Chapter 10 - Communicating and Informatiion Technology


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Chapter 10 - Communicating and Informatiion Technology

  1. 1. Communicating and Information Technology
  2. 2. Learning Outcomes <ul><li>Describe the three ways communication flows through organizations. </li></ul><ul><li>List the four steps in the interpersonal communication process. </li></ul><ul><li>State the major advantages of oral communication and written communication. </li></ul><ul><li>State a general guide to channel selection. </li></ul><ul><li>List the five steps in the process of sending face-to-face messages. </li></ul><ul><li>Describe paraphrasing, and explain why it is useful. </li></ul><ul><li>List and explain the three parts of the process of receiving messages. </li></ul>After studying this chapter, you should be able to:
  3. 3. Learning Outcomes (cont’d) <ul><li>Define reflecting responses, and state when they should be used. </li></ul><ul><li>Discuss what should and should not be done to calm an emotional person. </li></ul><ul><li>Describe the three primary types of information systems and their relationship. </li></ul><ul><li>List the components of an information network. </li></ul><ul><li>Define the key terms listed at the end of the chapter. </li></ul>After studying this chapter, you should be able to:
  4. 4. IDEAS ON MANAGEMENT at Powell’s Books <ul><li>What was the organizational communication flow of information about pay limits and restructuring at Powell’s, and what was the flow of communication about employees’ reactions? </li></ul><ul><li>Which message channel did Powell use to inform employees of the pay limits and restructuring? </li></ul><ul><li>Which parts of the message-sending process did Michael Powell ignore, thus creating communication problems at Powell’s? </li></ul><ul><li>How would you rate the listening skills of managers at Powell’s Books with regard to employees’ reactions to pay limits and restructuring? </li></ul><ul><li>How would you rate Powell’s managers’ ability to deal with employee emotions? How could communications have been better so that the situation would not have escalated to unionization? </li></ul>
  5. 5. Organizational Communication <ul><li>Vertical Communication </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The flow of information both downward and upward through the organizational chain of command. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Horizontal Communication </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The flow of information between colleagues and peers. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Grapevine </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The informal flow of information in any direction throughout an organization. </li></ul></ul>
  6. 6. Exhibit 10 – 1 ● Organizational Communication
  7. 8. Information Technology <ul><li>Data </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Unorganized facts and figures. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Information </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Data converted into a form that helps people do their jobs. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Useful information is: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Timely—current and available when you need it </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Relevant—suited to the situation, accurate, complete but concise </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Understandable—in a form that is easy to comprehend </li></ul></ul></ul>
  8. 9. Information Technology (cont’d) <ul><li>Information Technology (IT) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Technology used to store, process, and distribute useful information. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The Internet </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A global collection of computer networks linked together to exchange data and information on the World Wide Web (WWW). </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Wireless Communication </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Handheld devices allow people to get information when and where they need it. </li></ul></ul>
  9. 10. Join the Discussion Ethics & Social Responsibility <ul><li>Revenues </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Should Google use the same business practices as Yahoo! and MSN? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Is Google hurting its shareholders by bypassing revenues that they should benefit from? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Is it ethical and socially responsible for Yahoo! and MSN to present search results based on companies’ payment of fees? </li></ul></ul>
  10. 11. Exhibit 10 –2 ● The Communication Process
  11. 12. Exhibit 10 –3 ● Major Communication Barriers
  12. 14. Exhibit 10 –4 ● Message Transmission Channels
  13. 15. Oral Communication <ul><li>Advantages </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Easier </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Faster </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Encourages feedback </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Disadvantages </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Leaves no permanent record </li></ul></ul>
  14. 16. Nonverbal Communication <ul><li>Nonverbal Communication </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Consists of messages sent without words. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Includes: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Setting </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Physical surroundings </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Body language </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Facial expressions, vocal quality, gestures, posture </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>To make communication effective, make sure your nonverbal communication is consistent with your oral communication. </li></ul></ul>
  15. 17. Written Communication <ul><li>Advantages </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Provides a permanent record </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Disadvantages </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Takes longer </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hinders feedback </li></ul></ul>
  16. 19. Join the Discussion Ethics & Social Responsibility <ul><li>Advertising </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Is it ethical and socially responsible for food companies to use terms (like natural ) that can be misleading? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>How should the FDA define natural so that the word is not used to mislead people? </li></ul></ul>
  17. 20. Selecting the Message Transmission Channel <ul><li>Media Richness </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The amount of information and meaning conveyed through a channel. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Oral channels (e.g., face-to-face) are the richest channels, and are useful for sending difficult and unusual messages. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Written channels are less rich, and are useful for simple and routine messages. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Combined channels are best used for important messages that must be attended to. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  18. 21. Sending Messages <ul><li>Planning the Message </li></ul><ul><ul><li>What is the goal of the message? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Who should receive the message? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>How should the message be sent? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>When should the message be sent? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Where should the message be sent? </li></ul></ul>
  19. 22. Join the Discussion Ethics & Social Responsibility <ul><li>Advertising to Underage Viewers </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Do you believe that some ads for alcohol intentionally target underage viewers? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Is it ethical and socially responsible for alcoholic beverage companies to target underage viewers? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Do you believe the government should take action against the producers of alcoholic beverages? If so, what should it do? </li></ul></ul>
  20. 23. Exhibit 10 –5 ● The Message-Sending Process
  21. 24. Checking Understanding: Feedback <ul><li>Feedback </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Information that verifies a message. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Paraphrasing </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The process of having the receiver restate the message in his or her own words. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Feedback Problems: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Receivers feel ignorant. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Receivers are ignorant. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Receivers are reluctant to point out the sender’s ignorance. </li></ul></ul>
  22. 25. Checking Understanding: Feedback (cont’d) <ul><li>How to Get Feedback: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Be open to feedback. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>There are no dumb questions. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Be aware of nonverbal communication. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Make sure that your nonverbal communication encourages feedback. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ask questions. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>When you send messages, you should know whether recipients understand the messages before taking action. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Paraphrase. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The most accurate indicator of understanding is paraphrasing. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  23. 26. Exhibit 10 –6 ● The Message-Receiving Process
  24. 27. Exhibit 10 –7 ● Five Typical Response Styles
  25. 28. Response Styles <ul><li>Advising </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Providing evaluation, personal opinion, direction, or instructions. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Diverting </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Switching the focus of the communication to a new message. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Probing </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Asking the sender for more information about some aspect of the message. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Reassuring </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Responding to reduce the intensity of the emotions associated with the message. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Reflecting </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Paraphrasing the message to indicate acceptance and understanding. </li></ul></ul>
  26. 30. Dealing With Emotional People <ul><li>Dimensions of Emotional Intelligence: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Self-awareness, or understanding your own emotions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Self-management, the ability to manage your own emotions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Self-motivation, the ability to persist through failure and setbacks </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Empathy, the ability to understand others’ emotions and to see things from their perspective </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Social skills that allow one to handle others’ emotions. </li></ul></ul>
  27. 31. Dealing With Emotional People (cont’d) <ul><li>Dealing with Emotional People </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Don’t make condescending statements. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Do make reflective empathic responses. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Paraphrase feelings. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Reflective Empathic Listening </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The ability to understand and relate to another’s feelings. </li></ul></ul>
  28. 32. Criticism <ul><li>Giving Criticism </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Never publicly criticize your boss. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Don’t criticize your boss behind his or her back. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Getting Criticism </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Don’t become defensive or emotional. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Even constructive criticism can be emotionally painful. </li></ul></ul>
  29. 33. Types of Information Systems (IS) <ul><li>Transaction Processing Systems (TPS) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Used to handle routine and recurring business matters (e.g., accounting transactions). </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Management Information Systems (MIS) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Used to transform data into the information employees need to do their work. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Focus on strategy implementation. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Executive information systems (EIS) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Used by top-level managers. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Focus on the development and revision of nonroutine strategy. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  30. 34. Types of Information Systems (IS) (cont’d) <ul><li>Decision Support Systems (DSS) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Use managers’ insights in an interactive computer-based process to assist in making nonroutine decisions. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Allow managers to evaluate the possible effects of alternative decisions. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Expert systems </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Are computer programs designed to imitate the thought processes of a human being. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  31. 36. Information Networks and E-Commerce <ul><li>Information Networks </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Apply information technology to connect all employees of an organization to each other, to suppliers, to customers, and to databases. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>E-Business </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Work done by using electronic linkages (including the Internet) between employees, partners, suppliers, and customers. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>E-Commerce </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Business exchanges or transactions that occur electronically. </li></ul></ul>
  32. 37. Exhibit 10 –8 ● Information Network
  33. 38. Exhibit 10 –9 ● E-Commerce Business-to-Business (B2B) Ford buys tires from Firestone . Wal-Mart buys merchandise from thousands of suppliers automatically through electronic data interchange (EDI) as inventories become low. Business-to-Employee (B2E) Merck sales reps conduct business on the road, and some Cengage Learning employees telecommute (work from home). UPS drivers get electronic orders to pick up packages along their routes and send electronic information to businesses for tracking deliveries. Business-to-Customer (B2B) sells a book and a computer to John Smith. Customers can go to the FedEx Web site to track their packages. Bank of America offers online banking. MasterCard allows you to go online to check your charge account transactions. Peer-to-Peer (P2P) An Apple employee in the United States electronically contacts an Apple employee in China to find out why an iPod order is behind schedule. Sony PlayStation employees in Boston and California develop a new game together, sharing the same game file. A Springfield College professor fills out and sends a flexible benefit form online to the human resource department across campus. Customer-to-Customer (C2C) John Smith buys a watch from Jean Jones and sells a car to Jones through eBay . Jones gets music, videos, software, and other files from Smith through BearShare and LimeWire . B2E Business/ Database Employees B2C John Smith P2P Employee Employee C2C John Smith Jean Jones eBay (online auctions) BearShare, LimeWire (file sharing) B2B Ford Firestone
  34. 39. KEY TERMS <ul><li>communication </li></ul><ul><li>vertical communication </li></ul><ul><li>horizontal communication </li></ul><ul><li>grapevine </li></ul><ul><li>communication process </li></ul><ul><li>encoding </li></ul><ul><li>communication channel </li></ul><ul><li>decoding </li></ul><ul><li>nonverbal communication </li></ul><ul><li>message-sending process </li></ul><ul><li>feedback </li></ul><ul><li>paraphrasing </li></ul><ul><li>message-receiving process </li></ul><ul><li>reflecting responses </li></ul><ul><li>empathic listening </li></ul>
  35. 40. Exhibit 10 –10 ● Situational Communication Model