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BA 15 Chapter 16
 

BA 15 Chapter 16

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The Changing Roles of Men and Women

The Changing Roles of Men and Women

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    BA 15 Chapter 16 BA 15 Chapter 16 Presentation Transcript

    • Chapter Sixteen The Changing Roles of Men and Women
    • Chapter Preview: The Changing Roles of Men and Women
      • Changing traditional roles of men and women
      • Problems with gender bias in organizations
      • Coping with gender-biased behavior
      • Forms of sexual harassment and how to avoid it
    • Traditional Roles Are Changing
      • All cultures promote a set of behaviors for boys and a set for girls
      • Reinforced throughout life by teachers, parents, authority figures and the media
      • Differences in expectations can be harmful to men and women
      • Gender bias, also known as sexism, is discrimination on the basis of gender
      • Gender bias is also a male issue
    • Changes in the Roles of Women
      • Women are entering the workforce in record numbers
      • Women’s movement began in 1960’s
      • Challenges still exist
        • Balancing career with family
        • When and how long to leave the workforce
        • Reentering the workplace
        • Limited access to top-level jobs
    • Figure 16.1 - Women in the U.S. Labor Force
    • Changes in the Roles of Men
      • Many boys have been conditioned to be competitors and to win
      • Urged to be aggressive, to learn teamwork, select traditional male pastimes and enter “male” professions
      • Girls could be tomboys, but a boy could not be a “sissy”
      • A man was pressured to prove himself and keep moving up the career ladder
    • The Burden of Stress
      • Stress associated with being male has been neglected
      • Many men are tired of
        • Being in control
        • Not expressing their feelings
        • Constantly striving for achievement
      • Many men are discovering that the traditional expectations are unhealthy and unrealistic
      • Men are learning to define the life they want
    • Where Is the Balance?
      • Both men and women
        • Face conflicting messages as they re-examine their role in society
        • Realize that the joy of parenting can be just as satisfying as the achievement of career goals
        • Are often expected to maintain aggressive attitudes toward careers while being attentive parents and spouses
    • Problems Facing Women
      • When women pursue careers, they often face three challenges:
        • The Wage Gap
        • The Glass Ceiling
        • Balancing career and family
    • The Wage Gap
      • The wage gap is the difference between men’s and women’s earnings
      • Factors that impact the wage gap
        • Discrimination
        • Taking time off to have children
        • Willingness to accept lower pay
        • Not negotiating
    • Figure 16.2 - Earnings Gap
    • The Glass Ceiling
      • Offers women a view of top jobs, but blocks their ascent
      • Men believe major barriers are
        • Lack of significant general management and line experience
        • Less time in the “pipeline”
      • Women believe major barriers are
        • Preconceptions held by men
        • Exclusion of women from informal networks
    • Total Person Insight
      • We believe that it is time for new metaphors to capture the subtle, systemic forms of discrimination that still linger. It’s not the ceiling that’s holding women back; it’s the whole structure of the organizations in which we work: the foundation, the beams, the walls, the very air.
      • Debra E. Meyerson and Joyce K. Fletcher
      • Professors, Center for Gender in Organizations,
      • Simmons Graduate School of Management
    • Balancing Career and Family Choices
      • Most women will be working for pay for part or all of their adult lives
      • Work often provides valued relationships and intellectual stimulation
      • Multiple roles can be stressful and tiring
      • Women contribute to family income and do most of the family household chores
      • Long-standing work and family problems remain unresolved
    • The “Mommy” Track
      • Women who want a career and children may have to accept that it will have some impact on their careers
      • Women who want both should consider
        • A career that will give the gift of time
        • A supportive partner
        • An employer that values work/life balance
        • Preparing to negotiate for policies and practices that are favorable to employees with children
    • Problems Facing Men
      • Men are realizing that they also have been rigidly stereotyped in their roles
      • Men encounter resistance from family, coworkers and friends when they try to break out of these stereotypes
    • Men Working with Women
      • Male attitudes toward female ambitions have changed over the years
      • Men learned that women are as smart and as ambitious as they are
      • Many men seem to be secure in their talents and welcome the opportunity to work beside equally confident women
      • They recognize that women can be excellent coworkers, team members, and leaders
    • Balancing Career and Family Choices
      • Men also want work/life balance
      • The role of breadwinner versus homemaker
      • Conflicts of having it all
        • Marriage
        • Parenthood
        • Employment
        • Ownership
      • Paternity leave and discrimination
      • Healthy lifestyles and health care
    • Challenges and Opportunities
      • Organizations are recognizing the demands placed on working people and are attempting to address problems
        • Quality child care
        • Flexible work hours
    • The Challenge of Child Care
      • Mothers and fathers face overtime and unpredictable hours
      • Some companies offer
        • On-site day-care centers
        • Vouchers to help subsidize the parents’ costs for outside day-care
        • Pretax deductions of child-care costs
      • Childfree workers will resent extra work, holiday shifts, and weekends
    • Figure 16.3 - A Two-way Street
    • Flexible Work Schedule Opportunities
      • Flexible work hours ranks high on the list of desired benefits
        • Flextime
        • Compressed workweek
        • Job sharing
        • Telecommuting
    • Figure 16.4 - Flextime in Action
    • Coping with Gender-Biased Behavior
      • Woman in nontraditional roles may encounter resistance
      • It may not be clear how to act
      • Learn to
        • Control your own behavior
        • Confront the real obstacles
    • Sexual Harassment in the Workplace
      • Unwelcome verbal or physical behavior in the work environment
      • Employers have a legal and moral responsibility to prevent it
      • Costs of sexual harassment include
        • Absenteeism
        • Staff turnover
        • Low morale
        • Low productivity
    • Forms of Sexual Harassment
      • Quid pro quo (something for something) occurs when management threatens the job security or career potential of subordinate who refuses to submit to sexual advances
      • Hostile work environment occurs when a “reasonable person” believes behavior is sufficiently severe to create an abusive working environment
    • How to Deal with Sexual Harassment
      • Unwelcome is the key word to determine if behavior is harassment
      • Victims should
        • Tell harasser that behavior is inappropriate
        • Record occurrence with dates and details
        • Talk with coworkers
        • Speak with a higher supervisor, if actions continue
    • How to Deal with Sexual Harassment
      • Two court rulings
        • Companies can be held liable for a supervisor’s behavior
        • An employer can be liable when supervisor threatens to punish a worker for resisting sexual demands
    • How to Deal with Sexual Harassment
      • Companies can
        • Develop a zero tolerance policy
        • Communicate it to employees
        • Make sure victims can report abuse without fear or retaliation
    • Learn to Understand and Respect Gender Differences
      • Gender often acts as a filter that interferes with effective communication
      • Differences between men and women are often attributed to linguistic style
      • A series of culturally learned signals that we use to communicate what we mean
    • Generalizations Concerning Gender-Specific Communication
      • Men
      • More direct
      • Dominate discussions
      • Interrupt to take turns
      • Work our solutions alone
      • Women
      • Emphasize politeness
      • Work out solutions with others
      • Speak with frequent pauses which are used for taking turns
    • Generalizations Concerning Gender-Specific Communication
      • Men
      • Speak in a steady flow, free of pauses
      • Humor based on banter, teasing, witty exchange
      • Minimize doubts
      • Women
      • Humor based on anecdotes
      • More likely to make fun of self than others
      • Downplay their certainty
    • A Few Words of Caution
      • Stereotypes are often too strong and inflexible
      • Overextension of a strength can become a weakness
      • Flex your style
    • Table 16.1
    • Total Person Insight
      • Men and women should learn from one another without abandoning successful traits they already possess. Men can learn to be more collaborative and intuitive, yet remain result-oriented. Women need not give up being nurturing in order to learn to be comfortable with power and conflict.
      • Alice Sargeant
      • Author, The Androgynous Manager
    • Learn New Organizational Etiquette
      • As more women enter into upper levels of management, new rules of etiquette may be required
      • There are some guidelines for helping us understand how to act in these new situations
    • Guidelines for New Organizational Etiquette
      • Both men and women should rise when a visitor enters the office
      • Whoever has a free hand should assist anyone in need
      • Men and women should share clerical duties
        • note taking, answering phones, getting coffee
    • Guidelines for New Organizational Etiquette
      • Whoever arrives at a door first should open it
      • Whoever extends an invitation for lunch or dinner should pay the tab
      • Written materials should use gender-free language
    • Chapter Review
      • Changing traditional roles of men and women
        • Traditional roles limit opportunities
        • Many men and women are breaking out of traditional roles
        • Women have entered the job world in increasing numbers
        • Men and women have a wider range of choices regarding marriage and children
        • Organizations are offering job sharing, flextime, and home-based work
    • Chapter Review
      • Problems with gender bias in organizations
        • Women are still subject to a wage gap
        • The glass ceiling gives women a view of top-level jobs but blocks their ascent
        • Problems may be men’s preconceptions of women and exclusion of women from informal networks
        • Myth that men must be emotionally controlled, unexpressive, logical and achievement oriented
        • Men are choosing more personally rewarding careers that allow time for family
    • Chapter Review
      • Coping with gender-biased behavior
        • Methods
          • Sexual harassment policies
          • Effective communication with the opposite gender
          • Observing the new rules of etiquette in the workplace
    • Chapter Review
      • Forms of sexual harassment and how to avoid it
        • Sexual harassment may be a problem for men as well as women
          • Quid pro quo
          • Hostile work environment
        • Organizations have developed guidelines
          • Avoid harassment
          • Fight it when it occurs