BA 15 Chapter 16


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The Changing Roles of Men and Women

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BA 15 Chapter 16

  1. 1. Chapter Sixteen The Changing Roles of Men and Women
  2. 2. Chapter Preview: The Changing Roles of Men and Women <ul><li>Changing traditional roles of men and women </li></ul><ul><li>Problems with gender bias in organizations </li></ul><ul><li>Coping with gender-biased behavior </li></ul><ul><li>Forms of sexual harassment and how to avoid it </li></ul>
  3. 3. Traditional Roles Are Changing <ul><li>All cultures promote a set of behaviors for boys and a set for girls </li></ul><ul><li>Reinforced throughout life by teachers, parents, authority figures and the media </li></ul><ul><li>Differences in expectations can be harmful to men and women </li></ul><ul><li>Gender bias, also known as sexism, is discrimination on the basis of gender </li></ul><ul><li>Gender bias is also a male issue </li></ul>
  4. 4. Changes in the Roles of Women <ul><li>Women are entering the workforce in record numbers </li></ul><ul><li>Women’s movement began in 1960’s </li></ul><ul><li>Challenges still exist </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Balancing career with family </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>When and how long to leave the workforce </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reentering the workplace </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Limited access to top-level jobs </li></ul></ul>
  5. 5. Figure 16.1 - Women in the U.S. Labor Force
  6. 6. Changes in the Roles of Men <ul><li>Many boys have been conditioned to be competitors and to win </li></ul><ul><li>Urged to be aggressive, to learn teamwork, select traditional male pastimes and enter “male” professions </li></ul><ul><li>Girls could be tomboys, but a boy could not be a “sissy” </li></ul><ul><li>A man was pressured to prove himself and keep moving up the career ladder </li></ul>
  7. 7. The Burden of Stress <ul><li>Stress associated with being male has been neglected </li></ul><ul><li>Many men are tired of </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Being in control </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Not expressing their feelings </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Constantly striving for achievement </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Many men are discovering that the traditional expectations are unhealthy and unrealistic </li></ul><ul><li>Men are learning to define the life they want </li></ul>
  8. 8. Where Is the Balance? <ul><li>Both men and women </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Face conflicting messages as they re-examine their role in society </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Realize that the joy of parenting can be just as satisfying as the achievement of career goals </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Are often expected to maintain aggressive attitudes toward careers while being attentive parents and spouses </li></ul></ul>
  9. 9. Problems Facing Women <ul><li>When women pursue careers, they often face three challenges: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The Wage Gap </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The Glass Ceiling </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Balancing career and family </li></ul></ul>
  10. 10. The Wage Gap <ul><li>The wage gap is the difference between men’s and women’s earnings </li></ul><ul><li>Factors that impact the wage gap </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Discrimination </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Taking time off to have children </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Willingness to accept lower pay </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Not negotiating </li></ul></ul>
  11. 11. Figure 16.2 - Earnings Gap
  12. 12. The Glass Ceiling <ul><li>Offers women a view of top jobs, but blocks their ascent </li></ul><ul><li>Men believe major barriers are </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Lack of significant general management and line experience </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Less time in the “pipeline” </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Women believe major barriers are </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Preconceptions held by men </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Exclusion of women from informal networks </li></ul></ul>
  13. 13. Total Person Insight <ul><li>We believe that it is time for new metaphors to capture the subtle, systemic forms of discrimination that still linger. It’s not the ceiling that’s holding women back; it’s the whole structure of the organizations in which we work: the foundation, the beams, the walls, the very air. </li></ul><ul><li>Debra E. Meyerson and Joyce K. Fletcher </li></ul><ul><li>Professors, Center for Gender in Organizations, </li></ul><ul><li>Simmons Graduate School of Management </li></ul>
  14. 14. Balancing Career and Family Choices <ul><li>Most women will be working for pay for part or all of their adult lives </li></ul><ul><li>Work often provides valued relationships and intellectual stimulation </li></ul><ul><li>Multiple roles can be stressful and tiring </li></ul><ul><li>Women contribute to family income and do most of the family household chores </li></ul><ul><li>Long-standing work and family problems remain unresolved </li></ul>
  15. 15. The “Mommy” Track <ul><li>Women who want a career and children may have to accept that it will have some impact on their careers </li></ul><ul><li>Women who want both should consider </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A career that will give the gift of time </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A supportive partner </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>An employer that values work/life balance </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Preparing to negotiate for policies and practices that are favorable to employees with children </li></ul></ul>
  16. 16. Problems Facing Men <ul><li>Men are realizing that they also have been rigidly stereotyped in their roles </li></ul><ul><li>Men encounter resistance from family, coworkers and friends when they try to break out of these stereotypes </li></ul>
  17. 17. Men Working with Women <ul><li>Male attitudes toward female ambitions have changed over the years </li></ul><ul><li>Men learned that women are as smart and as ambitious as they are </li></ul><ul><li>Many men seem to be secure in their talents and welcome the opportunity to work beside equally confident women </li></ul><ul><li>They recognize that women can be excellent coworkers, team members, and leaders </li></ul>
  18. 18. Balancing Career and Family Choices <ul><li>Men also want work/life balance </li></ul><ul><li>The role of breadwinner versus homemaker </li></ul><ul><li>Conflicts of having it all </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Marriage </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Parenthood </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Employment </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ownership </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Paternity leave and discrimination </li></ul><ul><li>Healthy lifestyles and health care </li></ul>
  19. 19. Challenges and Opportunities <ul><li>Organizations are recognizing the demands placed on working people and are attempting to address problems </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Quality child care </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Flexible work hours </li></ul></ul>
  20. 20. The Challenge of Child Care <ul><li>Mothers and fathers face overtime and unpredictable hours </li></ul><ul><li>Some companies offer </li></ul><ul><ul><li>On-site day-care centers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Vouchers to help subsidize the parents’ costs for outside day-care </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Pretax deductions of child-care costs </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Childfree workers will resent extra work, holiday shifts, and weekends </li></ul>
  21. 21. Figure 16.3 - A Two-way Street
  22. 22. Flexible Work Schedule Opportunities <ul><li>Flexible work hours ranks high on the list of desired benefits </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Flextime </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Compressed workweek </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Job sharing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Telecommuting </li></ul></ul>
  23. 23. Figure 16.4 - Flextime in Action
  24. 24. Coping with Gender-Biased Behavior <ul><li>Woman in nontraditional roles may encounter resistance </li></ul><ul><li>It may not be clear how to act </li></ul><ul><li>Learn to </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Control your own behavior </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Confront the real obstacles </li></ul></ul>
  25. 25. Sexual Harassment in the Workplace <ul><li>Unwelcome verbal or physical behavior in the work environment </li></ul><ul><li>Employers have a legal and moral responsibility to prevent it </li></ul><ul><li>Costs of sexual harassment include </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Absenteeism </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Staff turnover </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Low morale </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Low productivity </li></ul></ul>
  26. 26. Forms of Sexual Harassment <ul><li>Quid pro quo (something for something) occurs when management threatens the job security or career potential of subordinate who refuses to submit to sexual advances </li></ul><ul><li>Hostile work environment occurs when a “reasonable person” believes behavior is sufficiently severe to create an abusive working environment </li></ul>
  27. 27. How to Deal with Sexual Harassment <ul><li>Unwelcome is the key word to determine if behavior is harassment </li></ul><ul><li>Victims should </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Tell harasser that behavior is inappropriate </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Record occurrence with dates and details </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Talk with coworkers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Speak with a higher supervisor, if actions continue </li></ul></ul>
  28. 28. How to Deal with Sexual Harassment <ul><li>Two court rulings </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Companies can be held liable for a supervisor’s behavior </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>An employer can be liable when supervisor threatens to punish a worker for resisting sexual demands </li></ul></ul>
  29. 29. How to Deal with Sexual Harassment <ul><li>Companies can </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Develop a zero tolerance policy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Communicate it to employees </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Make sure victims can report abuse without fear or retaliation </li></ul></ul>
  30. 30. Learn to Understand and Respect Gender Differences <ul><li>Gender often acts as a filter that interferes with effective communication </li></ul><ul><li>Differences between men and women are often attributed to linguistic style </li></ul><ul><li>A series of culturally learned signals that we use to communicate what we mean </li></ul>
  31. 31. Generalizations Concerning Gender-Specific Communication <ul><li>Men </li></ul><ul><li>More direct </li></ul><ul><li>Dominate discussions </li></ul><ul><li>Interrupt to take turns </li></ul><ul><li>Work our solutions alone </li></ul><ul><li>Women </li></ul><ul><li>Emphasize politeness </li></ul><ul><li>Work out solutions with others </li></ul><ul><li>Speak with frequent pauses which are used for taking turns </li></ul>
  32. 32. Generalizations Concerning Gender-Specific Communication <ul><li>Men </li></ul><ul><li>Speak in a steady flow, free of pauses </li></ul><ul><li>Humor based on banter, teasing, witty exchange </li></ul><ul><li>Minimize doubts </li></ul><ul><li>Women </li></ul><ul><li>Humor based on anecdotes </li></ul><ul><li>More likely to make fun of self than others </li></ul><ul><li>Downplay their certainty </li></ul>
  33. 33. A Few Words of Caution <ul><li>Stereotypes are often too strong and inflexible </li></ul><ul><li>Overextension of a strength can become a weakness </li></ul><ul><li>Flex your style </li></ul>
  34. 34. Table 16.1
  35. 35. Total Person Insight <ul><li>Men and women should learn from one another without abandoning successful traits they already possess. Men can learn to be more collaborative and intuitive, yet remain result-oriented. Women need not give up being nurturing in order to learn to be comfortable with power and conflict. </li></ul><ul><li>Alice Sargeant </li></ul><ul><li>Author, The Androgynous Manager </li></ul>
  36. 36. Learn New Organizational Etiquette <ul><li>As more women enter into upper levels of management, new rules of etiquette may be required </li></ul><ul><li>There are some guidelines for helping us understand how to act in these new situations </li></ul>
  37. 37. Guidelines for New Organizational Etiquette <ul><li>Both men and women should rise when a visitor enters the office </li></ul><ul><li>Whoever has a free hand should assist anyone in need </li></ul><ul><li>Men and women should share clerical duties </li></ul><ul><ul><li>note taking, answering phones, getting coffee </li></ul></ul>
  38. 38. Guidelines for New Organizational Etiquette <ul><li>Whoever arrives at a door first should open it </li></ul><ul><li>Whoever extends an invitation for lunch or dinner should pay the tab </li></ul><ul><li>Written materials should use gender-free language </li></ul>
  39. 39. Chapter Review <ul><li>Changing traditional roles of men and women </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Traditional roles limit opportunities </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Many men and women are breaking out of traditional roles </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Women have entered the job world in increasing numbers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Men and women have a wider range of choices regarding marriage and children </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Organizations are offering job sharing, flextime, and home-based work </li></ul></ul>
  40. 40. Chapter Review <ul><li>Problems with gender bias in organizations </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Women are still subject to a wage gap </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The glass ceiling gives women a view of top-level jobs but blocks their ascent </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Problems may be men’s preconceptions of women and exclusion of women from informal networks </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Myth that men must be emotionally controlled, unexpressive, logical and achievement oriented </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Men are choosing more personally rewarding careers that allow time for family </li></ul></ul>
  41. 41. Chapter Review <ul><li>Coping with gender-biased behavior </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Methods </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Sexual harassment policies </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Effective communication with the opposite gender </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Observing the new rules of etiquette in the workplace </li></ul></ul></ul>
  42. 42. Chapter Review <ul><li>Forms of sexual harassment and how to avoid it </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Sexual harassment may be a problem for men as well as women </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Quid pro quo </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Hostile work environment </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Organizations have developed guidelines </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Avoid harassment </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Fight it when it occurs </li></ul></ul></ul>