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US History Unit 1, topic 2 KTHSMr. Peal 2010 How did British Colonists become American Citizens?
After the French and Indian War After defeating the French in 1763, the British controlled most of eastern N. America. They needed more soldiers to control this huge area. Britain had to pay for the French and Indian War, so they taxed their colonists.
Causes of American Revolution Colonists were forced to live east of the Appalachian mountains. Colonists could trade only with the British. British forced Americans to let soldiers stay in their houses. British taxed popular products without allowing colonists to vote in Parliament... Is tyranny
Events leading up to the Revolution 1765. Stamp Act boycott 1765 Quartering Act 1767 New taxes more boycott 1770. Boston Massacre 1773: Tea Act Boston Tea Party “Intolerable” Acts colonists are furious WAR. British soldiers in Boston marched to Concord, Mass., on April 19, 1775 to take colonists’ supply of weapons. Someone fired, and the first battle began.
Revolution is more than a war! A revolution is a sudden, major change in society: for example, a change in government, religion, technology, or work. The American Revolution was a change in government in which an entirely new, democratic government and society were created. Examples of Revolutions
American government during war The First Continental Congress (1774-5) gave colonists a single voice against the British. The Second Continental Congress was formed after the revolution started in 1775. It created the Continental Army. It COULD NOT tax. After the Declaration of Independence (1776), the Second Continental Congress created the ARTICLES OF CONFEDERATION, America’s first PLAN for how to govern itself. The central government was weak. It could not tax.
American ARMY during war Called the Continental Army Run by George Washington, who planned strategy (plan to win the war) and led the army in battles There was NEVER enough money to fight the war
Americans won because… British were fighting on foreign land, without enough food and supplies. Americans were supported by French, Spanish, and some Germans Washington was an excellent general – he kept his armies together, avoided big battles, and controlled almost the whole American population (British could not cut off one area from another)
After the Revolution: What kind of country to create? U.S. was still a confederation with a weak government. Why? Americans did not want another strong central government (like England’s). The U.S. controlled land east of the Mississippi. The U.S. owed a lot of money too. It borrowed from France and printed money – a bad idea! To strengthen the new country and raise taxes, the Confederation called for a new Constitutional Convention to create a new government.
How strong should the new government be? Big argument while the Constitution was being ratified…and after it went into power. The argument continues today. STRONG CENTRAL government: Federalists (Alexander Hamilton) Wanted strong central government Wanted weaker states Did not want to list and defend individual rights – would restrict the government VS. WEAK CENTRAL government. Anti-Federalists (Jefferson) Wanted strong local government, based on independent farmers Wanted to protect individual rights Distrusted central government and did NOT want another king. Did not believe central government could rule America democratically.
Features of the U.S. Constitution Written in 1787 by Constitutional Convention…ratified by 9 states in 1788…the U.S. government went to work on March 4, 1789. __3______ branches: So no branch would be too strong. Federalism: Strong central government that left important powers to the states and people. Individual rights: Basis of whole system
Features of Constitution (3): Individual Rights The Bill of Rights was added to the Constitution in 1791. It said individuals are born with basic rights, including right to: Free speech Free press Own weapons for self-defense Freedom of religion Meet in public (assembly) Trial by jury The purpose of government is to defend these rights. …Doesn’t include slaves, who were counted as 3/5 of a person Women were ignored too.