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BA 15 Chapter 16
BA 15 Chapter 16
BA 15 Chapter 16
BA 15 Chapter 16
BA 15 Chapter 16
BA 15 Chapter 16
BA 15 Chapter 16
BA 15 Chapter 16
BA 15 Chapter 16
BA 15 Chapter 16
BA 15 Chapter 16
BA 15 Chapter 16
BA 15 Chapter 16
BA 15 Chapter 16
BA 15 Chapter 16
BA 15 Chapter 16
BA 15 Chapter 16
BA 15 Chapter 16
BA 15 Chapter 16
BA 15 Chapter 16
BA 15 Chapter 16
BA 15 Chapter 16
BA 15 Chapter 16
BA 15 Chapter 16
BA 15 Chapter 16
BA 15 Chapter 16
BA 15 Chapter 16
BA 15 Chapter 16
BA 15 Chapter 16
BA 15 Chapter 16
BA 15 Chapter 16
BA 15 Chapter 16
BA 15 Chapter 16
BA 15 Chapter 16
BA 15 Chapter 16
BA 15 Chapter 16
BA 15 Chapter 16
BA 15 Chapter 16
BA 15 Chapter 16
BA 15 Chapter 16
BA 15 Chapter 16
BA 15 Chapter 16
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BA 15 Chapter 16


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The Changing Roles of Men and Women

The Changing Roles of Men and Women

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  • 1. Chapter Sixteen The Changing Roles of Men and Women
  • 2. Chapter Preview: The Changing Roles of Men and Women
    • Changing traditional roles of men and women
    • Problems with gender bias in organizations
    • Coping with gender-biased behavior
    • Forms of sexual harassment and how to avoid it
  • 3. Traditional Roles Are Changing
    • All cultures promote a set of behaviors for boys and a set for girls
    • Reinforced throughout life by teachers, parents, authority figures and the media
    • Differences in expectations can be harmful to men and women
    • Gender bias, also known as sexism, is discrimination on the basis of gender
    • Gender bias is also a male issue
  • 4. Changes in the Roles of Women
    • Women are entering the workforce in record numbers
    • Women’s movement began in 1960’s
    • Challenges still exist
      • Balancing career with family
      • When and how long to leave the workforce
      • Reentering the workplace
      • Limited access to top-level jobs
  • 5. Figure 16.1 - Women in the U.S. Labor Force
  • 6. Changes in the Roles of Men
    • Many boys have been conditioned to be competitors and to win
    • Urged to be aggressive, to learn teamwork, select traditional male pastimes and enter “male” professions
    • Girls could be tomboys, but a boy could not be a “sissy”
    • A man was pressured to prove himself and keep moving up the career ladder
  • 7. The Burden of Stress
    • Stress associated with being male has been neglected
    • Many men are tired of
      • Being in control
      • Not expressing their feelings
      • Constantly striving for achievement
    • Many men are discovering that the traditional expectations are unhealthy and unrealistic
    • Men are learning to define the life they want
  • 8. Where Is the Balance?
    • Both men and women
      • Face conflicting messages as they re-examine their role in society
      • Realize that the joy of parenting can be just as satisfying as the achievement of career goals
      • Are often expected to maintain aggressive attitudes toward careers while being attentive parents and spouses
  • 9. Problems Facing Women
    • When women pursue careers, they often face three challenges:
      • The Wage Gap
      • The Glass Ceiling
      • Balancing career and family
  • 10. The Wage Gap
    • The wage gap is the difference between men’s and women’s earnings
    • Factors that impact the wage gap
      • Discrimination
      • Taking time off to have children
      • Willingness to accept lower pay
      • Not negotiating
  • 11. Figure 16.2 - Earnings Gap
  • 12. The Glass Ceiling
    • Offers women a view of top jobs, but blocks their ascent
    • Men believe major barriers are
      • Lack of significant general management and line experience
      • Less time in the “pipeline”
    • Women believe major barriers are
      • Preconceptions held by men
      • Exclusion of women from informal networks
  • 13. Total Person Insight
    • We believe that it is time for new metaphors to capture the subtle, systemic forms of discrimination that still linger. It’s not the ceiling that’s holding women back; it’s the whole structure of the organizations in which we work: the foundation, the beams, the walls, the very air.
    • Debra E. Meyerson and Joyce K. Fletcher
    • Professors, Center for Gender in Organizations,
    • Simmons Graduate School of Management
  • 14. Balancing Career and Family Choices
    • Most women will be working for pay for part or all of their adult lives
    • Work often provides valued relationships and intellectual stimulation
    • Multiple roles can be stressful and tiring
    • Women contribute to family income and do most of the family household chores
    • Long-standing work and family problems remain unresolved
  • 15. The “Mommy” Track
    • Women who want a career and children may have to accept that it will have some impact on their careers
    • Women who want both should consider
      • A career that will give the gift of time
      • A supportive partner
      • An employer that values work/life balance
      • Preparing to negotiate for policies and practices that are favorable to employees with children
  • 16. Problems Facing Men
    • Men are realizing that they also have been rigidly stereotyped in their roles
    • Men encounter resistance from family, coworkers and friends when they try to break out of these stereotypes
  • 17. Men Working with Women
    • Male attitudes toward female ambitions have changed over the years
    • Men learned that women are as smart and as ambitious as they are
    • Many men seem to be secure in their talents and welcome the opportunity to work beside equally confident women
    • They recognize that women can be excellent coworkers, team members, and leaders
  • 18. Balancing Career and Family Choices
    • Men also want work/life balance
    • The role of breadwinner versus homemaker
    • Conflicts of having it all
      • Marriage
      • Parenthood
      • Employment
      • Ownership
    • Paternity leave and discrimination
    • Healthy lifestyles and health care
  • 19. Challenges and Opportunities
    • Organizations are recognizing the demands placed on working people and are attempting to address problems
      • Quality child care
      • Flexible work hours
  • 20. The Challenge of Child Care
    • Mothers and fathers face overtime and unpredictable hours
    • Some companies offer
      • On-site day-care centers
      • Vouchers to help subsidize the parents’ costs for outside day-care
      • Pretax deductions of child-care costs
    • Childfree workers will resent extra work, holiday shifts, and weekends
  • 21. Figure 16.3 - A Two-way Street
  • 22. Flexible Work Schedule Opportunities
    • Flexible work hours ranks high on the list of desired benefits
      • Flextime
      • Compressed workweek
      • Job sharing
      • Telecommuting
  • 23. Figure 16.4 - Flextime in Action
  • 24. Coping with Gender-Biased Behavior
    • Woman in nontraditional roles may encounter resistance
    • It may not be clear how to act
    • Learn to
      • Control your own behavior
      • Confront the real obstacles
  • 25. Sexual Harassment in the Workplace
    • Unwelcome verbal or physical behavior in the work environment
    • Employers have a legal and moral responsibility to prevent it
    • Costs of sexual harassment include
      • Absenteeism
      • Staff turnover
      • Low morale
      • Low productivity
  • 26. Forms of Sexual Harassment
    • Quid pro quo (something for something) occurs when management threatens the job security or career potential of subordinate who refuses to submit to sexual advances
    • Hostile work environment occurs when a “reasonable person” believes behavior is sufficiently severe to create an abusive working environment
  • 27. How to Deal with Sexual Harassment
    • Unwelcome is the key word to determine if behavior is harassment
    • Victims should
      • Tell harasser that behavior is inappropriate
      • Record occurrence with dates and details
      • Talk with coworkers
      • Speak with a higher supervisor, if actions continue
  • 28. How to Deal with Sexual Harassment
    • Two court rulings
      • Companies can be held liable for a supervisor’s behavior
      • An employer can be liable when supervisor threatens to punish a worker for resisting sexual demands
  • 29. How to Deal with Sexual Harassment
    • Companies can
      • Develop a zero tolerance policy
      • Communicate it to employees
      • Make sure victims can report abuse without fear or retaliation
  • 30. Learn to Understand and Respect Gender Differences
    • Gender often acts as a filter that interferes with effective communication
    • Differences between men and women are often attributed to linguistic style
    • A series of culturally learned signals that we use to communicate what we mean
  • 31. Generalizations Concerning Gender-Specific Communication
    • Men
    • More direct
    • Dominate discussions
    • Interrupt to take turns
    • Work our solutions alone
    • Women
    • Emphasize politeness
    • Work out solutions with others
    • Speak with frequent pauses which are used for taking turns
  • 32. Generalizations Concerning Gender-Specific Communication
    • Men
    • Speak in a steady flow, free of pauses
    • Humor based on banter, teasing, witty exchange
    • Minimize doubts
    • Women
    • Humor based on anecdotes
    • More likely to make fun of self than others
    • Downplay their certainty
  • 33. A Few Words of Caution
    • Stereotypes are often too strong and inflexible
    • Overextension of a strength can become a weakness
    • Flex your style
  • 34. Table 16.1
  • 35. Total Person Insight
    • Men and women should learn from one another without abandoning successful traits they already possess. Men can learn to be more collaborative and intuitive, yet remain result-oriented. Women need not give up being nurturing in order to learn to be comfortable with power and conflict.
    • Alice Sargeant
    • Author, The Androgynous Manager
  • 36. Learn New Organizational Etiquette
    • As more women enter into upper levels of management, new rules of etiquette may be required
    • There are some guidelines for helping us understand how to act in these new situations
  • 37. Guidelines for New Organizational Etiquette
    • Both men and women should rise when a visitor enters the office
    • Whoever has a free hand should assist anyone in need
    • Men and women should share clerical duties
      • note taking, answering phones, getting coffee
  • 38. Guidelines for New Organizational Etiquette
    • Whoever arrives at a door first should open it
    • Whoever extends an invitation for lunch or dinner should pay the tab
    • Written materials should use gender-free language
  • 39. Chapter Review
    • Changing traditional roles of men and women
      • Traditional roles limit opportunities
      • Many men and women are breaking out of traditional roles
      • Women have entered the job world in increasing numbers
      • Men and women have a wider range of choices regarding marriage and children
      • Organizations are offering job sharing, flextime, and home-based work
  • 40. Chapter Review
    • Problems with gender bias in organizations
      • Women are still subject to a wage gap
      • The glass ceiling gives women a view of top-level jobs but blocks their ascent
      • Problems may be men’s preconceptions of women and exclusion of women from informal networks
      • Myth that men must be emotionally controlled, unexpressive, logical and achievement oriented
      • Men are choosing more personally rewarding careers that allow time for family
  • 41. Chapter Review
    • Coping with gender-biased behavior
      • Methods
        • Sexual harassment policies
        • Effective communication with the opposite gender
        • Observing the new rules of etiquette in the workplace
  • 42. Chapter Review
    • Forms of sexual harassment and how to avoid it
      • Sexual harassment may be a problem for men as well as women
        • Quid pro quo
        • Hostile work environment
      • Organizations have developed guidelines
        • Avoid harassment
        • Fight it when it occurs