American warships would stop any Soviet ship carrying missiles toCuba.• Soviet ships steamed toward Cuba. At the last minute, they turned back, narrowly preventing awar.• Kennedy’s strong stand led the Soviets to compromise. They agreed to remove Soviet missilesfrom Cuba. The United States promised not to invade Cuba.• The Cuban missile crisis had shaken both Americans and Soviets. It was as close as theworld ever came to a full-scale nuclear war.By the 1960s, the United States and the Soviet Union were the world’s superpowers—nationswith enough military, political, and economic strength to influence events worldwide. The rivalryled to a clash in Cuba.In 1959, Fidel Castro led a communist revolution in Cuba. Castro’s government took over privatecompanies, including many owned by Americans. Thousands of Cubans fled to the United States.The Crisis Over Cuba
28. Chapter 28, Section 3The United States Intervenes in Latin America• In the early 1900s, the United States had intervened in theinternal affairs of Latin American nations. The Cold War ledthe United States to intervene again.• Latin America had severe social and economic problems.• A huge gap existed between the wealthy few and themajority of people.• In most countries, rural people lived in desperatepoverty.• Many poor Latin Americans saw communism as asolution to their problems.
29. Chapter 28, Section 3The United States Intervenes in Latin America• Many American leaders agreed with the need for reform. They hoped thatAmerican aid would help make Latin American nations more democraticand lessen communist influence.• In 1961, Kennedy created an aid program called the Alliance forProgress. The United States contributed aid for schools and hospitalsand for improving farming and sanitation services. The Alliancebrought improvements, but it did not end the causes of poverty.• Kennedy also set up the Peace Corps. Under this program, Americanvolunteers worked in developing countries. They lived with localpeople, teaching or giving technical advice.• The United States joined with other countries in the Organization ofAmerican States, or OAS. Through the OAS, the United States investedin transportation and industry in Latin America.• The United States gave military aid to train and arm Latin Americanmilitary forces. The United States spoke up for democracy butsometimes supported military dictators because they opposedcommunism.
30. Chapter 28, Section 3The United States Intervenes in Latin America• Between 1950 and 1990, the United States returned to a policy ofintervention in Latin American affairs.• The United States intervened in Guatemala, the DominicanRepublic, Panama, and Grenada.• When rebels in El Salvador and Guatemala fought tooverthrow harsh governments, the United States backed thegovernments because they were anticommunist.• When a rebel group, the Sandinistas, overthrew a dictator inNicaragua, President Reagan sided with the opponents of theSandinistas, known as the Contras. Many members ofCongress disagreed with Reagan’s policy. They bannedmilitary aid to the Contras. People on the President’s staffarranged for secret aid. When the arrangement becameknown, many Americans were outraged. Finally, Nicaraguansvoted in new leaders.
31. Chapter 28, Section 3The Cold War Leads to an Arms Race• By the 1950s, both the Soviet Union and the United Stateshad large stocks of nuclear bombs and missiles.• In 1957, the Soviet Union launched Sputnik, the world’sfirst artificial satellite. Americans were stunned.• Sputnik sparked a new round of spending on weaponssystems by both the Soviet Union and the United States.• The United States launched its own satellites.• The superpowers raced to send larger satellites farther.• The United States set up the National Aeronautics andSpace Administration, or NASA. Its mission was todirect an American space program to compete with theSoviets.
32. Chapter 28, Section 3Section 3 AssessmentDuring the Cold War, the situation that brought the United States and theSoviet Union closest to a full-scale nuclear war was known as thea) Bay of Pigs invasion.b) Ethiopia-Somalia conflict.c) Cuban missile crisis.d) Contra affair.People who want to help developing countries by teaching or giving technicaladvice can volunteer fora) the Alliance for Progress.b) the Peace Corps.c) the Organization of American States.d) NASA.Want to connect to the American History link for this section? Click here.
33. Chapter 28, Section 3Section 3 AssessmentDuring the Cold War, the situation that brought the United States and theSoviet Union closest to a full-scale nuclear war was known as thea) Bay of Pigs invasion.b) Ethiopia-Somalia conflict.c) Cuban missile crisis.d) Contra affair.People who want to help developing countries by teaching or giving technicaladvice can volunteer fora) the Alliance for Progress.b) the Peace Corps.c) the Organization of American States.d) NASA.Want to connect to the American History link for this section? Click here.
34. Chapter 28, Section 4The War in Vietnam• How did the United States get involved in theVietnam War?• How did the Vietnam War affect Americans athome?• How did the Tet Offensive help lead to the war’send?• What impact did the Vietnam War have on theUnited States and Southeast Asia?
35. Chapter 28, Section 4How the United States Got Involved in Vietnam• Vietnam is a narrow country that stretches along the South China Sea.Since the late 1800s, it had been a French colony.• The United States became involved in Vietnam slowly, step by step.• During the 1940s, Ho Chi Minh, a Vietnamese nationalist and aCommunist, led a fight for independence. His army defeated theFrench in 1954.• An international peace conference divided Vietnam into two countries—communist North Vietnam and noncommunist South Vietnam, led byNgo Dinh Diem.• Diem lost popular support. People said he favored wealthy landlordsand was corrupt.• Many peasants began to join the Vietcong—guerrillas who opposedDiem. Guerrillas are fighters who make hit-and-run attacks on theenemy. In time the Vietcong were supported by communist NorthVietnam.
36. Chapter 28, Section 4How the United States Got Involved in Vietnam• American leaders thought that if South Vietnam fell tocommunism, neighboring countries would follow, likefalling dominoes. This idea became known as the DominoTheory.• During the 1950s and 1960s, Presidents Eisenhower andKennedy sent financial aid and military advisers to SouthVietnam to help train the South Vietnamese army.• In 1963, Diem was assassinated. A few weeks later,President John F. Kennedy was assassinated. LyndonJohnson became President. Johnson increased aid toSouth Vietnam. Still, the Vietcong continued to make gains.• In August 1964, President Johnson announced that NorthVietnamese torpedo boats had attacked an American shippatrolling the Gulf of Tonkin off the coast of North Vietnam.
37. Chapter 28, Section 4How the United States Got Involved in Vietnam• As a result, Congress passed the Gulf of TonkinResolution, which allowed the President “to take allnecessary measures to repel any armed attack or toprevent further aggression.”• Johnson ordered the bombing of North Vietnam andVietcong-held areas. The role of Americans had changedfrom advisers to active fighters. The war in Vietnamescalated, or expanded.• The Vietnam War differed from other wars Americans hadbeen in. Rather than trying to gain ground, Americans wereattempting to destroy enemy positions. When Americansfound enemy positions, the guerrillas disappeared into thejungle. When the Americans left, the enemy returned.Worse still, American soldiers could not tell which villagerswere Vietcong.
38. Chapter 28, Section 4How the War Affected Americans at Home• As American casualties mounted, public support for the warfaded. For the first time, Americans watched a war on television.They saw villages burned, children and old people caught inbattle, and soldiers wounded.• To raise troops, the United States expanded the draft, or system ofmandatory enlistment. The draft affected American youthunequally. Many middle-class men found ways to avoid the draft,while poorer men—especially African Americans and MexicanAmericans—went to war.• By the mid-1960s, the country was splitting between “hawks” and“doves.” Hawks supported the war as a battle againstcommunism. Doves opposed the war. They saw it as a civil warthat should involve the Vietnamese only.• Protests spread. Many people wanted the huge sums being spenton the Vietnam War to be spent instead on social programs athome.
39. Chapter 28, Section 4The Tet Offensive: A Turning Point• In January 1968, the Vietcong launched surprise attacks on citiesthroughout South Vietnam. The attack became known as the Tet Offensive,because it took place during Tet, the Vietnamese New Year’s holiday.• American and South Vietnamese forces pushed back the enemy, but theVietcong had won a political victory. Their offensive showed that even withhalf a million American troops there, no part of South Vietnam was safefrom the Vietcong.• When Richard Nixon took office as President, he widened the war, hopingto weaken the enemy. Nixon ordered the bombing of communist bases inneighboring Cambodia. Then, American and South Vietnamese forcesinvaded Cambodia. These moves plunged Cambodia into its own civil war.• Finally, Nixon began to turn the war over to South Vietnam and withdrawAmerican troops. Peace talks were held in Paris. In January 1973, the twosides reached a cease-fire agreement. In 1974, the last American troops leftVietnam, though the United States continued to send aid.
40. The Tet Offensive: A Turning PointChapter 28, Section 4• In April 1975, communist forces captured Saigon, renamingit Ho Chi Minh City. Vietnam was united under a communistgovernment.• That year, the communist Khmer Rouge won the civil war inCambodia. They imposed a brutal reign of terror on theirown people. In 1979, Vietnam invaded Cambodia and set upa less harsh communist government there.
41. Chapter 28, Section 4The Vietnam War
42. Impact of the Vietnam WarChapter 28, Section 4The costs of the war• More than 58,000 American soldiers lost their lives.• More than a million Vietnamese soldiers and half a million Vietnamesecivilians died.• The war shattered the Vietnamese economy.• Hundreds of thousands of people fled Vietnam and Cambodia.• Many refugees escaped in small boats. Many of these boat people drownedor died of hunger and thirst.• Many others made it to safety and some settled in the United States.• The Vietnam War was a painful episode in American history.• The war produced no victory.• The war divided the nation and left Americans wondering how far theUnited States should go to fight communism.
43. Chapter 28, Section 4Section 4 AssessmentThe United States became involved in Vietnam because of the domino theory,which saida) the United States had to go to the aid of France because it was a Europeanally.b) if South Vietnam fell to the Communists, the rest of the region wouldfollow.c) the peace conference had no right to divide Vietnam into two countries.d) if American forces were attacked, the President could take steps to keep itfrom happening again.Which statement best describes how the American people reacted to United Statesinvolvement in the Vietnam War?a) Americans were nearly a hundred percent behind the war.b) Most Americans knew little about the war and didn’t have an opinion.c) Americans were nearly a hundred percent against the war.d) American opinion became sharply divided, with some opposing the warand some favoring it.Want to connect to the American History link for this section? Click here.
44. Chapter 28, Section 4Section 4 AssessmentThe United States became involved in Vietnam because of the domino theory,which saida) the United States had to go to the aid of France because it was a Europeanally.b) if South Vietnam fell to the Communists, the rest of the region wouldfollow.c) the peace conference had no right to divide Vietnam into two countries.d) if American forces were attacked, the President could take steps to keep itfrom happening again.Which statement best describes how the American people reacted to United Statesinvolvement in the Vietnam War?a) Americans were nearly a hundred percent behind the war.b) Most Americans knew little about the war and didn’t have an opinion.c) Americans were nearly a hundred percent against the war.d) American opinion became sharply divided, with some opposing the warand some favoring it.Want to connect to the American History link for this section? Click here.
45. Chapter 28, Section 5The Cold War Ends• How did President Richard Nixon change thecourse of American foreign policy?• Why did new Cold War tensions emerge after1979?• What conditions led to the fall of communism inthe Soviet Union and Eastern Europe?• How did the Cold War affect American society?
46. Chapter 28, Section 5Nixon Changes the Course of American Foreign PolicyNixon sought to improve relations with the People’s Republicof China.• Since 1949, the United States had refused to recognize thecommunist government of China.• Instead, it recognized the Chinese Nationalists, nowconfined to the island of Taiwan. The United Statessupported their claim to being the legitimate government ofChina.• Nixon allowed secret talks with Chinese officials to findways for the United States and China to have a betterrelationship.• Nixon visited the People’s Republic of China in 1972.• As tensions eased, the two countries established formaldiplomatic relations in 1979.
47. Chapter 28, Section 5Nixon Changes the Course of American Foreign PolicyNixon sought to improve relations with the Soviet Union.• In May 1972, Nixon became the first American President to visitthe Soviet Union since the beginning of the Cold War.• Nixon’s effort to reduce tensions between the superpowers wasknown as détente. Trade and other contacts between the twocountries increased.• The new relationship led the superpowers to sign a treaty to limitthe number of nuclear warheads and missiles each produced. Thetreaty was known as the SALT Agreement. SALT stands forStrategic Arms Limitation Talks.• The next two Presidents, Gerald Ford and Jimmy Carter,continued the policy of détente. Under Ford, the United States andthe Soviet Union conducted a joint space mission. Carter andSoviet leader Brezhnev worked out a SALT II Treaty.
48. Chapter 28, Section 5New Cold War Tensions After 1979Détente ended suddenly in 1979 when Soviet troops swept into Afghanistan tohelp a pro-Soviet government. Soviet troops remained for ten years.• President Carter withdrew the SALT II Treaty.• The United States supplied rebel troops.• The war became so costly for the Soviets that it eventually contributed tothe downfall of the Soviet Union.• In 1989, the Soviets were forced to pull out.Ronald Reagan took office in 1981. He firmly believed the Soviet Union was anevil empire. He also took a tough anticommunist stand on Latin America.• Reagan persuaded Congress to increase military spending.• He called for a new weapons system that he hoped could destroy Sovietmissiles from space. The system was nicknamed Star Wars.• In December 1981, Poland’s communist government cracked down onSolidarity, an independent labor union. Under Soviet pressure, the Polishgovernment imposed martial law, or emergency military rule, on thecountry. Reagan condemned the move.
49. Chapter 28, Section 5Causes• Soviet Uniontakes control ofEasternEuropeannations• Communismgains influencein WesternEurope, theMiddle East, andAsia• Western powersfear SovietexpansionColdWarEffects• Arms race betweenUnited States andSoviet Unionresults in heavymilitary spending• Western powersand Soviet Unioncreate separatemilitary alliances• Armed conflictserupt in Korea andVietnam• United States andSoviet Unioncompete forinfluence indeveloping nationsEffectsToday• United States isworld’s greatestmilitary power• Eastern Europeand Russia arestruggling tocreatedemocraticgovernments• Southeast Asiancountries arestill recoveringfrom warsThe Cold War
50. Chapter 28, Section 5The Fall of CommunismIn the mid-1980s, cracks began to appear in the Soviet empire. Economicproblems were growing, in part because the Soviets were spending so muchon their military, there was little money left for producing consumer goods.People complained that it was time for reform.In 1985, new Soviet leader Mikhail Gorbachev undertook major reforms.• Gorbachev backed glasnost, the Russian term for speaking out openly. Hehoped this new openness would lead citizens to find new solutions topressing problems.• Gorbachev knew he could not solve economic problems without cuttingmilitary spending. To do so, he would have to have better relations with theUnited States. President Reagan and Gorbachev met at several summitmeetings. A summit meeting is a conference between the highest-rankingofficials of different nations.• In 1987, the two leaders signed an arms control pact—the IntermediateNuclear Force (INF) Treaty. They agreed to get rid of stockpiles of shortand medium-range missiles.
51. Chapter 28, Section 5The Fall of Communism• In the late 1980s, Eastern European governments could no longercontrol their people’s demands for democratic and economicreforms.• The Soviet Union was too busy with its own problems tosuppress these protests, as it had before.• In 1989, Poland held its first free elections in 50 years. Polishvoters rejected communist candidates and voted for Solidaritycandidates. Lech Walesa, once jailed by the Communists,became head of a new government.• One by one, communist governments fell in Czechoslovakia,Hungary, Bulgaria, and Albania. In Romania, a violent revolttoppled the communist dictator.• In East Germany, the Communists were forced from power. By1990, Germany was reunited under a democratic government.
52. Chapter 28, Section 5The Fall of Communism• The Soviet Union was made up of 15 republics held together by astrong central government in Moscow.• By 1990, some republics were demanding self-rule.• For nearly 70 years, the Soviet Union had had only one party.To quiet the unrest, Gorbachev allowed new political parties.• Hard-line communist officials tried to oust Gorbachev.• The revolt weakened Gorbachev. Soon, republic after republicdeclared its independence from the Soviet Union.• In late 1991, Gorbachev resigned, but by then, the SovietUnion had collapsed.• Fifteen new nations emerged from the old Soviet Union.Russia was the largest and most powerful. These countrieshave tried to shift from communism to a free-market system,but the change has not been easy.
53. Chapter 28, Section 5The Cold War
54. Chapter 28, Section 5How the Cold War Affected Americans• The Cold War lasted almost 50 years. In that time, hundreds ofthousands of Americans went off to war. About 112,000 did notreturn. Americans at home lived under the expectation of anattack.• The Cold War was costly. From 1946 to 1990, the United Statesspent over $6 trillion on national defense.• The arms race created dangers for the world. Other nationsbesides the superpowers tried to develop their own nuclearweapons.• The Cold War divided Americans at times. The search forCommunists in the 1950s and the Vietnam War split the Americanpublic.• Americans had disagreed strongly about foreign policy. Yet, theycould agree that their freedom was worth fighting for.
55. Chapter 28, Section 5Section 5 AssessmentIn the 1970s, President Nixon moved to ease world tensions. To create betterrelations with China,a) he visited the People’s Republic of China.b) he promised to stop aiding the Nationalists on Taiwan.c) he visited the Soviet Union.d) he played ping pong with the popular Chinese team.One reason for the collapse of the Soviet Union was thata) rebel countries of Eastern Europe sent troops into Soviet territory.b) Soviet troops lost clashes with Eastern Europeans and with their ownpeople.c) heavy military spending contributed to growing problems within theireconomic system.d) the United States developed a new weapons system that could destroySoviet missiles from space.Want to connect to the American History link for this section? Click here.
56. Chapter 28, Section 5Section 5 AssessmentIn the 1970s, President Nixon moved to ease world tensions. To create betterrelations with China,a) he visited the People’s Republic of China.b) he promised to stop aiding the Nationalists on Taiwan.c) he visited the Soviet Union.d) he played ping pong with the popular Chinese team.One reason for the collapse of the Soviet Union was thata) rebel countries of Eastern Europe sent troops into Soviet territory.b) Soviet troops lost clashes with Eastern Europeans and with their ownpeople.c) heavy military spending contributed to growing problems within theireconomic system.d) the United States developed a new weapons system that could destroySoviet missiles from space.Want to connect to the American History link for this section? Click here.