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Tutorial 1 - Browser Basics
 

Tutorial 1 - Browser Basics

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    Tutorial 1 - Browser Basics Tutorial 1 - Browser Basics Presentation Transcript

    • Tutorial 1 Browser Basics
    • Objectives
      • Learn about the Internet and the World Wide Web
      • Learn how Web browser software displays Web pages
      • Learn how Web page addresses are constructed
      • Become familiar with Web browsers and the main functions found in this type of software
      New Perspectives on The Internet, Seventh Edition
    • Objectives
      • Configure and use the Microsoft Internet Explorer Web browser to navigate the Web
      • Save and organize Web addresses using Internet Explorer
      • Save Web page text and graphics using Internet Explorer
      New Perspectives on The Internet, Seventh Edition
    • Objectives
      • Configure and use the Mozilla Firefox Web browser to navigate the Web
      • Save and organize Web addresses using Mozilla Firefox
      • Save Web page text and graphics using Mozilla Firefox
      New Perspectives on The Internet, Seventh Edition
    • The Internet
      • Computers connected to each other form a network
      • LAN ( local area network ): networked computers physically near each other
      • WAN ( wide area network ): networked computers not near each other
      New Perspectives on The Internet, Seventh Edition
    • The Internet
      • Interconnected network : networks connected to each other
      • Internet : a specific interconnected network that connects computers all over the world using a common set of interconnection standards
      • World Wide Web ( WWW ): subset of the computers on the Internet that use software to make their contents easily accessible to each other
      New Perspectives on The Internet, Seventh Edition
    • The World Wide Web
      • Web servers: computers connected to the Internet that contain files their owners have made available publicly through their Internet connections
      • When you use your Internet connection to become part of the Web, your computer becomes a Web client in a worldwide client/server network
      • Web browser: software that you run on your computer to make it work as a Web client
      New Perspectives on The Internet, Seventh Edition
    • Client/Server Structure of the World Wide Web New Perspectives on The Internet, Seventh Edition
    • Hypertext, Links, and Hypermedia
      • Hypertext Markup Language (HTML): standard language used on the Web to format documents
      • HTML uses codes ( tags ) to tell the Web browser software how to display text
      • HTML document : text file that contains HTML tags
      • When a Web browser displays an HTML document, it is referred to as a Web page
      New Perspectives on The Internet, Seventh Edition
    • Hypertext, Links, and Hypermedia
      • HTML anchor tag: enables Web designers to link HTML documents to each other
      • Hypertext links: can connect HTML documents together; can also connect one part of HTML document to another part
      • Hypermedia links: hyperlinks that connect to computer files that contain pictures, graphics, and media objects such as sound and video clips
      New Perspectives on The Internet, Seventh Edition
    • Hypertext, Links, and Hypermedia New Perspectives on The Internet, Seventh Edition
    • Web Site Organization
      • Web site : collection of linked Web pages with a common theme or focus
      • Home page
        • Main page for a particular Web site
        • First page that opens when you start your Web browser; sometimes called start page
        • Web page that a Web browser loads the first time you use it; also sometimes called start page
      New Perspectives on The Internet, Seventh Edition
    • Addresses on the Web
      • Internet Protocol Address (IP): unique id number given to each computer on the Web
      • Domain name: unique name associated with specific IP address by a program that runs on an Internet host computer
      • Domain Name Software (DNS): coordinates IP addresses and domain names for all computers attached to it
      • Domain name server: the host computer that runs DNS software
      • The last part of domain name is called its top-level domain (TLD)
      New Perspectives on The Internet, Seventh Edition
    • Common Top Level Domains (TLDs) New Perspectives on The Internet, Seventh Edition
    • Uniform Resource Locators
      • Four-part addressing scheme tells the Web browser:
        • Transfer protocol to use when transporting the file
        • Domain name of computer on which file resides
        • Pathname of folder or directory on computer on which file resides
        • Name of the file
      New Perspectives on The Internet, Seventh Edition
    • Uniform Resource Locators New Perspectives on The Internet, Seventh Edition Structure of a Uniform Resource Locator (URL)
    • Main Elements of Web Browsers
      • Title Bar
      • Scroll Bars
      • Status Bar
      • Menu Bar
      • Page Tab
      • Home Button
      New Perspectives on The Internet, Seventh Edition
    • Main Elements of the Internet Explorer Program Window New Perspectives on The Internet, Seventh Edition
    • Main Elements of the Firefox Program Window New Perspectives on The Internet, Seventh Edition
    • Finding Information on the Web Using Search Engines & Web Directories
      • Web Search Engines: Web pages that conduct searches of the Web to find words or expressions you enter
      • Web Directory: Web page that contains a list of Web page categories like education or recreation
        • Can narrow the results returned for a particular search
      • Web directory editors categorize the Web pages
      New Perspectives on The Internet, Seventh Edition
    • Returning to Web Pages Previously Visited
      • Using favorites and bookmarks
        • Internet Explorer - save the URL of a site you would like to revisit as a favorite in the Favorites folder
        • Firefox - use a bookmark to save the URL of a specific page so you can return to it
      • Using the History List
        • Back button
        • Forward button
      • Using Tabs
        • Page tabs can be used to quickly navigate among open pages
      New Perspectives on The Internet, Seventh Edition
    • Reloading a Web Page and Stopping a Web Page Transfer
      • The browser stores a copy of every Web page it displays on your computer’s hard drive in a cache folder
      • Use the Refresh button in IE or the Reload button in Firefox to load the same Web page that appears in the browser window again
      • Use the Stop button to halt the Web page transfer from the server
      New Perspectives on The Internet, Seventh Edition
    • Cookies
      • Cookie
        • Small file that a Web server writes to the disk of the client computer
        • Can contain information about the user such as login names and passwords
        • Assists in performing functions such as automatic login
        • User is often unaware that the files are being written to the computer’s disk drive
      New Perspectives on The Internet, Seventh Edition
    • Printing and Saving Web Pages
      • You can use a Web browser to print a Web page
      • You can save copies of most Web pages as files that you can store on your computer’s hard disk, or other storage medium
      • Some Web pages are written to make copying and saving difficult
      New Perspectives on The Internet, Seventh Edition
    • Other Web Browser Choices
      • Other Internet browsers began to make a dent in Microsoft’s dominant position in 2004
      • Security flaws in Internet Explorer were increasingly exploited by virus and worm writers
      • Organizations and individuals began to doubt reliability of a single browser
      New Perspectives on The Internet, Seventh Edition
    • Mozilla Project
      • Mosaic
        • One of the first Web browsers
        • Developed in 1990s
      • Netscape Navigator
        • First commercially successful Web browser
        • Created by Mosaic developers
        • Originally called “ Mozilla ,” short for “Mosaic killer”
      New Perspectives on The Internet, Seventh Edition
    • Mozilla Project
      • Mozilla project
        • Started in 1999 after Netscape Navigator was turned over to a non-profit organization
        • They rebuilt the browser rendering engine (the internal workings of the browser)
      • Gecko engine: browser rendering engine used in Netscape Navigator, the Mozilla browser and Mozilla Firefox
      New Perspectives on The Internet, Seventh Edition
    • Mozilla Suite
      • Combination of software applications developed by the Mozilla open source project
        • Gecko engine
        • E-mail client
        • Newsgroup client
        • HTML editor
        • Instant messaging chat client
      • Development continues today as the SeaMonkey Project
      • Time Warner’s AOL division distributes most of the Mozilla Suite as Netscape Navigator
      New Perspectives on The Internet, Seventh Edition
    • Opera
      • Started out as research project at Telenor, Norway’s state telecommunication company
      • Program code written independently and is not affected by security flaws exploited by those attacking Gecko-based browsers or IE
      • Free version available supported by advertising
      New Perspectives on The Internet, Seventh Edition
    • Opera
      • First Web browser to offer:
        • Tabbed browsing
        • Button to toggle on and off the download of images with a Web page
        • Search window that the user could configure to run searches in specific search engines automatically
      New Perspectives on The Internet, Seventh Edition
    • Opera New Perspectives on The Internet, Seventh Edition
    • Browsers for Hire: iRider
      • Internet Explorer, Firefox, SeaMonkey, and Opera are all available at no cost
      • Some browsers, such as Opera and iRider, charge a license fee
      New Perspectives on The Internet, Seventh Edition
    • iRider
      • Designed for power users
      • Can view thumbnail images of multiple open Web pages displayed in a hierarchical map called a Page List
      • Keeps all open Web pages in memory until the user deletes them
      • User can run several searches simultaneously and compare the results
      • Users can select multiple links on a page and iRider downloads the pages simultaneously
      New Perspectives on The Internet, Seventh Edition
    • iRider New Perspectives on The Internet, Seventh Edition
    • Reproducing Web Pages and Copyright Law
      • Copyright : legal right of the author or other owner of an original work to control reproduction, distribution and sale of that work
      • Laws govern the use of photocopies, audio or video recordings, and other reproductions of authors’ original work
      • Comes into existence as soon as the work is placed into tangible form
      • Exists even if the work does not contain a copyright notice
      New Perspectives on The Internet, Seventh Edition
    • Reproducing Web Pages and Copyright Law
      • Fair use is a provision that allows students to use limited amounts of copyrighted information in term papers and other reports in an academic setting
      • Source must always be cited
      • Commercial use of copyright more restricted
      • Obtain permission from copyright holder before using anything you copy from a Web page
      New Perspectives on The Internet, Seventh Edition
    • Starting Microsoft Internet Explorer
      • Click Start button on the taskbar, point to All Programs , click Internet Explorer
      New Perspectives on The Internet, Seventh Edition
    • Starting Microsoft Internet Explorer
      • The status bar at the bottom of the window includes several panels that give you information about Internet Explorer’s operations
        • Transfer progress report and graphical transfer progress indicator
        • Security settings
      New Perspectives on The Internet, Seventh Edition
    • Entering a URL in the Address Bar (IE)
      • Click at end of current text in the Address bar, then delete any unnecessary or unwanted text from the displayed URL
      • Type the URL of the location that you want to go
      • Press the Enter key to load the URL’s Web page in the browser window
      New Perspectives on The Internet, Seventh Edition
    • Navigating Web Pages Using the Mouse
      • The easiest way to move from one Web page to another is to use the mouse to click hyperlinks:
        • Click the hyperlink
        • After the new Web page has loaded, right-click the Web page’s background
        • Click Back on the shortcut menu
    • Creating a Favorite for a Web Site
      • The Favorites Center lets you store and organize a list of Web pages that you have visited so you can return to them easily
      • You can create folders to store your favorites in
      • You can easily organize your folders in a hierarchical structure even after you have stored them
      New Perspectives on The Internet, Seventh Edition
    • Creating a Favorite for a Web Site
      • Creating a New Favorites Folder:
        • Open the Web page in Internet Explorer
        • Click the Add to Favorites button, then click Add to Favorites
        • Type the title you would like to use for this Favorite in the Name text box (most Web pages will place text that describes the page in the Name text box; you can edit or replace that text)
        • Click the New Folder button
        • Type the name of the new folder in the Folder name text box, and then click the Create button
        • Click the Add button
    • Creating a Favorite for a Web Site
      • Move an Existing Favorite into a New Folder:
        • Click the Favorites Center button
        • Right-click the folder in which you want to add the new folder and click the Create New Folder command to display a new folder in the Favorites Center window
        • Type the name of the new folder, and then press the Enter key
        • Drag the favorite that you want to move into the new folder
    • Changing the Default Home Page in Internet Explorer
      • Click the Tools button on the Command toolbar, and then click Internet Options
      • Click the General tab in the Internet Options dialog box
      • Select whether you want Internet Explorer to open with the current page, its default page, or a blank page by clicking the corresponding button in the Home page section of the Internet Options dialog box
      • To specify a home page, type the URL of that Web page in the Home page list box. If you want multiple Home pages to open on separate tabs, type the URL for each home page on separate lines in the Home Page list box
      • Click the OK button
      New Perspectives on The Internet, Seventh Edition
    • Using Page Tabs to Navigate in Internet Explorer
      • Open pages by right-clicking hyperlinks and selecting Open in New Tab on the shortcut menu
      • Click the page tabs to move among open Web pages
      New Perspectives on The Internet, Seventh Edition
    • Printing a Web Page (IE)
      • Click the Print button on the Command bar, and then click Print to print the current Web page with the default print settings
      • Or
      • Click the Print Button arrow on the Command bar, and then click Print to open the Print dialog box
      • In the Print dialog box, select the printer you want to use, and then indicate the pages you want to print and the number of copies you want to make of each page
      • To print a range of pages, click the Pages option button, then type the first page of the range, type a hyphen, and then type the last page of the range
      • Click the Print button
      New Perspectives on The Internet, Seventh Edition
    • Checking Web Page Security (IE)
      • Encryption is a way of scrambling and encoding data transmissions that reduces the risk that a person who intercepts the Web page as it travels across the Internet will be able to decode and read the page’s contents
      • A certification authority is a company that attests to a Web site’s legitimacy
      New Perspectives on The Internet, Seventh Edition
    • Getting Help in Internet Explorer New Perspectives on The Internet, Seventh Edition
    • Using Internet Explorer to Save a Web Page
      • You can save entire Web pages, selected portions of Web page text, or particular graphics from a Web page to a disk
      • You can save portions of Web page text so you can use it in other programs
      • You can save a graphic from a Web page by right-clicking on the picture and clicking Save Picture As
      New Perspectives on The Internet, Seventh Edition
    • Starting Mozilla Firefox
      • Click Start button on the taskbar, point to All Programs , point to Mozilla , and then click Firefox
      New Perspectives on The Internet, Seventh Edition
    • Using the Navigation Toolbar (Firefox)
      • The Navigation toolbar includes buttons that execute frequently used commands for browsing the Web
      • You can use the Location bar to enter URLs directly into Firefox
      • The Navigation toolbar has a search bar that allows users to type a search term that Firefox sends to the user’s choice of search engines and Web directories
      New Perspectives on The Internet, Seventh Edition
    • Using the Navigation Toolbar (Firefox) New Perspectives on The Internet, Seventh Edition Firefox Navigation Toolbar
    • Using the Location Bar (Firefox)
      • Click at end of current text in the Location field, then delete any unnecessary or unwanted text from the displayed URL
      • Type the URL of the location that you want to go
      • Press the Enter key to load the URL’s Web page in the browser window
      New Perspectives on The Internet, Seventh Edition
    • Hyperlink Navigation Using the Mouse (Firefox)
      • The easiest way to move from one Web page to another is to use the mouse to click hyperlinks:
        • Click the hyperlink
        • After the new Web page has loaded, right-click the Web page’s background
        • Click Back on the shortcut menu
    • Creating a Bookmark for a Web Site
      • You use the bookmark feature to store and organize a list of Web pages that you have visited so that you can return to them easily
      • You can create folders to store your bookmarks
      • You can easily organize your folders in a hierarchical structure
      • You can save your bookmark file on a disk so you can use your bookmarks at another computer
      New Perspectives on The Internet, Seventh Edition
    • Creating a Bookmark for a Web Site
      • Creating a Bookmarks Folder:
        • Click Bookmarks on the menu bar, and then click Organize Bookmarks
        • If the Bookmarks entry in the left pane of the Bookmarks Manager window is not highlighted, click it, and then click the New Folder button
        • Delete the default text in the Name text box, and then type a new folder name
        • Click the OK button
    • Creating a Bookmark for a Web Site
      • Saving a Bookmark in a Bookmarks Folder:
        • Open the page that you want to bookmark in Firefox
        • Click Bookmarks on the menu bar, and then click Bookmark This Page
        • Type a descriptive name in the Name box (or leave the default name for the page as is)
        • Select the folder in which you want to save the bookmark
        • Click the OK button
    • Creating a Bookmark for a Web Site
      • Saving a Bookmark File to a Disk:
        • Click Bookmarks on the menu bar, and then click Organize Bookmarks
        • Click File on the menu bar, and then click Export
        • Select the drive and folder into which you want to save the bookmark file
        • Type a name for the bookmark file
        • Click the Save button
      New Perspectives on The Internet, Seventh Edition
    • Printing a Web Page (Firefox)
      • The Print command on the File menu lets you print the current Web frame or page
      • Scale option is extremely useful for saving paper when printing long Web pages
      • To preview pages before printing them Select Print Preview from the File menu
      New Perspectives on The Internet, Seventh Edition
    • Managing Cookies (Firefox)
      • Click Tools on the menu bar, and then click Options to open the Options dialog box
      • Click the Privacy icon to display options for managing privacy issues, and then click the Show Cookies button to open the Cookies dialog box
      • Select a Web site folder, and click the plus sign to the left of the folder You can then click one of the cookies placed on your computer by that Web site and read the information about that cookie. The cookie information is displayed in the bottom half of the dialog box
      • Select the cookie that you want to delete, and then click the Remove Cookie button
      • Click the OK button
      New Perspectives on The Internet, Seventh Edition
    • Getting Help in Firefox New Perspectives on The Internet, Seventh Edition
    • Using Firefox to Save a Web Page
      • You can store entire Web pages, selected portions of Web page text, or particular graphics from a Web page to a disk
      • You can save portions of Web page text so you can use it in other programs
      • You can save a graphic from a Web page by right-clicking on the picture and clicking Save Image As
      New Perspectives on The Internet, Seventh Edition
    • Summary
      • Web pages and Web sites make up the World Wide Web
      • Web uses a client/server structure in which Web server computers make Web page files available to Web client computers that are running Web browser software
      • Each server computer on the Internet has an IP address that is mapped to a domain name
      • Domain name plus the Web page filename make up the Uniform Resource Locator (URL)
      New Perspectives on The Internet, Seventh Edition
    • Summary
      • All Web browsers have the same basic elements and can be used to explore the Web in similar ways
      • Web browsers display Web pages and maintain a history list that can be used to find pages previously visited
      • Web browsers allow users to print and save Web pages and elements of Web pages
      • Web browsers are currently available at no or low cost
      New Perspectives on The Internet, Seventh Edition
    • Summary
      • The two most widely used Web browsers are:
        • Internet Explorer
        • Firefox
      New Perspectives on The Internet, Seventh Edition