Reservation inIndian Society Submitted by, Deep Jyoti Das CUN110501021 BBA 3’X
Reservation in Indian SocietyReservation in India is a formof affirmative action designed toimprove the well-being of backwardand under-represented communitiesdefined primarily by their caste(quota-system based on gender orreligion). Its a phenomenon thatcommenced with the coming intoforce of the Indian Constitution (theConstitution initially providedreservation to Christians, with the proviso that it would automatically reduce gradually with theefflux of time) – however, lately preferential treatment on regional basis has either been non-statutorily introduced in the educational institutes (e.g. eligibility conditions for candidates fromoutside the State are 5% higher than that for the locals, as per local rules prescribed by certainUniversities) or is being advocated in both jobs and lowly professions like auto-rickshaw-drivers.These are laws (both Constitutional and statutory) or merely local rules/regulations/practices (notderived from any Act passed by the Parliament or State-Legislature) wherein a certainpercentage of total available vacancies in educational institutes and government jobs are set asidefor people from backward communities and others. Scheduled Castes (SC), Scheduled Tribes(ST) and Other Backward Classes (OBC) are the primary beneficiaries of the reservationpolicies under the Constitution — with the object of ensuring a level playing field (withoutdefining the benchmark that determines which particular individual player has reached the saidlevel; the Supreme Courts recent concept of creamy layer requires a case-by-casedetermination as to who has ceased to deserve protection of these Laws).The reservation system has been a matter of contention ever since it was first introduced inthe British occupied India and remains a point of conflict—nay, a form of protectionism [placinga handicap upon certain communities] such as one introduced by the Mughals who levied jaziatax against the Hindu traders.
Many citizens belonging to the perceived upper classes find the reservation policy of thegovernment biased and oppose it, because they feel that it infringes their right to equality.Moreso, not everyone who comes from the underprivileged communities, supports the systemthe main argument being that it makes one feel disadvantaged. This makes the reservationsystem a controversial subject matter.Present Caste based reservation system of Union Government Category as per Government Reservation Percentage for each Category as of India per Government of IndiaTotal Reservation Percentage 52.5%Other Backward Class (OBC) 27%Scheduled Castes (SC) 15%Scheduled Tribes (ST) 7.5%Physically Disabled (PD) 3%Government funding allowing reservations in colleges/universitiesThere is a University Grants Commission (UGC) set up that provides financial assistance touniversities for the establishment of Special Cells for SC/STs. Their purpose is to helpuniversities implement the reservation policy in the student admissions and staff recruitmentprocesses at teaching and non teaching levels. They also help the SC/ST categories integrate withthe university community and remove the difficulties which they may have experienced. SC/STcells like these have been set up in 109 universities. The UCG provides financial assistance touniversities and affiliated colleges for implementation of the Special Cells. It provides theuniversities with assistance worth "Rs.1, 00,000/- per annum for: 1. Travelling Allowances & Dearness Allowances for field work 2. Data Collection 3. Analysis and evaluation of statistical data 4. New Computer and Printer (once in a plan period) The UGC provides financial assistance only up to the end of the Xth Plan period ending on 31 March 2007. The work undertaken by the SC/ST Cells is reviewed at the end of Xth plan. The Xth plan is proposed to ensure that there is an effective implementation of the reservation policy in admissions, recruitment, allotment of staff quarters, hostels, etc. Essentially, its goal is to ensure that the SC/ST Cells are established in the universities.