From revolution to civil war

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Overview of main trends in US history from the revolution to the Civil War. Katherine Thomas School.

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  • Vocab:
    steam engine, suffrage, industry, migrate, telegraph, Alamo, Gold Rush, Lewis & Clarke, Slater, population, economy
  • From revolution to civil war

    1. 1. US History, Unit 1 Mr. Peal
    2. 2. 1. LAND ◦ The U.S. spread to the Pacific Ocean. 2. WEALTH ◦ Factories, railways, cities… 3. NUMBER OF PEOPLE, including: ◦ Great increase in number of slaves ◦ Great increase in number of immigrants from Europe
    3. 3.  Louisiana Purchase, 1803  Texas, 1845  Oregon, 1846  California, 1848  Gadsden Purchase, 1853
    4. 4.  Bought in 1803 from France  Doubled the size of the county  Explored by Merriwether Lewis and William Clark ◦ Slow and dangerous trip ◦ Cross the Rocky Mountains ◦ Reached the Pacific
    5. 5.  Indians were “removed” from Georgia because Americans wanted their land when gold discovered there.  Congress and President Andrew Jackson made Indians in Georgia and other states live west of the Mississippi.  Americans felt superior…thought they had a mission to settle the continent.
    6. 6.  Texas belonged to Spain for 300 years  Settled by Americans because of… ◦ Good land for growing cotton ◦ Large amount of land for raising cattle (cowboys!)  Before long, there were more Americans than Texans.  Conflicts between Mexicans and US settlers: ◦ Mexicans were Catholic, settlers were Protestants ◦ Americans had slaves, Mexicans didn’t like slavery ◦ Difference in language and culture made it difficult for people to get along
    7. 7. 1836: Mexicans attacked a fort called Alamo and killed all the Americans. 1845-8: War with Mexico to make Texas a state Texas became a state; allowed slavery.
    8. 8.  Oregon territory attracted families because of forests and farmland.  Settlers followed the Oregon Trail.  Included parts of Canada, Idaho, Wyoming
    9. 9.  John Sutter  Where the 49ers got their name.  Gold-diggers came from Europe, China, and the east  California grew quickly. San Francisco became a city
    10. 10. NOTICE: Indians. What the figure has in her hand. Types of transportation. The dark.Painting by John Gast
    11. 11. The Industrial Revolution was a huge change from… 1. farming to factory work 2. living in the countryside to living in cities 3. Skilled hand-work to unskilled machine work
    12. 12. 1. Began in England and spread to America. 2. Required factory workers, money, and natural resources (coal and iron) 3. Took place in factories with MACHINES that now did the work. 4. Was mostly in the NORTHERN states. The ECONOMY is made up of human activity related to buying, selling, and making goods and services in a country.
    13. 13.  Cotton factories in England and America needed American cotton.  Slaves grew cotton.  As the need for cotton grew, ◦ The demand for slaves grew ◦ The demand for cotton land increased  The number of slaves increased  Southern (cotton) states wanted to expand west. The South wanted new states to be slave states.
    14. 14.  America is a huge country, and people got around by foot, horse, and wagon. This was slow and expensive.  At first, canals solved the problem ◦ Erie Canal (1825) ◦ Chesapeake and Ohio Canal (opened in 1831, used until 1924)  Canals reduced the cost to send food to eastern cities, but there were too expensive to built and too slow
    15. 15.  Railroads moved people and goods quickly and cheaply over long distances (and America was a big country)  Invented in England  Baltimore and Ohio Railroad (1827)  By 1850: 9,000 miles of tracks  By 1860: more than 30,000 miles of tracks, enough to encircle the world  It now cost less for American farmers to ship food around the world and make $$$
    16. 16.  What railroads did for things and people, the telegraph did for information.  Used electricity to send messages over long distances.  Invented in 1844 by Samuel Morse.  There were 20,000 miles of telegraph wire in 1850 and 50,000 by 1860, enough to circle the earth twice.
    17. 17.  Railroads created a great need for… IRON for tracks and railroad cars COAL to run the locomotives Machines  Cotton created a great need for… IRON for machines Machines  All that new farm land created a new for… IRON machines New types of machines to take care of large farms
    18. 18. Total number of people  1790: 4 million people  1860: 31 million people People in Cities  1790: 5% (5 out of 100)  1860: 15% (15 out of 100)  Until 1830, there were few immigrants (people who came from other countries) Number of Slaves  1790: 400,000  1860: 4 million
    19. 19.  In the 1840s, millions of people from Ireland came to America because of the destruction of the potato harvest.  In the 1850s, Germans came too.  After the Gold Rush, many Chinese came to look for gold and work on the railroads.
    20. 20.  Many Americans did not like any foreigners.  Many Americans did not like Catholics.  Many Americans did not like non-Christians (Jews and the Chinese)  Many Americans did not like people with darker skin (Chinese, Native Americans)
    21. 21.  As people moved West, ◦ South wanted to go West to grow more cotton ◦ North wanted to go West to farm and start factories ◦ Indians were killed or pushed west ◦ North and South competed to control new states  As population increased ◦ Number of slaves increases, and ◦ People move to America from Ireland and China, and some Americans do not like them  Not everyone benefited from changes ◦ Slaves ◦ Women
    22. 22. NORTH: Built factories and used cotton from the South SOUTH: Grew cotton, with slaves, for North and for England
    23. 23. Slave or Free??? North or South: Which side should rule the country?

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