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Introduction to the middle ages, from the fall of the Roman Empire to the Crusades

Introduction to the middle ages, from the fall of the Roman Empire to the Crusades

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Europe in the middle ages blanks Europe in the middle ages blanks Presentation Transcript

  • Europe in the Middle Ages A brief introduction KTHS, Early World History Mr. Peal
  • How was Europe in the middle ages different from the rest of the world? 1. Religion: __________________. 2. Government: ________________had little power. _________________ were strong. 3. Economy (work): Just about everyone lived from _________________.
  • It all began with the Roman Empire…
  • What was the Roman Empire? 1. Religion People believed in many gods and goddesses…until the empire became Christian. 4. Ruled by an _________________ 2. Language: ______________ 3. Capital: Rome 5. Geography: Rome controlled the ___________________________ Sea, southern Europe, northern Africa, and the middle east.
  • The Roman Empire ended in 476 AD
  • Why did the Roman Empire end? Rome was weak _______________ the empire. • Army was not __________. • Empire was too _____________. • Emperors weren’t very good rulers. …so it _______into Eastern and Western Empires. West East
  • Germans Rome was weak _____________ the empire. After splitting in two (East and West), the Roman Empire was attacked by nomadic tribes from every direction. In 476 AD, the last emperor was replaced by a German warrior.
  • EARLY MIDDLE AGES (500-1000) ALSO KNOWN AS THE DARK AGES
  • After the Roman Empire, life was unsafe. 1. ___________________survived. 2. The Latin language survived, and slowly changed into the French, Italian, and Spanish languages. 3. However, life was ________________. ________became impossible. Robbers filled the roads. 4. Population declined as ______________ spread. The population of Rome fell from 450,000 (300s) to 6,000 (400 years later)!!
  • Germans settled down and formed small ________________.
  • These kingdoms England became the France countries of Spain Western Europe, such as France England and Spain
  • 1. In Western Europe… – The Roman Empire disappeared – The Roman Catholic Church became grew in power. • Based in city of _______ • Led by the ___________ • Used ____________ language
  • 2. In Eastern Europe… • The Roman Empire continued and was called the Byzantine Empire. • It followed _____________________ Christianity. • Capital city was _________________ • Used __________________language
  • In Western Europe, the ____________ was the strongest person. Below him were the bishops, who had responsibility for the cities. In villages, the __________ were responsible for many aspects of daily life.
  • CHARLEMAGNE TRIED TO UNITE WESTERN EUROPE INTO A NEW EMPIRE • Charlemagne means “Charles the Great.” He defeated other kingdoms to create an ___________. • Pope Leo crowned him “Emperor of the Romans” in the year ____________. • He brought Christianity to central Europe (where ______________is today).
  • Charlemagne: Strongest ruler of the Middle Ages Successes • Briefly created a _________________ government • Conquered new lands in central Europe • Loved ________________ • Developed common ___________to make life less dangerous Failures • Was cruel to his enemies. He cut off the heads of 4,500 Germans on a single day. • His central government was _____________ and difficult to keep together. • Like the Roman Empire, Charlemagne’s empire was weak inside and outside its borders.
  • After Charlemagne’s death, his Empire was divided among his 3 ______. It was then attacked from all directions. Vikings • ______________ from the South • ______________ from the North Muslims
  • Most dangerous were the Vikings • Vikings were ______________ who came by ship. • Vikings attacked because needed more _______. – Attacked by ship along rivers from the Baltic Sea to the Mediterranean Sea. – Settled and ____________ – Quickly became “civilized.” • Like the Germans who became Romans, Vikings became French, Russia, and English.
  • HIGH MIDDLE AGES (1000-1300)
  • • After Charlemagne died, central government fell apart and _____________ governments took their place. • There were a lot of little countries; _________________ had little power. • This was called…. Many small countries!
  • If kings were so weak, how did people stay safe? 1. KINGS gave ___________ to NOBLEs (lords) in exchange for money and an army. 2. NOBLES gave land to KNIGHTS in exchange for ______________. 3. KNIGHTS gave this land to _______________ in exchange for food and service at times of war. _________________ did all the work: They farmed in the summer and fought in the winter!
  • Daily life on the manor The ___________ was the basic unit of everyday life. It was controlled by a noble. Most people were peasants (serfs). They kept some of their crop and had to give up the rest of their crop to their lord. People lived their entire lives within the manor.
  • The village church The local ___________ was the center of community life. The ________was involved in every stage of life, from baptism to burial.
  • Changes after the year 1000 1. Improvements in _____________ 2. There was more food, so population grew. 3. Towns and _________grew larger. 4. ____________between towns increased. 5. A new group of wealthy _____________and craftsmen grew.
  • Guilds • In the growing towns, workers were organized in _________. • Each guild focused on a single craft. Shoemakers, jewelers, and carpenters all had their own guilds. Guilds made sure only skilled workers could practice a trade. • To become a _______________, young men first had to serve as an ______________________.
  • Cathedrals towered over the largest towns. They were built in the 1100s and 1200s.
  • Two Symbols of the Middle Ages The ______________ offered protection in a dangerous world. The ______________offered hope for a better life.
  • During the High Middle Ages, Christian Europe started a series of _______ with the Islamic empires of the Holy Lands. This is the area near Jerusalem where Jesus lived. The wars were called the … Crusades (click for the next presentation.)