Industrial revolution


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Just the basics, for students of Katherine Thomas High School

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Industrial revolution

  1. 1. WHAT WAS THE INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION? A revolution is a big change that has lasting effects. Modern World History David Peal
  2. 2. What was the Industrial Revolution?  People started making just about everything by HAND instead of by hand  They used new sources of ENERGY to run the machines (coal and steam, instead of horse and human muscle power)  The Industrial Revolution…  started in ENGLAND_in the late 1700s.  spread around the world in the 1800s.  changed the world!
  3. 3. Why did it start in England? 1. FOOD. The agricultural revolution of 1700s made it possible to grow more food from same amount of land: ONE English farmer produced enough food for TWO non-farmers. 2. MONEY. England had the world’s best BANKING system – there was enough money for business people to borrow money in order to build factories. 3. RAW MATERIALS in England. Especially COAL and iron 4. EMPIRE. England’s empire held land around the world, so it could SELL its goods everywhere.
  4. 4. England had a stable government A strong parliament… …limited monarchy With a strong parliament and limited ROYAL POWER, England had a stable government that allowed for change and avoided EXTREMES of wealth and poverty as in FRANCE and Russia.
  5. 5. Favorable geography England’s CANAL system made it easy to move people and resources to the places they were needed. England had lots of COAL_and iron (gray areas on map). This map shows canals built between 1759 and 1815.
  6. 6. Why was cotton so important in the Industrial Revolution?  TEXTILES are materials used to make clothes.  COTTON_ textiles made light-weight clothes for sale in warm climates.  All textiles used to be made by HAND.
  7. 7. Machines in the textile industry Starting in the late 1700s, new machines changed everything: Cotton gin – removed SEEDS from raw cotton. Spinning JENNY_ – spun thin strands of cotton into strong threads; one person could now do the same work with a machine that 16 could do by hand. Power LOOM – wove thread into cloth, replacing skilled, male weavers.
  8. 8. What was the steam engine?  A new source of energy invented by Newcomen and improved by James WATT.  Designed to pump water out of deep MINES.  Provided energy for A N Y machine, ex: spinning jenny  Coal boiled WATER…steam moved piston…piston moved wheel… wheels moved the belts that drove the machines! Click picture to see animation.
  9. 9. How spinning changed 1 Before machines…one woman did the spinning using a spinning WHEEL (used to be known as a “spinster”) Industrial Revolution: One woman using a spinning JENNY – doing the work of 16 women!!! STEAM engines ran spinning machines, doing the work of hundreds of women. Notice there are no people in this picture! 2 3
  10. 10. How transportation changed Steam engines were used to move new types of vehicle:  STEAMSHIP __ (1807, Robert Fulton’s steamboat)  RAILROAD_(18 25, picture on right) – designed to move HEAVY things (coal)
  11. 11. Railroads made it possible to…  Move heavy goods cheaply over long DISTANCES  Move PEOPLE over short or long distances; they could now live in different places from where they worked.  Railroad industry create new jobs; trains created a need for more COAL….
  12. 12. What was it like to work in factories?  Child labor – kids did jobs that were DANGEROUS and difficult.  Everyone worked LONG_hours – 12 to 14 hours a day.  LOW pay – there was not enough for a family to live on; everybody worked.  Workers had to keep up with MACHINE; machines worked 24 hours a day.
  13. 13. How did workers respond to new conditions?  Broke machines  Formed unions  Formed new political parties  Some wanted to CHANGE society to improve life for everyone (an idea called socialism). Workers meet to demand change!
  14. 14. What was so revolutionary about the Industrial Revolution? 1. Change led to MORE change, and the changes continue today! 2. People no longer worked for themselves and families. They now worked for bosses in FACTORIES, and machines set the pace of work. Society changed in many ways. 3. Place of work changed (FACTORIES), and factories were concentrated in CITIES. 4. Some workers wanted to change society BY