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Nations and empires

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Brief overview for Mr. Peal's World History students at the Katherine Thomas School

Brief overview for Mr. Peal's World History students at the Katherine Thomas School

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  • Nationalism
    Change of nationalism (Belgium, the USA vs. Germany/Italy/Japan)
    Nations become empires
    -- Germany
    -- France
    -- Britain
    Causes of imperialism
    -- Power: Indirect (India) and Direct ()
    -- Trade (Egypt)
    -- Resources (Congo)

    Africa
    Asia
    Conflicts:
    -- Africa (Britain, France)
    -- Middle East (Germany vs. Britain)
    -- Central Asia (Russia vs. Britain)
    -- East Asia (Russia vs Japan)
    -- Pacific (US vs Philipines, Cuba)
    -- Balkans and Austria
    Consequences
    Alliances
    Technology
    Distrust, readiness for war
    The Match: Sarajevo

    The two sides
    The two fronts
    Nature of war: Verdun (movie)
    New technology
    1917: Two changes
    1918: Armistice without peace

Transcript

  • 1. 1880-1914 Modern World History: Nations and Empires1 Nations and Empires
  • 2. What is nationalism? Pride in one’s Country Modern World History: Nations and Empires2 Nationalism is a feeling of strong pride in your ___Nation_____, or country. We call it patriotism in America. People are patriotic when they fly ___Flag_____…or join the ___Army_____. We tend to think patriotism is a ____Positive_________ feeling. That is not always true
  • 3. Nationalism really began with the…. French Revolution Modern World History: Nations and Empires3 1. Most French were proud of what they did. They overthrew their king and formed their OWN government. 2. They were convinced the French people had were better than the rest of the world. 3. When they went to war with other countries, their pride in their nation became stronger. Marseillaise
  • 4. Nationalism in history has changed over time. Modern World History: Nations and Empires4 In the early 1800s, people became nationalist when they didn’t like being ruled by others. Tiny Belgium and Greece, for example, had revolutions to end the rule by other countries___. They wanted their own government_. Nationalists looked for characteristics that people in the “nation” had in common such as language, culture, a shared history__, religion,
  • 5. Modern World History: Nations and Empires5 Nationalism took off in Europe in the 1800s. jigsaw
  • 6. Nationalism became stronger after 1860 Modern World History: Nations and Empires6 Nationalists in Italy and Germany___started wars to create their own governments. New nation-states were proud of their strength. Governments encouraged nationalism so that people would want to join the army_. By 1890 nationalism became a feeling that “my nation was better than your nation_.” Germany Italy
  • 7. What is imperialism? Modern World History: Nations and Empires7 Imperialism is based on the word empire___. Imperialism is when one nation wants to control_ another country’s land. Imperialism is a feeling__. This feeling says “my empire__ is better than yours.” Britain had the largest empire in history. Other countries wanted their own empires…. 2 Symbols of Britain’s empire
  • 8. Empires in Europe competed for colonies in Africa Modern World History: Nations and Empires8 As empires grew stronger, they began to compete__ with each other for power and resources__. After 1880, the competition was greatest in Africa__and Asia. As nations gobbled up territories in Africa and Asia, they came into conflict__.
  • 9. The British Empire: The biggest! Modern World History: Nations and Empires9 Britain controlled… one quarter of the earth. …an entire continent (Australia_) …a huge Asian country (India__) …Egypt and the Suez Canal__. America’s biggest neighbor
  • 10. Germany wanted an empire as strong as Britain’s empire Modern World History: Nations and Empires10 Germany got little land in Africa compared to Britain and France, so Germany built a navy to be stronger. Germany’s navy worried Britain, so Britain increased the size of its navy.
  • 11. French Empire Modern World History: Nations and Empires11 France lost power in Europe because of the rise of Germany__. It wanted empires to make up for this loss. France did not want to be left out of the scramble___for Africa. France remembered the great days of the Revolution, 100 years earlier. When Britain began to take over East_ Africa, France built an empire in NW_ Africa and SE
  • 12. Even Italy wanted an empire Modern World History: Nations and Empires12 As Italy___ and Germany__became strong countries, they wanted to show the world by creating empires too. Italy wanted a land empire in Africa as strong as the Roman_ Empire 2,000 years ago! Italy’s Empire in 1914 Compare the size of Italy to its empire in Africa
  • 13. Belgium’s slave empire Modern World History: Nations and Empires13 King Leopold__ II personally bought the Congo (1/6 of Africa) to grow rubber__. Rubber was needed in factories for automobiles__. He used Africans as slaves and cut off their hands__if they did not work hard enough. Belgium__ took over the empire from Leopold in 1908 Belgian Congo
  • 14. King Leopold had his own empire! Modern World History: Nations and Empires14
  • 15. Austria’s empire was different Modern World History: Nations and Empires15 • Austria was an empire__ within Europe. • It consisted of different nations (called nationalities) WITHIN_ its borders), including: • HUNGARIANS_ • Poles • SERBS_ and Croats • Czechs and Slovaks • Italians
  • 16. For empires, nationalities were bad news Modern World History: Nations and Empires16 • Some nationalities in Austria were friends with Austria’s enemies! Especially the ____________. • Some nationalities just wanted their own governments and to _____________ themselves. • Nationalities fought violent wars with each other in 1912-1913. • World War One started in this part of Europe in
  • 17. Why did European countries want empires? Modern World History: Nations and Empires17 1. __________ reasons CONTROL OF RESOURCES. Leopold II of Belgium wanted rubber in the Congo, for example. TRADE. Britain wanted to buy ___________ from India and wanted to sell opium (drugs) to China. African miners dig gold in South Africa.
  • 18. Modern World History: Nations and Empires18 2. ___________ reasons Countries felt they would be left behind if they did not create their own empire. Control of strategic (very important) places such as the _________ Canal (Britain needed the canal for its trade in Why did European countries want empires? Everyone wanted a piece of the globe.
  • 19. Why did European countries want empires? Modern World History: Nations and Empires19 3. _________________REAS ONS European people took land because they felt ___________________ to (better than) non-European people. Nations looked ________ on the cultures of Africa and Asia because of their: _______ color Languages (they spoke strange-sounding languages) Racism: Some Europeans thought they were ________________________ (PHYSICALLY) better than Africans and Asians, too
  • 20. What was the result of imperialism? Modern World History: Nations and Empires20 1. Benefits for the rest of the world, such as ___________, hospitals, and railroads 2. Problems for the rest of the world, such as destruction and removal of local ________; _________ of local people by Europeans in many African and Asian countries 3. Racism spread everywhere. Europeans claimed they were ________________to land and resources because they were “civilized” and others were racially inferior. 4. All sorts of conflicts broke out among the countries of Europe as they fought each other for _________________ and power.