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Chapter 9 - Leading with Influence
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Chapter 9 - Leading with Influence


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  • 1. Leading with Influence
  • 2. Learning Outcomes
    • State the differences among trait, behavioral, and situational leadership theorists.
    • Explain why the terms manager and leader are not interchangeable.
    • Describe leadership trait theory, and identify Ghiselli’s six significant leadership traits.
    • Discuss the major similarity and difference between two-dimensional leadership styles and the Leadership Grid ® .
    • Identify the management levels at which charismatic, transformational, transactional, symbolic, and servant leadership styles are most appropriate.
    After studying this chapter, you should be able to:
  • 3. Learning Outcomes (cont’d)
    • State the primary difference between the contingency leadership model and other situational approaches to leadership.
    • Discuss the major criticism of both the leadership continuum model and the path-goal leadership model.
    • Describe the major characteristic of the normative leadership model.
    • Define the key terms listed at the end of the chapter.
    After studying this chapter, you should be able to:
  • 4. IDEAS ON MANAGEMENT at American Express
    • What leadership traits does Ken Chenault have?
    • Which behavioral leadership styles does Ken Chenault use?
    • Is Ken Chenault a charismatic, transformational, symbolic, and/or servant leader?
    • Which situational leadership styles does Ken Chenault use?
    • Is handling complaints important at American Express?
  • 5. Leadership
    • Leadership
      • The process of influencing employees to work toward the achievement of organizational objectives.
    • Leadership versus Management
      • Leadership is a functional activity incorporated within the broader scope of management activities.
      • Managers lacking the ability to influence others are not true leaders.
  • 6. Leadership Trait Theory
    • Leadership Trait Theorists
      • Attempt to determine a list of distinctive characteristics that account for leadership effectiveness.
      • Have been unsuccessful in identifying a universal set of traits that all leaders possess.
    • The Ghiselli Study (1971)
      • Concluded that certain traits are important to effective leadership: supervisory ability, need for occupational achievement, intelligence, decisiveness, self-assurance, and initiative.
  • 7. Behavioral Leadership Theories
    • Behavioral Leadership Theorists
      • Early researchers who attempted to identify the “best leadership style” for all situations.
        • Attempted to determine distinctive styles used by effective leaders.
        • Also focused on the relationship between leaders and followers.
    • Leadership Style
      • The combination of traits, skills, and behaviors managers use in interacting with employees.
  • 8. Join the Discussion Ethics & Social Responsibility
    • Dilbert
      • Do you agree with Scott Adams that leadership is basically manipulation?
      • Do we really need leaders?
      • Is it ethical and socially responsible to make fun of CEOs?
  • 9. Basic Leadership Styles
    • Autocratic Leader
      • One who makes all the decisions, tells employees what to do, and closely supervises employees.
        • Considered a Theory X-type leader.
    • Democratic Leader
      • One who encourages employee participation in decisions, works with employees to determine what to do, and does not closely supervise employees.
        • Considered a Theory Y-type leader.
  • 10. Basic Leadership Styles (cont’d)
    • Laissez-Faire Leader
      • One who takes a leave-employees-alone approach, allowing them to make the decisions and decide what to do, and does not follow up.
  • 11. Two-Dimensional Leadership Styles
    • Two-Dimensional Leadership Styles
      • Based on job structure and employee consideration, which result in four possible leadership styles.
      • The Ohio State University
        • Structuring
          • The extent to which the leader takes charge to plan, organize, lead, and control as the employee performs the task.
        • Consideration
          • The extent to which the leader communicates to develop trust, friendship, support, and respect.
      • University of Michigan
        • Job-centered
          • Analogous to structuring.
        • Employee-centered
          • Analogous to consideration.
  • 12. Exhibit 9 – 1 ● The Ohio State University and University of Michigan Two-Dimensional Leadership Styles
  • 13. The Leadership Grid ®
    • The Leadership Grid ®
      • Identifies the ideal leadership style as incorporating a high concern for both production and people.
    • Leadership Styles
      • Impoverished management style (1, 1)
      • Authority-compliance management style (9, 1)
      • Country-club management style (1, 9)
      • Middle-of-the-road management style (5, 5)
      • Team management style (9, 9)
  • 14. The Leadership Grid ® (Blake and McCanse)
  • 15.  
  • 16. Contemporary Perspectives
    • Charismatic Leadership
      • A leadership style that inspires loyalty, enthusiasm, and high levels of performance.
    • Transformational Leadership
      • A leadership style that brings about continuous learning, innovation, and change.
    • Transactional Leadership
      • A leadership style based on exchange.
  • 17. Contemporary Perspectives (cont’d)
    • Symbolic Leadership
      • A leadership style based on establishing and maintaining a strong organizational culture.
    • Servant Leadership
      • A leadership style based on simultaneously meeting the needs and goals of employees and the goals of the organization.
        • Focuses on motivating employees by meeting their higher-level needs.
        • Motivates employees to go beyond role requirements and do what it takes to attain the goals of the organization.
  • 18. Situational Approaches to Leadership
    • Situational Leadership Theorists
      • Attempt to determine the appropriate leadership style for various situations.
        • Contingency leadership model
        • Leadership continuum model
        • Path-goal model
        • Normative leadership theory
        • Situational Leadership ® model
        • Leadership substitutes and neutralizers
      • “Should the leader change his/her style or should the situation be changed to fit the leader’s style?”
  • 19. Contingency Leadership Model
    • Contingency Leadership Model (Fiedler)
      • Used to determine if one’s leadership style is task- or relationship-oriented and if the situation matches the leader’s style.
      • Leadership style
        • The Least Preferred Coworker (LPC) scale measures a leader’s task (job) or relationship (employee) orientation.
      • Situational favorableness
        • Leader-follower relations (good or poor?)
        • Task structure (structured or unstructured?)
        • Position power (strong or weak?)
  • 20. Exhibit 9 –2 ● Contingency Leadership Model
  • 21.  
  • 22. Leadership Continuum Model
    • Leadership Continuum Model (Tannenbaum and Schmidt)
      • Used to determine which of seven styles of leadership, on a continuum from autocratic (boss-centered) to participative (employee-centered), is best for a given situation.
      • Factors determining selection of style:
        • The leader’s preferred style
        • The subordinates’ preferred style for the leader
        • The situation
          • Organization’s size, structure, climate, goals, technology, and higher-level management leadership style and the time available
  • 23. Exhibit 9 –3 ● The Leadership Continuum Source : Adapted from Robert Tannenbaum and Warren Schmidt, “How to Choose a Leadership Pattern,” Harvard Business Review (May/June, 1973).
  • 24.  
  • 25. Path-Goal Model
    • Path-Goal Model (House)
      • Used to determine employee objectives and to clarify how to achieve them using one of four leadership styles.
        • Considers subordinates’ situational factors and environmental factors in determining a leadership style.
      • Leadership styles:
        • Directive
          • The leader provides high structure.
        • Supportive
          • The leader provides high consideration.
        • Participative
          • The leader considers employee input when making decisions.
        • Achievement-oriented
          • The leader sets difficult but achievable goals, expects subordinates to perform at their highest level, and rewards them for doing so
  • 26. Exhibit 9 –4 ● A Summary of Path-Goal Factors and Styles Situational Factors Subordinate authoritarianism locus of control ability Environmental task structure formal authority work group Goal Achievement Performance Satisfaction Leadership Styles Directive Supportive Participative Achievement-oriented determine that affect
  • 27. Normative Leadership Model
    • Normative Leadership Model (Vroom and Jago)
      • A decision tree that enables the user to select one of five leadership styles appropriate for a situation.
      • Determination of leadership style is based on two factors:
        • The importance of individual versus group decisions (input and participation).
        • The importance of time-driven versus development-driven decisions (time-pressure and quality of decision).
  • 28. Situational Leadership ® Model
    • Situational Leadership ® Model (Hersey and Blanchard)
      • Used to select one of four leadership styles that match the employees’ maturity level in a given situation.
        • Telling
          • Giving employees explicit directions about how to accomplish a task.
        • Selling
          • Explaining decisions to gain understanding.
        • Participating
          • Facilitating decision making among subordinates.
        • Delegating
          • Giving employees responsibility for their decisions and their implementation.
  • 29.  
  • 30. Exhibit 9 –5 ● A Comparison of Behavioral and Situational Leadership Models
  • 31. Leadership Substitutes Theory
    • Substitutes for Leadership
      • Characteristics of the task, of subordinates, or of the organization that replace the need for a leader.
        • Subordinates—ability, knowledge, experience, training; need for independence, professional orientation; indifference toward organizational rewards
        • Task—clarity, routineness, invariant methodology; provision of feedback concerning accomplishment and of intrinsic satisfaction
        • Organization—formality; inflexibility; very specific advisory and staff functions; closely knit, cohesive work groups; rewards outside of the leader’s control; physical distance between superior and subordinates
  • 32. Join the Discussion Ethics & Social Responsibility
    • Leadership and Gender
      • Is it ethical and socially responsible to say that people of a particular gender make better leaders?
      • Do you think men and women lead in the same way, or not?
      • Are men or women more ethical and socially responsible as leaders?
      • Would you prefer to have a man or a woman as boss?
  • 33. Exhibit 9 –6 ● Steps in Addressing Employee Complaints
  • 34. Exhibit 9 –7 ● Steps in Addressing Customer Complaints
  • 35. KEY TERMS
    • leadership
    • leadership trait theorists
    • behavioral leadership theorists
    • leadership style
    • two-dimensional leadership styles
    • Leadership Grid ®
    • charismatic leadership
    • transformational leadership
    • transactional leadership
    • symbolic leadership
    • servant leadership
    • situational approaches to leadership
    • contingency leadership model
    • leadership continuum model
    • path-goal model
    • Situational Leadership ® model
    • substitutes for leadership
    • complaint