An Introduction to Outcome Mapping ICTJ January 9, 2008
My objectives for this session
Give you an overview of what OM is
Provide ICTJ examples of how to use OM for designing your programs
Through lively discussion & exchange of ideas to:
focus of linear- cause and effect framework
focus of outcome mapping Behavioural Changes community capacity & ownership increases program ownership decreases
Challenges in measuring « results »
Complex (multiple actors and factors)
Continuous (not limited to the life of the project)
Non-linear (often unexpected, emergent)
Two-way (program may also change)
Beyond the control of the project (but subject to its influence)
How can we cope with this complexity?
Pay attention to the journey
Focus on your direct partners
Recognize the limits of your influence
PLANNING articulate goals & define activities
MONITORING track program performance & partners’ progress
EVALUATION design & conduct a use-oriented evaluation
primary uses of OM
step 1: Vision
I have an objectively verifiable indicator of success! Martin Luther King, Jr. August 28, 1963
ICTJ examples of Vision The vision of ICTJ fellowships is to strengthen and increase the prominence of transitional justice norms; to improve state compliance with international obligations; to advance prospects for justice, peace and accountability especially after periods of repressive rule or violent conflict, and to energize civil society world-wide.
ICTJ examples of vision
The vision of the Peru country program is to promote and protect human rights, ensure that human rights abusers are held accountable for their actions, encourage the rule of law, and promote an equitable distribution of resources within areas affected by conflict.
step 2: Mission Intentional Design
The mission is that “bite” of the vision statement on which the program is going to focus.
Describes how the program intends to
Apply its resources in support of the vision
Specifies the areas in which it will work
Support the achievement of outcomes by its direct partners
Vision vs Mission
about the future
not about the program
identifies activities and relationships
about the program
Vision vs Mission - Fellowships The vision of ICTJ fellowships is to strengthen and increase the prominence of transitional justice norms; to improve state compliance with international obligations; to advance prospects for justice, peace and accountability especially after periods of repressive rule or violent conflict, and to energize civil society world-wide. Vision Mission The mission of ICTJ Fellowships is to assist in the development of integrated, comprehensive, and localized approaches to TJ by: building TJ capacity among civil society organizations, encouraging these organizations to consider how TJ methodologies are applied to their work, and fostering networks and partnerships for collaboration among TJ practitioners
Vision vs Mission – Peru Program The vision of the Peru country program is to promote and protect human rights, ensure that human rights abusers are held accountable for their actions, encourage the rule of law, and promote an equitable distribution of resources within areas affected by conflict. Vision Mission The mission of the ICTJ Peru Country program is to assist in the development of integrated and comprehensive strategies on truth seeking, reparations, and prosecutions.
step 3: Boundary Partners
Three Key OM Concepts:
“ Boundary Partners”
“ Progress Markers”
Results = changes in behavior
Whose behaviour? Program time limit of the initiative = boundary partners The rest of the world
Boundary Partners Those individuals, groups, & organizations with whom a program interacts directly to effect change & with whom the program can anticipate some opportunities for influence.
Military Police Local H.R. Orgs Victims’ Groups. TRCs Domestic Prosecutors Govts Int’l Bodies ICTJ Program Community Leaders Victims
selected for their potential to contribute to the mission
persons or groups with whom the program works directly to achieve the mission, without necessarily wanting to change the partner’s behaviour as part of the mission
Examples: Donor agency Other NGOs doing similar work Media
step 4: Outcome Challenge
Outcome Challenge Once the boundary partners have been identified, outcome challenges are developed for each boundary partner. An outcome challenge describes how behaviors, relationships, activities, actions of an individual, group, or institution will change if the program is successful. In other words: OCs are idealistic, yet realistic. They are phrased in such a way as to capture how the actor would behave and relate to others if the program achieved its full potential as facilitator of change.
Outcome Challenge – Fellowship Program Boundary Partner = Fellows Outcome Challenge = If the program achieves full potential, fellows will act as “TJ Entrepreneurs” in their countries. They will demonstrate an understanding of TJ theory and practice, enabling them to analyze TJ issues and challenges in their countries. Fellows will also take active roles in promoting TJ knowledge, disseminating materials, and develop partnerships with relevant government and NGO actors.
Outcome Challenges – Peru Program
Boundary Partner = Civil Society Organizations (CSOs)
Outcome Challenge = If the program is successful, local CSOs will build strong relationships with the TRC and governmental entities. They will promote discussion of TJ issues within their existing networks, and create new networks that address national TJ issues as they arise. They will create local expertise on specific TJ issues, and use their expertise to assist not only other local CSOs, but also the TRC, the Special Prosecutor, and the Reparations Commission.
What indicators do you use for: Greater awareness… Empowered women… Reduced conflict… Increased collaboration… Gender sensitivity… Equal access… Full participation… Strengthened capacity… Enhanced effectiveness… ?
step 5: Progress Markers
Progress Markers = ladder of change (Deep transformation) (Active engagement & learning) (Early positive responses) Love to see Like to see Expect to see
progress markers are graduated
move from initial to more profound changes in behaviour
show transformation in a single boundary partner
more informative than a single indicator
Why Graduated Progress Markers?
Articulate the complexity of the change process
Allow negotiation of expectations between the program and its partners
Permit on-going assessment of progress
Encourage the program to think about how it can intentionally contribute to the most profound transformation possible
Help identify mid-course corrections and improvements
Expect to Fellows:
Fellows absorb TJ knowledge, capacity and skills. Gain familiarity with TJ ‘canon’
Fellows develop a TJ proposal or product adapted to their own setting
Improve leadership, communication, writing, and fundraising skills
Participate in networks and develop partnerships with fellow TJ practitioners
Example Progress Markers
Like to See Fellows:
Articulate a locally relevant TJ vision, and actively promote TJ concepts through implementation of proposal.
Develop and expand partnership to include local and international actors/ identify opportunities for collaboration with other institutions and actors in home country
Advance within their organizations because of increased capacity and leadership
Request or pursue new opportunities for training and education
Produce and disseminate concrete examples of benefits arising from TJ activities; fellows produce TJ-related publications
… Example Progress Markers
Love to see Fellows :
Become visible spokespersons for TJ in home country
Play a lead role in TJ structures, with view to long- and medium-term benefits
Share lessons and experiences with communities nationally and internationally
Influencing national policy debates and policy formulation on TJ-related issues and mechanisms
… Example Progress Markers
step 6: Strategy Maps Intentional Design
6 kinds of strategies causal persuasive supportive I aimed at individual boundary partner direct influence arouse new thinking; build skills, capacity on-going support E aimed at boundary partner’s environment alter the physical, regulatory or information environmen t broad information dissemination; access to new info create / strengthen peer networks
facilitation questions ? I-2 I-3 I-1 E-1 E-2 E-3 causal persuasive supportive I aimed at individual boundary partner what will be done to produce and “immediate output”? what will be done to build capacity? how will sustained support, guidance or mentoring be provided? E aimed at boundary partner’s environment what will be done to alter the physical or policy environment? how will the media or publications be used? what networks or relationships will be established or utilized?