_____________________________________PRINT your name, please1Practice Questions for Exam 3Note: These questions are to be divided between the two groups in each Discussion section whoare to present Exam 3 answers. Since Exam 3 has different material that was divided amongother exams in previous semesters, I selected many old favorites from other years to challengeyou. The questions should be divided so both groups have the same amount of content toprepare and present. I would not recommend one group do # 1 through 7 while the other do #8through 14.#1. Dr. Harley Schmedlap, Jr., noted physiologist and part-time three star chef at the SouthCampus Dining Hall has made a remarkable discovery. He has captured a ferocious andvoracious little creature lurking about in the vegetable bins of the kitchen. Schmedlap hasascertained that this creature used to inhabit the Stamp Union feeding on Krispy Kremes.Displaced by the renovations in progress, this beast is now forced to forage for healthy foods andis rapidly wasting away from lack of grease and calories. In an effort to acquire informationrequired to preserve the species, which he aptly named Krispus kremius higginsonii, Schmedlaphas gathered the following physiological data.Substance D Substance QPA (mg/100 ml plasma) 0.48 0.6PV in renal vein(mg/100 ml plasma)0.24 0.6[Urine] (mg/ ml urine) 0.06 0.0Amount of substanceoriginally injected (mg)1.2 2.4Rate or urine formation = 0.5 ml/minClearance of Inulin = 3 mls/minHematocrit = 0.40Heart Rate = 120 beats/minBlood ejected per beat = 4 mlsRespiratory Tidal volume = 4.0 mlsRespiratory Rate = 24 breaths/minConducting airway volume = 1.2 mlBP = 180/120 mm HgUse the data above and answer the following. You MUST include UNITS where appropriate.a. Renal BLOOD Flow = a. ________________________b. Filtration Fraction = b. ________________________c. Glomerular Filtration Rate = c. ________________________
_____________________________________PRINT your name, please2d. Rate of water reabsorption by the kidney d. ________________________e. Extraction ratio of Substance Q e. ________________________f. Cardiac Output f. ________________________g. Alveolar Ventilation Rate g. ________________________h. Mean Arterial Blood pressure (MAP) h. ________________________i. Rate at which D is put into glomerular filtrate i. ________________________j. What does the kidney do with Substance D? j. ________________________k. At what rate is D reabsorbed or secreted? k. _______________________l. Rate at which D is put into urine l. ________________________m. What are two alternative but reasonable assumptions about what happens to Substance Qin the nephrons:1._______________________________________________________________2.____________________________________________________________n. Use one of your assumptions from part m (above) andcalculate the animal’s PLASMA volume n. _______________________o. Now use your other assumption for substance Q.At what rate is Q reabsorbed? o. _______________________#2. Aldosterone secretion results in increased blood volume.a. List two different stimuli or signal molecules that initiate aldosterone secretion (you mayNOT list decreased blood volume or atrial EDV)):1.____________________________ 2.________________________________b. What is the specific molecular result of aldosterone on the cells of the kidney tubules?______________________________________________________________________c. What are the effects of aldosterone on ion reabsorption/secretion? (Which ions???)______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________d. Explain how this action increases blood volume?
_____________________________________PRINT your name, please3_______________________________________________________________________DATA for Question #3Five (5) mg of each of the following substances was injected i.v. into a small (~30 Kg) mammal.Substance 1 Substance 2 Substance 3 Substance 4PA in mg/100 ml 0.005 0.009 0.008 0.010PV in mg/100 ml 0.0025 0.008 0.006 0.010U in mg/ml 0.05 0.02 0.04 0.0V in ml/min 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.1[substance] inGlom Filtrate inmg/100 ml0.005 0.009 0.008 0.0Filtration Fraction = 0.25 SV = 0.6 ml/beatHct = 0.47 Tidal Volume =0.6 mlHR = 180 beats/min Conducting Respiratory airway vol. = 0.2 mlResp Rate = 26 breaths/min Arterial plasma pH = 7.56[HCO3-]plasma = 19.6 mEq/L#3. Using the data on the last page, please answer the following questions. You must includeall units where required.a. Renal Blood Flow is ________________________________b. GFR is _________________________________c. Which substance is filtered and secreted? _________________________________d. At what rate is this substance placed intothe filtrate in Bowman’s Capsule? _________________________________e. At what rate is this substance placed intothe urine? _________________________________f. At what rare is this substance secreted? _________________________________g. What is the clearance of Substance #4? _________________________________h. What is the rate of water reabsorption? _________________________________i. Which substance could be inulin? _________________________________j. What is the alveolar ventilation rate? _________________________________
_____________________________________PRINT your name, please4k. What is the BLOOD VOLUME? _________________________________l. What appears to be the specific problem (NAME the condition) with this creature’spH?___________________________________________________________m. What could cause this condition?___________________________________________________________n. What is the body’s immediate response to correct it? What initiates this regulatoryprocess? (How is it controlled?)____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________#4. Please accurately draw (draw a nice, big cell for ease of interpretation) a cell of the PCTand label all important anatomical features, membranes, etc. Then illustrate and describe thetransport or movement of Na+, Cl-, water, and the amino acid glycine in or across this cell.Indicate the mechanism behind the movement of these molecules at each border in as muchdetail as possible.#5. And a few final I, D, or No D from Dr. Bill:a. As saliva flows down the salivary ducts, saliva [HCO3-] a._________b. As blood P of O2 increases, blood total CO2 b._________c. As venous plasma pH increases, venous P of O2 c._________d. As [protein] in a meal increases, urine pH d._________e. As gastric pH decreases, the duration of chyme digestionin the stomach e._________f. As intrapleural space pressure increases, lung volume f________g. As lung volume increases, lung compliance g.________h. As lung surfactant concentration increases, the work of breathing h.________i. As plasma pH decreases, tubular reabsorption of HCO3- i__________
_____________________________________PRINT your name, please5j. As duodenal chyme protein content increases, plasma [secretin] j.__________k. As intestinal trypsin levels increase, intestinal procarboxypeptidaselevels k.__________l. As duodenal chyme protein content increases,plasma [cholecystokinin] l.__________m. As metabolic acidosis occurs, plasma [HCO3-]m.__________n. As gastric distention increases, afferent vagal nerve activityn.__________o. As gastric secretion increases, urine pHo.__________#6. While relaxing on Hornbake Mall, Dr. Harley Schmedlap, Jr., noted physiologist, 440alumnus, and permanent resident of the Biology-Psychology Building has discovered yetanother new species These small furry creatures find nutrition by foraging in the backpacksof the nearly comatose students as they exit Higgins’s lecture and collapse. Renderedsenseless by Higgins’s ramblings until 9:15 AM, foraging is easy for these critters, namedHungrius higginsonii by Dr. Schmedlap. The good doctor has collected data from thesecreatures and he asks you to complete his calculations:Hematocrit = 50% Respiratory rate = 30 breaths/min Tidal volume = 10 ml/breathRespiratory dead space = 4 ml HR = 120 beats/min SV = 3 ml/beatBP = 120/60 mm Hg Plasma [HCO3-] = 19 mEq/l Plasma pH = 7.32Rate of urine formation = 1 ml/min Amount of each substance originally injected = 2 mgFiltration Fraction = 0.25Substance PA (mg/10ml) PV (mg/10 ml) U (mg/ml) EM 0.2 0.15 ?????? 0.25Q 0.05 0.04 0.005 ?R 0.08 0.08 0 ?S 0.01 0.002 0.004 ?a. The extraction ratio for substance Q = a.____________________b. The extraction ratio for substance R = b.____________________c. The extraction ratio for substance S = c.____________________d. The renal plasma flow = d.____________________
_____________________________________PRINT your name, please6e. The GFR = e.____________________f. What processes do the nephrons use on substance Q? f._________________and____________________g. At what rate is Q put into filtrate? g.____________________h. At what rate is S put into the urine? h.____________________i. How at what rate is Q reabsorbed or secreted (see f) i.____________________j. What is the Cardiac Output? j.____________________k. What is the alveolar ventilation rate? k.____________________l. What is the creature’s bloodvolume l.____________________m. What % of plasma flow is made into glomerular filtrate? m.____________________n. At what rate is water reabsorbed by the kidneys? n.____________________o. After examining a captured animal’s plasma, Schmedlap thinksit may be suffering from some problem. What is it? o.____________________p. How will the animal first attempt to remedy the problem? p.___________________________________________________________________________________________q. What fraction of the renal plasma flow is made into filtrate? q.____________________r. What is the urine concentration of substance M? r.____________________#7. Now your other lab partner has consumed 2 liters of hypotonic solution. Please explain ordiagram in detail (include intracelluar, molecular mechanisms, please) how his plasmaosmotic pressure will be returned to normal:#8. A decreased GFR (autoregulation has failed to correct it!) will lead to an increasedsystemic BP. Explain this by diagramming the feedback loop. Begin with the stimulus, includeall details and steps!!!!#6. Just for grins and 2 easy points each, answer each of the following with Increase, Decrease,or No :a. As plasma CO2 increases, plasma [Cl-] a.____________b. As plasma Ca++ increases, plasma phosphate b.____________c. As plasma PTH increases, plasma Ca++ c.____________
_____________________________________PRINT your name, please7d. As afferent arteriole diameter decreases, macula densa [Na+] d.____________e. As plasma ANP increases, renal Na+ reabsorption e.____________f. As plasma [inulin] increases, urine [inulin] f.____________g. As inhalation proceeds, medullary C pool neuron activity g.___________h. As plasma pH decreases, urine [H+] h.___________i. As plasma [protein] increases, GFR i.____________j. As plasma [HCO3-] decreases, urinary [H+] j.____________k. As plasma [glucose] increases above 200 mg %, urine [glucose] k.____________l. As plasma [glucose] decreases below 200 mg %, reabsorptionof glucose l.____________m. As efferent arteriole diameter decreases, GFR m.___________n. As plasma [albumin] increases, Bowman’s Capsule [protein] n.____________o. As the lungs inflate, medullary B pool neuron activity o.____________bb. As efferent arteriole diameter increases, GFRbb__________bc. As plasma ADH levels increase, the osmotic pressure ofthe plasma bc__________bd. As tubular fluid flows through the DCT, tubular fluid [K+]bd__________be. As plasma aldosterone levels increases, tubular potassiumsecretion be__________bf As the partial pressure of CO2 is increased, the rate ofO2 unloading in the systemic capillaries bf__________bg As the plasma [PAH] increase above the Tmax, PAHexcretion bg__________bh As metabolic alkalosis occurs, plasma [HCO3-]bh_________bi As plasma propranolol increases, the lengthof the ECG P wave to P wave interval bi ________bj As saliva flows down the salivary duct, saliva pHbj__________bk. As intestinal chyme fat content increases, the rate ofgastric emptying bk__________bl As intestinal fat content increases, plasma [cck]bl__________bm As efferent vagal nerve stimulation increases, gastric fluid pHbm__________bn As gastric chyme peptide content increases, plasma gastrinbn__________bo. As intestinal trypsin activity increases, intestinal chymotrypsinogenlevels bo__________
_____________________________________PRINT your name, please8bp As the duodenal fluid pH decreases, the rate of gastric emptyingbp__________bq As duodenal chyme fat content increases, bile flowbq__________br As plasma [ADH] increases, plasma volume willbr__________bs As plasma secretin levels increases, duodenal fluid pHbs__________bt As plasma GIP levels increase, gastic secretionbt__________bu As plasma ADH levels increase, the osmotic pressure ofthe plasma bu__________bv As chyme protein content increases, plasma [secretin]bv__________bw As intestinal trypsin levels increase, intestinal procarboxypeptidaselevels bw__________bx As chyme fat content increases, plasma [cholecystokinin]bx__________by. As gastric distention increases, afferent vagal nerve activityby__________bz As gastric distention increases, activity of the efferent vagalnerve to the stomach bz__________p. As renal blood flow increases above normal levels,renal vessel resistance p._______q. As renal afferent arteriole diameter increases, GFRq._______r. As renal efferent arteriole diameter inceases, GFRr._______s. As plasma osmotic pressure increases, GFRs._______t. As one proceeds to climb to 15,000 feet above sea level,plasma [HCO3-] t._______u. As plasma glucose increases above 200 mg%, the clearanceof glucose u._______v. As plasma glucose increases above 200 mg%,the GFR v._______w. As plasma osmotic pressure increases above normal,renal collecting duct water permeability w._______x. As plasma osmotic pressure decreases below normal,plasma ADH levels x._______y. As pulmonary blood vessel diameter decreases, theventilation – perfusion ratio in the lung y._______z. As the partial pressure of CO2 in alveolar air increasesthe diameter of the bronchioles z._______a1. As the partial pressure of O2 in a region of the lung increasesthe diameter of the pulmonary arteriole a1.______b2. As inulin flows through the PCT, the tubular filtrate [inulin]b2.______c3. As plasma [K+] increases, renal tubular Na+reabsorption
_____________________________________PRINT your name, please9c3.______d4. As the plasma concentration of PAH decreases from below theconcentration yielding Tmax, the clearance of PAH d4.______#9. DATA:Systolic BP = 110 mm Hg Diastolic BP = 75 mm Hg Hematocrit = 0.45[HCO3-]plasma = 27 mM PO2 in arterial blood = 77 mm Hg pHplasma = 7.21HR = 60 beats/min Respiratory tidal volume = 500 ml SV = 80 ml/beatRespiration rate = 18 breaths/min Respiratory dead space = 100 ml[Inulin]arterial plasma = 0.01 mg/100 ml after 30 minutes[Inulin]renal vein plasma = 0.008 mg/100 ml after 30 minutes[Inulin]urine = .004 mg/ml Rate of urine formation = 0.5 ml/minAmount of Inulin originally injected = 10 mgUNITS, PLEASE!!!a. The pulse pressure = _____________________b. GFR = _____________________c. Alveolar ventilation rate = _____________________d. Extracellular fluid volume(after correction for loss of inulin in the urine) _____________________e. Renal BLOOD flow = _____________________f. Filtration fraction = _____________________g. Cardiac output = _____________________h. Rate of appearance of Inulin in the urine _____________________i. Rate of Inulin appearance into the BC filtrate _____________________k. After perusing the data above, please indicate the nature of the problem affecting yourpatient: (IN TWO WORDS ONLY!!!)_______________________________________________l. What organ/system will initially correct this problem and how?__________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________PRINT your name, please10#10a. Plot and label the BP, Bowmans Capsule Pressure (BCP) and the sum of BCPand POP. Again label any areas that represent filtration and reabsorption. Finally, drawa dashed ( - - - ) line to indicate the effect of nephritis, a condition that damages theglomerular capillary basement membrane: (24)10b. While we are constructing graphs, try the following one by adding and labelingBlood Flow and GFR: (24)PRESSURE(mm Hg)DISTANCE ALONG GLOMERULAR CAPILLARYAFFERENT ARTERIOLE EFFERENT ARTERIOLEMean Arterial Blood PressureFlow RateL/min40 80 120 160 200
_____________________________________PRINT your name, please11#11. Consider the following substances injected i. v. into a human classmate (as opposedto some of the non-human members of this group!); (21)SUBSTANCE E C (ml/min) [ArterialPlasma]mg/100ml[Renal veinplasma ]mg/100 mlW 0.05 ?J 0.20 400 1.0 0.8H 0.50 ? 1.0 ?a. Which substance is inulin? a. _____________b. What is the Clearance (units, please!) of W? b.______________c. What is the renal vein concentration of H? c. ______________d. What is the GFR? d. ______________e. Which substance is filtered & reabsorbed? e. ______________f. Which substance is filtered & secreted? f. ______________g. What is the renal plasma flow? g. ______________#12. Consider an individual with an arterial plasma pH of 7.5 and a [HCO3-] of 21 mEq/l. Whatis this condition called? What is the cause? What is the body’s first response to correct it?#13. Explain all mechanisms that regulate your blood volume.#14. Describe the homeostatic feedback loop that results in maintenance of your plasmaosmotic pressure after you run and become dehydrated.