BA 15 Chapter 5


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Personal Values Influence Ethical Choices

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BA 15 Chapter 5

  1. 1. Chapter Five Personal Values Influence Ethical Choices
  2. 2. Chapter Preview: Personal Values Influence Ethical Choices <ul><li>Developing a strong sense of character </li></ul><ul><li>How values are formed </li></ul><ul><li>Value conflicts and how to resolve them </li></ul><ul><li>Making ethical decisions based on personal values </li></ul><ul><li>Understanding corporate crime and eliminating it </li></ul>
  3. 3. Character, Integrity and Moral Development <ul><li>Character is composed of your personal standards of behavior including honesty, integrity, and moral strength </li></ul><ul><li>Integrity is congruence between what you know, say, and do </li></ul><ul><li>Practicing what you believe demonstrates integrity </li></ul><ul><li>Critical to successful relationships </li></ul>
  4. 4. A Valued Character Trait <ul><li>People with integrity do what they say they will do </li></ul><ul><li>Are clear about what they stand for </li></ul><ul><li>Think hard about what is right and wrong </li></ul>
  5. 5. The Corrosion of Character <ul><li>Author Richard Sennett believes decline of character can be traced to: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>economic conditions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>fast-paced, high stress </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>information-driven </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>limited connections </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>past </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>neighbors </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>selves </li></ul></ul></ul>
  6. 6. Character Development <ul><li>Integrity can be developed </li></ul><ul><li>Make and keep promises to self and others </li></ul><ul><li>Many organizations and educational institutions believe in character training </li></ul>
  7. 7. Figure 5.1 - Biogen's Values
  8. 8. Table 5.1
  9. 9. Total Person Insight <ul><li>A person’s true character can be judged by how he treats those who can do nothing for him. </li></ul><ul><li>Roy Chitwood </li></ul><ul><li>President, Max Sacks International </li></ul>
  10. 10. Personal Values <ul><li>Values are personal beliefs and preferences that influence one’s behavior </li></ul><ul><li>Deep-seated in personality </li></ul><ul><li>Exist at different levels of awareness </li></ul><ul><li>Awareness of values enhances integrity </li></ul>
  11. 11. Five-Part Valuing Process to Clarify and Develop Values <ul><li>Thinking </li></ul><ul><ul><li>critical thinking </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>distinguishing fact from opinion </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Feeling </li></ul><ul><ul><li>listening to “gut level” feelings </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Communicating </li></ul><ul><ul><li>listening closely </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>interacting with others </li></ul></ul>
  12. 12. Five-Part Valuing Process to Clarify and Develop Values <ul><li>Choosing </li></ul><ul><ul><li>being well informed </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Acting </li></ul><ul><ul><li>repeatedly and consistently </li></ul></ul>
  13. 13. Identifying Your Core Values <ul><li>Core values are those that consistently rank higher than others </li></ul><ul><li>General principles and beliefs that guide intermediate and long-term goals </li></ul><ul><li>Influence the behavior of individuals and organizations </li></ul>
  14. 14. Values and Job Selection <ul><li>We often must choose among core values </li></ul><ul><ul><li>High salary </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Security </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Meaningful work </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Lots of time off </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Most choices require compromising at least one </li></ul>
  15. 15. Values Shaping Influences <ul><li>Major influences that shape our values are: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>People and events </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Family </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Religious groups </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Education </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The media </li></ul></ul>
  16. 16. Table 5.2
  17. 17. Family <ul><li>Parents assume many roles </li></ul><ul><li>Most important role is moral teacher </li></ul><ul><li>Challenges to families: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>single-parent households </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>two parents working outside the home </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>care for elderly parents </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>financial pressures </li></ul></ul>
  18. 18. Religious Groups <ul><li>Value priorities often developed through religious training </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Religious doctrine </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Role models </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Many now seeking spiritual and moral anchors in both personal lives and work </li></ul>
  19. 19. Education <ul><li>Some see character education as fundamental aspect of education </li></ul><ul><li>Six Pillars of Character according to the Josephson Institute of Ethics: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>-Trustworthiness -Respect </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>-Responsibility -Fairness </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>-Caring -Citizenship </li></ul></ul>
  20. 20. Media <ul><li>Viewers often see </li></ul><ul><ul><li>people abusing and degrading each other without consequences </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>violent and antisocial behavior </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Research connecting television viewing and </li></ul><ul><ul><li>depression </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>desensitization of children </li></ul></ul>
  21. 21. People We Admire <ul><li>Modeling is shaping behavior to be like people you admire </li></ul><ul><li>Important for children and adults </li></ul><ul><li>Leaders in the workplace are important models for adults </li></ul>
  22. 22. Avoiding Values Drift <ul><li>Values drift is the slow erosion of core values over time </li></ul><ul><ul><li>exposure to conflicting situations </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>pressure to compromise </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Monitor your commitment and make adjustments </li></ul><ul><li>Careful examination each day will help keep values on track </li></ul>
  23. 23. Values Conflicts <ul><li>Individual differences in values preferences can cause conflict </li></ul><ul><li>Worker’s and manager’s differences may cause distrust or misunderstanding </li></ul><ul><li>Values conflicts may lead to declining quality, absenteeism, and poor customer service </li></ul>
  24. 24. Internal Values Conflicts <ul><li>Internal values conflict occurs when a person is caught between two or more strongly held values </li></ul><ul><li>9/11 led people to reexamine values </li></ul><ul><li>Value clarification minimizes conflicts </li></ul><ul><li>Value ranking makes decisions easier </li></ul>
  25. 25. Values Conflicts with Others <ul><li>Require effective human relations skills </li></ul><ul><li>Emotional issues may disrupt friendships, work teams, and productivity </li></ul><ul><li>Often based on </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Interpretations of work ethics </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Priorities of work life and personal life </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Responses may require compromise </li></ul>
  26. 26. Personal Values and Ethical Choices <ul><li>Ethics are principles that define behavior as </li></ul><ul><ul><li>right </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>good </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>proper </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Provides a means of evaluating and deciding among options </li></ul><ul><li>Rules that direct your conduct and moral judgments </li></ul>
  27. 27. Total Person Insight <ul><li>If you want young people to take notions like right and wrong seriously, there is an indispensable condition: they must be in the presence of adults who take right and wrong seriously. </li></ul><ul><li>William J. Bennett </li></ul><ul><li>Author, The Book of Virtues </li></ul>
  28. 28. Personal Values and Ethical Choices <ul><li>Jobs often present ethical dilemmas </li></ul><ul><li>Each organization has different ethical standards </li></ul><ul><li>Some feel pressure to violate ethical standards to meet business objectives </li></ul><ul><li>Often faced with multiple options </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Rarely just one right or wrong answer </li></ul></ul>
  29. 29. The Right Choices <ul><li>Learn to distinguish between right and wrong </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Seek your employer’s code of ethics or the ethical code of your professional organization </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ask an experienced or trusted colleague </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Refrain from choosing wrong path </li></ul></ul>
  30. 30. The Right Choices <ul><li>Don’t let your life be driven by the desire for immediate gratification </li></ul><ul><ul><li>People are often under pressure to show the trappings of success </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Progress and prosperity have same meaning to many </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Often means compromising values </li></ul></ul>
  31. 31. The Right Choices <ul><li>Make sure your values are in harmony with those of your employer </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Leads to success for individuals and organizations </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Provides a strong bond among all members of a work force </li></ul></ul>
  32. 32. Total Person Insight <ul><li>Nothing is more powerful for employees than seeing their managers behave according to their expressed values and standards: nothing is more devastating to the development of an ethical environment than a manager who violates the organization’s ethical standards. </li></ul><ul><li>Dan Rice and Craig Dreilinger </li></ul><ul><li>Authors, Rights and Wrongs of Ethics Training </li></ul>
  33. 33. Corporate Values and Ethical Choices <ul><li>Good corporate citizens consistently make ethical decisions in the best interest of </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Employees </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Customers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Stockholders </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The community </li></ul></ul>
  34. 34. Corporate Values and Ethical Choices <ul><li>Organizations get into serious trouble by ignoring ethical principles </li></ul><ul><li>“Gray-area” situations cause difficulty in choosing the right, ethical course of action </li></ul><ul><li>Even when right choice is clear, competitive pressure can lead to poor managerial decisions </li></ul>
  35. 35. How to Prevent Corporate Crime <ul><li>Establish and support a strong code of ethics </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Written statement of ethical expectations can be a powerful force in preventing unethical or criminal behavior </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Research suggests that companies also need to create an “ethical climate” </li></ul></ul>
  36. 36. How to Prevent Corporate Crime <ul><li>Hire with care </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Priority in hiring process </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Identify a guiding set of values </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hire people who share values and can work together </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Screening and integrity tests </li></ul></ul>
  37. 37. <ul><li>Provide ethics training </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ethics codes developed and posted for employees to read </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Provide opportunities for discussion of ethical decisions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Business schools requiring ethics courses </li></ul></ul>How to Prevent Corporate Crime
  38. 38. <ul><li>Develop Support for Whistle-Blowing </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Revealing wrongdoing within an organization </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Three choices: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Keep quiet and keep working </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Leave the situation </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Report the situation </li></ul></ul></ul>How to Prevent Corporate Crime
  39. 39. Total Person Insight <ul><li>All that is necessary for evil to triumph is for good men to do nothing </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Edmund Burke </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Nineteenth-century English political philosopher </li></ul></ul>
  40. 40. Whistle-blowing <ul><li>Organizations legally responsible to support whistle-blowing </li></ul><ul><li>You may be right, win your case, and still lose friends and/or job </li></ul><ul><li>May experience emotional and financial turmoil </li></ul>
  41. 41. Whistleblower Checklist <ul><li>Is this the only way? </li></ul><ul><li>Do I have the goods? </li></ul><ul><li>Why am I doing this? </li></ul><ul><li>Am I ready? </li></ul>
  42. 42. Values and Ethics in International Business <ul><li>Values and ethical choices are more complicated at the international level </li></ul><ul><li>Foreign Corrupt Practices Act </li></ul><ul><li>Global marketplace is ethical minefield </li></ul><ul><li>U.S. companies are a positive role model </li></ul>
  43. 43. Chapter Review <ul><li>Developing a strong sense of character </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A strong sense of character grows out of your personal standards of behavior </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Consistent behavior maintains your integrity </li></ul></ul>
  44. 44. Chapter Review <ul><li>How values are formed </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Values are the importance you give to an object or idea </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Values are the foundation of attitudes, preferences, opinions, and behavior </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Core values are formed early in life by people and events, family, religion, education, the media, and people you admire </li></ul></ul>
  45. 45. Chapter Review <ul><li>Value conflicts and how to resolve them </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Internal conflicts arise when you must choose between values </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Value conflicts with others are often based on age, racial, religious, gender, or ethnic differences </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Require skilled intervention to resolve </li></ul></ul>
  46. 46. Chapter Review <ul><li>Making ethical decisions based on personal values </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Clarify your personal values </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Distinguish right from wrong </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Avoid the pursuit of immediate gratification </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Choose an employer whose values you share </li></ul></ul>
  47. 47. Chapter Review <ul><li>Corporate crime and eliminating it </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Corporate values and ethics are receiving increasing attention </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Globalization increases need to consciously examine values and ethical standards </li></ul></ul>
  48. 48. Chapter Review <ul><li>Corporate crime and eliminating it </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Organizations </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Develop ethics codes to guide behaviors </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Hire individuals who share their values </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Offer ethics training </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Support whistle-blowing </li></ul></ul></ul>