BA 15 Chapter 16

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The Changing Roles of Men and Women

The Changing Roles of Men and Women

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  • 1. Chapter Sixteen The Changing Roles of Men and Women
  • 2. Chapter Preview: The Changing Roles of Men and Women
    • Changing traditional roles of men and women
    • Problems with gender bias in organizations
    • Coping with gender-biased behavior
    • Forms of sexual harassment and how to avoid it
  • 3. Traditional Roles Are Changing
    • All cultures promote a set of behaviors for boys and a set for girls
    • Reinforced throughout life by teachers, parents, authority figures and the media
    • Differences in expectations can be harmful to men and women
    • Gender bias, also known as sexism, is discrimination on the basis of gender
    • Gender bias is also a male issue
  • 4. Changes in the Roles of Women
    • Women are entering the workforce in record numbers
    • Women’s movement began in 1960’s
    • Challenges still exist
      • Balancing career with family
      • When and how long to leave the workforce
      • Reentering the workplace
      • Limited access to top-level jobs
  • 5. Figure 16.1 - Women in the U.S. Labor Force
  • 6. Changes in the Roles of Men
    • Many boys have been conditioned to be competitors and to win
    • Urged to be aggressive, to learn teamwork, select traditional male pastimes and enter “male” professions
    • Girls could be tomboys, but a boy could not be a “sissy”
    • A man was pressured to prove himself and keep moving up the career ladder
  • 7. The Burden of Stress
    • Stress associated with being male has been neglected
    • Many men are tired of
      • Being in control
      • Not expressing their feelings
      • Constantly striving for achievement
    • Many men are discovering that the traditional expectations are unhealthy and unrealistic
    • Men are learning to define the life they want
  • 8. Where Is the Balance?
    • Both men and women
      • Face conflicting messages as they re-examine their role in society
      • Realize that the joy of parenting can be just as satisfying as the achievement of career goals
      • Are often expected to maintain aggressive attitudes toward careers while being attentive parents and spouses
  • 9. Problems Facing Women
    • When women pursue careers, they often face three challenges:
      • The Wage Gap
      • The Glass Ceiling
      • Balancing career and family
  • 10. The Wage Gap
    • The wage gap is the difference between men’s and women’s earnings
    • Factors that impact the wage gap
      • Discrimination
      • Taking time off to have children
      • Willingness to accept lower pay
      • Not negotiating
  • 11. Figure 16.2 - Earnings Gap
  • 12. The Glass Ceiling
    • Offers women a view of top jobs, but blocks their ascent
    • Men believe major barriers are
      • Lack of significant general management and line experience
      • Less time in the “pipeline”
    • Women believe major barriers are
      • Preconceptions held by men
      • Exclusion of women from informal networks
  • 13. Total Person Insight
    • We believe that it is time for new metaphors to capture the subtle, systemic forms of discrimination that still linger. It’s not the ceiling that’s holding women back; it’s the whole structure of the organizations in which we work: the foundation, the beams, the walls, the very air.
    • Debra E. Meyerson and Joyce K. Fletcher
    • Professors, Center for Gender in Organizations,
    • Simmons Graduate School of Management
  • 14. Balancing Career and Family Choices
    • Most women will be working for pay for part or all of their adult lives
    • Work often provides valued relationships and intellectual stimulation
    • Multiple roles can be stressful and tiring
    • Women contribute to family income and do most of the family household chores
    • Long-standing work and family problems remain unresolved
  • 15. The “Mommy” Track
    • Women who want a career and children may have to accept that it will have some impact on their careers
    • Women who want both should consider
      • A career that will give the gift of time
      • A supportive partner
      • An employer that values work/life balance
      • Preparing to negotiate for policies and practices that are favorable to employees with children
  • 16. Problems Facing Men
    • Men are realizing that they also have been rigidly stereotyped in their roles
    • Men encounter resistance from family, coworkers and friends when they try to break out of these stereotypes
  • 17. Men Working with Women
    • Male attitudes toward female ambitions have changed over the years
    • Men learned that women are as smart and as ambitious as they are
    • Many men seem to be secure in their talents and welcome the opportunity to work beside equally confident women
    • They recognize that women can be excellent coworkers, team members, and leaders
  • 18. Balancing Career and Family Choices
    • Men also want work/life balance
    • The role of breadwinner versus homemaker
    • Conflicts of having it all
      • Marriage
      • Parenthood
      • Employment
      • Ownership
    • Paternity leave and discrimination
    • Healthy lifestyles and health care
  • 19. Challenges and Opportunities
    • Organizations are recognizing the demands placed on working people and are attempting to address problems
      • Quality child care
      • Flexible work hours
  • 20. The Challenge of Child Care
    • Mothers and fathers face overtime and unpredictable hours
    • Some companies offer
      • On-site day-care centers
      • Vouchers to help subsidize the parents’ costs for outside day-care
      • Pretax deductions of child-care costs
    • Childfree workers will resent extra work, holiday shifts, and weekends
  • 21. Figure 16.3 - A Two-way Street
  • 22. Flexible Work Schedule Opportunities
    • Flexible work hours ranks high on the list of desired benefits
      • Flextime
      • Compressed workweek
      • Job sharing
      • Telecommuting
  • 23. Figure 16.4 - Flextime in Action
  • 24. Coping with Gender-Biased Behavior
    • Woman in nontraditional roles may encounter resistance
    • It may not be clear how to act
    • Learn to
      • Control your own behavior
      • Confront the real obstacles
  • 25. Sexual Harassment in the Workplace
    • Unwelcome verbal or physical behavior in the work environment
    • Employers have a legal and moral responsibility to prevent it
    • Costs of sexual harassment include
      • Absenteeism
      • Staff turnover
      • Low morale
      • Low productivity
  • 26. Forms of Sexual Harassment
    • Quid pro quo (something for something) occurs when management threatens the job security or career potential of subordinate who refuses to submit to sexual advances
    • Hostile work environment occurs when a “reasonable person” believes behavior is sufficiently severe to create an abusive working environment
  • 27. How to Deal with Sexual Harassment
    • Unwelcome is the key word to determine if behavior is harassment
    • Victims should
      • Tell harasser that behavior is inappropriate
      • Record occurrence with dates and details
      • Talk with coworkers
      • Speak with a higher supervisor, if actions continue
  • 28. How to Deal with Sexual Harassment
    • Two court rulings
      • Companies can be held liable for a supervisor’s behavior
      • An employer can be liable when supervisor threatens to punish a worker for resisting sexual demands
  • 29. How to Deal with Sexual Harassment
    • Companies can
      • Develop a zero tolerance policy
      • Communicate it to employees
      • Make sure victims can report abuse without fear or retaliation
  • 30. Learn to Understand and Respect Gender Differences
    • Gender often acts as a filter that interferes with effective communication
    • Differences between men and women are often attributed to linguistic style
    • A series of culturally learned signals that we use to communicate what we mean
  • 31. Generalizations Concerning Gender-Specific Communication
    • Men
    • More direct
    • Dominate discussions
    • Interrupt to take turns
    • Work our solutions alone
    • Women
    • Emphasize politeness
    • Work out solutions with others
    • Speak with frequent pauses which are used for taking turns
  • 32. Generalizations Concerning Gender-Specific Communication
    • Men
    • Speak in a steady flow, free of pauses
    • Humor based on banter, teasing, witty exchange
    • Minimize doubts
    • Women
    • Humor based on anecdotes
    • More likely to make fun of self than others
    • Downplay their certainty
  • 33. A Few Words of Caution
    • Stereotypes are often too strong and inflexible
    • Overextension of a strength can become a weakness
    • Flex your style
  • 34. Table 16.1
  • 35. Total Person Insight
    • Men and women should learn from one another without abandoning successful traits they already possess. Men can learn to be more collaborative and intuitive, yet remain result-oriented. Women need not give up being nurturing in order to learn to be comfortable with power and conflict.
    • Alice Sargeant
    • Author, The Androgynous Manager
  • 36. Learn New Organizational Etiquette
    • As more women enter into upper levels of management, new rules of etiquette may be required
    • There are some guidelines for helping us understand how to act in these new situations
  • 37. Guidelines for New Organizational Etiquette
    • Both men and women should rise when a visitor enters the office
    • Whoever has a free hand should assist anyone in need
    • Men and women should share clerical duties
      • note taking, answering phones, getting coffee
  • 38. Guidelines for New Organizational Etiquette
    • Whoever arrives at a door first should open it
    • Whoever extends an invitation for lunch or dinner should pay the tab
    • Written materials should use gender-free language
  • 39. Chapter Review
    • Changing traditional roles of men and women
      • Traditional roles limit opportunities
      • Many men and women are breaking out of traditional roles
      • Women have entered the job world in increasing numbers
      • Men and women have a wider range of choices regarding marriage and children
      • Organizations are offering job sharing, flextime, and home-based work
  • 40. Chapter Review
    • Problems with gender bias in organizations
      • Women are still subject to a wage gap
      • The glass ceiling gives women a view of top-level jobs but blocks their ascent
      • Problems may be men’s preconceptions of women and exclusion of women from informal networks
      • Myth that men must be emotionally controlled, unexpressive, logical and achievement oriented
      • Men are choosing more personally rewarding careers that allow time for family
  • 41. Chapter Review
    • Coping with gender-biased behavior
      • Methods
        • Sexual harassment policies
        • Effective communication with the opposite gender
        • Observing the new rules of etiquette in the workplace
  • 42. Chapter Review
    • Forms of sexual harassment and how to avoid it
      • Sexual harassment may be a problem for men as well as women
        • Quid pro quo
        • Hostile work environment
      • Organizations have developed guidelines
        • Avoid harassment
        • Fight it when it occurs