Michael O'Sullivan 22-04-09


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Michael O'Sullivan 22-04-09

  1. 1. An Boilgeog April 22 2009 Michael O’Sullivan Author of ‘Ireland and the Global Question’ (Cork University Press, 2006) Phone: +44 20 7883 8228 Email: michael.o’sullivan@credit-suisse.com
  2. 2. Ireland and the Credit Crisis <ul><li>The Credit Crisis </li></ul><ul><li>‘ An Boilgeog’ </li></ul><ul><li>What did we do well first time? </li></ul><ul><li>A Coming of Age, or plain disaster </li></ul><ul><li>The World post the Credit Crisis </li></ul><ul><li>What problems do we face today? </li></ul><ul><li>What to do? </li></ul><ul><li>The Second Republic </li></ul>
  3. 3. We will never learn from bubbles MacKay, C., Extraordinary Popular Delusions and the Madness of Crowds, 1841 Source: Prof Larry Neal.
  4. 4. Bubbles - UK Railway share index, 1845-1849 Source: Global Financial Data Source: Global Data Inc.
  5. 5. This one was extraordinary in size and interdependence Source: Federal Reserve, The Statistical History of the US, Morgan Stanley, Credit Suisse Last data point: Q3 2008
  6. 6. Where are we now? - US payrolls peak to trough Source: Bloomberg, Credit Suisse Last data point: February 2008
  7. 7. Global IP Contraction vs. Major US Contractions Credit Suisse; the BLOOMBERG PROFESSIONAL™ service; DataStream
  8. 8. Length of US recessions Source: Datastream, National Bureau of Economic Research, Credit Suisse
  9. 9. IMF on Crashes and Bubbles <ul><li>Recessions associated with crunches and busts tend to be longer and deeper </li></ul><ul><li>Credit crunches and asset busts are associated with substantial declines in credit and asset prices </li></ul><ul><li>While output can recover during a credit crunch or housing bust, (residential) investment drops significantly. </li></ul><ul><li>In these cases aggressive monetary policy is normal (Ireland has the opposite), and higher govt consumption. </li></ul>From Claessens, S., Kose, M.A.& Terrones, M.E., ‘What Happens during Recessions, Crunches and Busts?, IMF Research Paper
  10. 10. Pain is where the leverage is Source: Bloomberg, Credit Suisse / IDC House price to income, rel. to long-term averages
  11. 11. From Phoenix to Tiger Source: Angus Maddison
  12. 12. Ireland’s economy: 4 broad stages Source: Datastream Globalization Underperformance ‘ Free money’ Now –’Coming of age’
  13. 13. Ireland: mortgage rates & residential loans Source: Angus Maddison
  14. 14. Source: Bloomberg Construction as a % GDP, 2006
  15. 15. Source: Nikkei Hubris indicator - Japanese golf club membership prices
  16. 16. Source: GUI Similar bubble appears in Irish golf club growth
  17. 17. Source: Bloomberg A further similarity between Ireland and Japan – property
  18. 18. Equities as a measure of ‘pain’ - how bad have things been comparatively? Source: Credit Suisse, Dimson, Marsh & Staunton
  19. 19. Source: DataStream, Credit Suisse Casino economies – banks and market crises
  20. 20. What did we do right? <ul><li>Is Ireland still an example to follow? – ‘From Phoenix to Tiger’ </li></ul><ul><li>Success based on a stew of international and domestic factors </li></ul><ul><li>Domestic – Intangible Infrastructure – technology, rule of law, education, finance, business climate, institutions. </li></ul><ul><li>But we failed the ‘Global Question’ – strategic thinking about the influence of global factors on a small country </li></ul><ul><li>We are now finely balanced between a ‘Coming of Age’ and a prolonged structural decline </li></ul>
  21. 21. New Economies (USA in 19 th & 21 st century) driven by innovation Source: US Patent and Trademark Office, US Census Bureau Toward a real ‘growth’ model – intangible infrastructure
  22. 22. World post the Credit Crisis <ul><li>What will replace the ‘Anglo-Saxon’ model? </li></ul><ul><li>Investment world will be less leveraged, more risk averse, simpler, lower earnings growth </li></ul><ul><li>Emerging markets continue to ‘grow up’ </li></ul><ul><li>Some developed world countries could go the way of Uruguay and Argentina 100 years ago </li></ul><ul><li>We have yet to see the full economic, social and political effects of the crisis. </li></ul>
  23. 23. The World Economy – EM’s look to regain former glory Source: Angus Maddison, IMF, Credit Suisse Share of Global GDP (%) Years: 1700, 1820, 1890, 1952, 2007, 2030F Note: 2007 figures at current exchange rates
  24. 24. EM‘s have rebuilt their balance sheets post 1998 Source: Bloomberg, Credit Suisse Emerging Market countries have learnt the lessons of 1998 and have built currency reserves – spawning SWF‘s
  25. 25. China buys more cars than the US now Note: China’s January automobile sales is estimated to be 790,000 Sources: CEIC , Bloomberg, Credit Suisse
  26. 26. Lessons so far for academia <ul><li>More ‘joined up’ analysis – i.e. Development Economics </li></ul><ul><li>Literature on institutions is important (e.g .Acemoglu) </li></ul><ul><li>Macro/Central Banking – focus on bubbles, coordinate monetary and fiscal policy, back to basic for Fed model (1911-1913). </li></ul><ul><li>Behavioural finance to become more widely accepted (e.g. Shiller, Thaler) </li></ul><ul><li>Corporate governance (e.g. Shleifer & Vishny) literature becomes important again – family influenced businesses. </li></ul><ul><li>Maths based rational modelling less important </li></ul>
  27. 27. What problems do we face in Ireland? <ul><li>Still in shock, with little awe </li></ul><ul><li>Policy makers and politicians very poorly equipped to deal with this </li></ul><ul><li>Consumer prices and property prices need to correct much further </li></ul><ul><li>Competitiveness </li></ul><ul><li>Key issue is not the next ten months but the next ten years – where will the growth come from? </li></ul>
  28. 28. Government rescue plans: credit risk transfer from banks to sovereigns Source: Bloomberg, Credit Suisse
  29. 29. Source: Economist, FT Prices (e.g. labour) are still too high (leaders salaries in euros)
  30. 30. Ireland’s economy: What to do? <ul><li>Don’t fight the bubble - look to next ten years, not ten months </li></ul><ul><li>Rediscover competitiveness, break domestic industrial structures down. </li></ul><ul><li>Focus intensely on Intangible Infrastructure </li></ul><ul><li>Solve the under investment puzzle </li></ul><ul><li>Nurture domestic companies in higher growth industries </li></ul><ul><li>Micro-economic policy innovation to counter lack of macro sovereignty. </li></ul>
  31. 31. The Bigger Picture – ‘The Second Republic’ (IT, 14/04/2008) <ul><li>Smaller, better quality Dail – focus on strategy less tactics </li></ul><ul><li>Elevate councils to provincial level </li></ul><ul><li>Rediscover competitiveness, break domestic industrials structures down. </li></ul><ul><li>Focus intensely on Intangible Infrastructure </li></ul><ul><li>Technocracy, Grand Ecoles </li></ul><ul><li>Enlist outside help (i.e .OECD, ECB, BIS) in building new institutions </li></ul>
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  34. 34. ‘ Helicopter Ben’ <ul><li>Remarks by Governor Ben S. Bernanke Before the National Economists Club, Washington, D.C. November 21, 2002 Deflation: Making Sure &quot;It&quot; Doesn't Happen Here </li></ul><ul><li>‘ The best way to get out of trouble is not to get into it in the first place’ </li></ul><ul><li>‘ Like gold, U.S. dollars have value only to the extent that they are strictly limited in supply’ </li></ul><ul><li>‘ Of course, the U.S. government is not going to print money and distribute it willy-nilly (although as we will see later, there are practical policies that approximate this behavior). Normally, money is injected into the economy through asset purchases by the Federal Reserve. To stimulate aggregate spending when short-term interest rates have reached zero, the Fed must expand the scale of its asset purchases or, possibly, expand the menu of assets that it buys’ </li></ul><ul><li>‘ A sufficiently determined Fed can peg or cap Treasury bond prices and yields at other than the shortest maturities’ </li></ul><ul><li>‘ In practice, the effectiveness of anti-deflation policy could be significantly enhanced by cooperation between the monetary and fiscal authorities’. </li></ul>Source: Board of Governors of Federal Reserve
  35. 35. Ireland’s economy: 3 broad stages Source: Bloomberg