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Internet Tutorial 01 Presentation Transcript

  • 1. Browser Basics Introduction to the Web and Web Browser Software Tutorial 1
  • 2. Objectives
    • Learn about the Internet and the World Wide Web.
    • Learn how Web browser software displays Web pages.
    • Learn how Web page addresses are constructed.
    • Become familiar with the main functions common to all Web browsers.
  • 3. Objectives
    • Configure and use the Microsoft Internet Explorer Web browser to navigate the Web.
    • Save and organize Web addresses using Internet Explorer.
    • Save Web page text and graphics using Internet Explorer.
  • 4. Objectives
    • Configure and use the Mozilla Firefox Web browser to navigate the Web.
    • Save and organize Web addresses using Mozilla Firefox.
    • Save Web page text and graphics using Mozilla Firefox.
  • 5. The Internet
    • Computers connected to each other form a network .
    • LAN ( local area network ): Networked computers physically near each other.
    • WAN ( wide area network ): Networked computers not near each other.
  • 6. The Internet
    • internet : networks connected to each other
    • Internet : a specific internet that connects computers all over the world using a common set of interconnection standards.
    • World Wide Web ( WWW ): a subset of the computers on the Internet that use software to make their contents easily accessible to each other.
  • 7. The World Wide Web
    • Web servers: Computers connected to the Internet that contain files their owners have made available publicly through their Internet connections.
    • When you use your Internet connection to become part of the Web, your computer becomes a Web client in a worldwide client/server network.
    • Web browser: software that you run on your computer to make it work as a Web client.
  • 8. Client/Server Structure of the World Wide Web New Perspectives on The Internet, Sixth Edition—Comprehensive Tutorial 1
  • 9. Hypertext, Links, and Hypermedia
    • Hypertext Markup Language (HTML): standard language used on the Web to format documents.
    • HTML uses codes ( tags ) to tell the Web browser software how to display text.
    • HTML document : a text file that contains HTML tags.
    • When a Web browser displays an HTML document, it is referred to as a Web page .
  • 10. Hypertext, Links, and Hypermedia
    • HTML anchor tag: enables Web designers to link HTML documents to each other.
    • Hypertext links: can connect HTML documents together; can also connect one part of HTML document to another part.
    • Hypermedia links: hyperlinks that connect to computer files that contain pictures, graphics, and media objects such as sound and video clips.
  • 11. Hypertext, Links, and Hypermedia New Perspectives on The Internet, Sixth Edition—Comprehensive Tutorial 1
  • 12. Web Site Organization
    • Web site : a collection of linked Web pages with a common theme or focus.
    • Home page
      • the main page for a particular Web site.
      • the first page that opens when you start your Web browser; sometimes called start page .
      • the Web page that a Web browser loads the first time you use it; also sometimes called start page .
  • 13. Addresses on the Web
    • Internet Protocol Address (IP): unique id number given to each computer on the Web.
    • Domain name: unique name associated with specific IP address by a program that runs on an Internet host computer.
    • Domain Name Software (DNS): coordinates IP addresses and domain names for all computers attached to it.
    • Domain name server: the host computer that runs DNS software.
    • The last part of domain name is called its top-level domain (TLD).
  • 14. Common Top Level Domains (TLDs) New Perspectives on The Internet, Sixth Edition—Comprehensive Tutorial 1
  • 15. Uniform Resource Locators
    • Four-part addressing scheme tells the Web browser:
    • Transfer protocol to use when transporting the file.
    • Domain name of computer on which file resides.
    • Pathname of folder or directory on computer on which file resides.
    • Name of the file.
  • 16. Uniform Resource Locators Structure of a Uniform Resource Locator (URL)
  • 17. Main Elements of Web Browsers
    • Title Bar
    • Scroll Bars
    • Status Bar
    • Menu Bar
    • Page Tab
    • Home Button
  • 18. Main Elements of the Internet Explorer Program Window New Perspectives on The Internet, Sixth Edition—Comprehensive Tutorial 1
  • 19. Main Elements of the Firefox Program Window New Perspectives on The Internet, Sixth Edition—Comprehensive Tutorial 1
  • 20. Finding Information on the Web Using Search Engines & Web Directories
    • Web Search Engines: Web pages that conduct searches of the Web to find words or expressions you enter.
    • Web Directory: a Web page that contains a list of Web page categories like education or recreation. Can narrow the results returned for a particular search.
    • Web directory editors categorize the Web pages.
  • 21. Returning to Web Pages Previously Visited
    • Using favorites and bookmarks
      • Internet Explorer - save the URL of a site you would like to revisit as a favorite in the Favorites folder.
      • Firefox - use a bookmark to save the URL of a specific page so you can return to it.
    • Using the History List
      • Back button
      • Forward button
  • 22. Returning to Web Pages Previously Visited
    • Cookie
      • A small file that a Web server writes to the disk of the client computer.
      • Can contain information about the user such as login names and passwords.
      • Assists in performing functions such as automatic login.
      • User is often unaware that the files are being written to the computer’s disk drive.
  • 23. Reloading a Web Page and Stopping a Web Page Transfer
    • The browser stores a copy of every Web page it displays on your computer’s hard drive in a cache folder.
    • Use the Refresh button in IE or the Reload button in Firefox to load the same Web page that appears in the browser window again.
    • Use the Stop button to halt the Web page transfer from the server.
  • 24. Printing and Saving Web Pages
    • You can use a Web browser to print a Web page.
    • You can save copies of most Web pages as files that you can store on your computer’s hard disk, floppy disk, etc.
    • Some Web pages are written to make copying and saving difficult or impossible.
  • 25. Examining Additional Web Browser Choices
    • Other Internet browsers began to make a dent in Microsoft’s dominant position in 2004.
    • Security flaws in Internet Explorer were increasingly exploited by virus and worm writers.
    • Organizations and individuals began to doubt reliability of a single browser.
  • 26. Mozilla Project
    • Mosaic
      • One of the first Web browsers
      • Developed in 1990s
    • Netscape Navigator
      • First commercially successful Web browser
      • Created by Mosaic developers
      • Originally called “ Mozilla ,” short for “Mosaic killer”
  • 27. Mozilla Project
    • Mozilla project
      • Started in 1999 after Netscape Navigator was turned over to a non-profit organization
      • They rebuilt the b rowser rendering engine (the internal workings of the browser)
    • Gecko engine: browser rendering engine used in Netscape Navigator, the Mozilla browser and Mozilla Firefox.
  • 28. Mozilla Suite
    • A combination of software applications developed by the Mozilla open source project.
      • Web browser
      • E-mail client and newsreader – Mozilla Messenger
      • HTML editor – Mozilla Composer
      • Instant messaging chat client – ChatZilla
    • Time Warner’s AOL division distributes most of the Mozilla Suite as Netscape Navigator.
  • 29. Browsers for Hire: Opera and iRider
    • Internet Explorer, Navigator, Mozilla, and Firefox are all available at no cost.
    • Some browsers, such as Opera and iRider, charge a license fee
  • 30. Opera
    • Started out as research project at Telenor, Norway’s state telecommunication company.
    • Program code written independently and is not affected by security flaws exploited by those attacking Gecko-based browsers or IE.
    • Free version available supported by advertising.
  • 31. Opera
    • First Web browser to offer:
      • tabbed browsing
      • button to toggle on and off the download of images with a Web page
      • a search window that the user could configure to run searches in specific search engines automatically.
  • 32. Opera for Mobile
    • Gives mobile device users a fully functional Web browser.
    • Users can view any Web site (not just those designed to display on mobile devices) using a mobile phone, PDA, or similar device.
  • 33. Opera Web Browser Main Screen New Perspectives on The Internet, Sixth Edition—Comprehensive Tutorial 1
  • 34. iRider
    • Designed for power users.
    • Can view thumbnail images of multiple open Web pages displayed in a hierarchical map called a Page List.
    • Keeps all open Web pages in memory until the user deletes them.
    • User can run several searches simultaneously and compare the results.
    • Users can select multiple links on a page and iRider downloads the pages simultaneously.
  • 35. Multiple Searches in the iRider Web Browser Hierarchy of thumbnail images (one for each Web page visited). New Perspectives on The Internet, Sixth Edition—Comprehensive Tutorial 1
  • 36. Reproducing Web Pages and Copyright Law
    • Copyright : Legal right of the author or other owner of an original work to control reproduction, distribution and sale of that work.
    • Laws govern the use of photocopies, audio or video recordings, and other reproductions of authors’ original work.
    • Comes into existence as soon as the work is placed into tangible form.
    • Exists even if the work does not contain a copyright notice.
  • 37. Reproducing Web Pages and Copyright Law
    • Fair use is a provision that allows students to use limited amounts of copyrighted information in term papers and other reports in an academic setting.
    • Source must always be cited.
    • Commercial use of copyright more restricted.
    • Obtain permission from copyright holder before using anything you copy from a Web page.
  • 38. Starting Microsoft Internet Explorer
    • Click Start button on the taskbar, point to All Programs , click Internet Explorer .
    • The Standard Buttons toolbar has a number of buttons that execute frequently used commands for browsing.
  • 39. Starting Microsoft Internet Explorer
    • The status bar at the bottom of the window includes several panels that give you information about Internet Explorer’s operations.
      • Transfer progress report & graphical transfer progress indicator
      • Security zone
  • 40. Entering a URL in the Address Bar (IE)
    • Click at end of current text in the Address bar, then delete any unnecessary or unwanted text from the displayed URL.
    • Type the URL of the location that you want to go.
    • Press the Enter key to load the URL’s Web page in the browser window.
  • 41. Hyperlink Navigation Using the Mouse (IE)
    • The easiest way to move from one Web page to another is to use the mouse to click hyperlinks:
      • Click the hyperlink
      • After the new Web page has loaded, right-click the Web page’s background
      • Click Back on the shortcut menu
  • 42. Creating a Favorite for a Web Site
    • The Favorites List lets you store and organize a list of Web pages that you have visited so you can return to them easily.
    • You can create folders to store your favorites in.
    • You can easily organize your folders in a hierarchical structure even after you have stored them.
  • 43. Creating a Favorite for a Web Site
    • Creating a Favorites Folder:
      • Click the Favorites button on the Standard Buttons toolbar.
      • Click the Add button in the Favorites bar (or click Favorites on the menu bar, and then click Add to Favorites ).
      • If necessary, click the Create in button.
      • Click the Favorites folder, and then click the New Folder button.
      • Type the name of the new folder in the Folder name text box, and then click the OK button.
      • Click the OK button.
  • 44. Creating a Favorite for a Web Site
    • Move an Existing Favorite into a New Folder:
      • Click Favorites on the menu bar, and then click Organize Favorites , or click the Organize button in the Favorites bar.
      • Click the folder under which you want to add the new folder.
      • Click the Create Folder button.
      • Type the name of the new folder, and then press the Enter key.
      • Click the Close button.
  • 45. Returning to Previously Viewed Web Pages (IE)
    • The Back and Forward buttons on the Standard Buttons toolbar and the Back and Forward options on the shortcut menu enable you to move to and from previously visited pages.
    • To see where you have been during a session, open the history list by clicking the History button on the Standards Buttons toolbar.
    • The Refresh button on the Standard Buttons toolbar loads a new copy of the Web page that currently appears in the browser window.
    • The Home button on the Standard Buttons toolbar displays the home (or start) page for your copy of Internet Explorer.
  • 46. Printing a Web Page (IE)
    • The Print button on the Standard Buttons toolbar and the Print command on the File menu let you print the current Web frame or page.
    • When printing long Web pages, a print option that is extremely useful for saving paper is to reduce the font size of the Web pages before you print them.
    • To preview pages before they print them. Select Print Preview from the File menu.
  • 47. Checking Web Page Security (IE)
    • A closed padlock symbol ( security indicator button ) appears in the status bar when Internet Explorer loads an encrypted Web page.
    • Encryption is a way of scrambling and encoding data transmissions that reduces the risk that a person who intercepts the Web page as it travels across the Internet will be able to decode and read the page’s contents.
    • To check some of the security elements of a Web page,
      • double-click the security indicator button
      • click File , Properties , and then click the Certificates button
  • 48. Getting Help in Internet Explorer New Perspectives on The Internet, Sixth Edition—Comprehensive Tutorial 1
  • 49. Using Internet Explorer to Save a Web Page
    • You can save entire Web pages, selected portions of Web page text, or particular graphics from a Web page to a disk.
    • You can save portions of Web page text so you can use it in other programs.
    • You can save a graphic from a Web page by right-clicking on the picture and clicking Save Picture As .
  • 50. Starting Mozilla Firefox Click Start button on the taskbar, point to All Programs , point to Mozilla , and then click Firefox . New Perspectives on The Internet, Sixth Edition—Comprehensive Tutorial 1
  • 51. Using the Navigation Toolbar (Firefox)
    • The Navigation toolbar includes buttons that execute frequently used commands for browsing the Web.
    • You can use the Location bar to enter URLs directly into Firefox.
    • The Navigation toolbar has a search bar that allows users to type a search term that Firefox sends to the user’s choice of search engines and Web directories.
  • 52. Using the Navigation Toolbar (Firefox) Firefox Navigation Toolbar
  • 53. Using the Location Bar (Firefox)
    • Click at end of current text in the Location field, then delete any unnecessary or unwanted text from the displayed URL.
    • Type the URL of the location that you want to go.
    • Press the Enter key to load the URL’s Web page in the browser window.
  • 54. Hyperlink Navigation Using the Mouse (Firefox)
    • The easiest way to move from one Web page to another is to use the mouse to click hyperlinks:
      • Click the hyperlink
      • After the new Web page has loaded, right-click the Web page’s background
      • Click Back on the shortcut menu
  • 55. Creating a Bookmark for a Web Site
    • You use the bookmark feature to store and organize a list of Web pages that you have visited so that you can return to them easily.
    • You can create folders to store your bookmarks in.
    • You can easily organize your folders in a hierarchical structure.
    • You can save your bookmark file on a disk so you can use your bookmarks at another computer.
  • 56. Creating a Bookmark for a Web Site
    • Creating a Bookmarks Folder:
      • Click Bookmarks on the menu bar, and then click Manage Bookmarks .
      • Click the New Folder button with Bookmarks in the left pane of the Bookmarks Manager window highlighted.
      • Delete the default text in the Name text box, and then type a new folder name.
      • Click the OK button.
  • 57. Creating a Bookmark for a Web Site
    • Saving a Bookmark in a Bookmarks Folder:
      • Open the page that you want to bookmark in Firefox.
      • Click Bookmarks on the menu bar, and then click Bookmark This Page .
      • Type a descriptive name in the box.
      • Select the folder in which you want to save the bookmark.
      • Click the OK button.
  • 58. Creating a Bookmark for a Web Site
    • Saving a Bookmark File to a Disk:
      • Click Bookmarks on the menu bar, and then click Manage Bookmarks .
      • Click File on the menu bar, and then click Export .
      • Select the drive and folder into which you want to save the bookmark file.
      • Type a name for the bookmark file.
      • Click the Save button.
  • 59. Returning to Pages Previously Visited (Firefox)
    • The Back and Forward buttons on the Navigation toolbar and the Back and Forward options on the shortcut menu enable you to move to and from recently visited pages.
    • To see where you have been during a session, open the history list by clicking the Go on the menu bar, and then clicking History .
    • The Reload button on the Navigation toolbar loads a new copy of the Web page that currently appears in the browser window.
    • The Home button on the Navigation toolbar displays the home (or start) page for your copy of Firefox.
  • 60. Printing a Web Page (Firefox)
    • The Print command on the File menu lets you print the current Web frame or page.
    • When printing long Web pages, a print option that is extremely useful for saving paper is the Scale option.
    • To preview pages before they print them. Select Print Preview from the File menu.
  • 61. Checking Web Page Security (Firefox)
    • A closed padlock symbol (the security indicator button ) appears in the status bar when Firefox loads an encrypted Web page.
    • Encryption is a way of scrambling and encoding data transmissions that reduces the risk that a person who intercepts the Web page as it travels across the Internet will be able to decode and read the page’s contents.
    • To check some of the security elements of a Web page,
      • double-click the security indicator button
      • click Tools , Page Info , and then click the Security tab
  • 62. Managing Cookies (Firefox)
    • Firefox stores all cookies in one file and gives users a tool to manage that file.
    • Click Tools on the menu bar, click Options , click the plus sign next to Cookies.
    • Click the View Cookies button to view individual cookies.
    • Select a cookie, and then click the Remove Cookie button to delete it.
    • To delete all cookies that have been stored on your computer, click the Remove All Cookies button.
  • 63. Getting Help in Firefox New Perspectives on The Internet, Sixth Edition—Comprehensive Tutorial 1
  • 64. Using Firefox to Save a Web Page
    • You can store entire Web pages, selected portions of Web page text, or particular graphics from a Web page to a disk.
    • You can save portions of Web page text so you can use it in other programs.
    • You can save a graphic from a Web page by right-clicking on the picture and clicking Save Image As .
  • 65. Summary
    • Web pages and Web sites make up the World Wide Web.
    • The Web uses a client/server structure in which Web server computers make Web page files available to Web client computers that are running Web browser software.
    • Each server computer on the Internet has an IP address that is mapped to a domain name.
    • The domain name plus the Web page filename make up the Uniform Resource Locator (URL).
  • 66. Summary
    • All Web browsers have the same basic elements and can be used to explore the Web in similar ways.
    • Web browsers display Web pages and maintain a history list that can be used to find pages previously visited.
    • Web browsers allow users to print and save Web pages and elements of Web pages.
    • Web browsers are currently available at no or low cost.
  • 67. Summary
    • The two most widely used Web browsers are
      • Internet Explorer
      • Firefox