Hitler used the Nazi symbol and the phrase
‘Heil Hitler’ to continue nationalism.The
symbols were all over the place and the people
of Germany constantly had to repeat ‘Heil
Hitler’ while saluting.
Benito Mussolini hoped to
make Italy an empire. He
believed that classic antiquity
(the influence of classic era
figures on modern Italy) was
vital to Italy’s expansion. From
classic antiquity came the
development of “Romanità or
“Romanness” of the Italian
people. As Italian fascism
grew, so did this connection to
Romanità, which became a cult
like belief of Mussolini.
Hitler suppressed human rights when he murdered
people and passed laws to take away rights from
Jewish people. Germans looked the other way as
Hitler slaughtered Jews, claiming they were inferior.
He used the saying,“Every man is master in his own
house.You have no right to know what I am doing with
my own citizens.”
were better than
Mohamed Suharto is linked directly to
the deaths of over half a million people
around the period when he first came
to power in the1960s.The number of
citizens killed during the period of
Indonesian occupation has been
estimated at around 200 000, which is
about a third of the total population of
the country. Major human rights
abuses by sections of the Indonesian
military also continued in many parts
of the country.These abuses occurred
most notably in West Papua.
Hitler used people of the
Jewish faith as scapegoats.
He believed that they all
had to be exterminated to
purify the ‘master race.’
Concentration camps were
created to contain all
In the case of Spain and
Franco’s rule, there wasn’t one
strong scapegoat that served
the role of unifying the country.
There were several enemies of
the fascist groups and its
ideologies. In the Spanish Civil
War, fascists fought along with
the Nationalists against the
Liberal-led Republic.With their
conservative ideas, Liberal
leftists always came to clashes.
The Third Reich formed an army.This
army flourished while other parts of the
country were neglected. Funding not
only came from Germany’s government,
but also from Italy and Japan.
Instead of simply building up an army,
Suharto formed a government which was
military dominated.This was under his
‘New Order’ administration. Suharto
greatly increased military funding and
ignored widespread problems throughout
Women were considered inferior
while Hitler reigned. During the
Third Reich, Hitler promoted the
idea that women of the Aryan race
should have as many children as
possible.This was in order to build
good bloodlines. Death was the
consequence for Aryan women who
had an abortion.
Under fascist regimes women were urged to
perform their traditional gender role as wives
and mothers and to bear many children for the
nation. Mussolini instituted policies severely
restricting women’s access to jobs outside the
home and he distributed gold medals to
mothers who produced the most children.
Many forms of propaganda were
implemented while Germany was
under Hitler’s dictatorship. Much of
the propaganda was brought about
through the recently invented radio,
as well as through speeches from the
main Nazi leaders. Posters were also
widely circulated. Much other
material, such as books and leaflets,
were only circulated to Nazi party
members or soldiers.
While introducing economic policies to
strengthen Italy's various industries, Mussolini
also introduced strict censorship. Eventually
he took control of all mass media. His control
of the media became so strong that he
personally approved almost every newspaper
editor in the entire nation, and made all school
teachers swear an oath to the Fascist Party.
Press, radio, education and films were all
carefully supervised to manufacture the
illusion that fascism was the doctrine of the
20th century, replacing liberalism and
democracy.With this control of the media, he
built up the legend of Il Duce. On the political
front, he took control of all Italy. He became
the absolute ruler of Italy.
Hitler’s reign of terror included a strong
importance placed on national security.
Informers and force were used to bring
the country under total control. Laws were
constantly changing in regard to what kind
of people were acceptable.This fear was
utilised to keep everyone in line. However,
the church opposed the Nazis. One
important segment of the Protestant
Church (the Confessing Church) refused
to pray for military victory, and by the
war's end many hundreds of clergymen
had died in concentration camps.
Mussolini was able to
exploit fears regarding the
survival of capitalism in an
era in which postwar
depression was an issue.
Also, the rise of a more
militant government and a
feeling of national shame
and humiliation because of
their loss in WWI caused
fear in citizens.
Hitler and the Nazis promoted a
Christian nationalism, anti-
communism, anti-Semitism, and
return to traditional values which
most Christians appreciated.The
Nazi party platform specifically
endorsed 'positive' Christianity.
Hitler commonly used religion in
his speeches and believed his
actions were divinely mandated.
Francisco Franco highly favoured the
Catholic Church and he eventually restored
it back to the official religion of Spain. The
church regained its dominate position in
education and laws conformed to the
Catholic dogma.The regime also abolished
regional governmental bodies and enacted
measures against the use of the Basque and
the Catalan languages.
After WWI, Germany had a recession
which led to a decline in
manufacturing. Hunger was
widespread.The economy continued
to slide. Hitler, meanwhile, was
looking good to many Germans
because he seemed to be a man who
believed in something and wanted
radical change. It was in this way that
the industrial segment of Germany
put Hitler in power.
In Italy fascism allowed private property and business
ownership. However, a government-business relationship
existed, where the government had an advantage that
allowed them to control business. Mussolini's concept of
fascism resulted in a corporate state that was organized by
groups.The government would deal with corporate groups
of workers and industrialists together.These groups secured
collaboration between government and businesses.This
system allowed government-controlled collaboration
between the various categories of producers in each
industry which was needed for a successful industrial-
Labour unions were outlawed in the Third
Reich, as were all non-Nazi organizations.
Church youth groups, farmers’ unions
and labour unions were all made into
affiliates of the Nazi Party.
Mussolini failed to provide economic prosperity
and an improvement of living standards for
workers and peasants in Italy.The corporations
benefited only the employers.The workers were
not allowed to go on strikes. If they had a
problem with their wage they could only appeal
to the Labour Courts of the Corporations, which
were dominated by the employers and state
officials who always sided with the employers.
Workers had to work without protest.
Censorship was a large part of
Hitler’s control. Libraries were
systematically destroyed; public
book pyres were common. In
order to cleanse the minds of
people and society, any book
written by a Jewish author, or a
communist or humanist, was fed
to the flames.
The church under Franco’s regime, with royal
cooperation, censored books, and students were
prohibited from studying abroad to prevent
Protestant ideas coming into Spain.These
practices eventually cut the country off from
intellectual developments in Europe and turned
Spanish universities into academic backwaters.
This isolation made it more difficult for Spain to
modernize in later centuries.
In Nazi Germany the police were allowed to arrest
people on suspicion that they were about to do wrong.
This gave the police a lot of power.The Nazi Police
State was to ensure that everybody did as they were
told - or paid the price.The Nazi Police were controlled
by Heinrich Himmler and his feared secret police - the
Gestapo - did as it pleased.
There was no freedom of religion, no voting rights
and limited freedom of speech in Franco’s regime.
Franco became known as a brutal and cruel leader.
He abused his political prisoners and many ended up
dying because of starvation and overwork. He went to
great lengths to keep his political opponents
suppressed, and later he ordered for there to be a
constant military police presence in every town.This
police force was called la Guardia Civil.They carried
guns and patrolled around the city. Franco used them
as his main way of controlling the people.
People all over Germany worshipped Hitler as
they were caught up in the emotions of the
Nazi campaign.This devotion continued
throughout the elections.That was when the
Nazis began a systematic takeover of the state
governments throughout Germany, which
ended a centuries old tradition of local and
political independence. Armed militaries
barged into local government offices using
the state of emergency decree as a pretext to
throw out legitimate office holders and
replace them with Nazi Reich commissioners.
Next, the Nazi controlled Reichstag passed the
"Enabling Act." This act finally established
Adolf Hitler as the total dictator of Germany.
Franco’s Army was supported by the Nazis under
Condor Legislation.The German forces also
helped Franco's army with maintenance,
personnel and trainers. A lot of the Italian and
German soldiers actually helped so much that
they stayed in Spain the entire war.Throughout
the war they continued to keep helping Franco.
The Falange Española political party also joined
with Franco.The Catholic Church also supported
In order to become ‘Führer’ of Germany, Hitler felt that speeches and
propaganda were not enough to win him the election. His own private
army, the SA, helped him; they beat Communists up, interrupted their
meetings and deterred their campaigning. Next, Hitler had about 4000
Communists arrested and imprisoned.The newspapers were shut down.
SA were waiting in the streets to beat anti-Nazis up. Meanwhile,
Goebbels worked hard with propaganda distribution. Giant swastikas,
torchlight parades, mass rallies and radio flashes all hammered home
the message to vote Nazi.
On 16 February 1936, under Francisco Franco’s rule, the
Popular Front won the election by a narrow margin. It was
later found out that the Popular Front had illegally obtained
200 seats. After the loss of 200 seats, the opposition parties
claimed the government represented only a small minority,
also adding that the Popular Front's parliamentary majority
was the result of an electoral fraud, government sponsored
terror and intimidation. According to the right wing
opposition, the enemies of the Republic were on the Left,
Spain was in danger of falling under a Communist
dictatorship, and by fighting the Popular Front they were
defending law and order and the freedom of the Spanish