Creative teacher empowerment in the asian context (2)
Creative Teacher Development / Empowerment in the Asian Context Paul Doyon (BA, MAT, MA) Mae Fah Luang University Thai TESOL 2009 Bangkok, Thailand August 9th, 2009
Synopsis of PresentationWhat is Empowerment?What is Development?Engagement and EmpowermentResponses to Control: Compliance and DefianceControl. Initiative. Shyness.Learned HelplessnessSelf-Efficacy TheoryReciprocityResistanceIntrinsic MotivationPsychoacademic NeedsThe Need for AutonomyGroupthinkSelf Efficacy & GroupthinkLevels of ConscientizationChange AgencyDemocracy in EducationPower To and Power With Versus Power OverThe Teacher as ProfessionalAction ResearchThe Experiential Learning CycleOptimal Teacher Development
What is Empowerment?em·pow·er- to invest with power, especially legal power or official authority.- to equip or supply with an ability; enableThe Free Dictionary by Farlex
What is Empowerment?to empower is… …to equip or supply with an ability; …to enableThe Free Dictionary by Farlex
What is Empowerment?Social Empowerment is a process bywhich people reclaim their power, thepower to shape their own lives and toinfluence the course of events aroundthem. They use their power againstoppression and exclusion, and forparticipation, peace and human rights.Julia Kraft, “Power-with, not “Power-over.” Peace News. June-August 2000. p. 35
What is Empowerment?Empowerment processes work on three levels, thepersonal (power within), the collective/group(power-with), the social (power in-relation-to-certainends, and power-against-certain-social forces).These levels are not separate. Personal power oftencomes from a sense of connectedness, ormembership of a group with like-minded people.Julia Kraft, “Power-with, not “Power-over.” Peace News. June-August 2000. p. 35
What is Development?to develop is… …to improve by expanding or enlarging or refining; …to pass by degrees to a different stage (especially a more advanced or mature stage);The Free Dictionary by Farlex
What is Development?to develop is - …to pass by degrees to a different stage (especially a more advanced or mature stage);The Free Dictionary by Farlex
What is Development?Teacher development … usuallyrefers to professional learning byteachers already engaged inprofessional practice, usually throughreflective discussion sessions based oncurrent classroom experience.Penny Ur 1997 “Teacher Training and Teacher Development: AUseful Dichotomy?” The Language Teacher.
Development = EmpowermentTRAINING DEVELOPMENTImposed from "above“ Initiated by "self“Pre-determined course structure Structure determined through processNot based on personal experience Based on personal experienceExternally determined syllabus Syllabus determined by participantsExternal evaluation Self-evaluationInput from "experts“ Input from participantsUnthinking acceptance of information Personal construction of knowledgeCognitive, cerebral Cognitive and affective, "whole person“Isolated CollaborativeStresses professional skills Stresses personal developmentDisempowers individual teacher Empowers individual teacherPenny Ur 1997 “Teacher Training and Teacher Development: AUseful Dichotomy?” The Language Teacher.
Engagement & Empowerment If we look at very young children engaged in the learning process, one thing most salient is the fact that it is a very empowering process for them. Every time they learn something new, it empowers them to do something more. We see the act of learning in itself as an empowering process as long as the student is engaged in the learning process as an act of his or her own volition. However, when a child starts school, very often, something negative happens to this natural learning process -- what might be called a process of disempowerment.Doyon (2002). “Enhancing Value Perception in the JapaneseEFL Classroom.” Asian EFL Journal.
The Response to Control:Defiance or Compliance?To the extent that a behavior is not autonomous, it iscontrolled, and there are two types of controlledbehavior.The first type is compliance, and it is compliance thatauthoritarian solutions hope to accomplish. Compliancemeans doing what you are told to do because you aretold to do it….The other response to control is defiance, which meansyou do the opposite of what you are expected to do justbecause you are expected to do it. Compliance anddefiance exist in an unstable partnership representingthe complementary responses to control.Deci, 1995, Why We Do What We Do: Understanding Self-Motivation. NY, NY: Penguin Books.
Control. Initiative. Shyness.Zimbardo (1981) defines shyness in depth as a mental attitude that predisposes people to be extremely concerned about the social evaluation [italics added] of them by others. As such, it creates a keen sensitivity to cues of being rejected. There is a readiness to avoid people and situations that hold any potential for criticism of the shy persons appearance or conduct. It involves keeping a low profile by holding back from initiating [italics added] actions that might call attention to ones self. (p. 9) Zimbardo, P. The Shy Child. New York: McGraw-Hill.
Control. Initiative. Shyness.In A Way and Ways (1980), Earl Stevick strikinglyemploys the same terms of evaluation andinitiative in describing the alienation felt bystudents in many EFL classrooms: But the teachers own urge to become "an object of primacy in a world of meaningful action" can lead her to carry any of these five legitimate functions to undesirable excess. Cognitive primacy may become an assertion of infallibility; the responsibility for structuring time may lead to a demand of omnipotence, and also to excessive defining of goals. Together, they are the principle ingredients of the evaluative manner that is so effective in stifling the initiative of students. [italics added] (p. 21)
Learned Helplessness Learned Helplessness is “an apathetic attitude stemming from the conviction that ones actions do not have the power to affect ones situation” (Gale Encyclopedia of Psychology, 2001 p. 1). Dr. Martin Seligman, of the University of Pennsylvania, originally found that rats, upon repeated exposure to unavoidable electric shocks, became “unable to act in subsequent situations where avoidance or escape was possible” (p. 1). In extending these findings to the human population, Seligman found that one’s lack of control over his or her environment also undermines one’s “motivation to initiate [italics added] responses” (p. 1). Thus, students’ beliefs in their own powerlessness, not only undermine their ability to act in a learning situation, but also color how they perceive that learning situation.Doyon (2002). “Enhancing Value Perception in the JapaneseEFL Classroom.” Asian EFL Journal.
Self-Efficacy TheoryA theory of situation-specific self-confidence thatproposes that self-efficacy is fundamental toinitiating certain behaviour necessary forcompetent performance.According to the theory, self-efficacy is enhancedby four factors: successful performances, vicariousexperiences, verbal persuasion, and emotionalarousal. Successful performance, which can beachieved by participatory modeling, is regarded asthe most important factor.http://www.answers.com/topic/bandura-s-self-efficacy-theory
Reciprocity“There is an emphasis onreciprocation, that is, the importanceof the learner reciprocating theintentions of the mediator or teacher.This means that the learner is readyand willing to carry out the taskpresented, and that there is anagreement as to what should bedone”(Williams and Burden. 1997. Psychology for LanguageTeachers. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.)
Intrinsic MotivationRaffini (1996), an educational psychologist at theUniversity of Wisconsin, defines intrinsicmotivation as: “…choosing to do an activity for no compelling reason, beyond the satisfaction derived from the activity itself -- it’s what motivates us to do something when we don’t have to do anything.”150 Ways to Increase Motivation in the Classroom. Boston:Allyn and Bacon.
Psychoacademic NeedsRaffini (1996) goes on to state that intrinsic motivation isfueled by five psychoacademic needs: The Need for Autonomy (e.g. Choices) The Need for Competence (e.g. Vygotsky’s ZPD) The Need for Belonging and Relatedness (e.g. Cooperative Learning) The Need for Self-Esteem / Dignity (e.g. Unconditional Positive Regard / Respect) The Need for Involvement and Enjoyment 150 Ways to Increase Motivation in the Classroom. Boston: Allyn and Bacon.
The Need for AutonomyIndividuals seek a quality of humanfunctioning that has at its core the desire todetermine their own behavior; they have aninnate need to feel autonomous and tohave control over their lives. This need forself-determination is satisfied whenindividuals are free to behave of their ownvolition – to behave in activities becausethey want to, not because they have to. Atits core is the freedom to choose and havechoices, rather than being forced orcoerced to behave according to the desiresof another. (Raffini, 1996, pp. 3-4)
GroupThink…is a type of thought exhibited by group members who try tominimize conflict and reach consensus without critically testing,analyzing, and evaluating ideas. Individual creativity, uniqueness,and independent thinking are lost in the pursuit of groupcohesiveness, as are the advantages of reasonable balance inchoice and thought that might normally be obtained by makingdecisions as a group. During groupthink, members of the groupavoid promoting viewpoints outside the comfort zone of consensusthinking. A variety of motives for this may exist such as a desireto avoid being seen as foolish, or a desire to avoid embarrassing orangering other members of the group. Groupthink may causegroups to make hasty, irrational decisions, where individual doubtsare set aside, for fear of upsetting the group’s balance.Wikipedia: Groupthink. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Groupthink
Causes of GroupThink …Highly cohesive groups are much more likely to engage in groupthink, because their cohesiveness often correlates with unspoken understanding and the ability to work together with minimal explanations… James Surowieckii warns against loss of the "cognitive diversity" that comes from having team members whose educational and occupational backgrounds differ. The closer group members are in outlook, the less likely they are to raise questions that might break their cohesion. Group cohesion as the most important antecedent – but not absolutely necessary – to groupthink, and is promoted by the following: Structural faults in the organization: insulation of the group, lack of tradition of impartial leadership, lack of norms requiring methodological procedures, homogeneity of members social background and ideology. Provocative situational context: high stress from external threats, recent failures, excessive difficulties on the decision-making task, moral dilemmas. Social psychologist Clark McCauley’s three conditions under which groupthink occurs: Directive leadership. Homogeneity of members social background and ideology. Isolation of the group from outside sources of information and analysis.Wikipedia: Groupthink.http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Groupthink
Self Efficacy & GroupThink Similarly, low self efficacy amplifies Janis’s prior consideration of this factor. The one major shift is that the ubiquity model assumes that when combined, social identification, salient norms and low self efficacy are both necessary and sufficient to evoke “groupthink reactions.” Such reactions include Janis’s array of defective decision processes as well as suppressed dissent, selective focus on shared viewpoints, polarization of attitude and action and heightened confidence in such polarized views. Note that such elevated confidence will often evoke the feelings of in-group moral superiority and invulnerability alluded to by Janis.Wikipedia: Groupthink.http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Groupthink
Levels of Conscientization(1) Intransitive Consciousness - the individualaccepts reality, disbelieves personalchange, shows passivity, has a limited sphere ofapprehension;(2) Transitive Naive - ingenuous: the personoffers simple interpretation of socialproblems, presents weak arguments, is open tostimuli, is awakened to cause/effectrelationships, is anguished about social situation;and(3) Transitive Critical - the individual sees linkbetween problems and reality, argues for socialand political responsibility, is confident aboutreasoning through dialogue, has new attitudestoward the world, becomes involved intransformative action.
Change Agency The skills to be achieved were intended to help an individual function in the role of “change agent”. A change agent was thought to be instrumental in facilitating communication and useful feedback among participants. He was also to be a paragon who was aware of the need for change, could diagnose the problems involved, and could plan for change, implement the plans, and evaluate the results. To become an effective change agent, an understanding of the dynamics of groups was believed necessary.Reid (1981: 153) Character Building to Social Treatment. Thehistory of the use of groups in social work, Westpoint, Conn.:Greenwood Press. http://www.infed.org/thinkers/et-lewin.htm
Democracy in Education:Kurt Lewin and John Dewey Democracy and groups Gordon W. Allport, in his introduction to Resolving Social Conflicts (Lewin 1948: xi) argues that there is striking kinship between the work of Kurt Lewin and that of John Dewey. Both agree that democracy must be learned anew in each generation, and that it is a far more difficult form of social structure to attain and to maintain than is autocracy. Both see the intimate dependence of democracy upon social science. Without knowledge of, and obedience to, the laws of human nature in group settings, democracy cannot succeed. And without freedom for research and theory as provided only in a democratic environment, social science will surely fail. Dewey, we might say, is the outstanding philosophical exponent of democracy, Lewin is its outstanding psychological exponent. More clearly than anyone else has he shown us in concrete, operational terms what it means to be a democratic leader, and to create democratic group structure.http://www.infed.org/thinkers/et-lewin.htm
Democracy in Education: Leadership Styles They looked to three classic group leadership models - democratic, autocratic and laissez-faire – and concluded that there was more originality, group- mindedness and friendliness in democratic groups. In contrast, there was more aggression, hostility, scapegoating and discontent in laissez-faire and autocratic groups (Reid 1981: 115)http://www.infed.org/thinkers/et-lewin.htm
Democracy in Education: Effect on ChildrenThere have been few experiences for meas impressive as seeing the expression inchildren’s faces change during the first dayof autocracy. The friendly, open, and co-operative group, full of life, became within ashort half-hour a rather apathetic lookinggathering without initiative. Thechange from autocracy to democracyseemed to take somewhat more time thanfrom democracy to autocracy. Autocracy isimposed upon the individual. Democracyhe has to learn. (Lewin 1948: 82)http://www.infed.org/thinkers/et-lewin.htm
“Power with” & Power to” versus “Power Over”This power is not “power-over”, or domination, but the power tobe and to do, “power-with” others that can be used to changeoppressive or disempowering circumstances. This power standsagainst political repression, repression by institutions and alsoagainst the social patterns that pervade within society andwhich diminish the quality of peoples’ lives. Power and influencewithin society needs to be redistributed. As people becomeempowered they people a critical consciousness about theunequal distribution of goods, opportunities and knowledgewithin society, and how this social reality can be changed.Empowerment is also about locating our own resources,discovering what other resources are available, and learning touse them.Julia Kraft, “Power-with, not “Power-over.” Peace News. June- August 2000. p. 35
The Teacher As Professional Teacher empowerment means that the teacher is seen as an autonomous professional, responsible for, and an authority on, professional learning and practice, rather than subordinate to external authority and expertise. The concept "professional" may be clarified by contrasting it with opposing ones such as "lay." "amateur." "technician." and "academic"Penny Ur 1997 “Teacher Training and Teacher Development: AUseful Dichotomy?” The Language Teacher.
Action research …is a reflective process of progressive problem solving led by individuals working with others in teams or as part of a "community of practice" to improve the way they address issues and solve problems. Action research can also be undertaken by larger organizations or institutions, assisted or guided by professional researchers, with the aim of improving their strategies, practices, and knowledge of the environments within which they practice. As designers and stakeholders, researchers work with others to propose a new course of action to help their community improve its work practices. Kurt Lewin, then a professor at MIT, first coined the term “action research” in about 1944, and it appears in his 1946 paper “Action Research and Minority Problems”. In that paper, he described action research as “a comparative research on the conditions and effects of various forms of social action and research leading to social action” that uses “a spiral of steps, each of which is composed of a circle of planning, action, and fact-finding about the result of the action”.Wikipedia: Action Research –http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Action_research
The Experiential Learning Cycle Concrete ExperienceTesting Implications Observationof Concepts in New and ReflectionSituations(Experimentation) Formation of Abstract Concepts and Generalizations
The Experiential Learning Cycle Concrete Experience Teachers Artists, Musicians, Psychologists Businesspeople Active ReflectiveExperimentation Observation Sociologists Anthropologists Engineers Scientists Formations of Abstract Concepts & Generalizations
Feeling Perception Apprehensi on -prehension Thinking ConceptionComprehension
Two Ways of Knowing: Apprehension & ComprehensionThe prehension dimension refers to the way in which theindividual grasps experience. This dimension can be seenas two modes of knowing, ranging from what Kolb callsgrasping via “apprehension” to what he calls grasping via“comprehension.” Apprehension is instant intuitiveknowledge without a need for rational inquiry oranalytical confirmation. The other end of the dimension,grasping via comprehension, on the other hand,emphasizes the role of conscious learning, wherebycomprehension introduces order and predictability to theflow of unconscious sensations. This dimension is thusconcerned with the ways of grasping reality through thevarying degrees of emphasis on unconscious andconscious learning.(Kohonen, Experiential language learning: second languagelearning as cooperative learner education. 1992, p. 16)
Praxis “reflection and action upon the world in order to transform it.” Paulo FreireAction Praxis Reflection(Activism) (Verbalism)
Models of Teacher LearningOne "way in" to this distinction which I have found helpful is to define it in terms ofWallaces (1991) three models of teacher learning: the applied science, craft, and reflectivemodels. According to the applied science model, teachers learn to be teachers by beingtaught research-based theories, and then applying them in practice: The implication is thatthe most important professional knowledge is generalizable theory. The craft model meanslearning teaching in the way apprentices learn crafts like shoemaking or carpentry: Thenovice watches and imitates a master teacher, and obeys the latters directions forimprovement. Here the implication is that teaching is mainly a practical skill. Finally wehave the reflection model, according to which teachers learn by reflecting on their ownexperience and applying what they have learned in order to develop their professionalabilities further.Penny Ur 1997 “Teacher Training and Teacher Development: AUseful Dichotomy?” The Language Teacher.
Ur’s Optimal Teaching & Expert Practice Learning Model Anecdote, etc. (in the Vygotskian sense)The Outside World Concrete Experience Critical Observation Active Reflective Experimentation Observation The LearnerResearch,Experiment Abstract Conceptualization Theories, Abstract Concepts
Optimal Teacher Development…to learn only from oneself is limited: One needs also to takeadvantage of the enormous amount of … knowledge andexpertise “out there” waiting to be tapped. Your own experiencecan be enriched by hearing, seeing, or reading about theexperiences of others: your reflections on your own or other’sperformance can be enriched by other people’s criticalobservations; you can discover some beautiful theories throughreading the literature or listening to lecturers that help youunderstand what you are doing; you can supplement your ownexperimentation by finding out about the experiments ofresearchers. Such knowledge cannot be taken on board simplythrough reading or hearing about it. In order for it to function asreal knowledge and not just as inert items of information, youneed to process it through your ownexperience, reflection, conceptualization, and experimentationand to construct your own understanding of it.Penny Ur 1997 “Teacher Training and Teacher Development: AUseful Dichotomy?” The Language Teacher.