BA 15 Chapter 13


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Resolving Conflict and Dealing with Difficult People

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BA 15 Chapter 13

  1. 1. Chapter Thirteen Resolving Conflict and Dealing with Difficult People
  2. 2. Chapter Preview: Resolving Conflict and Dealing with Difficult People <ul><li>Major causes of conflict in the work setting </li></ul><ul><li>Assertiveness skills in conflict situations </li></ul><ul><li>Effective negotiation skills </li></ul><ul><li>The conflict resolution process </li></ul><ul><li>Contemporary challenges facing labor unions </li></ul>
  3. 3. Views of Conflict <ul><li>Traditional view: a clash between incompatible people, ideas, or interests </li></ul><ul><li>New view: an opportunity for personal growth </li></ul><ul><li>Discovering resolutions to conflict may </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Clarify a relationship </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Broaden thinking about the source </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Open people to new points of view </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Too much agreement is not always healthy in an organization </li></ul>
  4. 4. Finding the Root of Conflict <ul><li>Unless the root cause is identified, it is likely to recur </li></ul><ul><li>If the root cause… </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Stimulates constructive conflict, it can be allowed to continue </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Stimulates destructive conflict, steps need to be taken to correct the problem </li></ul></ul>
  5. 5. Organizational Change <ul><li>Most organizations have tension between stability and change </li></ul><ul><li>Too much stability and the organization may lose its competitive position in the market place </li></ul><ul><li>Too much change and the mission blurs and employee anxiety develops </li></ul>
  6. 6. Ineffective Communication <ul><li>When different people work closely together, communication breakdowns are inevitable </li></ul><ul><li>For a misunderstanding </li></ul><ul><ul><li>explain your position or provide more details </li></ul></ul><ul><li>For true disagreements </li></ul><ul><ul><li>persuading one or both parties to change positions may be necessary </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>root problem will persist until someone changes </li></ul></ul>
  7. 7. Value and Culture Clashes <ul><li>Conflict may be due to value differences between individuals </li></ul><ul><li>Work force reflects cultural diversity </li></ul><ul><li>Different cultural traditions can easily come into conflict in the workplace </li></ul><ul><li>Issues range from simple to complex </li></ul>
  8. 8. Work Policies and Practices <ul><li>Conflict may happen when </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Organizations maintain confusing or arbitrary rules, regulations and performance standards </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Managers fail to recognize that employees perceive policies as unfair </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Workers refuse to comply with rules or work their fair share </li></ul></ul>
  9. 9. Adversarial Management <ul><li>Conflict can occur when managers view employees and other managers with distrust and suspicion </li></ul><ul><li>View others as “the enemy” </li></ul><ul><li>Leads to a lack of respect by employees </li></ul><ul><li>Makes teamwork and cooperation difficult </li></ul>
  10. 10. Competition for Scarce Resources <ul><li>Downsizing and cost cutting can lead to destructive competition for scarce resources </li></ul><ul><li>When decisions are not clearly explained, workers suspect coworkers of devious tactics </li></ul>
  11. 11. Personality Clashes <ul><li>People have differing </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Communication styles </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Temperaments </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Attitudes </li></ul></ul><ul><li>People may not be able to identify cause of dislike </li></ul><ul><li>Even people who get along well in the beginning of their work relationship may begin to clash after many years </li></ul>
  12. 12. Resolving Conflict Assertively <ul><li>Conflict is often uncomfortable </li></ul><ul><li>People who exhibit assertive behavior skills are able to </li></ul><ul><ul><li>handle conflicts with greater assurance </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>maintain good interpersonal relations </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Nonassertive behavior ignores the problem </li></ul><ul><li>Aggressive behavior violates the rights of others </li></ul>
  13. 13. Figure 13.1 - Dealing with People You Can't Stand
  14. 14. How to Become More Assertive <ul><li>You can learn to express wants, dislikes and feelings in a clear and direct manner without threatening or attacking others </li></ul><ul><li>In the beginning, take small steps </li></ul><ul><li>Use communication skills that enhance assertiveness </li></ul><ul><li>Be soft on people and hard on problems </li></ul>
  15. 15. Learn to Negotiate Effectively <ul><li>Traditionally supervisors resolved conflict, today empowered workers resolve it themselves </li></ul><ul><li>Think win/win </li></ul><ul><li>Beware of defensive behaviors </li></ul><ul><li>Know that negotiating styles vary </li></ul>
  16. 16. The Win/Lose Strategy <ul><li>Attempts to achieve goals at the expense of others </li></ul><ul><li>Short-term solution only </li></ul><ul><li>Doesn’t address the underlying problem </li></ul><ul><li>Loser feels frustrated which seeds another conflict </li></ul><ul><li>Use when two factions simply cannot agree or cannot talk to each other </li></ul>
  17. 17. The Lose/Lose Strategy <ul><li>Both parties give up something and may feel frustrated </li></ul><ul><li>Can be applied when </li></ul><ul><ul><li>There is little time to find a solution </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Negotiations are at a standstill </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The goal is to remove a conflict completely </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Union-management disputes often fall into this trap </li></ul>
  18. 18. The Win/Win Strategy <ul><li>Fix the problem, not the blame </li></ul><ul><li>Work toward a mutually satisfying solution </li></ul><ul><li>Focus on discovering creative solutions </li></ul><ul><li>Listening is the most vital skill </li></ul>
  19. 19. Figure 13.2 - Top Negotiating Tips
  20. 20. Beware of Defensive Behaviors <ul><li>When one person becomes defensive, others may mirror the behavior </li></ul><ul><li>Progress is stopped because people stop listening and think about defending </li></ul><ul><li>Prevent defensive behavior by consciously maintaining a positive image of the other people involved </li></ul>
  21. 21. Total Person Insight <ul><li>Any method of negotiation may be fairly judged by three criteria: It should produce a wise agreement if agreement is possible. It should be efficient. And it should improve or at least not damage the relationship between the parties. </li></ul><ul><li>Roger Fisher and William Ury </li></ul><ul><li>Authors, Getting to Yes </li></ul>
  22. 22. Know that Negotiating Styles Vary <ul><li>Style develops based on </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Personality </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Assertiveness skills </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Past experiences dealing with conflict </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Five styles combine assertiveness and cooperation </li></ul>
  23. 23. Figure 13.3 - Behavioral Styles for Conflict Situations
  24. 24. Negotiating Styles Vary <ul><li>Avoidance style </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Uncooperative/Nonassertive </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Accommodating style </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Cooperative/Nonassertive </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Win/lose style </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Uncooperative/Aggressive </li></ul></ul>
  25. 25. Negotiating Styles Vary <ul><li>Problem-solving style </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Assertive/Cooperative </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Compromising style </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Moderately assertive/Moderately cooperative </li></ul></ul>
  26. 26. Conflict Resolution Process <ul><li>The conflict resolution foundation requires </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Application of assertiveness skills </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Understanding how to deal with difficult people </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Supporting the win/win approach </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Learning how to negotiate </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The conflict resolution process consists of five steps </li></ul>
  27. 27. Follow These Steps <ul><li>Step 1: Decide whether you have a misunderstanding or a true disagreement </li></ul><ul><li>A misunderstanding is the failure to accurately understand another’s point </li></ul><ul><li>A disagreement is a failure to agree in spite of accurate understanding </li></ul>
  28. 28. Follow These Steps <ul><li>Step 2: Define the problem and collect facts </li></ul><ul><li>Everyone needs to focus on the problem, not what happened as a result </li></ul><ul><li>Establishing the problem can expose real cause of conflict </li></ul><ul><li>Separate facts from opinions or perceptions </li></ul>
  29. 29. Follow These Steps <ul><li>Step 3: Clarify perceptions </li></ul><ul><li>Interpretation of the facts surrounding the situation you encounter </li></ul><ul><li>Attempt to see the problem as others see it </li></ul>
  30. 30. Follow These Steps <ul><li>Step 4: Generate options for mutual gain </li></ul><ul><li>Generate options that will fix the problem </li></ul><ul><li>People often want to negotiate for a single solution </li></ul><ul><li>Use brainstorming </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Process that encourages generation of a wide variety of ideas and possibilities </li></ul></ul>
  31. 31. Follow These Steps <ul><li>Step 5: Implement options with integrity </li></ul><ul><li>Finalize a solution or agreement that offers a win/win strategy </li></ul><ul><li>Establish timetables for implementation </li></ul><ul><li>Avoid the temptation to implement quick-fix solutions </li></ul>
  32. 32. Alternative Dispute Resolution <ul><li>Some conflicts between workers and employers cannot be resolved </li></ul><ul><li>Alternative dispute resolution programs, or ADRs can involve </li></ul><ul><ul><li>An open door policy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Toll-free hot line </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A peer panel review </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A third-party mediator </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>An arbitrator </li></ul></ul>
  33. 33. Labor Unions in Conflict Resolution <ul><li>Disputes escalate when employment contracts expire and need to be negotiated </li></ul><ul><li>Procedure that defines the rights and privileges of both sides involved and establishes the terms of employment and length of contract </li></ul>
  34. 34. Collective Bargaining <ul><li>If labor and management cannot come to an agreement, they may submit their disputes to: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Mediation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Voluntary arbitration </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Compulsory arbitration </li></ul></ul>
  35. 35. Collective Bargaining <ul><li>As a last resort, unions may recommend that their members vote to strike </li></ul><ul><li>Generally lose/lose situation </li></ul><ul><li>Virtual strikes: wages and salaries go into an escrow account </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Neither side gets money unless they settle </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Customers and suppliers experience no change </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Especially viable for public services </li></ul></ul>
  36. 36. Contemporary Issues Facing Labor Unions <ul><li>The percent of Americans who are members of a labor union has declined </li></ul><ul><li>The future of unions depends on union organizers’ ability to attract new members </li></ul><ul><li>Many employers actively strive to keep workers happy and productive so they don’t want to unionize </li></ul><ul><li>The “card-check neutrality” process allows eligible unions to negotiate the employees’ next labor contract </li></ul>
  37. 37. Contemporary Issues Facing Labor Unions <ul><li>As labor unions strive for survival, they must address the needs of the current and future work force </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Adopt global mentality </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Address executives to employees pay gap </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Provide affordable health care </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Re-train to create higher paying jobs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Provide membership to temporary and contract workers </li></ul></ul>
  38. 38. Chapter Review <ul><li>Major causes of conflict </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Poor communication </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Values and culture clashes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Confusing work policies </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Competition for scarce resources </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Adversarial management </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Coworkers who refuse to do their share of work or have a difficult personality </li></ul></ul><ul><li>A difference of opinion may force people toward a creative solution </li></ul>
  39. 39. Chapter Review <ul><li>Assertiveness skills in conflict situations </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Assertiveness skills are necessary but avoid being overly aggressive </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Build assertiveness skills by tackling relatively minor issues first </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Use “I” statements rather than “you” statements </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Focus on fixing the problem rather than attacking the person </li></ul></ul>
  40. 40. Chapter Review <ul><li>Effective negotiation skills </li></ul><ul><ul><li>You can improve your human relations skills by learning five negotiation styles: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Avoidance style </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Accommodating style </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Win/lose style </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Problem-solving style </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Compromising style </li></ul></ul></ul>
  41. 41. Chapter Review <ul><li>The conflict resolution process </li></ul><ul><ul><li>When people cannot solve their conflicts informally many organizations create solutions through a conflict resolution process </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The five-step process is dependent on a clear outline of the steps to resolve the conflict </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Often an ADR program can resolve conflicts that might otherwise lead to legal action </li></ul></ul>
  42. 42. Chapter Review <ul><li>Contemporary challenges facing labor unions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Finding new ways to cooperate </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Flexible, innovative styles are effective </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Each side may submit their disputes to mediation, voluntary arbitration or compulsory arbitration </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Labor unions today must respond to </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Executive to employee wage gap </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Health care cost </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Retraining to high-paying jobs </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Containing jobs competition </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Temporary and part-time workers </li></ul></ul></ul>