Dyer’s 3 ingredients1. The star as Construction• A star is created by record labels successful marketing • Advertising, Product, placement, TV, Radio, Newspapers• They create an image of the star• Signature pose/hair/look/clothing
Dyer’s 3 ingredients2. The Star as Commodity• The record company want to make the most money out of the artist • Merchandise • Getting the audience to become the star and look like them• Audience buy merchandise to look like them
Dyer’s 3 ingredients3. The Star as an ideology• All artists have a belief or value attached to their image• This belief is called ‘ideology’• Artists sell this ideology as part of their image
Uses and Gratifications• The theory that audiences use media texts in order to fulfil pleasures and basic needs such as: • Escapism • Education • Personal identification • Personal relationship
Two-Step Flow• The theory suggesting that there are opinions leaders within society who can influence opinions and attitudes of the public.
Hypodermic needle• The theory that proposes media messages can be ‘injected’ into the audience and influence people to act a particular way.
Desensitisation• The theory that implies that overexposure to certain messages and values can influence the audience to accept them. For example, an air-brusher image of a celebrity on the front cover of a magazine can influence women into believing that that is the definition of beauty and this is how women everywhere should look.
Maslow’s Hierarchy of needs• The theory that there are five layers of basic needs that all humans possess: • Physiological (food, shelter, sleep) • Safety • Social needs (love and belonging) • Esteem • Self –actualisation