Intercultural communication and understanding 101

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Intercultural communication and understanding 101

  1. 1. Inter cultur al Communication and Under standing 101 By Paul Raymond Doyon Utsunomiya University Honors English Camp 2010
  2. 2. What is Culture?• Culture with a Big C: (“Formal Culture”) – (“The Best in Human Life”) – The History, Fine Arts• Culture with a Little c: (“Deep Culture”) – (“Everything in Human Life)• (Patterns of Daily Living; Value Systems) – The Society: • Behavior • Attitudes • Beliefs • Values“Commitment to the Teaching of Foreign Cultures” by Genelle Morain from The Modern Language Journal, University ofWisconsin Press, 1983
  3. 3. What is Cross-Cultural Awareness?• Does Contact lead to Understanding? – Not necessarily.• What else is needed? – RESPECT – PARTICIPATION – EMPATHY (Ability to imagine oneself in another role) – Individual Plasticity – Tolerance for Ambiguity“Cross-Cultural Awareness” by Robert G. Hanvey, from Toward Internationalism: Readings in Cross-Cultural Communication, by LouiseFiber Luce and Elise C. Smith (eds). Newbury House, 1986
  4. 4. Does Cross-Cultural Awareness Matter?• “Yes, cross-cultural awareness does matter, for the following major reason if for no other. Several million years of evolution seem to have produced in us a creature that does not easily recognize the members of its own species. That is stated in rather exaggerated form, but it refers to the fact that human groups commonly have difficulty in accepting the humanness of other human groups.”“Cross-Cultural Awareness” by Robert G. Hanvey, from Toward Internationalism: Readings in Cross-Cultural Communication, by LouiseFiber Luce and Elise C. Smith (eds). Newbury House, 1986
  5. 5. Does Cross-Cultural Awareness Matter?• “For example, we need to discover the extent to which our thinking is bound by a culture. Cultures are good in many ways. But, to the extent that they lock us in to one way of looking at the world, we need to transcend them. We need to think beyond them. Why is this important? It’s important because we, as creatures, are deeply determined -- in our life, and in our behavior, and in our character, and in other ways – are determined by our thinking. We have no choice but to be governed by thought. The question is, do we govern the thought that governs us? Ideas control us ... Do we control them? ”• “Critical Thinking in Every Domain of Knowledge and Belief” The 27th Annual International Conference on Critical Thinking -- July 23 -- 26, 2007 Keynote Address -- July 23, 2007 Richard Paul, Director of Research and Professional Development at the Center for Critical Thinking, Chair of the National Council for Excellence in Critical Thinking
  6. 6. Does Cross-Cultural Awareness Matter?• “We call a group of primitives in northern North America, Eskimos; this name, originated by certain Indians to the south of the Eskimos, means ‘Eaters of Raw Flesh.’ However, the Eskimos’ own name for themselves is not Eskimos but Inupik, meaning ‘Real People.’ By their name they provide a contrast between themselves and other groups; the latter might be ‘people’ but are never ‘real’.”“Cross-Cultural Awareness” by Robert G. Hanvey, from Toward Internationalism: Readings in Cross-Cultural Communication, by Louise Fiber Luce andElise C. Smith (eds). Newbury House, 1986
  7. 7. Does Cross-Cultural Awareness Matter? “Consider the phenomenon -- which is worldwide -- of patriotic history. Patriotic history -- at least in my conception of patriotichistory -- consists in telling the story of our past in such ways as to make us look much better than we are and to take those who havecome into conflict with us and represent them as worse than they were and are. In other words, patriotic history is dishonest historythat makes us, unjustifiably, feel good about ourselves. This is what most societies want of their historians. Tell us about the past so wecan see how heroic we are. Fine and good, but what does that imply about others. If we are the chosen people, then everyone else isnot chosen. If were number one, then everyone else is below us. If were the most important, then others are unimportant or of lesserimportance. And so, to penetrate history critically -- to see its dangers, and to see its values, and to be able to think with a different sortof framework -- is certainly crucial to our well being. ““Critical Thinking in Every Domain of Knowledge and Belief” The 27th Annual International Conference on Critical Thinking -- July 23 -- 26, 2007 Keynote Address -- July 23, 2007Richard Paul, Director of Research and Professional Development at the Center for Critical Thinking, Chair of the National Council for Excellence in Critical Thinking
  8. 8. Achieving Understanding! Initial Willingness to Respect Local Ways & Viewpoints Rewards: Internal And Community Approval Participation (which is a concrete demonstration of respect.) Advanced Participation:“Cross-Cultural Living the CultureAwareness” by Robert G.Hanvey, from TowardInternationalism: Readingsin Cross-CulturalCommunication, by LouiseFiber Luce and Elise C. Depth Understanding:Smith (eds). Newbury “Inside the Head” of the Host SocietyHouse, 1986
  9. 9. Levels of Cross-Cultural Understanding Level Information Mode Interpretation Awareness of Superficial or Tourism, Textbooks, Unbelievable! 1 very visible cultural traits. Magazines (National Exotic! Stereotypes. Geographic) Bizarre! Awareness of significant & Culture Conflict Unbelievable! 2 sub-cultural traits that Situations Frustrating! contrast markedly with one’s Irrational! own Awareness of significant & Intellectual Analysis Believable 3 sub-cultural traits that Cognitively contrast markedly with one’s own Awareness of how another Cultural Immersion: Believable due to 4 culture feels from the Living the culture. subjective similarity standpoint of an insider“Cross-Cultural Awareness” by Robert G. Hanvey, from Toward Internationalism: Readings in Cross-Cultural Communication, by Louise Fiber Luce and Elise C. Smith (eds). Newbury House, 1986
  10. 10. Seven Dimensions of Intercultural Competence1.The capacity to be flexible2.The capacity to be non-judgmental3.Tolerance for ambiguity4.The capacity to communicate respect5.The capacity to personalize one’s knowledge and perceptions6.The capacity to display empathy7.The capacity for turn taking“Guidelines for Cross-Cultural Communication Effectiveness” by Brent D. Ruben, fromToward Internationalism: Readings in Cross-Cultural Communication, by Louise Fiber Luceand Elise C. Smith (eds). Newbury House, 1986
  11. 11. Seven Steps in Intercultural Interactions 1. Establishing contact and communication 2. Establishing Bona Fide friends and being accepted into the community 3. Observing what is going on around oneself and making meaning from those experiences 4. Establishing a role in the host society 5. Gaining consciousness of oneself as a cultural being and taking responsibility 6. Developing needed skills and traits 7. Developing meaningful relationships “Seven Concepts in Cross-Cultural Interaction” by Theodore Gochenour and Anne Janeway, from Beyond CultureS. Experiment Press, 1973
  12. 12. Culture BumpOccurs when an individual from one culture finds him/herself in a different,strange , or uncomfortable situation when interacting with persons of adifferent culture. This phenomenon results from a difference in the waypeople from one culture behave in a particular situation from people inanother culture. Can be • Negative • Positive • NeutralUnlike Culture Shock, which extends over an extended period of time,culture bumps are instantaneous, usually over within minutes or seconds,though the effect may be long-lasting, and can occur anytime one is incontact with members of a different culture.“Culture Bump and Beyond” by Carol M. Archer, from Culture Bound: Bridging the Cultural Gap in Language Teaching, byJoyce M. Valdes (Ed.). Cambridge University Press, 1986
  13. 13. Recognizing a Culture Bump1. Pinpoint some time when I have felt “different” or noticed something different when I was with someone from a different culture.2. Define the situation3. List the behaviors of the other person4. List my own behavior5. List my feelings in the situation6. List the behaviors I expect from people in my own culture in the same situation7. Reflect on the underlying value in my own culture that prompts that behavior expectation.“Culture Bump and Beyond” by Carol M. Archer, from Culture Bound: Bridging the Cultural Gap in Language Teaching, byJoyce M. Valdes (Ed.). Cambridge University Press, 1986
  14. 14. Multicultural Man“It suggests a human being whoseidentifications and loyalties transcendthe boundaries of nationalism and whosecommitments are pinned to a vision ofthe world as a global community.”“Beyond Cultural Identity: Reflections on Cultural and Multicultural Man” by PeterS. Adler, from Intercultural Communication: A Reader (3rd Edition), by Larry A.Samovar and Richard E. Porter. Wadsworth Publishing, 1982
  15. 15. Multicultural Man“Nation, culture, and society exert tremendousinfluence on each of our lives, structuring our values,engineering our view of the world, and patterning ourresponses to experience. No human being can holdhimself apart from some form of cultural influence.No one is culture free. Yet the conditions ofcontemporary history are such that we may now beon the threshold of a new kind of person, a personwho is socially and psychologically a product of theinterweaving of cultures in the twentieth century.”“Beyond Cultural Identity: Reflections on Cultural and Multicultural Man” by PeterS. Adler, from Intercultural Communication: A Reader (3rd Edition), by Larry A.Samovar and Richard E. Porter. Wadsworth Publishing, 1982
  16. 16. Multicultural Man“What is universal about the multicultural person ishis abiding commitment to essential similaritiesbetween people everywhere, while paradoxicallymaintaining an equally strong commitment to theirdifferences. The universal person, suggests Walsh,‘does not at all eliminate culture differences.’ Rather,he ‘seeks to preserve whatever is most valid,significant, and valuable in each culture as a way ofenriching and helping to form the whole.’ ”“Beyond Cultural Identity: Reflections on Cultural and Multicultural Man” by PeterS. Adler, from Intercultural Communication: A Reader (3rd Edition), by Larry A.Samovar and Richard E. Porter. Wadsworth Publishing, 1982
  17. 17. The Marginal Person“A marginal person is thought of as one whose actions do not reflect wellany one culture.”“Marginal persons can be tragic or they can be advantaged. They may fallas well as they may rise.”“Marginal people who fall may be rootless or alienated; those who risemay be synthesizers. They do not have to act entirely like members of anyparticular group, majority or minority. Therefore, they can transcendboundaries, see new patterns, and attempt to bridge gaps…. Marginalpeople are generally broadminded and unchauvinistic.”“Marginality is an essential component in a healthy social system.”“Marginality and Multiculturalism: Another Look at Bilingual/Bicultural Education” by John Lum, from InterculturalCommunication: A Reader (3rd Edition), by Larry A. Samovar and Richard E. Porter. Wadsworth Publishing, 1982
  18. 18. Cultural Identity “Why are race and ethnic identity so powerful?”“They think they are maximizing their identities when theyrelate primarily to similar persons. In reality, however, theyare limiting the range of their identity.”“It must be contended, however, that emphasizing one’s owncultural and linguistic heritage does not of itself lead that oneto be multicultural or pluralistic. If anything, without balance,such emphasis might even lead one to mono-ethnicchauvinism or ethnocentrism.”“Marginality and Multiculturalism: Another Look at Bilingual/Bicultural Education” by John Lum, from InterculturalCommunication: A Reader (3rd Edition), by Larry A. Samovar and Richard E. Porter. Wadsworth Publishing, 1982
  19. 19. Kinesics: Non-Verbal Communication• Postural differences• Movement: e.g. Styles of walking • French perceive American walk as “bouncing” and “uncivilized.” • Spanish Americans perceive it as “Authoritarian.”• Gestures• Facial Expressions• Eye management• Proxemics (distancing)“Kinesics and Cross Cultural Communication” by Gennelle G. Morain, from Intercultural Communication: A Reader (3rdEdition), by Larry A. Samovar and Richard E. Porter. Wadsworth Publishing, 1982
  20. 20. Research Methodology: Exploration1. Observation – Watching – Noticing – Perceiving 2. Inquiry Asking Questions
  21. 21. Observation Versus Interpretation • Observation – Perception • Interpretation – Conception
  22. 22. T he Experiential Lear ning Cycle Concrete ExperienceTesting Implications Observationof Concepts in New and ReflectionSituations(Experimentation) Formation of Abstract Concepts and Generalizations
  23. 23. T he Experiential Lear ning Cycle Concrete Experience Teachers Artists, Musicians, Psychologists Businesspeople Active ReflectiveExperimentation Observation Sociologists Anthropologists Engineers Scientists Formations of Abstract Concepts & Generalizations
  24. 24. Feeling Perception Apprehensio n (observation) -prehension Thinking ConceptionComprehension(Interpretation)
  25. 25. Two Ways of Knowing: A pprehension & Compr ehensionThe prehension dimension refers to the way in which the individualgrasps experience. This dimension can be seen as two modes ofknowing, ranging from what Kolb calls grasping via “apprehension”to what he calls grasping via “comprehension.” Apprehension isinstant intuitive knowledge without a need for rational inquiry oranalytical confirmation. The other end of the dimension,grasping via comprehension, on the other hand, emphasizes therole of conscious learning, whereby comprehension introducesorder and predictability to the flow of unconscious sensations. Thisdimension is thus concerned with the ways of grasping realitythrough the varying degrees of emphasis on unconscious andconscious learning.(Kohonen, Experiential language lear ning: second languagelear ning as cooperative lear ner education . 1992, p. 16)
  26. 26. Praxis “reflection and action upon the world in order to transform it.” Paulo FreireAction Praxis Reflection(Activism) (Verbalism)
  27. 27. Models of Teaching & LearningOne "way in" to this distinction which I have found helpful is to define it in terms of Wallaces(1991) three models of teacher learning: the applied science, craft, and reflective models.According to the applied science model, teachers learn to be teachers by being taught research-based theories, and then applying them in practice: The implication is that the most importantprofessional knowledge is generalizable theory. The craft model means learning teaching in theway apprentices learn crafts like shoemaking or carpentry: The novice watches and imitates amaster teacher, and obeys the latters directions for improvement. Here the implication is thatteaching is mainly a practical skill. Finally we have the reflection model, according to whichteachers learn by reflecting on their own experience and applying what they have learned inorder to develop their professional abilities further.Penny Ur 1997 “Teacher Training and Teacher Development: A Useful Dichotomy?” The LanguageTeacher.
  28. 28. The Outside World Expert Practice Ur’s Optimal Teaching & Anecdote, etc. Learning Model Concrete Experience Critical Observation The Learner Active Reflective Experimentation Observation Research, Experiment Abstract Conceptualization Theories, Abstract Concepts
  29. 29. Optimal Learning…to learn only from oneself is limited: One needs also to takeadvantage of the enormous amount of … knowledge and expertise“out there” waiting to be tapped. Your own experience can beenriched by hearing, seeing, or reading about the experiences ofothers: your reflections on your own or other’s performance can beenriched by other people’s critical observations; you can discoversome beautiful theories through reading the literature or listening tolecturers that help you understand what you are doing; you cansupplement your own experimentation by finding out about theexperiments of researchers. Such knowledge cannot be taken onboard simply through reading or hearing about it. In order for it tofunction as real knowledge and not just as inert items of information,you need to process it through your own experience, reflection,conceptualization, and experimentation and to construct your ownunderstanding of it.Penny Ur 1997 “Teacher Training and Teacher Development: AUseful Dichotomy?” The Language Teacher.
  30. 30. The EndThank You Very Much

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