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Chapter 9 - Leading with Influence
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Chapter 9 - Leading with Influence






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    Chapter 9 - Leading with Influence Chapter 9 - Leading with Influence Presentation Transcript

    • Leading with Influence
    • Learning Outcomes
      • State the differences among trait, behavioral, and situational leadership theorists.
      • Explain why the terms manager and leader are not interchangeable.
      • Describe leadership trait theory, and identify Ghiselli’s six significant leadership traits.
      • Discuss the major similarity and difference between two-dimensional leadership styles and the Leadership Grid ® .
      • Identify the management levels at which charismatic, transformational, transactional, symbolic, and servant leadership styles are most appropriate.
      After studying this chapter, you should be able to:
    • Learning Outcomes (cont’d)
      • State the primary difference between the contingency leadership model and other situational approaches to leadership.
      • Discuss the major criticism of both the leadership continuum model and the path-goal leadership model.
      • Describe the major characteristic of the normative leadership model.
      • Define the key terms listed at the end of the chapter.
      After studying this chapter, you should be able to:
    • IDEAS ON MANAGEMENT at American Express
      • What leadership traits does Ken Chenault have?
      • Which behavioral leadership styles does Ken Chenault use?
      • Is Ken Chenault a charismatic, transformational, symbolic, and/or servant leader?
      • Which situational leadership styles does Ken Chenault use?
      • Is handling complaints important at American Express?
    • Leadership
      • Leadership
        • The process of influencing employees to work toward the achievement of organizational objectives.
      • Leadership versus Management
        • Leadership is a functional activity incorporated within the broader scope of management activities.
        • Managers lacking the ability to influence others are not true leaders.
    • Leadership Trait Theory
      • Leadership Trait Theorists
        • Attempt to determine a list of distinctive characteristics that account for leadership effectiveness.
        • Have been unsuccessful in identifying a universal set of traits that all leaders possess.
      • The Ghiselli Study (1971)
        • Concluded that certain traits are important to effective leadership: supervisory ability, need for occupational achievement, intelligence, decisiveness, self-assurance, and initiative.
    • Behavioral Leadership Theories
      • Behavioral Leadership Theorists
        • Early researchers who attempted to identify the “best leadership style” for all situations.
          • Attempted to determine distinctive styles used by effective leaders.
          • Also focused on the relationship between leaders and followers.
      • Leadership Style
        • The combination of traits, skills, and behaviors managers use in interacting with employees.
    • Join the Discussion Ethics & Social Responsibility
      • Dilbert
        • Do you agree with Scott Adams that leadership is basically manipulation?
        • Do we really need leaders?
        • Is it ethical and socially responsible to make fun of CEOs?
    • Basic Leadership Styles
      • Autocratic Leader
        • One who makes all the decisions, tells employees what to do, and closely supervises employees.
          • Considered a Theory X-type leader.
      • Democratic Leader
        • One who encourages employee participation in decisions, works with employees to determine what to do, and does not closely supervise employees.
          • Considered a Theory Y-type leader.
    • Basic Leadership Styles (cont’d)
      • Laissez-Faire Leader
        • One who takes a leave-employees-alone approach, allowing them to make the decisions and decide what to do, and does not follow up.
    • Two-Dimensional Leadership Styles
      • Two-Dimensional Leadership Styles
        • Based on job structure and employee consideration, which result in four possible leadership styles.
        • The Ohio State University
          • Structuring
            • The extent to which the leader takes charge to plan, organize, lead, and control as the employee performs the task.
          • Consideration
            • The extent to which the leader communicates to develop trust, friendship, support, and respect.
        • University of Michigan
          • Job-centered
            • Analogous to structuring.
          • Employee-centered
            • Analogous to consideration.
    • Exhibit 9 – 1 ● The Ohio State University and University of Michigan Two-Dimensional Leadership Styles
    • The Leadership Grid ®
      • The Leadership Grid ®
        • Identifies the ideal leadership style as incorporating a high concern for both production and people.
      • Leadership Styles
        • Impoverished management style (1, 1)
        • Authority-compliance management style (9, 1)
        • Country-club management style (1, 9)
        • Middle-of-the-road management style (5, 5)
        • Team management style (9, 9)
    • The Leadership Grid ® (Blake and McCanse)
    • Contemporary Perspectives
      • Charismatic Leadership
        • A leadership style that inspires loyalty, enthusiasm, and high levels of performance.
      • Transformational Leadership
        • A leadership style that brings about continuous learning, innovation, and change.
      • Transactional Leadership
        • A leadership style based on exchange.
    • Contemporary Perspectives (cont’d)
      • Symbolic Leadership
        • A leadership style based on establishing and maintaining a strong organizational culture.
      • Servant Leadership
        • A leadership style based on simultaneously meeting the needs and goals of employees and the goals of the organization.
          • Focuses on motivating employees by meeting their higher-level needs.
          • Motivates employees to go beyond role requirements and do what it takes to attain the goals of the organization.
    • Situational Approaches to Leadership
      • Situational Leadership Theorists
        • Attempt to determine the appropriate leadership style for various situations.
          • Contingency leadership model
          • Leadership continuum model
          • Path-goal model
          • Normative leadership theory
          • Situational Leadership ® model
          • Leadership substitutes and neutralizers
        • “Should the leader change his/her style or should the situation be changed to fit the leader’s style?”
    • Contingency Leadership Model
      • Contingency Leadership Model (Fiedler)
        • Used to determine if one’s leadership style is task- or relationship-oriented and if the situation matches the leader’s style.
        • Leadership style
          • The Least Preferred Coworker (LPC) scale measures a leader’s task (job) or relationship (employee) orientation.
        • Situational favorableness
          • Leader-follower relations (good or poor?)
          • Task structure (structured or unstructured?)
          • Position power (strong or weak?)
    • Exhibit 9 –2 ● Contingency Leadership Model
    • Leadership Continuum Model
      • Leadership Continuum Model (Tannenbaum and Schmidt)
        • Used to determine which of seven styles of leadership, on a continuum from autocratic (boss-centered) to participative (employee-centered), is best for a given situation.
        • Factors determining selection of style:
          • The leader’s preferred style
          • The subordinates’ preferred style for the leader
          • The situation
            • Organization’s size, structure, climate, goals, technology, and higher-level management leadership style and the time available
    • Exhibit 9 –3 ● The Leadership Continuum Source : Adapted from Robert Tannenbaum and Warren Schmidt, “How to Choose a Leadership Pattern,” Harvard Business Review (May/June, 1973).
    • Path-Goal Model
      • Path-Goal Model (House)
        • Used to determine employee objectives and to clarify how to achieve them using one of four leadership styles.
          • Considers subordinates’ situational factors and environmental factors in determining a leadership style.
        • Leadership styles:
          • Directive
            • The leader provides high structure.
          • Supportive
            • The leader provides high consideration.
          • Participative
            • The leader considers employee input when making decisions.
          • Achievement-oriented
            • The leader sets difficult but achievable goals, expects subordinates to perform at their highest level, and rewards them for doing so
    • Exhibit 9 –4 ● A Summary of Path-Goal Factors and Styles Situational Factors Subordinate authoritarianism locus of control ability Environmental task structure formal authority work group Goal Achievement Performance Satisfaction Leadership Styles Directive Supportive Participative Achievement-oriented determine that affect
    • Normative Leadership Model
      • Normative Leadership Model (Vroom and Jago)
        • A decision tree that enables the user to select one of five leadership styles appropriate for a situation.
        • Determination of leadership style is based on two factors:
          • The importance of individual versus group decisions (input and participation).
          • The importance of time-driven versus development-driven decisions (time-pressure and quality of decision).
    • Situational Leadership ® Model
      • Situational Leadership ® Model (Hersey and Blanchard)
        • Used to select one of four leadership styles that match the employees’ maturity level in a given situation.
          • Telling
            • Giving employees explicit directions about how to accomplish a task.
          • Selling
            • Explaining decisions to gain understanding.
          • Participating
            • Facilitating decision making among subordinates.
          • Delegating
            • Giving employees responsibility for their decisions and their implementation.
    • Exhibit 9 –5 ● A Comparison of Behavioral and Situational Leadership Models
    • Leadership Substitutes Theory
      • Substitutes for Leadership
        • Characteristics of the task, of subordinates, or of the organization that replace the need for a leader.
          • Subordinates—ability, knowledge, experience, training; need for independence, professional orientation; indifference toward organizational rewards
          • Task—clarity, routineness, invariant methodology; provision of feedback concerning accomplishment and of intrinsic satisfaction
          • Organization—formality; inflexibility; very specific advisory and staff functions; closely knit, cohesive work groups; rewards outside of the leader’s control; physical distance between superior and subordinates
    • Join the Discussion Ethics & Social Responsibility
      • Leadership and Gender
        • Is it ethical and socially responsible to say that people of a particular gender make better leaders?
        • Do you think men and women lead in the same way, or not?
        • Are men or women more ethical and socially responsible as leaders?
        • Would you prefer to have a man or a woman as boss?
    • Exhibit 9 –6 ● Steps in Addressing Employee Complaints
    • Exhibit 9 –7 ● Steps in Addressing Customer Complaints
      • leadership
      • leadership trait theorists
      • behavioral leadership theorists
      • leadership style
      • two-dimensional leadership styles
      • Leadership Grid ®
      • charismatic leadership
      • transformational leadership
      • transactional leadership
      • symbolic leadership
      • servant leadership
      • situational approaches to leadership
      • contingency leadership model
      • leadership continuum model
      • path-goal model
      • Situational Leadership ® model
      • substitutes for leadership
      • complaint