To make communication effective, make sure your nonverbal communication is consistent with your oral communication.
Provides a permanent record
Join the Discussion Ethics & Social Responsibility
Is it ethical and socially responsible for food companies to use terms (like natural ) that can be misleading?
How should the FDA define natural so that the word is not used to mislead people?
Selecting the Message Transmission Channel
The amount of information and meaning conveyed through a channel.
Oral channels (e.g., face-to-face) are the richest channels, and are useful for sending difficult and unusual messages.
Written channels are less rich, and are useful for simple and routine messages.
Combined channels are best used for important messages that must be attended to.
Planning the Message
What is the goal of the message?
Who should receive the message?
How should the message be sent?
When should the message be sent?
Where should the message be sent?
Join the Discussion Ethics & Social Responsibility
Advertising to Underage Viewers
Do you believe that some ads for alcohol intentionally target underage viewers?
Is it ethical and socially responsible for alcoholic beverage companies to target underage viewers?
Do you believe the government should take action against the producers of alcoholic beverages? If so, what should it do?
Exhibit 10 –5 ● The Message-Sending Process
Checking Understanding: Feedback
Information that verifies a message.
The process of having the receiver restate the message in his or her own words.
Receivers feel ignorant.
Receivers are ignorant.
Receivers are reluctant to point out the sender’s ignorance.
Checking Understanding: Feedback (cont’d)
How to Get Feedback:
Be open to feedback.
There are no dumb questions.
Be aware of nonverbal communication.
Make sure that your nonverbal communication encourages feedback.
When you send messages, you should know whether recipients understand the messages before taking action.
The most accurate indicator of understanding is paraphrasing.
Exhibit 10 –6 ● The Message-Receiving Process
Exhibit 10 –7 ● Five Typical Response Styles
Providing evaluation, personal opinion, direction, or instructions.
Switching the focus of the communication to a new message.
Asking the sender for more information about some aspect of the message.
Responding to reduce the intensity of the emotions associated with the message.
Paraphrasing the message to indicate acceptance and understanding.
Dealing With Emotional People
Dimensions of Emotional Intelligence:
Self-awareness, or understanding your own emotions
Self-management, the ability to manage your own emotions
Self-motivation, the ability to persist through failure and setbacks
Empathy, the ability to understand others’ emotions and to see things from their perspective
Social skills that allow one to handle others’ emotions.
Dealing With Emotional People (cont’d)
Dealing with Emotional People
Don’t make condescending statements.
Do make reflective empathic responses.
Reflective Empathic Listening
The ability to understand and relate to another’s feelings.
Never publicly criticize your boss.
Don’t criticize your boss behind his or her back.
Don’t become defensive or emotional.
Even constructive criticism can be emotionally painful.
Types of Information Systems (IS)
Transaction Processing Systems (TPS)
Used to handle routine and recurring business matters (e.g., accounting transactions).
Management Information Systems (MIS)
Used to transform data into the information employees need to do their work.
Focus on strategy implementation.
Executive information systems (EIS)
Used by top-level managers.
Focus on the development and revision of nonroutine strategy.
Types of Information Systems (IS) (cont’d)
Decision Support Systems (DSS)
Use managers’ insights in an interactive computer-based process to assist in making nonroutine decisions.
Allow managers to evaluate the possible effects of alternative decisions.
Are computer programs designed to imitate the thought processes of a human being.
Information Networks and E-Commerce
Apply information technology to connect all employees of an organization to each other, to suppliers, to customers, and to databases.
Work done by using electronic linkages (including the Internet) between employees, partners, suppliers, and customers.
Business exchanges or transactions that occur electronically.
Exhibit 10 –8 ● Information Network
Exhibit 10 –9 ● E-Commerce Business-to-Business (B2B) Ford buys tires from Firestone . Wal-Mart buys merchandise from thousands of suppliers automatically through electronic data interchange (EDI) as inventories become low. Business-to-Employee (B2E) Merck sales reps conduct business on the road, and some Cengage Learning employees telecommute (work from home). UPS drivers get electronic orders to pick up packages along their routes and send electronic information to businesses for tracking deliveries. Business-to-Customer (B2B) Amazon.com sells a book and a computer to John Smith. Customers can go to the FedEx Web site to track their packages. Bank of America offers online banking. MasterCard allows you to go online to check your charge account transactions. Peer-to-Peer (P2P) An Apple employee in the United States electronically contacts an Apple employee in China to find out why an iPod order is behind schedule. Sony PlayStation employees in Boston and California develop a new game together, sharing the same game file. A Springfield College professor fills out and sends a flexible benefit form online to the human resource department across campus. Customer-to-Customer (C2C) John Smith buys a watch from Jean Jones and sells a car to Jones through eBay . Jones gets music, videos, software, and other files from Smith through BearShare and LimeWire . B2E Business/ Database Employees B2C Amazon.com John Smith P2P Employee Employee C2C John Smith Jean Jones eBay (online auctions) BearShare, LimeWire (file sharing) B2B Ford Firestone