Design of microhydro turbine for sewage treatment plant.


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Concept design of micro-hydro turbine for sewage treatment plant.

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Design of microhydro turbine for sewage treatment plant.

  2. 2. PRESENTATION OUTLINE • Overview of the project. • Problem Statement. • Objective. • Methodology. • Results & Discussions. • Conclusion. • Acknowledgement. • References.
  3. 3. INTRODUCTION • Modern societies are becoming increasing dependent on reliable and secure electricity supplies to cater their everyday needs. • From IEA World Energy Outlook publications (2012), global energy demand grows by more than one-third over the period to 2035. • Concerns of increasing carbon footprint, more efficient and less carbon intensive forms of power generation are developed. • One such resource is hydro source for power generation. Water can harnessed in large or small scale
  4. 4. • One such resource is the sewage treatment plant (STP) effluent. • The research in micro hydro power leads to potential of harnessing energy from the waste water treatment plant effluent.
  5. 5. HYDROPOWER TO ELECTRIC POWER Potential Energy Kinetic Energy Electrical Energy Mechanical Energy Electricity
  7. 7. HYDRO VS MICRO-HYDRO HYDRO • Large dam. • Constant flow rate / speed. • Not environmental friendly. MICRO-HYDRO • Small run-off river / any water run-off with appreciable flow rate. • Variable speed. • Low carbon footprint. Nature is conserved.
  8. 8. PROBLEM STATEMENT • In STP effluent discharge, low head and low flow poses a challenge to harness the full potential of energy. • Also, treated waste water contains contaminants which may cause corrosion / erosion to the turbine blade and shorten operation life.
  9. 9. PROJECT OBJECTIVE • Main objective : I. To design a micro hydro turbine with 50 kW power generation capacity to harness the renewable energy from the STP effluent discharge. • Specific Objectives : I. To study the potential of renewable energy source in the effluent discharge from sewage treatment plant. II. To analyse the waste water characteristics, flow dynamics of effluent and the river morphology. (At site – Pantai IWK STP) III. To produce concept design of micro hydro turbine based on the data collected at the site to harness the electricity.
  10. 10. METHODOLOGY Literature Review • Search for materials on the literature review about renewable energy and energy demand in Malaysia. • Study the latest information of current researches, potentials, technologies and government policies on micro hydro system. Especially for special applications such as Sewage Treatment Plant. Preparing Concept Design • Identify current design limitations. • Specify problem statement and hypothesis to the problem(s). • Describe data needed and explain how it is obtained. Collecting Data • Acquire site data to identify waste water characteristics, hydraulic dynamics and river morphology for Klang River.
  11. 11. Analysis Of Data • The data is analysed for future concept design of micro hydro turbine. Interpretation of Data • The data may contain important information for further improvement of the turbine or the necessity of producing custom- made turbine. (Turbine Selection, Material Selection, Suitable Configuration) Concept Design • Concept Generation of Micro Hydro Turbine • Concept Evaluation and Selection. • Product Design. • Detail Design and Drawing Documentation • Thesis Writing of the Concept Design and Analysis of Micro Hydro Turbine for Sewage Treatment Plant.
  12. 12. PROJECT FLOWCHART Problems Definition and Understanding Literature Review Collecting Site Data and Analysis Of Data Benchmarking Concept Generation Concept Evaluation and Selection Produce Concept Design of Micro Hydro Turbine Detail Design & Drawings CFD ANALYSIS
  13. 13. DELIVERABLES • Ultimately to produce a micro hydro turbine design with power generation capacity at 50 kW from the STP effluent. In this case, to install multistage bulb turbine operation to achieve 50 kW. • The success of this project will initiate the energy race to tap the energy from all the available STP in Malaysia. • In the future, this effort can help to optimize the hydro power generated at Sewage Treatment Plants .
  14. 14. RESULTS
  15. 15. POTENTIAL OF GENERATING 50 kW 0 10000 20000 30000 40000 50000 60000 70000 80000 m3/day Month Average Effluent Flowrate Per Day Average Effluent Flowrate Per Year Graph of flow duration at site. * Source : Looi M.Y 2012
  16. 16. *Effective head is cut into half due to fluctuation of tail water and effluent flow. • Minimum flow rate : 54604.86 m3/day. • Power generation :17.86 kW. • Maximum flow rate :180225 m3/day • Power generation :59.25 kW. * For maximum flow rate, latest data from IWK is used. • Average flow rate :112320 m3/day. • Power generation :34.915 kW. * For average flow rate, latest data from IWK is used.
  17. 17. ANNUAL POWER PRODUCTION • Average power production per year :34.915 kW x 8760 h/year x 0.95 = 290 MWh/year. • Max. power production per year : 59.25kW x 8760 h/year x 0.95 = 493 MWh/year.
  18. 18. MAIN CHARACTERISTICS • The outcome of this is a turbine’s power of 34.915 kW . • Maximum runaway speed of 1920 rpm arises. • Runner diameter of 0.48m. *Results from calculation based on net head and available flow rate.
  20. 20. SELECTION Functional Requirements PowerOutput (kW) Supply(Headand Flowrate) DesiredVoltage (V) OverallCost(RM) DesiredOutput Frequency(Hz) Mass(kg) Dimension CycleTime(sec) Shut-OffValve Requirements (Explicit and Implicit) Generate Power From Sewage Effluent without much civil works ● ● ▽ Consistent in Functionality ● ○ Efficient in Operation ○ ○ ○ Operational Smoothness ○ ○ ○ Variable Speed Operation ○ ● ▽ Light Weight ● Ease of Maintenance ○ ▽ ▽ ● Relationships Strong ● Moderate ○ Weak ▽ * Design NO 3 scored the highest point based on the criteria.
  21. 21. BULB-TURBINE • Bulb turbine with 5-blades adjustable according to the level and the flow rate. • Direct-drive variable speed permanent magnet generator. • Rotating trash rake cleaner to filter out slurry sludge. Trash rake cleaner Bulb Housing Generator 5-blade adjustable runner FINAL CONCEPT SELECTED – DESIGN NO 3.
  22. 22. MATERIALS : PROPOSED Material Density (kg/m3) Strength (kPa) Cost (per kg) Carbon Steel 7858 425,000 RM 3.25 Stainless Steel 8000 517,017 RM 15.19 Teflon 2320 7580 RM 62.42 ABS 1020 30,000 RM 6.68 pH level of Effluent discharge : 7-8 (Neutral) Based from material comparisons, carbon steel is chosen as the material for the turbine. • Carbon steel is lighter than stainless steel. • Protective layer can be applied such as overlay stainless steel coat to overcome the lack in corrosion resistance. • Ease of fabrication • Cheaper material as compared to others.
  23. 23. FLOW SIMULATION RESULTS (AT AVERAGE LOAD) • Pressure contour at average load(rated discharge 1.3 m3/s) • It shows gradual reduction in pressure from inlet of water passage to exit of runner • Rise in pressure difference, torque also increases and hence power output increases. • Velocity contour at average load(rated discharge 1.3 m3/s) • When water goes though the bulb and rake cleaner, static pressure drop takes place. This causes higher velocity at the exit of the bulb and the runner. • The change in swirls at inlet of runner causes shock losses at edge, and increase flow separation. Flow Direction
  26. 26. RECOMMENDATION • Further improvement would be to develop the design into a prototype and prepare suitable test rig to further prove the efficiency of the design. • Experimental data can be compared with CFD analysis to optimize the turbine operation. • Detail design and analysis to be conducted.
  27. 27. CONCLUSION
  28. 28. ACKNOWLEDGMENT Thank You to Ir. Kumaran A/L Palaniasamy for his guidance and help in this project. & Thank You Indah Water Konsortium Sdn. Bhd for their cooperation.
  29. 29. REFERENCES FM Griffin, “Feasibility of Energy Recovery from a Wastewater Treatment Scheme”. Harvey , Micro Hydro Design Manual, A guide to small scale water power scheme, IT Publications Ltd London ,2006. Renewable Energy Technologies, Section 8, Small Hydropower, Chenal R., Choulot A., Denis V, Tissot N.,Edited by Jean-Claude Sabonnadière, Iste, Wiley, 2009. Saket(2008) Design, development and reliability evaluation of micro hydro power generation system based on municipal waste water”. IEE Electrical power and energy conference. pp 14. SEDA (2011), “Renewable Energy Act 2011”, SEDA website. Available at: visited June 14th 2012)
  30. 30. T. Kirk (1999), Small scale hydropower in the UK. Journal of the Chartered. The Intermediate Technology Development Group (ITDG), „Micro-Hydro Power‟, 1998 Wallace,A.R (1996) Embedded mini hydro generation in the water supply industry , IEE Conference Publication 419, pp 168-171. World Energy Outlook 2010, Paris: International Energy Agency, 2010. Adam Harvey, “Micro-hydro Design Manual”, Intermediate Technology Publications1993.