Internet Tutorial 01

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  • Patches(KB960714) MS08-078 of Microsoft Internet Explorer

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    Patches(KB960714) MS08-078 of Microsoft Internet Explorer

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Internet Tutorial 01

  1. 1. Browser Basics Introduction to the Web and Web Browser Software Tutorial 1
  2. 2. Objectives <ul><li>Learn about the Internet and the World Wide Web. </li></ul><ul><li>Learn how Web browser software displays Web pages. </li></ul><ul><li>Learn how Web page addresses are constructed. </li></ul><ul><li>Become familiar with the main functions common to all Web browsers. </li></ul>
  3. 3. Objectives <ul><li>Configure and use the Microsoft Internet Explorer Web browser to navigate the Web. </li></ul><ul><li>Save and organize Web addresses using Internet Explorer. </li></ul><ul><li>Save Web page text and graphics using Internet Explorer. </li></ul>
  4. 4. Objectives <ul><li>Configure and use the Mozilla Firefox Web browser to navigate the Web. </li></ul><ul><li>Save and organize Web addresses using Mozilla Firefox. </li></ul><ul><li>Save Web page text and graphics using Mozilla Firefox. </li></ul>
  5. 5. The Internet <ul><li>Computers connected to each other form a network . </li></ul><ul><li>LAN ( local area network ): Networked computers physically near each other. </li></ul><ul><li>WAN ( wide area network ): Networked computers not near each other. </li></ul>
  6. 6. The Internet <ul><li>internet : networks connected to each other </li></ul><ul><li>Internet : a specific internet that connects computers all over the world using a common set of interconnection standards. </li></ul><ul><li>World Wide Web ( WWW ): a subset of the computers on the Internet that use software to make their contents easily accessible to each other. </li></ul>
  7. 7. The World Wide Web <ul><li>Web servers: Computers connected to the Internet that contain files their owners have made available publicly through their Internet connections. </li></ul><ul><li>When you use your Internet connection to become part of the Web, your computer becomes a Web client in a worldwide client/server network. </li></ul><ul><li>Web browser: software that you run on your computer to make it work as a Web client. </li></ul>
  8. 8. Client/Server Structure of the World Wide Web New Perspectives on The Internet, Sixth Edition—Comprehensive Tutorial 1
  9. 9. Hypertext, Links, and Hypermedia <ul><li>Hypertext Markup Language (HTML): standard language used on the Web to format documents. </li></ul><ul><li>HTML uses codes ( tags ) to tell the Web browser software how to display text. </li></ul><ul><li>HTML document : a text file that contains HTML tags. </li></ul><ul><li>When a Web browser displays an HTML document, it is referred to as a Web page . </li></ul>
  10. 10. Hypertext, Links, and Hypermedia <ul><li>HTML anchor tag: enables Web designers to link HTML documents to each other. </li></ul><ul><li>Hypertext links: can connect HTML documents together; can also connect one part of HTML document to another part. </li></ul><ul><li>Hypermedia links: hyperlinks that connect to computer files that contain pictures, graphics, and media objects such as sound and video clips. </li></ul>
  11. 11. Hypertext, Links, and Hypermedia New Perspectives on The Internet, Sixth Edition—Comprehensive Tutorial 1
  12. 12. Web Site Organization <ul><li>Web site : a collection of linked Web pages with a common theme or focus. </li></ul><ul><li>Home page </li></ul><ul><ul><li>the main page for a particular Web site. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>the first page that opens when you start your Web browser; sometimes called start page . </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>the Web page that a Web browser loads the first time you use it; also sometimes called start page . </li></ul></ul>
  13. 13. Addresses on the Web <ul><li>Internet Protocol Address (IP): unique id number given to each computer on the Web. </li></ul><ul><li>Domain name: unique name associated with specific IP address by a program that runs on an Internet host computer. </li></ul><ul><li>Domain Name Software (DNS): coordinates IP addresses and domain names for all computers attached to it. </li></ul><ul><li>Domain name server: the host computer that runs DNS software. </li></ul><ul><li>The last part of domain name is called its top-level domain (TLD). </li></ul>
  14. 14. Common Top Level Domains (TLDs) New Perspectives on The Internet, Sixth Edition—Comprehensive Tutorial 1
  15. 15. Uniform Resource Locators <ul><li>Four-part addressing scheme tells the Web browser: </li></ul><ul><li>Transfer protocol to use when transporting the file. </li></ul><ul><li>Domain name of computer on which file resides. </li></ul><ul><li>Pathname of folder or directory on computer on which file resides. </li></ul><ul><li>Name of the file. </li></ul>
  16. 16. Uniform Resource Locators Structure of a Uniform Resource Locator (URL)
  17. 17. Main Elements of Web Browsers <ul><li>Title Bar </li></ul><ul><li>Scroll Bars </li></ul><ul><li>Status Bar </li></ul><ul><li>Menu Bar </li></ul><ul><li>Page Tab </li></ul><ul><li>Home Button </li></ul>
  18. 18. Main Elements of the Internet Explorer Program Window New Perspectives on The Internet, Sixth Edition—Comprehensive Tutorial 1
  19. 19. Main Elements of the Firefox Program Window New Perspectives on The Internet, Sixth Edition—Comprehensive Tutorial 1
  20. 20. Finding Information on the Web Using Search Engines & Web Directories <ul><li>Web Search Engines: Web pages that conduct searches of the Web to find words or expressions you enter. </li></ul><ul><li>Web Directory: a Web page that contains a list of Web page categories like education or recreation. Can narrow the results returned for a particular search. </li></ul><ul><li>Web directory editors categorize the Web pages. </li></ul>
  21. 21. Returning to Web Pages Previously Visited <ul><li>Using favorites and bookmarks </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Internet Explorer - save the URL of a site you would like to revisit as a favorite in the Favorites folder. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Firefox - use a bookmark to save the URL of a specific page so you can return to it. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Using the History List </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Back button </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Forward button </li></ul></ul>
  22. 22. Returning to Web Pages Previously Visited <ul><li>Cookie </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A small file that a Web server writes to the disk of the client computer. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Can contain information about the user such as login names and passwords. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Assists in performing functions such as automatic login. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>User is often unaware that the files are being written to the computer’s disk drive. </li></ul></ul>
  23. 23. Reloading a Web Page and Stopping a Web Page Transfer <ul><li>The browser stores a copy of every Web page it displays on your computer’s hard drive in a cache folder. </li></ul><ul><li>Use the Refresh button in IE or the Reload button in Firefox to load the same Web page that appears in the browser window again. </li></ul><ul><li>Use the Stop button to halt the Web page transfer from the server. </li></ul>
  24. 24. Printing and Saving Web Pages <ul><li>You can use a Web browser to print a Web page. </li></ul><ul><li>You can save copies of most Web pages as files that you can store on your computer’s hard disk, floppy disk, etc. </li></ul><ul><li>Some Web pages are written to make copying and saving difficult or impossible. </li></ul>
  25. 25. Examining Additional Web Browser Choices <ul><li>Other Internet browsers began to make a dent in Microsoft’s dominant position in 2004. </li></ul><ul><li>Security flaws in Internet Explorer were increasingly exploited by virus and worm writers. </li></ul><ul><li>Organizations and individuals began to doubt reliability of a single browser. </li></ul>
  26. 26. Mozilla Project <ul><li>Mosaic </li></ul><ul><ul><li>One of the first Web browsers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Developed in 1990s </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Netscape Navigator </li></ul><ul><ul><li>First commercially successful Web browser </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Created by Mosaic developers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Originally called “ Mozilla ,” short for “Mosaic killer” </li></ul></ul>
  27. 27. Mozilla Project <ul><li>Mozilla project </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Started in 1999 after Netscape Navigator was turned over to a non-profit organization </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>They rebuilt the b rowser rendering engine (the internal workings of the browser) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Gecko engine: browser rendering engine used in Netscape Navigator, the Mozilla browser and Mozilla Firefox. </li></ul>
  28. 28. Mozilla Suite <ul><li>A combination of software applications developed by the Mozilla open source project. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Web browser </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>E-mail client and newsreader – Mozilla Messenger </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>HTML editor – Mozilla Composer </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Instant messaging chat client – ChatZilla </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Time Warner’s AOL division distributes most of the Mozilla Suite as Netscape Navigator. </li></ul>
  29. 29. Browsers for Hire: Opera and iRider <ul><li>Internet Explorer, Navigator, Mozilla, and Firefox are all available at no cost. </li></ul><ul><li>Some browsers, such as Opera and iRider, charge a license fee </li></ul>
  30. 30. Opera <ul><li>Started out as research project at Telenor, Norway’s state telecommunication company. </li></ul><ul><li>Program code written independently and is not affected by security flaws exploited by those attacking Gecko-based browsers or IE. </li></ul><ul><li>Free version available supported by advertising. </li></ul>
  31. 31. Opera <ul><li>First Web browser to offer: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>tabbed browsing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>button to toggle on and off the download of images with a Web page </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>a search window that the user could configure to run searches in specific search engines automatically. </li></ul></ul>
  32. 32. Opera for Mobile <ul><li>Gives mobile device users a fully functional Web browser. </li></ul><ul><li>Users can view any Web site (not just those designed to display on mobile devices) using a mobile phone, PDA, or similar device. </li></ul>
  33. 33. Opera Web Browser Main Screen New Perspectives on The Internet, Sixth Edition—Comprehensive Tutorial 1
  34. 34. iRider <ul><li>Designed for power users. </li></ul><ul><li>Can view thumbnail images of multiple open Web pages displayed in a hierarchical map called a Page List. </li></ul><ul><li>Keeps all open Web pages in memory until the user deletes them. </li></ul><ul><li>User can run several searches simultaneously and compare the results. </li></ul><ul><li>Users can select multiple links on a page and iRider downloads the pages simultaneously. </li></ul>
  35. 35. Multiple Searches in the iRider Web Browser Hierarchy of thumbnail images (one for each Web page visited). New Perspectives on The Internet, Sixth Edition—Comprehensive Tutorial 1
  36. 36. Reproducing Web Pages and Copyright Law <ul><li>Copyright : Legal right of the author or other owner of an original work to control reproduction, distribution and sale of that work. </li></ul><ul><li>Laws govern the use of photocopies, audio or video recordings, and other reproductions of authors’ original work. </li></ul><ul><li>Comes into existence as soon as the work is placed into tangible form. </li></ul><ul><li>Exists even if the work does not contain a copyright notice. </li></ul>
  37. 37. Reproducing Web Pages and Copyright Law <ul><li>Fair use is a provision that allows students to use limited amounts of copyrighted information in term papers and other reports in an academic setting. </li></ul><ul><li>Source must always be cited. </li></ul><ul><li>Commercial use of copyright more restricted. </li></ul><ul><li>Obtain permission from copyright holder before using anything you copy from a Web page. </li></ul>
  38. 38. Starting Microsoft Internet Explorer <ul><li>Click Start button on the taskbar, point to All Programs , click Internet Explorer . </li></ul><ul><li>The Standard Buttons toolbar has a number of buttons that execute frequently used commands for browsing. </li></ul>
  39. 39. Starting Microsoft Internet Explorer <ul><li>The status bar at the bottom of the window includes several panels that give you information about Internet Explorer’s operations. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Transfer progress report & graphical transfer progress indicator </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Security zone </li></ul></ul>
  40. 40. Entering a URL in the Address Bar (IE) <ul><li>Click at end of current text in the Address bar, then delete any unnecessary or unwanted text from the displayed URL. </li></ul><ul><li>Type the URL of the location that you want to go. </li></ul><ul><li>Press the Enter key to load the URL’s Web page in the browser window. </li></ul>
  41. 41. Hyperlink Navigation Using the Mouse (IE) <ul><li>The easiest way to move from one Web page to another is to use the mouse to click hyperlinks: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Click the hyperlink </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>After the new Web page has loaded, right-click the Web page’s background </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Click Back on the shortcut menu </li></ul></ul>
  42. 42. Creating a Favorite for a Web Site <ul><li>The Favorites List lets you store and organize a list of Web pages that you have visited so you can return to them easily. </li></ul><ul><li>You can create folders to store your favorites in. </li></ul><ul><li>You can easily organize your folders in a hierarchical structure even after you have stored them. </li></ul>
  43. 43. Creating a Favorite for a Web Site <ul><li>Creating a Favorites Folder: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Click the Favorites button on the Standard Buttons toolbar. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Click the Add button in the Favorites bar (or click Favorites on the menu bar, and then click Add to Favorites ). </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>If necessary, click the Create in button. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Click the Favorites folder, and then click the New Folder button. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Type the name of the new folder in the Folder name text box, and then click the OK button. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Click the OK button. </li></ul></ul>
  44. 44. Creating a Favorite for a Web Site <ul><li>Move an Existing Favorite into a New Folder: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Click Favorites on the menu bar, and then click Organize Favorites , or click the Organize button in the Favorites bar. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Click the folder under which you want to add the new folder. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Click the Create Folder button. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Type the name of the new folder, and then press the Enter key. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Click the Close button. </li></ul></ul>
  45. 45. Returning to Previously Viewed Web Pages (IE) <ul><li>The Back and Forward buttons on the Standard Buttons toolbar and the Back and Forward options on the shortcut menu enable you to move to and from previously visited pages. </li></ul><ul><li>To see where you have been during a session, open the history list by clicking the History button on the Standards Buttons toolbar. </li></ul><ul><li>The Refresh button on the Standard Buttons toolbar loads a new copy of the Web page that currently appears in the browser window. </li></ul><ul><li>The Home button on the Standard Buttons toolbar displays the home (or start) page for your copy of Internet Explorer. </li></ul>
  46. 46. Printing a Web Page (IE) <ul><li>The Print button on the Standard Buttons toolbar and the Print command on the File menu let you print the current Web frame or page. </li></ul><ul><li>When printing long Web pages, a print option that is extremely useful for saving paper is to reduce the font size of the Web pages before you print them. </li></ul><ul><li>To preview pages before they print them. Select Print Preview from the File menu. </li></ul>
  47. 47. Checking Web Page Security (IE) <ul><li>A closed padlock symbol ( security indicator button ) appears in the status bar when Internet Explorer loads an encrypted Web page. </li></ul><ul><li>Encryption is a way of scrambling and encoding data transmissions that reduces the risk that a person who intercepts the Web page as it travels across the Internet will be able to decode and read the page’s contents. </li></ul><ul><li>To check some of the security elements of a Web page, </li></ul><ul><ul><li>double-click the security indicator button </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>click File , Properties , and then click the Certificates button </li></ul></ul>
  48. 48. Getting Help in Internet Explorer New Perspectives on The Internet, Sixth Edition—Comprehensive Tutorial 1
  49. 49. Using Internet Explorer to Save a Web Page <ul><li>You can save entire Web pages, selected portions of Web page text, or particular graphics from a Web page to a disk. </li></ul><ul><li>You can save portions of Web page text so you can use it in other programs. </li></ul><ul><li>You can save a graphic from a Web page by right-clicking on the picture and clicking Save Picture As . </li></ul>
  50. 50. Starting Mozilla Firefox Click Start button on the taskbar, point to All Programs , point to Mozilla , and then click Firefox . New Perspectives on The Internet, Sixth Edition—Comprehensive Tutorial 1
  51. 51. Using the Navigation Toolbar (Firefox) <ul><li>The Navigation toolbar includes buttons that execute frequently used commands for browsing the Web. </li></ul><ul><li>You can use the Location bar to enter URLs directly into Firefox. </li></ul><ul><li>The Navigation toolbar has a search bar that allows users to type a search term that Firefox sends to the user’s choice of search engines and Web directories. </li></ul>
  52. 52. Using the Navigation Toolbar (Firefox) Firefox Navigation Toolbar
  53. 53. Using the Location Bar (Firefox) <ul><li>Click at end of current text in the Location field, then delete any unnecessary or unwanted text from the displayed URL. </li></ul><ul><li>Type the URL of the location that you want to go. </li></ul><ul><li>Press the Enter key to load the URL’s Web page in the browser window. </li></ul>
  54. 54. Hyperlink Navigation Using the Mouse (Firefox) <ul><li>The easiest way to move from one Web page to another is to use the mouse to click hyperlinks: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Click the hyperlink </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>After the new Web page has loaded, right-click the Web page’s background </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Click Back on the shortcut menu </li></ul></ul>
  55. 55. Creating a Bookmark for a Web Site <ul><li>You use the bookmark feature to store and organize a list of Web pages that you have visited so that you can return to them easily. </li></ul><ul><li>You can create folders to store your bookmarks in. </li></ul><ul><li>You can easily organize your folders in a hierarchical structure. </li></ul><ul><li>You can save your bookmark file on a disk so you can use your bookmarks at another computer. </li></ul>
  56. 56. Creating a Bookmark for a Web Site <ul><li>Creating a Bookmarks Folder: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Click Bookmarks on the menu bar, and then click Manage Bookmarks . </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Click the New Folder button with Bookmarks in the left pane of the Bookmarks Manager window highlighted. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Delete the default text in the Name text box, and then type a new folder name. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Click the OK button. </li></ul></ul>
  57. 57. Creating a Bookmark for a Web Site <ul><li>Saving a Bookmark in a Bookmarks Folder: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Open the page that you want to bookmark in Firefox. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Click Bookmarks on the menu bar, and then click Bookmark This Page . </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Type a descriptive name in the box. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Select the folder in which you want to save the bookmark. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Click the OK button. </li></ul></ul>
  58. 58. Creating a Bookmark for a Web Site <ul><li>Saving a Bookmark File to a Disk: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Click Bookmarks on the menu bar, and then click Manage Bookmarks . </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Click File on the menu bar, and then click Export . </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Select the drive and folder into which you want to save the bookmark file. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Type a name for the bookmark file. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Click the Save button. </li></ul></ul>
  59. 59. Returning to Pages Previously Visited (Firefox) <ul><li>The Back and Forward buttons on the Navigation toolbar and the Back and Forward options on the shortcut menu enable you to move to and from recently visited pages. </li></ul><ul><li>To see where you have been during a session, open the history list by clicking the Go on the menu bar, and then clicking History . </li></ul><ul><li>The Reload button on the Navigation toolbar loads a new copy of the Web page that currently appears in the browser window. </li></ul><ul><li>The Home button on the Navigation toolbar displays the home (or start) page for your copy of Firefox. </li></ul>
  60. 60. Printing a Web Page (Firefox) <ul><li>The Print command on the File menu lets you print the current Web frame or page. </li></ul><ul><li>When printing long Web pages, a print option that is extremely useful for saving paper is the Scale option. </li></ul><ul><li>To preview pages before they print them. Select Print Preview from the File menu. </li></ul>
  61. 61. Checking Web Page Security (Firefox) <ul><li>A closed padlock symbol (the security indicator button ) appears in the status bar when Firefox loads an encrypted Web page. </li></ul><ul><li>Encryption is a way of scrambling and encoding data transmissions that reduces the risk that a person who intercepts the Web page as it travels across the Internet will be able to decode and read the page’s contents. </li></ul><ul><li>To check some of the security elements of a Web page, </li></ul><ul><ul><li>double-click the security indicator button </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>click Tools , Page Info , and then click the Security tab </li></ul></ul>
  62. 62. Managing Cookies (Firefox) <ul><li>Firefox stores all cookies in one file and gives users a tool to manage that file. </li></ul><ul><li>Click Tools on the menu bar, click Options , click the plus sign next to Cookies. </li></ul><ul><li>Click the View Cookies button to view individual cookies. </li></ul><ul><li>Select a cookie, and then click the Remove Cookie button to delete it. </li></ul><ul><li>To delete all cookies that have been stored on your computer, click the Remove All Cookies button. </li></ul>
  63. 63. Getting Help in Firefox New Perspectives on The Internet, Sixth Edition—Comprehensive Tutorial 1
  64. 64. Using Firefox to Save a Web Page <ul><li>You can store entire Web pages, selected portions of Web page text, or particular graphics from a Web page to a disk. </li></ul><ul><li>You can save portions of Web page text so you can use it in other programs. </li></ul><ul><li>You can save a graphic from a Web page by right-clicking on the picture and clicking Save Image As . </li></ul>
  65. 65. Summary <ul><li>Web pages and Web sites make up the World Wide Web. </li></ul><ul><li>The Web uses a client/server structure in which Web server computers make Web page files available to Web client computers that are running Web browser software. </li></ul><ul><li>Each server computer on the Internet has an IP address that is mapped to a domain name. </li></ul><ul><li>The domain name plus the Web page filename make up the Uniform Resource Locator (URL). </li></ul>
  66. 66. Summary <ul><li>All Web browsers have the same basic elements and can be used to explore the Web in similar ways. </li></ul><ul><li>Web browsers display Web pages and maintain a history list that can be used to find pages previously visited. </li></ul><ul><li>Web browsers allow users to print and save Web pages and elements of Web pages. </li></ul><ul><li>Web browsers are currently available at no or low cost. </li></ul>
  67. 67. Summary <ul><li>The two most widely used Web browsers are </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Internet Explorer </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Firefox </li></ul></ul>

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