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From revolution to civil war

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Overview of main trends in US history from the revolution to the Civil War. Katherine Thomas School.

Overview of main trends in US history from the revolution to the Civil War. Katherine Thomas School.

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    From revolution to civil war From revolution to civil war Presentation Transcript

    • Growth of the New Nation
      US History, Unit 1
      Mr. Peal
    • LAND
      The U.S. spread to the Pacific Ocean.
      WEALTH
      Factories, railways, cities…
      NUMBER OF PEOPLE, including:
      Great increase in number of slaves
      Great increase in number of immigrants from Europe
      Thenew country Grows
    • Louisiana Purchase, 1803
      Texas, 1845
      Oregon, 1846
      California, 1848
      Gadsden Purchase, 1853
      Growth:New Lands become American
    • Bought in 1803 from France
      Doubled the size of the county
      Explored by Merriwether Lewis and William Clark
      Slow and dangerous trip
      Cross the Rocky Mountains
      Reached the Pacific
      Louisiana Purchase, 1803
    • Indians were “removed” from Georgia because Americans wanted their land when gold discovered there.
      Congress and President Andrew Jackson made Indians in Georgia and other states live west of the Mississippi.
      Americans felt superior…thought they had a mission to settle the continent.
      Indian Removal, 1830-
    • Texas belonged to Spain for 300 years
      Settled by Americans because of…
      Good land for growing cotton
      Large amount of land for raising cattle (cowboys!)
      Before long, there were more Americans than Texans.
      Conflicts between Mexicans and US settlers:
      Mexicans were Catholic, settlers were Protestants
      Americans had slaves, Mexicans didn’t like slavery
      Difference in language and culture made it difficult for people to get along
      Texas attracted American settlers.
      • 1836: Mexicans attacked a fort called Alamo and killed all the Americans.
      • 1845-8: War with Mexico to make Texas a state
      • Texas became a state; allowed slavery.
      Conflicts in Texas Led to War
    • Oregon attracted settlers
      Oregon territory attracted families because of forests and farmland.
      Settlers followed the Oregon Trail.
      Included parts of Canada, Idaho, Wyoming
      Oregon Trail
    • John Sutter
      Where the 49ers got their name.
      Gold-diggers came from Europe, China, and the east
      California grew quickly. San Francisco became a city
      Gold was discovered in California and attracted settlers.
    • Manifest Destiny: America’s purpose is to expand to the Pacific Ocean and civilize the continent
      NOTICE: Indians. What the figure has in her hand. Types of transportation. The dark.
      Painting by John Gast
    • The Industrial Revolution was a huge change from…
      farming to factory work
      living in the countryside to living in cities
      Skilled hand-work to unskilled machine work
      Growth: Wealth
      3rd Era in World History: The Industrial Revolution!
    • The Industrial Revolution…
      Began in England and spread to America.
      Required factory workers, money, and natural resources (coal and iron)
      Took place in factories with MACHINES that now did the work.
      Was mostly in the NORTHERN states.
      The ECONOMY is made up of human activity related to buying, selling, and making goods and services in a country.
    • Cotton factories in England and America needed American cotton.
      Slaves grew cotton.
      As the need for cotton grew,
      The demand for slaves grew
      The demand for cotton land increased
      The number of slaves increased
      Southern (cotton) states wanted to expand west. The South wanted new states to be slave states.
      The Industrial Revolution began with cotton factories…and slavery
    • America is a huge country, and people got around by foot, horse, and wagon. This was slow and expensive.
      At first, canals solved the problem
      Erie Canal (1825)
      Chesapeake and Ohio Canal (opened in 1831, used until 1924)
      Canals reduced the cost to send food to eastern cities, but there were too expensive to built and too slow
      Economy: The Transportation Problem
    • Railroads moved people and goods quickly and cheaply over long distances (and America was a big country)
      Invented in England
      Baltimore and Ohio Railroad (1827)
      By 1850: 9,000 miles of tracks
      By 1860: more than 30,000 miles of tracks, enough to encircle the world
      It now cost less for American farmers to ship food around the world and make $$$
      Railroads solved the problem of space.
    • Telegraphs simplified communication.
      What railroads did for things and people, the telegraph did for information.
      Used electricity to send messages over long distances.
      Invented in 1844 by Samuel Morse.
      There were 20,000 miles of telegraph wire in 1850 and 50,000 by 1860, enough to circle the earth twice.
      • Railroads created a great need for…
      • IRON for tracks and railroad cars
      • COAL to run the locomotives
      • Machines
      • Cotton created a great need for…
      • IRON for machines
      • Machines
      • All that new farm land created a new for…
      • IRON machines
      • New types of machines to take care of large farms
      Changes led to more changes.
    • Total number of people
      1790: 4 million people
      1860: 31 million people
      People in Cities
      1790: 5% (5 out of 100)
      1860: 15% (15 out of 100)
      Until 1830, there were few immigrants (people who came from other countries)
      Number of Slaves
      1790: 400,000
      1860: 4 million
      Growth: Population
    • Migration to the land of opportunity.
      In the 1840s, millions of people from Ireland came to America because of the destruction of the potato harvest.
      In the 1850s, Germans came too.
      After the Gold Rush, many Chinese came to look for gold and work on the railroads.
    • Many Americans did not like any foreigners.
      Many Americans did not like Catholics.
      Many Americans did not like non-Christians (Jews and the Chinese)
      Many Americans did not like people with darker skin (Chinese, Native Americans)
      Opposition to Migrants
    • As people moved West,
      South wanted to go West to grow more cotton
      North wanted to go West to farm and start factories
      Indians were killed or pushed west
      North and South competed to control new states
      As population increased
      Number of slaves increases, and
      People move to America from Ireland and China, and some Americans do not like them
      Not everyone benefited from changes
      Slaves
      Women
      Growth led to conflicts
    • SOUTH: Grew cotton, with slaves, for North and for England
      NORTH: Built factories and used cotton from the South
    • North or South:
      Which side should rule the country?
      Slave or Free???